Do you want to grow a pear in your territory? It's harder than growing an apple tree. The fact is that such trees do not tolerate negative temperatures. After the cold, the trees can no longer bear fruit, which distresses gardeners. To get a rich harvest, you need to learn regularly and properly care for such trees. But if you follow certain rules, no difficulties should arise.
Features of the cultivation of pear tree
You chose a certain grade of pear and decided to plant it on your site? Then remember that such trees will bear fruit only if a temperate climate prevails in your region.
The ideal condition is the absence of a sharp change in temperature. Pear will not take root in the conditions of a harsh winter, because it will die in a while.
Experts say that young trees should be planted in the fall before the first frost. It is better to do in the period from September to October. If you want to plant a pear in the spring, try to catch up to April. Specific differences when planted there, so you can focus on your own convenience.
Varieties of trees: what climate is suitable?
Varieties of pear trees are divided into three main groups:
- early - These are the varieties that will yield only the Black Soil Region,
- mid-season - suitable for disembarkation in central Russia,
- late - the same as in the previous version, but the trees are preserved until late spring.
Each of these varieties is extremely picky about the ground. It is necessary that they have enough light and heat. Water in the soil in the territory should not stagnate.
Pear seedlings: how to choose and prepare for planting?
If the seedling quality, then you get a rich harvest. Suitable for planting young trees that are not more than two years. Older trees are better not to replant, but leave them where they already grow. Very carefully inspect the seedling from all sides. It should not be cracks, and the roots must be developed and whole.
Before you start planting seedlings, you need them properly prepare for work:
- get rid of foliage on the branches
- soak the roots of the plant, holding them in water for a day.
How to plant a pear in the soil?
Pear, planting and care which is the power of every person demanded plant. If you need to plant a pear, then choose a place where it will grow. Remember that a tree needs light. It does not tolerate frequent transplants, so be sure to pay due attention to choosing a place for its growth.
For a pear orchard, the ideal option would be South side your territory.
The distance between the trees must be present, as they will gradually grow. There should be no other tree species near the pears.
The soil should be loose, so that the water passes without delay. You can add a small amount of ordinary clay to the soil. In general, the care of a pear does not have serious difficulties.
Pit for planting trees
Be sure to pay due attention preparing the landing pit. It should not break the root system of plants. It is better to dig a hole, the depth of which will exceed 80 centimeters. Preparation should do more in the fall, organizing a special hole.
Different layers of soil can not be mixed together. The top layer is mixed with organic fertilizers, since it must be loose. It is also worth adding phosphorus to the soil. Condense the soil when you fall asleep hole.
Manure that has not been previously prepared cannot be added. He easily harms the roots of seedlings, so the trees will not be accepted.
The process of planting young trees
Plant a seedling is easy. It is necessary to place the seedling is necessary at the bottom of the pit, where a little ground in advance. Carefully straighten the roots so that they are not folded. Beat in a peg 25 centimeters away from the center of the pit.
Its height should reach the first branch. Pour the seedling into the prepared soil. Check if the tree is being pulled out, because if this happens, the planting is considered incorrect.
Young saplings are reliably tied to a special support so that the wind does not break them. The hole is made around a circle, which is located at the trunk. Pear poured plenty of water. Pristvolny circle mulch to moisture does not come out of the soil. You can use mowed grass, but it is better to deal with similar functions of humus. Layers of mulch need to be updated during the season.
If it rained suddenly, which led to the subsidence of the soil, it should be added. Otherwise, the roots will not receive enough moisture, so the seedling will die and have to plant the plant again. Also, do not plant trees too deeply, as this is fraught with their various diseases.
Rules for the care of pear trees
Remember that it is necessary to care for a young pear correctly and regularly, that its cultivation was normal.
The root system of trees suffers from negative temperatures, so you should ensure that the plant winters in suitable conditions. You can warm the seedlings with paper, and you can also powder them with snow.
It is often necessary to weed planted trees. If suddenly you do not get rid of weeds, they will soon become ill. Keep your circle clean every day. You can sow the soil on your site with lupine. If in the future you plow the land, the component will allow all the plants to get the maximum of useful substances for their development.
Rules for watering trees
Sprinkling method - This is the most suitable option for watering pear trees. You need to spray water using a special system for watering the garden. But you can cope with the task even if there is no such equipment. Just water the seedlings, making a small groove near the root system.
But how often do you need to water the pear? They do it in spring and in summer, providing normal care. If suddenly on the street unbearable heat, you can do it a little more. On one tree should be up to 30 liters of water. The soil after watering is loosened to speed up the passage of water to the roots and the cultivation was fast.
How to fertilize pear seedlings?
Pear care implies timely fertilization of the soil. If a tree brings a lot of fruit, you should not overload it with large portions of fertilizer. When you prepare the nutrient mixture, take into account the level of soil fertility.
It is necessary to begin to fertilize the pears when they are two years old after planting in the soil, ensuring normal cultivation. The first time fertilizer is applied in the spring and then in the fall. However, in the hot season you can use special mixtures. Remember that fertilizing can only be done if the soil is wet.
If the fertilizer contains nitrogen, it should be used in the spring. This is an excellent growth stimulant for such trees.
Crown of pear trees: how to form it correctly?
Fruit trees must be pruned, observing certain rules:
- pruning should be done in autumn and spring around the beginning of the season,
- the branches that grow inside the tree must be eliminated
- crooked shoots, as well as broken twigs, should be cut so that they do not weaken the tree,
- all branches must be of identical length, therefore shoots are shortened if necessary using a shears,
- remove the wild growth, because it can infect your trees and they will not bear fruit or die at all,
- make a cut with sharp shears strictly at right angles,
- process the cuts with a special garden pitch.
If the seedlings were planted in the fall, they should be pruned in the spring. Keep a distance of 50 centimeters from the ground. The crown should be quite compact. Skeletal branches are cut, leaving only 4 important shoots. You need to annually trim the crown, trying to make it look like a pyramid, providing complete care.
Pear begins to bear fruit abundantly after five years, if properly care for it. Otherwise, you still will not taste the juicy fruit even after 10 years. Now you know how to care for the pear properly, so that it bears fruit and develops normally. Do not be afraid to plant this plant. If you follow the above simple rules, the pear will surely delight you with tasty fruits quickly enough.
How to choose a landing site
- Under the landing must be taken flat areadry and well lit by the sun. If the sun is not enough, pears do not have time to ripen. Yield is also reduced. In order for pears to ripen, it takes about 90 warm days with temperatures above +15 for summer varieties, 90–100 days for autumn, 100–115 for winter. Therefore, the same variety ripens and fruits differently in different regions.
- Preferably, the soil is loose and fertile. Groundwater can not pass too close to prevent the possibility of rotting pear roots. It is necessary to observe the minimum distance to buildings (at least three meters).
- The main danger for the heat-loving pear is the wind. A pear tree can withstand cold to -25 ° C, but only on condition that the weather is windless. Therefore, be sure to note how the chosen place for landing open to wind and drafts, sometimes in the harsh winter, flower buds freeze slightly, even in frost-resistant varieties. But the trees are being restored and the next year they are again pleased with the harvest.
- You should also make sure that the site was planted several trees of different varieties, it is important for pollination.
How to prepare a pit for planting
For seedling is necessary dig a hole one meter deep and a diameter of about 80 centimeters. So much space is needed so that the root system of a pear can fully develop and grow. The size of the pits may vary slightly depending on the size of the roots of seedlings, make sure that the roots easily fit in the hole in the molten form.
- First, plant humus or manure in a volume of 3-5 buckets is placed in the hole.
- It is also necessary to prepare a mixture of mineral fertilizers in the following proportion: 2 buckets of sand, 1 cup of superphosphate, 2 tbsp. spoons of the drug for berry crops Agricol and 4 tbsp. spoons of potassium sulfate. The resulting mixture is combined with the excavated soil and poured it a hole.
- Into the pit add 2 buckets of water and dolomite flour solution (3 cups flour for 10 liters of water).
- The pit must be left for several weeks. During this time, the mineral substances will completely dissolve and the pear root system will not get burned from direct contact with fertilizers. And also during this time there will be a shrinkage of the soil. If the ground does not survive, then the shrinkage will begin after the planting of the tree, the root neck is lowered, and the normal development of the root system of the tree can be disrupted.
- On the eve of the landing pit is watered with a solution of Cornerost (for 10 liters of water 3 tablets of the drug). Saplings planted in unprepared soil, lagging behind in growth.
Can also dig holes in the fall. In this case, they will freeze well over the winter, and microorganisms, pathogens and insects will die in them.
Currently, there are about 60 varieties of pear. They differ in ripening and taste and are suitable for growing in a variety of conditions. It is recommended to purchase a pear seedling in the nursery or in the garden market.
Before planting seedlings, they are carefully inspected them, remove all damaged branches. At the same time, the root system cannot be touched, as it contains nutrients and trace elements that will be needed for the growth of the tree. Immediately before planting, it is necessary to treat the fossa with a growth stimulant solution. This will contribute to the speedy adaptation of seedlings and will provide the tree with everything necessary for good growth.
Features planting pears in spring
Landing - the most important stage when growing pears. If the planting was made incorrectly, then a good harvest will have to wait a long time, and, perhaps, never wait.
Pear planted in the spring, when it is already established relatively warm weather and a significant decrease in temperature is not expected. Landing time - from late March to early May, depending on the climatic zone. But planting of seedlings is necessary before the onset of the growing season, that is, before the leaves bloom, while the trees are sleeping.
In the center prepared for planting fossa drive in a garter pin so that it rises above the surface of the soil about half a meter. Then pour soil into the hole so that a small mound forms in the center. Put a pear seedling in this mound, while spreading the roots evenly. Then, top it with simple soil so that the root neck is 5–7 cm above the soil level. When planting, the seedling should be shaken several times so that there are no voids between the soil and the roots. Then the planting site should be trampled down with care, watering the seedling and pour a little dry humus to delay the evaporation of moisture. Tie a tree to a peg.
Caring for a young tree comes down primarily to regular watering and decorative crown formation.
It is necessary to ensure that weeds do not germinate in tree trunks, for this you should loosen the soil. The weeds around the tree are excellent aphid habitat that feeds on the sap of trees, especially young ones. So regularly weed the tree trunk and loosen the soil after each watering.
In the first few years, the tree does not need additional feeding, as it lacks the fertilizers that were added during planting.
To prevent the soil from drying out, the pear must be watered, especially in hot weather. If the tree lacks moisture at the beginning of the growing season, it slows down growth and can shed the ovary. If the tree lacks moisture in the second half of summer, then the pear will begin to ripen ahead of time, but the fruits will be much smaller than they should be.
By the way, the higher the yield, the smaller the fruits, even in large-fruited pear varieties. Fruits are always larger on young trees. Therefore, pears are pruned annually, rejuvenating and lightening the crown.
With the onset of cold weather, the lower part of the tree trunk to the first lower branch is necessary tie with fir branchesso that rodents cannot damage the bark of the tree.
Little pear plant and grow. It still needs to be removed in time ...
Fruits are considered mature when they have reached a value characteristic of this variety and have accumulated the maximum amount of nutrients. This can be recognized as follows: as soon as the skin on the stalk began to turn yellow, it’s time to start picking the pears. And do not worry if the fruits are still green - they ripen, become fragrant, juicy and turn yellow. Overripe pears, on the contrary, lose juiciness and flavor.
Summer varieties are removed about a week before their full maturity. Autumn varieties ripen in September, and juicy and tasty they will be only a month after removal. They can be stored at a temperature slightly above zero until December. Winter pear varieties are removed before the onset of cold weather. At first they are tart and hard, but all the disadvantages turn into advantages when they mature with proper storage.
Planting pears: spring or autumn?
A pear is a fruit tree, which can be planted in spring, or in autumn. To understand what time of year is better, we must take into account the climatic conditions.
In a hot southern climate, spring planting of a tree is not desirable. In the heat, pear seedlings will take root with difficulty. Therefore, in these regions the pear is planted in the first half of October. In the cold northern climate, the autumn planting is dangerous because the sapling simply cannot bear the cold and will die. Favorable time in these regions is the first half of April.
But for everyone who lives in a temperate climate, there are pros and cons in the autumn and spring planting. If you plant a tree in the spring, it will not be afraid of frosts. By the autumn, the pear will gain strength, and any cold will not be dangerous to it. And if in the fall, the sapling will acquire valuable quality - high winter resistance. Of course, the trees will need a safe shelter for the winter, with both types of planting.
Many amateur gardeners do not want to risk seedlings and prefer planting in the spring.
Where to plant a pear: the choice of location and preparation of the pit
For a pear, you need to choose a site that will be well lit and stay in the sun for a long time. This open space should be protected from the wind and receive maximum light and heat. The soil in this area may be different, except for thick clay and always with moderate humidity. Excess moisture is very harmful for this tree. There should be no other trees nearby, especially older ones. But the neighborhood with rowan must be eliminated altogether. These trees have the same danger in the form of insects - pests. It is not necessary for them to "help."
A pit for planting is dug out in the fall, even for spring planting. This is necessary so that the land in the pit settles and thickens until the planting of the tree. Осенью для этого достаточно будет выждать примерно десять дней. Если высадить саженец сразу, то почва начнет оседать и корневая шейка молодой груши окажется под слоем земли. Это приведет к гибели растения.
The size of the landing hole depends on the size of the root system of the tree. Its width is about a meter, and its depth is half a meter. If the soil on this site is poor, then dig a hole deeper in order to fill the bottom of fertile land. You can use the same soil, only to mix it with humus or ash. It would be good to feed this soil with fertilizer.
In order not to deform the trunk of the pear, it is necessary to drive a peg into the middle of the pit. After planting, it will serve as a support for the tree, because it definitely needs a garter. A small notch on the walls of the pit will improve the process of air exchange, which is necessary for the growth and full development of the root system of the pear.
A proven method of planting pears
There are three ways of planting a pear: on a mound, with grooves and followed by mulching.
Planting on a knoll is a necessity for areas with barren soil. This deficiency can be replenished by imported more nutritious soil, from which a mound is made about half a meter high and about a meter in diameter. In the center of this embankment a pear sapling is planted, be sure to tie it to a support. The diameter of the hillock annually expands by about fifty centimeters to create quality conditions for the development of the root system.
Every year it is necessary to feed in the form of complex fertilizers. With proper care, the pear will start to bear fruit in three years. Future harvest depends on the patience and perseverance of the gardener.
Planting a groove helps to make the soil fertile. First, they dig a planting pit for a seedling, and then additionally make four grooves measuring one meter by twenty centimeters to all sides of it. The depth of the grooves must match the main pit. Then each groove is filled with any dense natural waste. For this purpose, the bark of trees or needles, sawdust and shavings, even small branches of trees are perfect, they only need to spend a day in the fertilizer solution. The grooves are filled tightly, and the root system of the young tree must be in contact with their filling.
This method of planting pear provides good nutrition as the roots grow. They will be able to find all the beneficial substances in these grooves. The growing root system itself will find in the rotted waste all that is necessary for the qualitative development of the young pear.
There is another not very popular, but very effective way of landing. At first, the sapling undergoes almost complete pruning: the top is cut off completely, and the roots - only the largest ones are pruned by about ten centimeters. After such preparation, a sapling about seventy centimeters high is dipped in a bucket of water (only the root part) for about one hour.
For the root system, make a special mixture of equal proportions of soil, ash and water. The roots are dipped into it, and then the rest is poured into the prepared hole, after laying ten raw chicken eggs on the bottom. The sapling is set on the landing site, sprinkled with earth to the root collar. Then, another dozen eggs are laid out along the entire perimeter perimeter. Liberally watered with two buckets of water and mulch the surface around the trunk of the seedling. Chicken eggs will replace all the necessary feeding. The pear itself will find all the necessary nutrients.