The flower grows in the form of a grassy perennial. Belongs to the family of Buttercups. Flowers of yellow and orange color, spherical shape. The stems are leafy, and the flowers are like a delicate rosette. In this article you will be able to get acquainted with the detailed description of the Bathing Bowl, where it grows, to gather for yourself useful information about the types and characteristics of this flower.
The Latin name of the flower is Trollius. Official confirmation of why the bathing is called so, no. Some sources say that it comes from the ancient Germanic word troll. The translation of the word means a ball characterizing the shape of the flower. Other sources write that bathing means the favorite flower of trolls. From the word Trollblume. There is a legend that in one of the warmest July nights all the trolls of the fairy forest gather. On this night, they are preparing a magical and healing drink in their golden cups. The trolls cook the potion in a bottle and leave, leaving gold cups. It is these cups that people call the bathing place.
Where does the Bathhouse grow
This plant can be found in almost any part of the world and in many climatic zones. The bathing gland grows, both in the tundra and in the desert, at the foot of the mountains and on various parts of the rocky terrain.. The flower can be found in the forest and even near the glacier and snowfield. It also grows in the meadows of the Alps.
Differs in its decorative. Flower shape in the form of a ball. The color is yellow. Flowering occurs from the first days of May. Its duration can be from three weeks to one month.
It looks like a European swimsuit. Flowers of this species have a terry shape with opened sepals. Flowering is not as long as in the previous species and ranges from 1.5 to two weeks.
It has similarities with the Asian view. The main difference between the Altai flower and the Asiatic is the color of the flower. Its color is bright orange. In addition, on the inside of the flower there is a distinctive spot. Brown anthers also give a particular decorativeness to the flower. Abundant flowering occurs at the end of June, and flowering itself begins from the first days of summer.
Unusual shape of the bush has a swimsuit Chinese. The bush is quite tall. The shape of the flower is flattened with a bright orange tint.. It has a compacted sepal appearance. Flowering of this species comes with the arrival of warm July days.
Bathing suit contains in its composition vitamin C. The flower helps to treat diseases associated with the liver, and also helps relieve swelling. Can take off and swollen. To do this, the collected stems need to be steamed, and then put into tissue and attach to the sore spot.
An ointment is prepared from the plant that treats boils.. In ancient times, healers and healers with the help of ointments could treat serious blood disorders and diarrhea.
Despite the information about the toxicity of the Bathing vessel, folk doctors are widely used decoctions and ointments from it for edema, boils, tumors, diseases of the liver and stomach, diarrhea
Use a bathing suit quite often, as it has many useful properties. But, despite these qualities, the plant is considered poisonous. Therefore, you need to know and follow the dose that the patient takes. If the dose for the body was large enough, it can lead to severe poisoning.. Poisons in the plant can worsen the state of the brain.
The greatest concentrations of poison are in the root system, but in the flower its content is insignificant.
Today it is used less and less, it is believed that it is poisonous. With sorcerers and herbalists, the bathing vessel was used to treat various types of scabies, waterfields, as well as epilepsy.
Some recipes are preserved. For example, in order to get rid of such a disease as scurvy, you need to follow the following recipe:
- one teaspoon of flowers
- one glass of water
Mix well, filter and consume three times a day from 15 to 20 grams.
Tincture of the Bathing vessel found application in the treatment of edema, menstrual disorders, scabies, epilepsy
The root of the plant can be used to get rid of scabies.. Two tablespoons of dried and ground root need to be poured with one glass of hot water, brought to a boil. Use this liquid four times a day.
Angina and edema are well treated for heart problems. Also, the healing plant helps against cancer.
If the use of infusions in a person has an allergic reaction, then you need to ignore the bathing suit.
The plant must be taken seriously; if used improperly, it may cause irreparable damage.. It can worsen the condition of the human body as a whole and affect certain organs. Metabolism worsens, which leads to a breakdown in the body.
Therefore, a very important component is the use of an accurate dosage of a decoction or infusion of a bathing suit. In the worst case, it can lead to death.
The use of flower in landscape design
The bathing suit is also used for decorative purposes. It is used to decorate the soda area, as well as the area with rock garden. Very beautiful flowers with bright orange and bright yellow flowers.
The unpretentiousness of the bathing vessel, allows you to decorate with it almost any areas
Look very elegant in combination with blue shades of irises. They create mixed landings with a bathing suit, and also they look good in single landings and in groups.
Leotard is used to create a decorative effect in the park.x Flowers look beautiful when decorating coastlines of water bodies of various sizes.
One of the important aspects in this matter is the choice of landing site. The best place will be a small shade. The plant loves direct sunlight, but not all the time. For some time he needs to take a break from the sun, so that the leaf blades open the stomata and get more air.
If the plant does not provide such conditions, then the swimsuit will grow much smaller. And the most important thing is that in such a state the flower will not be able to bloom for a long time.
The best places for a swimsuit will be shading under a tree, shrubas well as between the stones.
A beautiful plant is not too demanding on the quality of the soil. It can be safely planted in unprepared land.
A more suitable soil for the flower will be medium loamy. If the soil contains a higher percentage of clay, this can lead to water stagnation.. As you know, bathing one does not tolerate it.
The swimsuit is unpretentious, so the planting of this plant may not be accompanied by additional soil preparation
For better growth, you can add from 5 to 6 kilograms of peat to one square meter, one tablespoon of nitrophosphate and a small amount of humus to the soil.
The plant tolerates planting and does not require special conditions. Planting is best done before the end of August, otherwise the flower may not have time to form an immunity.t and accumulate enough nutrients for a good winter. Despite the high winter hardiness, a weakened plant may not tolerate too low temperature conditions.
Basic rules for the care of plants
The bathing plant practically does not require special conditions for its cultivation. Care is necessary as for most plants. Timely watering, the required amount of fertilizing, as well as the destruction of weeds.
With the onset of cold weather, leaf blades die off. Therefore, in order for the plant not to waste energy on this process, the leaves need to be cut and leave only the petioles. They will protect dormant buds, which will give future flower stalks.
Watering for a swimsuit should be timely and regular. Especially it is necessary to observe this for young seedlings. During dry and hot summer, the amount of moisture should be increased..
For the normal growth and development of flowers it is necessary to carry out regular weeding from weeds. Also an important factor is loosening the soil. This procedure should be done carefully, and no closer than ten centimeters to the plants. The depth of loosening should not exceed 5 centimeters..
Weeding and loosening Bathing vessels should be carried out regularly, at a distance of 10 cm from the flowers
Top dressing also affects the plant. The best periods for dressing are the first days of May, as well as before the flowering period.
- ten liters of water
- one tablespoon of urea
- one teaspoon nitrofoski
- one teaspoon of Agricola for flowering plants
All the necessary ingredients need to be mixed and fed in the right periods with a small amount of fertilizer.
Bathing-place is an extraordinary plant, which is distinguished by a special color of flowers of bright yellow and bright orange shades.. It is widely used in traditional medicine in the treatment of many human diseases. Use a bathing suit and to obtain an emphasizing decorative effect.
Caring for a plant does not cause hassle, but with proper care will give abundant and prolonged flowering.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Growing up
- 4.2. Watering and feeding
- 4.3. Reproduction and transplanting
- 4.4. Swimming pool in winter
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 6. Types and varieties
Planting and maintenance of a bathing vessel (in short)
- Bloom: three weeks in may.
- Landing: stratified by cold for 3-4 months, seeds are sown on seedlings in March, and seedlings are planted in open ground only in August.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: structural and neutral medium or light loamy soils with a high content of humus.
- Watering: regular, and in drought - plentiful.
- Top dressing: at the time of bud break and before flowering, with a solution of a complex mineral fertilizer, for example, Agricola or Nitrophoska.
- Reproduction: the division of the curtain, at least - the seeds.
- Pests: extremely rarely affected by aphids.
- Diseases: septoriosis, smut and other fungal diseases.
Bathing plant - description
The leaves of the swimsuit lobed or palchatobrazdelnye. Flower stalks most often develop within two years: in the first year the plant forms only a rosette of basal leaves, and the leafy stem in the upper third, which ends in a flower, the bathing vessel forms in the second year. The lower leaves on the floral arrow are large, petiolate, and the upper ones are sessile and not so large. Often lateral shoots are formed in the leaf axils, which also end in a flower. The size of the lateral flowers in the direction towards the top decreases.
Flowers in plants of the Bathhouse genus spherical, open or half open. The flower consists of a coronoid perianth and brightly colored in yellow or orange shades of sepals, which can be from five to twenty. Sometimes swimsuit flowers have a transitional color: from green to yellow and to orange. Nectars are modified petals of the corolla, at their base there is a honey pit. The flowers of the swimsuit have a weak but pleasant aroma that attracts insects, including bees. Fruits of the plant - leaflets opening along the inner seam, collected in spherical stems. The seeds of the bathing suits are oval, black and shiny.
When to put a swimsuit in the ground.
If you are going to grow a swimsuit from seeds, you should know that the seed of this plant needs to be pre-treated with low temperatures. You can sow the bathing seeds in the late fall in a container and keep it in an unheated room where the seeds will undergo natural stratification during the winter months and sprout in the spring. But it is better to put the seed after harvesting in a bag with wet sand, put it in the vegetable box of the refrigerator and keep it there for 3-4 months at a temperature of 2-4 ºC, and in March sow the seeds in the substrate and wait for seedlings at a temperature of 20 ºC.
The seeds of the bathing plant sprout very slowly, but by the middle of April or by May shoots will surely appear. It is necessary to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight and prevent the substrate from drying out. In the development stage of the second real leaflet, the seedlings dive, observing a step of 8-10 cm, and in August, seedlings are planted in open ground.
How to plant a swimsuit.
In the wild, the swimsuit grows both in the sun and in partial shade, but in culture it is desirable to grow it in well-lit areas, far from the shadow of trees and shrubs. The best soil for a plant is structural medium loamy or light loamy soils with a high content of humus. The soil should be rich, light, and its pH - close to neutral. A bathing flower can also grow on poor soils if peat mixed with humus is added to them, which will absorb moisture and retain it in the soil. Consumption of peat-humus mixture - 5 kg per m².
Seedlings together with the earth lump are planted in the wells, located at a distance of 30-40 cm from each other. The bathing plant does not like transplants, and in one place it can grow 10 years. Seed-grown bathing plant blooms for the third or fourth year.
Growing swimsuit in the garden.
Young swimsuits, as already mentioned, need regular soil moistening, and in the first month they need protection from direct sunlight. By two or three years, the bushes growing in open areas reach a height of 50-60 cm. In a penumbra, the bathing can grow up to 80-90 cm, and the stems and leaf petioles become longer, but the bathing of flowers that grows in the penumbra forms less, and the coloring is not so intense. In the shade, the development of the plant slows down, and it can reach its maximum size only in the sixth or seventh year. The lack of lighting also negatively affects the number of flowers produced by the plant and the brightness of their color.
Watering and feeding bathing.
Regular and careful watering is required not only by young swimsuits, but also by mature plants, especially during a period of prolonged drought. For irrigation, use only water that has been separated and heated by the sun: the easiest way is to install a tank or other large tank in a garden in a sunny place where rainwater will be collected. After watering or rain, soil is loosened and weeds are destroyed.
Sometimes watering bathing suits is combined with top dressing, using a solution of a teaspoon of urea in a bucket of water as a fertilizer. The bathing place and such nutritional complexes as Nitrophoska and Agricola are well perceived, the solution of which is prepared in the same proportion as the urea solution. Top dressing necessary bathing at the time of blooming buds and before flowering.
Reproduction and transplanting bathing.
You already know how to grow a swimsuit from seed, but the seed method is rarely used to propagate this plant. Usually the swimsuit is propagated vegetatively - by dividing the curtain, carried out every five years in late August or early September. Healthy, developed plants can be divided in the fifth or sixth year of life, because at this age a bathing woman who does not tolerate a transplant has a lot of vitality to help her withstand stress.
The mother plant should be dug, its roots should be cleaned from the ground, washed well and cut into pieces with a sharp sterile knife, each of which should have several rosette shoots with roots. Sections are treated with a solution of potassium permanganate or wood ash, after which the dumplings are immediately planted in pre-prepared pits located 30-40 cm apart from each other. The root neck needs to be buried by 2-3 cm, and the leaves of the bathing suits after planting should be cut off. New leaves will begin to grow within two weeks.
Belongs to the family of buttercups, his representatives are now becoming increasingly popular in the dacha plots, on flower beds and in gardens. In nature, the flower grows in the meadows, but it can be found among the plants of the landscape of the mountains. The loquate root system is well developed and located close to the ground surface.
What does a bathing house look like? Its bush is a grassy perennial with flowers of yellow or orange color, reaching a height of 15-40 cm. The bathing vessel begins to bloom in late spring and ends in the middle of summer, and in the process of flowering the number of buds increases.
The flowers of this perennial resemble a half-closed ball. Culture is represented by thirty species, differing in shape and color. But in each of their flowers there is a hole where insects can pollinate, pollinating the plant.
This herbaceous crop, according to the description of the bathing plant, is winter-hardy and does not need shelter.
Growing conditions in the garden
What places like bushes with flowers shades of sunlight? What conditions do they like? They don't need anything special. In nature, flowers choose the best places for growth, but at the summer cottage a person can provide perfect care and create comfort to perennials.
All that is needed is a bathing plant:
- enough moisture (the more sun in the area, the more moisture it needs),
- sunny place in the garden
- оптимальная почва — суглинки, богатые органическими веществами,
- уровень кислотности почвы должен быть близок к нейтральному,
- идеальная грунтосмесь это листовая земля, торф и песок в соотношении 1:1:0,5,
- если добавить мох сфагнум в рубленом виде, в почве или субстрате будет дольше держаться влага,
- despite the moisture-loving swimsuit, water stagnation on the flower bed is undesirable.
Under waterlogging conditions, the plant growth rate decreases.
Cultivation and care
In the period of enhanced growth of the flower of the bathing place and the beginning of flowering, and this happens from May to July, he needs to provide a set of measures for additional care.
- ensuring watering, but at the end of flowering it is reduced,
- fertilization, both mineral and organic, three times per season, from April to September,
- Mulch bushes are used to preserve moisture and to prevent weed growth,
- It is recommended to pour the primer onto the near-stem circle so that the roots close to the soil surface do not suffer,
- stimulation of re-flowering buds,
- to bloom again, you need to cut off the fading flower stalks,
- preservation of yellowed leaves on the bush until August-September, since if they are removed, the quality of flowering will decrease in the future,
- the leaves and petioles are cut, leaving 2 or 3 cm at the base,
- lack of frequent transplantation, bushes can grow well from 5 to 10 years in one place,
- the plant can be rejuvenated, that is, divided into the fifth or sixth year of life.
These perennials are almost not exposed to diseases and do not suffer from pests. Sometimes they are overwhelmed with fungal infections, such as septoria or smut. The main measure in the fight against fungus is the burning of old leaves. If the focus of infection is found, the remnants of the bush are removed and treated with fungicides.
How to propagate the culture
Bushes can be propagated by seed, cuttings, as well as the separation of the bush. Overgrown bushes are divided at the end of spring or autumn, but it can be done in summer too. For this purpose, selected strong plants that will grow well further.
To divide it is necessary:
- remove the bush from the ground, remove the remnants of the soil from the roots and wash them in water,
- with a knife, cut the rhizome into parts, leaving 3 or 4 buds in separated parts. Small parts of the bush will take longer to settle down.
- the cutting sites to handle ash or pale solution of potassium permanganate,
- not allowing drying, each part is planted in the soil, deepening the bush for 2 centimeters, between the new small bushes to leave a gap of about 30−40 cm 7−8 pc. on 1 square. meter The following year, these bushes will turn into full-fledged bushes that can bloom profusely.
For reproduction by cuttings take spring shoots of the bush and future shoots with part of the rhizome. Root them in the late spring, using peat mixture, and for root formation soaked in the root growth stimulator "Kornevin" or others, but with the same spectrum of action.
If propagated by seeds, they are usually sown immediately after it has been removed from the peduncle. This process can be repeated from summer to the end of autumn. Can be sown in a container with a mixture of ground sheet, ash, sawdust. In spring, shoots will appear, approximately in the second half of May.
They should be watered, pritenyat from the unbearable burning sun. When the first true leaves appear, picking is carried out at intervals of 8-10 cm between young plants. Before the onset of winter, it is recommended that the planted one should be protected from future frosts.
Bathing plants planted in a garden or not in a bed will bloom in 2–3 years, during which time they are transplanted to a place where they will grow permanently. Culture seeds can be sown at the end of spring, if the thermometer shows a temperature of 2−4 degrees above zero for 3 or 4 months.
Orange and yellow groups of sunny flowers of swimsuits look beautiful against the background of a reservoir in the form of a pool, streamlet, fountain or pond. Border options, such as dwarf bathing vessel, are perfectly combined with periwinkle against the background of an ensemble of stones.
At the end of the flowering period, when the plants become faded, the yellowed leaves are removed, the root rosette grows in the fall again. Because of this feature, you need to use flowers such as hosts, irises, daylilies. A good combination of a bathing-place with flowers blooming with it at the same time is good. Speaking of shrubs, the neighborhood with a low-growing variety of Japanese spirea or Magonia Padubolica will be successful.
Application in different directions
Bathhouse as an ornamental plant is beautiful, but it is also useful. Previously, flowers were used as a dye; in the last century, flowers of an Asian bathing suit were the raw material for the manufacture of yellow paint in textile business. Nowadays, scientists have developed an idea and proposed methods for obtaining a dye from the flowers of this species for edible fats.
Bathing vessel in winter.
Almost all types of swimsuits have such property as cold resistance, therefore they overwinter in the garden without shelter. When the plant leaves die off in September-October, they are cut, leaving only petioles 2-3 cm long above the ground, which will protect the bud located in the center of the rosette. It is this bud that will give flower stalk next year.
Pests and diseases of the bathing
Bathing suit is extremely resistant to diseases and pests and is affected by them only occasionally. The cause of infection with fungal infections, for example, septoria or smut, can be bad or improper care. If such a nuisance happens to your bathing suits, immediately remove and burn the sick parts or plants, process the bushes and the soil under them with a solution of fungicide, analyze and eliminate care errors, otherwise the situation may recur.
Ledebura bath (Trollius ledebourii)
- the most winter-hardy representative of the genus up to 1 m. This plant is common in the nature of Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Mongolia, China and Japan. Ledebour's bathing chamber has deeply dissected stalked leaves, an upright stem, leafy only in the upper third of the stem and open orange flowers 5–6 cm in diameter with finely pointed nectaries slightly towering above the stamens. The interest of gardeners most often caused by such varieties of the form:
- Goliath - a plant with flowers up to 7 cm in diameter with light orange nectaries and dark orange sepals,
- Lemon Queen - a variety about 70 cm high with yellow-lemon flowers up to 4 cm in diameter,
- Lightball - bathing height up to 60 cm with flowers with a diameter up to 5 cm with yellow nectaries and light orange sepals,
- Orange king - A plant up to half a meter tall with flowers up to 5 cm in diameter with orange nectaries and dark orange sepals.
Asian swimsuit (Trollius asiaticus)
grows in Central Asia, Siberia, Mongolia and the Polar Urals. In Russia, these plants are called "hot", or "lights". These are grassy brush perennials with petiolic basal palmate-five-segregated leaves 20-30 cm long, peduncle up to 50 cm tall and spherical flowers up to 5 cm in diameter with red-orange sepals and orange nectar petals. Asian swimsuit - one of the most beautiful species of the genus. She has terry forms with a large number of sepals. This species was introduced into culture in 1759.
European bath (Trollius europaeus)
distributed in the range from steppe to tundra zone in Europe, in Scandinavia and Western Siberia. The size of the plant varies depending on the conditions of life: in the tundra it reaches a height of only 20-30 cm, and in the middle lane it can grow up to 80 cm. An additional decorative effect gives them a patterned form of leaf segments - rhombic and sharp-toothed. The stem of the plant is simple or branched, the leaves cover only the upper third of the peduncle. Spherical, slightly fragrant flowers, consist of 10-20 sepals, painted in shades from pale yellow to golden, and reach a diameter of 5 cm. The petals-nectaries of intense orange color do not exceed the sepal length. In the culture of bathing European since the XVI century, it has only two types:
- garden form with pale yellow flowers,
- a variety with larger and more vivid flowers.
Highest bathing bowl (Trollius altissimus)
grows in the Carpathians and Western Europe in the wet high-grass meadows. It has dark green long-peeled openwork leaves collected in a large rosette up to 60 cm in height. The edges of the leaves are notched, the leaf plate is strongly dissected, the venation is clear, convex. Straight and usually branched stem of the plant reaches a height of one and a half meters, and in the axils of large stem leaves in an amount of up to 5-7 lateral shoots are formed, also bearing greenish-yellow flowers with a milky shade, reaching 6 cm in diameter.
Altai bath (Trollius altaicus)
grows wild in Central Asia, Western Siberia, Northern China, Mongolia and Altai. It has palmate-separated petiolous basal leaves, collected in a rosette up to 30 cm high, simple or branchy stem, covered with sessile leaves and reaching a height of 80-90 cm. Spherical flowers, consisting of 10-20 orange or golden yellow, reddish outside sepals and orange petals, nectaries, reach a diameter of 5 cm. The anthers of the flowers are purple. In culture, this species since 1874.
Culture bath (Trollius x cultorum)
combines a large part of garden forms and varieties of bathing vessels, which differ from natural species in larger and brighter flowers. Of interest are such varieties:
- Goldquel - bathing with bright yellow flowers up to 6 cm in diameter,
- Orange Princess - a plant up to 60 cm high with bright orange flowers with a diameter about 5 cm,
- Fire Globe - a bathing-place of the same height with flowers of the same diameter, in which the nectaries are orange, and the sepals are orange-red,
- Erlist of oil - a plant with flowers with a diameter of about 4 cm with dark yellow sepals and light yellow nectaries,
- Alabaster - variety with large pale cream flowers,
- Canary bird - bath with flowers of a pale yellow shade.
Common plant species
In Russia, there are about 20 types of frying. They grow in gardens in large bushes with fragrant flowers of yellow or orange color and straight stems up to 70 cm. On a short rhizome frying a powerful bundle of cord-shaped dense roots. The most famous plant species:
- European swimsuit, which can be found on the edges of mixed forests, meadows and forest glades. With good care in flower beds can grow up to 70cm. Flowering begins in June and lasts 4-5 weeks. The flowers are spherical, terry, pale lemon with orange center, diameter - up to 5 cm, the aroma is weak.
- Asian swimsuit - perennial, whose height reaches 70cm. Its flowering period is mid-May - mid-June. The flowers are bright orange, on long peduncles, single, diameter reaches 7-8cm.
- Chinese bath has bright orange flowers, blooms late (from the end of June), when other types of flowering have finished.
- Ledebour bath resembles a Chinese swimsuit, but taller (up to 120cm), and its flowers are larger, orange in color, up to 8cm in diameter. The flowering period is the end of June - the middle of July.
- Bathing dwarf - A bushy plant, 15-30cm in height. It has dark green long-pebbly, finely toothed leaves in a basal rosette, from whose center numerous usually unbranched stems with a large golden-yellow, bright flower at the end grow. The flowers of this plant are wide, flat, resemble large buttercups. Flowering occurs in May and June, it happens that in July.
There are also white-flowered species - this lilac and potted bath. At the moment, many garden forms with large flowers are displayed. Spherical bright flowers of some flowers reach 7 cm in diameter, and their pleasant faint aroma resembles that of mandarin.
Growing in the garden
- Bathing place feels great in a semi-shaded place. Loves moisturetherefore, it grows beautifully on the damp shore of the pond in the garden. The plant is sun-loving and winter-hardy, shelter is not required.
- Compost or peat is added to the planting hole for the swimsuit. The most favorable for the cultivation of plant soils: structural, light or medium loamy, with a high content of humus.
- The swimsuit grows well on rich, light in texture soil, close in acidity to neutral. Grow on the soil, poor in humus. Plants use a mixture of leafy land with sand or peat.
- The flowers of most ornamental species appear in late spring - early summer, in some species it occurs much later. The flowering time and the height of the plant also depend on the variety and type.
Mainly plant breeds dividing the bush. The division and planting of bushes is carried out in early spring or at the end of August. The root neck during planting deepens by 2 cm. The distance between the flowers should be 30-40cm.
Breeding can be done and cuttings from ground young shoots that appear in spring, and from summer sockets with a part of an underground stem.
For breeding seeds Freshly harvested seeds are sown in late September - early October; seedlings will appear by early May next year. In its place, seedlings are seated in the spring of the second year. Small seeds quickly lose their germination, which is why they are sown immediately after harvest in the fall. During spring sowing on seedlings it is necessary to stratify them in 3-4 months at a temperature of 2-4 ° C.
It is well propagated by self-sowing, seedlings appear in spring, grow slowly, they are planted in a permanent place in late August - early September. Seedlings bloom in the second year, and abundant flowering can be expected only by the third year of plant life. Zharok is sensitive to transplantation, and blooms only in the second year.
To care you need the following:
At a distance of 10 cm from the bushes, loosening is done at a depth of no more than 3–5 cm, since the flower has many poorly protected surface roots. The soil is constantly mulched with humus or peat. For proper development, you should also systematically pour nutrient ground to the base of the bushes.
Because the flower loves moisture, watering is reduced only by autumn. In the first year of flowering there is one flower stalk with one flower. Further, the number of peduncles grows, and they often become branched. The first flower to bloom at the top, what happens when buds appear on the branches. The beauty of the main shoot increases due to its branching. The flowering time increases.
Faded flower stalks are cut for secondary flowering. At one place, the heat can grow 10 or more years, expanding year after year. After the curtain should be divided and transplanted.
The leaves are decorative throughout the growing season. In September and October, they die off, only after that they are cut, leaving the base of the petioles 2-3 cm above the ground. So, they protect the buds located in the center of the rosette shoot, from which the following year the peduncle is formed. When cutting leaves that have not completed the growing season, a significant weakening of the bud will occur, and the next year there will not be a well-developed peduncle.
Hot in landscape design
Swimsuits look great in groups on lawns, mixborders, near shrubs and trees.
Special well the combination of bathing and stone: in the foreground - stunted perennials, behind which the bathing vessels themselves are located; in the background, higher plants, later flowering perennials with leaves of decorative shape and color, are located. Frying is also used for forcing.
One of the valuable qualities of the plant is that it consists of bouquets that do not fade for a long time. In this regard, the European bathing house stands out.
Myths and legends about the plant
Different nations attributed roasting mythical properties and a special story. In Germans, this flower is called Trollblume, that is, a troll flower. In their opinion, mythical formidable creatures like the bathing flower very much, and in places where it grows, the trolls gather at full moon and boil a healing drink from frying.
In Russia, the plant got its name due to the pagan holiday of Ivan Kupala. After all, the hot bloom just in time for the holiday. The first Russian flowers are considered heralds from Ivan Kupala. By the way, the name hot is more common in Ukraine, where the name "night blindness" is also used, Muscovites called the flower "avdotka", Vologda residents - "cufflink". There are other names.
Harm and Benefit
The bathing plant serves more often for decorative purposes, with its help summer cottages, gardens and flower beds are made out. The flower is unpretentious, lives longblooms for at least a month with bright yellow flowers. More often, the swimsuit is planted in flower beds along with forget-me-nots or blue irises. The flower is long standing in a vase.
Fires is considered a poisonous plant, but is still used in traditional medicine as an external agent used for grinding for edema and tumors. Broth from a flower serves as an antiseptic and styptic.
In case of improper handling and exceeding the recommended doses, there is a great risk of causing great harm to your body!
Types and varieties of bathing
Plant of wet meadows, blooming from late May to July. The genus includes about 30 species growing in Siberia, Central Asia, Europe, and the Caucasus. In decorative floriculture grown European bath (Trollius europaeus) with golden yellow flowers, Asian swimsuit or frying (Trollius asiaticus) with orange-red flowers, hybrid swimsuit or cultural (Trollius hybridus)still grown купальницу алтайскую (Trollius altaicus), купальницу китайскую (Trollius chinensis) and купальницу карликовую (Trollius pumilus).
Довольно популярна купальница Ледебура (Trollius ledebourii)— высокое (до 100 см) растение с золотисто-оранжевыми цветками.
Среди желтых и оранжевых купальниц выделяются белоцветковые виды — купальница бумажночашечная (Trollius charlosepalus) and купальница лиловая (Trollius lilacinus). They grow in abundantly moist alpine meadows. They are characterized by early flowering - immediately after the snow melts, and the leaves unfold at the end of flowering. The flowers are whitish or light purple with bright yellow stamens. The rosette of leaves does not exceed 5 - 7 cm in diameter, and the flower stalks are 10 cm high. However, this is a rather complex plant culture.
In addition, for collectors of great interest are two more types: KupalDzhungar Nights (Trollius dschungaricus) and bathing highest (Trollius altissimus).
Bathing tank hybrid or cultural (Trollius hybridus, Trollius cultornum)
The hybrid obtained as a result of the crossing of the following types of swimsuits: Asian, European, Chinese and Altai. This swimsuit differs in larger flowers with an intense color from pale lemon to bright orange tones. The flowering period is May – June.
Popular varieties hybrid bathing:
‘Earliest of All’- Height up to 60 cm. Flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, sepals dark yellow, nectary pockets light yellow. Blooms profusely in May.
‘Fire globe’- Height up to 60 cm. Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, orange-red sepals, orange nectaries. Blooms profusely from mid-May to June.
‘Goliaph’- Height up to 90 cm. Flowers up to 7 cm in diameter, sepals dark orange, nectaries light orange. It blooms from mid-May to early June.
‘Lightball’- Height up to 50-60 cm. Flowers with a diameter of up to 5 cm, sepals are light orange-yellow, nectaries are yellow. Blooms profusely from mid-May to early June.
‘Lemon queen’- Height up to 70 cm. Flowers with a diameter up to 4 cm, sepals lemon-yellow, nectaries yellow. Blooms profusely in May.
‘Orange crest’- Height up to 50 cm. Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, sepals orange-yellow, nectaries yellow. Blooms profusely from mid-May to early June.
‘Orange king’- Height up to 50 cm. Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter, sepals dark orange, orange nectaries. It blooms from mid-May to early June.
‘Orange prinzess’- Height up to 60 cm. Flowers orange, up to 5 cm in diameter. Blooms profusely from mid-May to June.
Care for a bathing suit
Place for planting should be wet, slightly shaded (but not devoid of sun), the soil is well fertilized with humus. The rest is standard care. The bathing vessels will thankfully treat the mulching and periodic filling of fertile land to the base of the bush.
The most drought-resistant species are the Dzhungar and Altai swimsuits. They prefer well-drained soil without stagnant groundwater.
At one place bathing places can grow up to 10 years, after which the bush must be divided and transplanted into new places.
Use in garden design
Free placement of single-species groups in open places (for example, among tree plantings) will create a sense of naturalness. Also good are the bathing suits in combination with the scattering of stones and ground cover plants. In mixborders, in mixed beds, in flower gardens of the “Natural Garden” style - bright elastic yellow or orange flowers will always have a place in your garden.
Choosing a place for planting a bathing place and preparing the soil
Choosing a place for landing, pay attention to the area with diffused light. It can be a cozy place under high ornamental shrubs or a rocky hill. The main thing is that the bright sun does not shine on the swimsuit for a long time.
You can plant a swimsuit in an open flowerbed, but you need to be prepared for the fact that its flowering will be short-lived, and the flowers will be faded and small in size.
There are no requirements for the composition of the soil in the bathing vessel, so no serious preparations are necessary before planting. But a good influence on the development of the flower will have a medium loamy soil. It is also desirable that there is no stagnant water in the selected area.
If you still want to create the best conditions for a trolley, you can add a little mixture of peat with humus and 10 g of nitrophoska to the planting well. And if the plant is planted in a sandy mixture, it is desirable to add more moss, which will ensure the safety of moisture.
Did you know? The bathing vessel is not adapted to dry and sandy, as well as to wet and marshy areas. In them she will not be able to develop and will soon die.
Planting bathing bed on a bed
Landing swimsuit should be carried out in August. Although all its varieties are frost-resistant, young plants should grow stronger and increase the rhizome before the onset of winter. If you plant a trolley later, it will surely die with the arrival of the first frost.
All varieties of swimsuits quickly acquire the form of a densely branched bush, therefore, it is necessary to plant the plants at a distance of 50 cm between them. It is necessary to deepen the root neck of the plant by 2 cm. Immediately pruning the leaves is done so that the rooting is successful. New foliage dissolved in two weeks after planting.
Tip! A swimsuit can grow in one place for a long time, so a plant can be transplanted every ten years.
Bathhouse, garden care
Trollyus needs to be watered all the time, periodically fertilize and trim dried shoots. If you follow these elementary rules, the plant will grow quickly and even please with double flowering per season.
Frequent loosening of the soil to a depth of 2-4 cm is also carried out, but not deeper, in order not to damage the fragile root system.
On a note! The bathing vessel is a frost-resistant culture, therefore it is not necessary to build a shelter for the winter.
Watering and weeding bathing
The plant must be watered frequently, but without excesses: the bathing suit should be in moist soil without stagnant water. Any deviations in the direction of underfilling or overwetting will negatively affect the growth and flowering of the crop. This moment is especially important in the care of young bushes.
Removing weeds is a must in the care of a bathing suit. To save power, you can mulch the bush. This will maintain moisture near the roots and will not allow the weeds to “drown out” the plant. But if the mulch does not fit into the landscape design, you can do without it.
Pest and disease control
Due to their vitality, swimsuits are rarely susceptible to any disease.
However, for their better condition, early spring treatment with ashes is recommended, with spring growth - fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers, and further it is necessary to use complex fertilizers.
At the very beginning of flowering, the swimsuit is preferably sprayed with epinum in the amount of ten drops per 1 liter of water.
To prevent fungal diseases, it is possible to remove old dead leaves in the fall.
Rarely a bathing vessel may be affected by septoria, a smut, penetrating short-nematode.
Place in landscape design
Growing swimsuit is very popular for decoration of garden and suburban areas. Most often, the European (ordinary) bathing ground is bred, although other varieties are no less decorative.
Neighborhood with such colors as delphinium, cornflower, catchment, when yellow color is combined with violet and lilac. For the foreground, suitable for stunted plants - bergenia, clover, sleep-grass, oxalis.
A garden slide with a stone is well suited for decorative design of the site, where the bathing suit occupies the middle space, in front of it are ground-cover perennials, and behind it are tall (cornflower, bell). At the same time, take into account the timing of flowering, so that during the whole summer period, on your hill one flowers will be replaced by others.
Use in traditional medicine
Although kupavka is a rather poisonous plant, its medicinal properties help in the fight against many diseases. The European bath (European) is especially popular in folk medicine. Its flowers, roots and leaves are used to make tinctures and decoctions that act as anti-inflammatory and healing agents. The herb of the medicinal plant has long helped to heal tumors.
Tincture of flowers is used to treat dropsy and scurvy, and tincture of the roots - from scabies. If you insist the leaves, such a tool will help get rid of angina.
Broth leaves is indicated for problems of the gastrointestinal tract. And if the leaves are mixed with flowers, this broth will be a good choleretic agent that will also protect the liver.
External ointment well help to heal wounds, boils and reduce inflammation.
However, using folk remedies from a bathing vessel, despite their beneficial properties, should be carefully consulted with a good specialist, as a poisonous plant can harm the nervous system.
Botanical description and distribution
Asian swimsuit - a perennial herbaceous plant, if we touch upon its botanical description in more detail, then it is a rhizomatous flower from the genus of the Butterica family bathing suits. It has one or several peduncles 10–80 cm high. The stem is smooth, upright. There are basal and stem leaves. The first are located on long roots, finger-separated with rhombic patterns.
The upper leaves are very similar to the root, to the top of the stem, they become smaller. The flowers are quite large (up to 6 cm in diameter), looks like buttercups, red-orange in color. Calyx spherical shape, consists of 10-25 elliptical sepals. Flowering lasts about a month, from the end of May. The species is distributed in Central Asia, Mongolia, Siberia and the Urals. It grows in wet meadows, in the highlands, in forest glades near water bodies. It looks particularly impressive in the meadows, forming carpets of flowers resembling bright lights.
Lighting on the site
For landing bathing suit as a sunny place, and the site in partial shade. The only thing you need to remember is too lighted area, it will bloom earlier, but the flowering period will be shorter than in the shade.
Since in natural conditions swimsuits, s grow in soils far from ideal, they have no special requirements for the composition of the soil. It is very important that the land is well drained, as the flowers do not tolerate drought. Landing on loose, fertile, moderately sour soil will be ideal. High humus content is welcomed. When planting on sandy areas require additional feeding.
Breeding plant seed and rhizome division. In the natural environment, it grows very quickly on its own, and in culture it also does not cause trouble.
Seeds must be sown immediately after ripening or before winter - in this case, the seedlings will appear in the spring. It is imperative to provide good hydration. Then the seedlings should be dive with an interval of 5-10 cm. It is necessary to give the plant the opportunity to get stronger before planting on a flower bed. It is best to transplant a swimsuit to a permanent habitat next spring. "Lights" will bloom in the second year after sowing.
Vegetative breeding method is more popular. By dividing the queen plant in spring or early autumn, planting is much easier. It is necessary to dig up the root, rinse and divide with an knife with an arbitrary number of parts. Then prepare a hole 40 cm deep and place a seedling there.
Planting should be done at a distance of 40-50 cm. The leaves should be cut, and new ones will appear two weeks later. The division of the curtain should be done with mature, matured plants that are more than 5 years old.
Asian bathing care
It is necessary to regularly loosen the soil around the plant, as well as weed weeds.
it the most important thing in care for moisture-loving flower. Particular attention should be paid to young "lights", the plant needs regular abundant watering during the active growing season, that is, from May to June.
Before planting, compost or manure must be applied to the soil at the rate of 3 buckets per square meter. In the spring you need to do a nitrogen fertilizer or make organic or mineral fertilizers.
Both planting and transplanting plants are best done in spring or autumn. The swimsuit is removed from the soil, washed the root system, if necessary, divide it into equal parts, and then planted in another place. Without a transplant, a plant can grow up to 10 years, and after this period it is necessary to divide the curtain.
Resistance to pests and diseases
"Hot" is enough are resistant to pests, but in order to protect the plant 100%, it is necessary to provide him with timely top dressing, and in early spring spray it with Epin solution. To do this, in one liter of water diluted 10 drops of the substance. In order for the plant not to suffer from fungal diseases, at the end of the growing season it is necessary to remove the withered foliage.
The bathing bowl is irreplaceable when creating bright colorful flower beds and flower beds on the site. The plant is strikingly unpretentious, but it will add a “spark” even to the most ordinary garden plot.