Petunia deservedly bears the title of "queen of flower beds." This beautiful flowering plant enjoys great love and popularity among gardeners. It is grown on balconies, in gardens, in flowerbeds, hanging pots and large flowerpots. A large selection of varieties and shades allows you to create fabulously beautiful compositions. Flowers are sown for seedlings as early as the end of January and the beginning of February, but when should you plant petunia in open ground?
Ready seedlings can be planted in flower beds in the second half of May. Then the sun will warm the earth well, and the plants will not freeze from the night frosts. Of course, flowers can withstand low positive temperatures and even minor minus ones, but still they are thermophilic, so a petunia is very necessary for normal growth and flowering in sunlight and heat.
Sowing on seedlings for many beginning flower growers seems too complicated. Petunia is really very capricious, to grow it from seed, you need to try hard. It requires proper care, good lighting, temperature control. Without all this, petunia will simply not rise. Planting and care in the open field is frequent watering, fertilizing fertilizer and tearing off faded inflorescences.
Since growing flowers from seeds is a very complicated procedure, many try to circumvent this process. To do this, buy ready-made seedlings when it is time to plant a petunia in the open ground. Of course, it will cost more, but such bushes will bloom earlier and are guaranteed to grow large and healthy. Before landing, you need to prepare a place, it must be open and sunny. If it is a flower bed, then it is better to plant the flowers around the edges, as the petunia is stunted, and in the middle to plant something higher.
When planting petunia in open ground will already be possible, you need to dig up the ground, make organic fertilizer. The soil should be sufficiently loose and drained, this will help avoid stagnant water. If you plan to plant petunia in garden pots, you should prepare a nutrient substrate so that it does not need nutrients. This may be ordinary land, taken from the garden, peat and humus, the soil will turn out not only nutritious, but also loose.
When planting petunia in open ground depends entirely on the climatic characteristics of the region, if it is already warm in April and there is no frost, then it can be landed even then. Flowering begins in mid-June and lasts until October.
To maintain an attractive appearance, it remains only to pick off the dry flowers in time and periodically make mineral dressings. For an attractive thick bush need time to hold nip. To do this, cut the tip of the highest stem. Such a manipulation will allow the growth of lateral shoots and improve flowering.
To become the owner of a blooming flower bed, you need to make a lot of effort, take care of their wards, water them and make feeding. But all the works will be rewarded with a beautiful motley flowering that will delight the eyes of the whole summer and even half of the autumn.
Petunia is a real flower treasure, with its elegant colors and endless variety of varieties, it has forever conquered the hearts of growers, professionals and amateurs. Today we do not represent our cities without this unpretentious and bright plant, and in the gardens and on the backyards, she became a real queen.
Despite the fact that this culture is considered to be a rather undemanding flower, some care for the plant is necessary, otherwise the beauty that is hidden in its essence will not be fully revealed. Flower growers love to experiment and plant different varieties of plants, starting with the simplest types, ending with terry species and cascading varieties. For each species has its own time for planting and planting in open ground.
Ready seedlings are sold in numerous garden centers and shops, but, you see, to grow a flower with your own hands, the business is very exciting. In addition, the cost of ready-to-plant flowers in stores is quite high, much cheaper than their own seedlings grown from seeds.
How to calculate the timing of the landing of petunias in open ground
Before buying seeds, it is necessary to determine the varieties and timing of flowering, although petunia blooms after planting in about two and a half or three months. It means that sowing of seeds is necessary counting on this period. If there is a desire in May to have flowering plants, then the sowing should be realized as soon as possible.
The climate of the region in which the flower will grow, is of great importance, as the petunia is very sensitive to temperature changes and may die if it falls under return frosts. In central Russia you should not plant seedlings without making sure that the night frosts are over, otherwise you can lose all the plants.
There were cases when the frost grabbed only the upper part of the plant, already planted in open ground. While the root system was not affected, in this case fresh shoots can go from the viable sinuses, but it will take a lot of time, and most importantly the forces of flower culture.
Catalogs of new varieties of petunias are full of colors and various advantages. For example, you can see flowers that can tolerate small frosts, but there is no full guarantee that the plants will withstand low temperatures, so why risk it.
Some lovers of early beauty cover the plants with a film or non-woven material, this really protects the tender seedlings from the cold, but this occupation is rather troublesome and time consuming.
It must be said that for a beginner, growing petunia from seeds is a difficult task. Here it is necessary to know many subtleties that are acquired by trial and error. Not everyone is able to get a full-fledged seedlings in the amount that was planned. In the early stages of its development, it is very whimsical both to the soil and to watering and to the room temperature.
For experienced gardeners, this is a very reckless activity that brings not only pleasure, but also a fair amount of healthy and full-fledged seedlings of various colors and varieties.
It is possible to calculate the conditional dates for the landing of petunias taking into account the following positions:
- Sowing time of seed material
- The period of emergence of shoots
- Growth and development of plants,
- Willingness of flower seedlings for transplanting into open soil.
Having come to the store for seeds, you should not buy everything that attracted. Look around and read the annotation for each variety, as a rule, on each package there is useful information. Petunia is different not only in color or shape of flowers, but in the nature and shape of the stalk. There are upright varieties, and there are creeping or cascading. Selection should be carried out taking into account all requirements and parameters.
The usual time for planting a petunia is limited to the period from late February to early March. Under favorable conditions, you will receive ready-made seedlings in May, and will be able to plant on beds in the spring at the beginning of May. Sometimes seedlings are planted with buds or flowers, but mass flowering should be expected by mid-June until the end of September.
When calculating sowing dates, you should think about other points:
- Select the seeds of the desired varieties,
- Prepare the soil capacity
- Sprinkler for irrigation and other tools.
Most importantly, be patient and optimistic, as well as confident that everything will work out.
Sowing on seedlings
The important point is the selection of the correct ground, it must comply with the following parameters: be well drained, nutritious and have a neutral acidity index. In other words, for a petunia it would be an ideal mixture of turf soil, sand and peat with the addition of humus. Optimal purchase soil for petunia will be a mixture for violets.
- Take a seed container with lids to create conditions with optimal moisture, heat and light. Remember that for petunia stagnant water is contraindicated, otherwise it will hurt and fall. A good option would be a tank with drainage holes, placed in another liquid, larger in size. It will allow to carry out watering from below, thus providing the necessary portion of moisture.
- Everyone knows how small the petunia seeds are, they literally have to be sown blindly. It's okay if they are sown too often, you can always remove the excess. It happens that the seeds do not sprout, this is because it may be too deep. It is recommended to sow petunia on the soil, only slightly pressing it in the ground. For convenience, some gardeners sow petunia, after mixing it with dry sand.
- Moistening is done by means of a spray bottle; it should not be watered from other vessels.
- Tweezers - a tool that can repeatedly come in handy when growing petunias, they also can squeeze and distribute the seeds on the soil surface.
- Sign containers, so as not to forget where what sort is planted.
- Cover the container and place it in a warm place where the temperature corresponds to + 23 degrees.
- After a week should appear friendly shoots.
After the shell has burst on the seeds, thin sprouts appear, you should not rush to remove the shelter, as this will change the climate inside the tank and adversely affect shoots. Pretty short airing at least once a day, so that the sprouts feel "at home".
- To prevent seedlings from falling ill with a black leg and growing healthy, remove condensation from the glass or container lids.
- When there are 2-3 leaves of seedlings, you can begin to dive into separate pots or cassettes.
- During this period, the main condition for petunia: watering, preferably in the pan, observing the ambient temperature - not less than 16 degrees, providing it with sunlight.
- Top dressing with the help of universal fertilizer.
Some experienced growers dive petunia twice; according to professionals, this gives an extra boost to the root system.
Planting petunias in open space
The soil requires nourishing, as the beauty is very "gluttonous." After each "dinner" the plant responds with a lush flower fragrance. The richer the soil, the longer the flowering will last.
The land must be fertilized and loosened before planting, if necessary, humus or lime should be added if the soil is too acidic. Wood ash - what you need to supplement, it will ensure deoxidation of the soil and scare away pests, enriching the soil with trace elements.
The pattern of planting is caused by varieties of flowers, in any case, the plants should not be crowded, normally the space between the seedlings is the key to plant health. If petunias flower stalks are quite large, a distance of at least 25 cm between flowers is required, but in the case of small flowers, the distance can be reduced to 15 cm.
The landing process requires compliance with the rules:
- Wells can be made with the help of a thick peg, and a cord or rope will allow you to make the correct markings on a flowerbed or border.
- Planting containers with seedlings must be moistened and knocked over by carefully removing the plant. So roots will be less injured.
- The seedling is placed in the hole and carefully sprinkled with earth, gently kneaded deep into the fossa.
- After that you need to water the seedlings.
- Planting is best done in the evening or when it is overcast on the street, so that the seedlings do not get sunburn.
The same manipulations are done when planting flower seedlings in pots or balcony boxes.
Throughout the season, petunia is provided with moisture, nutrition and, if required, stimulated by preparations for growth.
Planting adult flowers in a permanent place is not as difficult as growing them from the time of sowing. If you were able to save and bring them to the time of planting in open ground, then the task set is fully accomplished and you can safely claim to be an “experienced florist”.
Despite the fact that petunias are perennials, they are bred as annuals. Spectacular flowers adorn the most insane balcony or gray corner of the garden. The popularity of the plant has earned due to the affordable riot of colors and the duration of flowering. Depending on the type of flowers are terry or simple.
Petunias love heat and light very much. They are drought tolerant to the sun. In particularly hot days when the soil dries out, moderate watering is necessary. Sandy-loam soil is preferred, but the plant survives in any land. The most difficult procedure in cultivation is the preparation of strong and healthy seedlings. Weak fragile bushes will die even with proper care.
How to prepare seedlings?
Before planting the seeds you need to choose the appropriate variety. Pay attention not only to color and appearance, but also to varietal characteristics. Some species do not tolerate moisture, others suffer from prolonged drought. Modern hybrids are not afraid of either frost, or heavy rain, or squalls. This type includes surfinia.
Growing strong seedlings for planting in open ground is carried out in 4 stages.
- Selection of seeds. When buying, pay attention to the time of manufacture. The fresher the seeds, the more likely they are to grow. Give preference to regular rather than coated seeds. For planting ampelnye varieties will fit into the boxes, and on open ground, bush petunias look more beautiful. You can sow seeds in February-March.
Before seed germination, the container should be covered with a lid.
The total time of petunia growing up at home is 2-3 months. In warm regions, grown seedlings can be planted in the garden or hanging pots by mid-May. In the middle lane, it is desirable to wait for the second week of June.
Landing in the ground: the preparation and conduct of the event
Landing in the ground - a shock for a plant spoiled by greenhouse conditions. Before planting seedlings, arrange training for them. 10 days before transplanting limit watering plants. Every day, take the pots to the wide open balcony. 3 days before the transplant, leave them “overnight” in the fresh air. If you live in your own home, take the pots outside. The day before planting in open ground, you can do the preparation of the beds.
If the pH of the soil is less than 5.5, lime should be added (200 g / m 2). You can fertilize the soil with humus a few days before planting. Landing is carried out in the late afternoon or on a warm but overcast day. The depth and width of the hole should be the same, but not less than 10 cm. The distance between the holes depends on the selected grade of petunias:
- 30-35 cm for bush varieties,
- 25-28 cm for large-flowered varieties,
- 18-22 cm for small-flowered varieties.
Before removing the seedling from the pick-up glass, fill the ground abundantly with water. Seedlings reach out of the glass very carefully. It is important not to damage the root system. Landing is carried out with a lump of earth. Seedlings tightly tamped into the ground and watered with plenty of warm water to smooth out the stress of planting in a cool open ground. The soil around the planted bush should be covered with peat, humus or sawdust. This will help retain moisture and protect the plant from diseases. In the first two days of petunia to cover from direct sunlight.
Care after planting
Properly carried out planting sprouts does not provide guaranteed success. When planting is carried out, it is necessary to surround the flowers with care. It is important not to overdo it, but to follow the rules of care for young petunias.
- Watering Правильно поливать петунии только в знойную погоду, когда земля пересыхает. Полив осуществляется после захода солнца. Не заливайте грядки водой – это может привести к развитию грибковых заболеваний и погубить растение.
- Подкормка . Первое внесение удобрений осуществляется на 10-й день. Лучше выбирать удобрения с содержанием азота. Последующие подкормки нужно вносить, когда начнут формироваться бутоны. During this period, fertilizers with potassium and phosphorus are needed. If you notice yellowed spots on the leaves, apply iron to the soil.
- The formation of the bush. It is not enough just to plant a sapling and wait for a beautiful, uniform shrub to grow out of it. It is necessary to form a round "cap", removing long shoots. Faded buds should be removed immediately after flowering.
To decorate a flower bed or front garden with petunias of different colors, you need to be able to grow seeds and plant seedlings. Regular watering and dressing will be reflected in the breathtaking beauty of a blooming garden. Lush buds will delight the eye from early summer to late autumn.
How to determine the timing of planting
In order to correctly determine the time of transplanting in open ground, you need to know about the timing:
- seed sowing,
- seedling growth
- immediate readiness of seedlings for transplanting into a flower bed.
Among other things, the gardener will be useful to know about the soil for petunias, as well as how to prepare the seeds for sowing and care for the shoots. More experienced gardeners will easily perform all these activities, but a beginner florist should carefully read this article.
Start by sowing. Seeds are planted for growing seedlings, which subsequently planted in open ground.
First of all, you need to choose a suitable variety, since petunia has a huge amount of them. Flowers differ in both color and shape of the bud and stem. The plant can be straight or creeping on the ground. You should choose the variety that is most preferable for this particular area. It is best to sow the seeds in the spring in early March. In this case, the seedlings will already be fully prepared in May, and will bloom from June to October.
What to cook for planting:
- soil mixture
- individual containers
- garden trowel and tweezers,
- clean water.
Sowing petunia seeds on seedlings
So, we proceed to the direct sowing of seeds for the subsequent cultivation of petunia in open ground. Soil mixture for seedlings must have:
- good drainage
- neutral acidity.
Petunia loves a mixture of sand, peat and humus, as well as sod land. If the preference is given to the soil purchased in the store, then the soil for violets is best suited. In composition, it is ideal for petunia.
Planting containers should have a lid that will act as a greenhouse and create optimal conditions for the seeds. If it is not possible to purchase such special containers, then you can do with any other capacity.
So, in the bottom of the tank you need to do several drainage holes through which excess water will flow. This will help prevent overmoistening of the soil and rotting seedlings. In addition, in this way it will be very easy to moisten the soil. It will only be necessary to lower the containers into the water and through the holes, the soil will absorb moisture. Otherwise, it is possible to water the seeds of petunia only drop by drop through a pipette, and this is extremely inconvenient.
So, containers for planting are ready, now you can go directly to the seeds themselves. Experienced growers recommend to purchase those varieties that are labeled F1. They are quite hardy and have excellent characteristics. Such plants sprout beautifully.
It should be borne in mind that the seeds of petunia are very small and when planting, the gardener must be very careful. For ease of sowing, you can mix the seeds with a small amount of sand.
Now it is necessary to fill the containers with the prepared soil mixture and prim down a little. Here you should not be zealous, because the more airy the soil, the easier it will be for the roots of the plant to develop. Care should be taken to ensure that the soil is uniform, without lumps. This is not a whim, but a necessity, since a seed that has come under a clod of earth most likely will not germinate.
Next, the soil should be moistened with a sprayer. Gently tweezers need to spread the seeds on the surface of the soil and a little knead them. If the seeds were pre-mixed with sand, then you just need to sow them. In one container, you can sow completely different varieties, for convenience, you can sign containers.
The soil is moistened again and the containers are covered with lids. If there are no covers, you can use glass or film. On the container you need to write the date of sowing.
Seed containers should be placed above the batteries, as the ideal temperature for seedlings will be 24 degrees Celsius.
How to plant seedlings in open ground?
This is very easy to do; even an inexperienced gardener can handle the planting. The soil on the site must first fertilize the soil. Fertilizers are very important for petunias, the more they will be, the petunia will bloom longer and longer.
The soil in the flower bed must be digged and loosened and organic matter in the form of peat or humus should be added to it. If the soil is acidic, you can make it neutral with lime. It is good to add wood ashes to the soil.
Outdoor landing pattern will depend on the type of plant. If the inflorescences are large, then the seedlings need to be planted 25 centimeters apart. If the flowers are small, then the distance between the plants can be from 15 to 20 centimeters.
How is petunia planted in open ground?
To start need to mark the places of planting flowers. This is done in order to end up with a beautiful composition. If you plan to plant the plants in a line, you can pre-stretch the thread to maintain proportion. If the design of the flower bed is intricate, then first it is worth making a project on paper, and then transfer it to the garden flower bed.
Seedlings gently get out of the container, while you need to carefully monitor that the root system is not damaged. In order to avoid this, before removing the plant you need to pour plenty of water.
Seedlings immediately planted in pre-prepared pits. It is recommended to make transplants after sunset or on cloudy weather. Active sunlight can dry the roots of flowers and seedlings will not take root. Therefore, transplanting is best done when it is comfortable for the plant.
When planting you need to ensure that a lump of earth crumbled and did not remain on the rhizomes, otherwise they can be easily damaged.
If planting is done in a special decorative flowerpots, then the distance between the plants can be quite reduced. In this case, the soil must necessarily loosen and mulch. Perfect for this peat or humus.
Aftercare for petunia planted in open ground, is only in:
- Regular spraying. If it is a hot summer, then you need to spray twice a day. Thanks to this, the petunia will bloom profusely and fluffy.
- Proper watering. It should be moderate and at the same time frequent. You can not pour water on the plant itself, it is watered strictly under the root. In rainy weather, it is better to cover the petunias, or if it is a pot plant, then bring them into the house.
- Feeding. Soil is fertilized once a week, but at the same time root and extra-root feeding must alternate. Petunia loves potash fertilizers and organic. Top dressing is carried out on the entire period of flowering.
- Treatment with special preparations. For example, growth promoters or means to improve flowering.
So, we have fully considered the seedling method of growing petunias, but the most experienced gardeners achieve excellent flowering and seed method, that is, they immediately sow the seeds in the open ground.
This is done in the last days of May. The soil needs to be loosened beforehand and fed. Seeds in the soil do not go deep, but only slightly sprinkled with earth. Ramming or crushing is strictly prohibited. Such a plant will bloom later than the one that was planted in a seedling way for two weeks. But in the twenties of June, the garden flower bed acquired new paint.
Many gardeners notice that in the flowerbeds, where a petunia was planted last year, new plants themselves are sprouting. This may well happen in the flower bed, which is badly perekapali. But this once again suggests that petunia can be easily grown from sunflower seeds and even without planting seedlings. Even the most inexperienced gardener can handle the care of a plant. Moreover, petunia will reward him with abundant, colorful and unusual flowering, which will decorate any summer cottage or garden flowerbed.
"Relocate" seedlings in the permanent ground
Previously, I already told you that the seedlings in the pots need to be swooped twice, that is, you need to transfer a fresher and more small “house” to the ground (of course, if you didn’t grow them in peat tablets, in that case the pick is not needed).
This is done in May - early June.
If it is a flower bed (for bush varieties), it needs a little preparation:
- Dig the ground - well, that goes without saying.
- Fertilize the soil. Do not save peat or humus, if the supply is low, petunia will stint on the flowers. You can also flavor this “food” for flowers with ash (a spade of ash is added to the humus bucket). Well, if the earth is sour, add lime.
- Mark the space for the holes. This is done on the basis of the size of the inflorescences: small flowers can be planted after 20 or even 15 cm, and large flowers - no less than 25 cm. To make the rows of flowering bushes as slim as possible, help yourself with pegs and a cord. No less successful are round flowerbeds.
- And remember: petunia loves the sun. Rare varieties normally feel in partial shade, but the plant does not like thick shade at all. Therefore, choose a fully open place. Although of course, in the first three days after transplanting, flowers can be slightly applied, so that they will settle down more easily in a new place.
Sprouts need to be hardened beforehand, every day (about a week) taking out to the open air for 15 minutes, and a day before planting and leaving at all for a day.
Further your actions:
- Choose a free evening or at least a day when the sun is completely covered with clouds - this is the most favorable time for transplanting. If it is hot outside, be sure to wait for the evening: the flower transplanted during the heat may not settle down, as the sun will have time to dry both the soil and its root system.
- Water the seedlings in pots to soften the soil between the roots.
- Repot flowers by transfer. Their roots are very fragile and there are a lot of them, so be very careful and do not put sharp objects in the pot - if the root does not come out, it is better to tilt the container and lightly tap it.
- Immediately transfer the sprouts to each one in its own hole and prikopte their roots with earth.
- Water the flower bed. The soil around the flowers can be mulched peat. So you will kill a few birds with one stone: add a flower of nutrients that he just adores, and help the earth to keep moisture inside longer. Also humus is suitable for mulch - although of course, not everyone will want to lay it out in their yard.
- Spraying. Even if the plant blooms in a flower bed, in the heat pamper it with additional moisture from a spray bottle. If summer is more than sunny, you can spray your pets every day, morning and evening.
- Watering. He needs frequent, but strictly dosed - puddles near the flowers you do not need, so do not overdo it.
- Security. Do not “wash” the flowers from the watering can - let's water under the root, as many varieties are afraid of it (and not only flowers, but also leaves). Because of this fear, even some petunias growing in pots have to be transported to shelter in the rain ... To prevent this from happening, plant only non-capricious, not afraid of precipitation varieties in pots and balcony boxes. Also remember: many ampelous (with drooping down shoots) varieties are afraid of the wind, so place your pots in cozy corners.
- Feeding. It can be remembered once every 7 days, one week by applying root fertilizer, and the second - in a foliar way. How long to feed a flower? Until it fades away completely. You can buy potash fertilizers. Suitable also organic.
- Purchased funds for stimulation. They will help the plant to bloom brighter, bush more actively and more to please you. They do not need to be made just like that - but if the weather conditions are not the best and petunia is in no hurry to cover with a million flowers, buy Epin-extra or Zircon.
It is better to remove faded flowers, as well as sluggish branches in time - so the bushes will look even more elegant.
Is it possible to sow seeds directly
Yes! Although I did not manage to grow petunia in this way, many gardeners succeed. This is done at the end of May.
Seed germination proves at least the fact that the flowerbeds, on which last year petunias bloomed and which you did not have time to dig up in the spring, are covered in June with rare, but still sprouts of these flowers.
That's what experienced florists told me:
- The earth needs to be dug up to be loosened. Of course, give fertilizer too.
- Seeds can not be buried, they just scatter on the ground. Do not cover them with soil at all (especially, you can not sprinkle and tamp).
Such a plant will bloom 2-3 weeks later than a seedling. But at the end of June you will already see the beautiful fruits of your hands.
By the way, in the pots such seeds are sown earlier than in open ground. And to arrange a planted or sown flower can also be this:
Remind about how to grow petunia seedlings, you can this video: