Apricot has a peculiarity to keep all the ovaries, so the tree must be cut annually. In spring and autumn, gardeners should form a crown near a tree. Thus, it is rejuvenated.
Trimming should be done in the summer. To prevent damage to the tree, pruning should be done according to a special scheme. How to properly prune, will be described in detail in the article.
Do I need pruning apricots
If the seedling is not cut, then the apricot will very quickly grow the crown and start to bear fruit early. But this picture does not last long.
- After a few years, the seedling changes.
- The overgrown crown becomes thick, internal branches go bald, and branching also occurs.
- Before fruiting buds lose their amount.
- Fruits shrink, their number becomes smaller.
- Apricot tree fruits periodically. For it to bear fruit regularly, it needs regular pruning.
- Apricot refers to those fruit seedlings that can not independently ration the amount of the crop.
If you do not cut, then apricot overloaded with fruits, and this will not affect the best way on the tree. The branches break under the weight of the fruit of the seedling, new shoots do not appear at all. In the end, this leads to a decrease in yield.
If you regularly cut the branches of apricot seedlings, then his crown get the right shape, it will start to bear fruit steadily, the fruits will become larger and juicy. In addition, pruning will lead to the durability of the seedling.
What types of pruning apricot exist
The crown of the apricot tree begins to form in the spring, the next year after planting the tree in the ground. For the gardener, the purpose of pruning is to get a good and bountiful harvest, as well as to stimulate the growth of young shoots.
Removes badly growing branches., and shoots are shortened. The apricot tree starts fruiting very early. At this time, the vegetative growth is greatly reduced.
- To maintain a balance between the growth of young shoots and fruiting, you need to regularly prune the apricot tree.
- When pruning, you need to remove about 10 large branches, and small ones should be removed in larger quantities.
- Thus, the illumination of the tree will continue for several years.
- Dried branches are removed, thus stimulating young growth occurs.
- First of all, the gardener must remove the branches that grow inside the tree.
This will help defuse the crown, after which the skeletal branches are necessary shorten to five years old wood. Apricot tree is representative of the southern regions, so it often freezes in winter.
If it happened to apricot, then he will need sanitary pruning. It involves the removal of damaged shoots. Gardeners should note that the apricot tree needs a comprehensive use of all subspecies pruning.
Apricot tree pruning scheme
The most common method of forming apricot crown is discharged-tiered. This method is based on the formulation of 8 or 9 main branches of the first row at a distance of approximately 45 cm. It should be noted that the cutting of tree branches should be done only with a high-quality tool that is well sharpened.
Usually gardeners enjoy pruner or garden saw. Garden equipment must be properly sanitized before use. If a tree has a single trunk without branches, then it must be shortened, while leaving about 95 cm from the ground. In branched saplings it is necessary to note three branches, which are located along the row.
They need shorten by half. The remaining branches must be cut, while not leaving hemp. The main conductor must be cut so that it is 30 or 35 cm above the branches.
All buds and branches that are lower than 55 cm above the ground must be removed. Summer need delete all shootswhich grow vertically or close to a given position.
In 2 years it will be necessary to lay several main branches so that they are located on different sides of the trunk. Their location must be closer than 40 or 45 cm in relation to each other or to last year’s branches.
They need to be shortened by the principle of subordination. This principle means that the upper branches should not be longer than the lower ones.
- The main conductor should be cut to 50 or 55 cm from the upper branches.
- Last year's branches are usually very short. But still, they should be shortened. Side shoots must be pruned taking into account the characteristics of the variety.
- In varieties that are strongly branched, side shoots must be shortened by half. And for a weakly branching tree, shoots need to be shortened by a third.
- Shoots that are longer than 60 cm should be shortened by half.
Trimming for the third year. During this period, laying the last main branches. Above them, the conductor must be completely removed. Removal of shoots should be done in the same way as in the first two years. Laying branches should occur in 2 or 3 orders of magnitude.
Tree pruning for the fourth year
As a rule, this year the tree begins to bear fruit. Therefore, too short branches can not be cut. From this point on, and in the next four or five years, branches need to be cut only damaged, or incorrectly growing. For this period, the crown is fully formed.
How is further trimming done? An abundant harvest brings apricot tree, in which the side shoots are 25 or 35 cm long. The growth on short branches increases annually by 90 cm.
If you do not cut branches, then short shoots up to 7 cm in length after a number of years set fruit. Not shortened branches live only a few years, after that they are exposed. On such branches the fruits no longer appear.
That is why the renewal of young wood is recommended; shorten a few branches below.
- It is recommended that each branch of the skeleton is shortened to three-year-old wood.
- If fruits on a tree are formed only on the periphery, then during spring pruning it is necessary to cut the side shoots from the branches.
- Thus, by the summer there will be a formation of young fruit branches.
How is spring pruning
The cutting of apricot branches in spring occurs every year in April or March - it is at this time that the air warms up. It should be made before the beginning of the juice excretion and leafing. It should be noted that the first pruning of seedlings is carried out in the spring.
In addition, the following types of pruning should be carried out in the spring: supportive, formative and sanitary. Gardeners should remove useless and dead branches in the spring. If this is not done, the sapling will try to restore them. He will take precious forces to recover. The fruits that will become smaller will suffer from this.
How is the summer pruning
In the summer, a rejuvenating pruning of apricot seedlings. Often it is called coinage. In summer, pruning has the main goal, which is to increase yields and increase growth.
She carried in late May or early June. In summer, the fast-growing shoots of this year are shortened. They must be cut no more than 25 cm.
- A few weeks later, on the sapling grows numerous young shoots.
- From these shoots must be left no more than 4 of the strongest, the rest should be removed.
- In autumn, the leaves on the seedling will fully recover, and fruit buds will appear on the secondary branches.
- Cuts by this time should be delayed.
- It should be noted that in the summer should not be abused.
- It is held no more than once every two or three years.
You need to know that if the summer is dry, then pruning is better not to spend. In the dry season, sapling is necessary water regularly and abundantly it also needs regular nutritional support. If abused in the summer, it will significantly worsen the condition of the tree.
How to conduct autumn pruning
In the fall pruning apricot has a regulatory and regenerative nature. It regulates the ratio of deciduous and fruit twigs. Apricot fruit branches are pruned to reduce the crop, it prolongs the life of the tree. Thus, from one tree it is possible to remove a stable harvest from large fruits.
In autumn, it is necessary to prune only those trees that have an early or medium ripening period. During the autumn pruning in mid-October is necessary shorten fruit branches by one third.
But the basic skeletal branches do not need to be cut. If there are dried, unsuccessfully growing or diseased branches on the tree, they should be completely removed. All branches must be cut. treat with garden pitch or paint over it.
If autumn is early and frost, then pruning apricots better to postpone until spring. Otherwise, the tree may not survive. On the garden plot it is easy to grow a good and fruitful apricot tree.
If you hold the correct pruning of the tree according to the scheme, then this increase its durability. A gardener will harvest a stable crop from large fruits from a single tree. From the first days of life, the seedling should be given due attention, then the tree will thank its owner with juicy, tasty and sweet fruits.
Adding an article to a new collection
Apricot seedlings quickly grow. In the first 2-3 years, many gardeners do not touch the tree, admiring its growing crown and the first flowers. Alas, this approach is fundamentally wrong, and instead of rich harvests you only get a sick tree, which will die in a few years.
Proper pruning of the apricot implies annual growth control, starting from the moment of planting. A tree grows branches so fast that one pruning per season may not be enough. If you see that the apricot grows too rapidly and thickens, in addition to spring pruning, also spend the autumn. Also, autumn pruning is a way out for those who rarely come to the country and in the early spring is not visited there.
Why prune apricot in the fall
Autumn pruning of trees is usually intended to stimulate fruiting, but with apricot everything is different. Unlike apple or pear trees, it is not able to regulate the number of fruits on its own, and in the first few years it produces so abundant crops that it is quickly depleted and dying. Therefore, the task of zealous gardener is to adjust the ratio of fruit and deciduous branches. By pruning the fruit branches, we reduce the harvest, which we will receive in the next season, however, we increase the years of life and fruiting of the tree.
In the autumn, only early and mid-early apricot varieties can be cut. If your apricot fruits late, only spring pruning is suitable for it, and removing a part of the branches in the fall will only hurt and weaken the tree.
How to prune an apricot in the fall
In the middle lane, apricot pruning is in the middle of October. If you live in a region where the climate is different, choose a period when sap flow has already slowed down, but there are still 2-3 weeks left before the first frost.
Scheme pruning apricots of different ages in the fall
To work prepare:
- sharp hacksaw,
- sharp knife
- step ladder
- garden pitch
Cut the apricot in one day, do not stretch it over time and always immediately treat the wounds applied to the tree.
Autumn pruning apricot in the 1st year of life
Apricot, just brought and planted on the plot, as a rule, looks like a thin, short stick, but he also needs pruning. Regardless of whether you planted it in spring or autumn, it should be carried out immediately, shortening the trunk by 10-15 cm, and thereby stimulating the growth of the lateral branches.
If you have not done this when planting, be sure to shorten the trunk for the next year in the fall, otherwise the side branches will be weak and the first harvest will be delayed for several years.
Correct shortening of the trunk or branch
Cut apricots need to be careful not to damage the kidneys, at an angle of 45 degrees to the nearest kidney on top. Be sure to cut with a sharp tool so as not to shred the bark and wood once again.
Autumn pruning apricot for the 2-3rd year of life
If you did everything correctly, and the sapling selected in the nursery was healthy and strong, then in the second year it will form 3-4 side branches. In the fall, they will also need to be shortened by 10-15 cm to stimulate branching. Do not postpone work until cold weather - the tree should have time to lay new buds and accumulate strength for wintering.
If there are more branches, cut some of them into a ring. Remove too thin branches that grow at an acute angle to the trunk or very close to larger branches. Try to form the crown in one tier - this will facilitate the work with it in the future.
In the third year, when each skeletal branch will give a lot of increments, and the crown will resemble a ball, the autumn pruning of the apricot will take you more time, but you still cannot miss it. Leave 3-5 sturdy shoots on each skeletal branch and shorten them by 20-30 cm. Cut excess branches on the ring.
Autumn pruning of adult apricots
The scheme for pruning an adult apricot in the fall at first glance is quite complex in execution, but if you figure out which branches you need and which only get in the way, then in 2-3 hours you can cope with that.
Apricots more easily tolerate small regular pruning than one large-scale. Therefore, the tree will be better if you become pruned in spring and autumn, without missing a single season.
Without thinking, remove dry, too thin, growing deep into the crown of the branch. Shorten those skeletal branches that grow too fast and "break out" of the crown. Remove leaf sprigs that appear on fruit-bearing shoots and “hide” apricots in the foliage, making it difficult to ripen and air the fruits.
Transfer to the side branch
The trunk itself, if it has already reached the desired height, cut to branching. You will no longer need the center conductor, and ideally the upper crown tier should be easily accessible from a stepladder or ladder.
Remember that the crown of an adult apricot should be clearly visible, and you should reach out to any branch with your hands freely, without squeezing through the wilds. Given the growth rate of apricot, it is better to cut a couple of extra branches than to allow thickening.
Pruning old apricot
If you got a garden with old trees already growing in it that you never really cut, or you yourself decided to start pruning trees 5 or more years after planting, then consider the following.
- The life of the fruit branches of apricot is 2-3 years, after which they must be removed. Therefore, tidying up the old tree, you have to cut down all or almost all the branches on which the buds are tied in the spring.
- In addition, all the dry, diseased, criss-crossed crowns and branches affected by lichen, as well as those on which the cracks bark and move away from the wood, will have to be cut.
- Leave two tiers of strong branches, 5-7 pieces in each, clean them from small shoots and pinch the ends.
- After pruning, be sure to treat all wounds and feed the tree with an autumn fertilizer complex to minimize stress.
- Be prepared for the fact that in the near summer the fruit will not be tied up, they will appear only after 2-3 years, and during these years you will also need to carry out sanitary and formative pruning.
If you still doubt whether apricot pruning is necessary and you have a couple of trees in the garden for the experiment, try one of them to carry out timely pruning (in autumn or spring), and the other to give yourself and in a couple of years see the difference.
What to keep in mind before you start pruning
Apricot, like many other garden plants, bears fruit on fruit branches, which are also called bouquets, spurs or fruit. Each of these small branches operates only 2-3 years, and then needs to be replaced. It happens that the ovaries appear on the shoots, but only much less. Like the rest of the stone fruit, the apricot tree is prone to copious flow in the spring.
Pruning apricot in the spring is mandatory, as well as compliance with other rules of care, otherwise the tree will bear fruit irregularly, in some years without any yield. Another point is that a plant with too thick a crown almost always becomes ill with coccomycosis, which reduces its frost resistance.
Why do I need to prune
- to create a neat, smooth and beautiful crown, which will be nice to look at,
- to avoid premature aging and the withering away of the branches,
- to prevent a decline in the quantity and quality of fruit,
- so that the branches do not break under the weight of apricots,
- there is no pruning of old apricot, then new shoots will cease to appear,
- An annual sanitary pruning procedure will help the heat-loving plant survive the frosty winter.
Apricot differs from other fruit trees in that they are pruned to increase crop yields and, on the contrary, to reduce them. After all, the quality of fruits is more important here than their quantity - apricot should be as juicy and tasty as possible.
How to produce pruning apricot in the spring
Весенняя обрезка несет в себе три основных функции: омоложение, восстановление и придание формы. The procedure is as follows:
- Remove all the dead branches during the winter so that the plant does not spend its vital forces on their support. Particularly in need of this young shoots survived the first winter.
- Shorten all other branches to give the crown the desired shape.
If in the first year the length of the branches increased by 0.5-0.6 meters, then the tree can be attributed to the fast-growing ones. It is necessary to reduce these branches by half. And if the branches have increased slightly, it will be enough to trim one third.
Spring pruning is usually done at the beginning of April or when the freeze stops at night. In this case, fresh slices will heal in a matter of days. It is very important to have time with pruning before the appearance of the first leaves.
How to cut apricot in summer
Summer pruning is called “chasing” and serves to rejuvenate the plant. Its ultimate goal is to maximize yield and growth. It will be right to cut apricot from the end of May to mid-June, but this is not done every year, but every three years. Also you should not prune in dry weather, when the tree receives little moisture.
In the summer, it is necessary to shorten the shoots that are actively increasing for the current year to a length of 20-30 cm. Within a couple of weeks, young growth will appear on them. It is necessary to leave only 2-3 of these shoots, to get rid of the rest. By the time of the onset of autumn, the wounds will be tight, the foliage is fully regenerated, and the secondary shoots will acquire buds, which later turn into fruits.
Autumn pruning apricot
In the fall, your main goal is to get rid of diseased branches in order to restore the balance between deciduous and fruit shoots. Each fruit branch must be cut to one third the length. A sick, dried or damaged shoots completely cut off.
It is best to do this in the middle of October, but if the weather is rainy or there are early frosts, you can do without the procedure. Pruning apricots in the fall is especially important for apricots with early or medium fruiting periods.
How exactly does the trimming process
First, you need to prepare tools that can be useful: a garden knife, pruner, lopper and saw-hacksaw. Before you start pruning, disinfect them in a special solution (these can be potassium permanganate, iron vitriol, alcohol-containing wet wipes). Also, all cutting parts must be very sharp.
Apricot, as a rule, is cut by a sparse-tiered method. At the same time, five or six branches in the first row are brought out by about 40 cm. The scheme depends on the age of the tree, and it is necessary to begin to observe it from the first year. A sapling in the first year should be cut so that it is no higher than 1 meter from the ground if there are no branches on it yet. If there is, then reduce them at least twice. And then throughout the season to observe the growth of the plant and timely get rid of all the wrong or crooked growing shoots. No need to pity them, they will not bear fruit in the future, but only spend on themselves the vital resources of the plant.
In the second year, it is necessary to prepare the conditions for the development of the main branches. You need to choose some of the most powerful and healthy shoots, the distance between them does not exceed 30 cm, and then cut them so that the upper ones are shorter than the lower ones. Last year, if necessary, shorten shoots too.
The third year is the time to lay the foundation for the last skeletal shoots. In general, the formation of the crown is the same as in the previous year, but now the old branches are not shortened, but removed. You also need to slightly reduce the shoots coming from the trunk (but not the main).
If everything is done correctly, then by the fourth year the crown of the apricot tree will be fully formed, and the plant itself will be ready to bear fruit. From this point on, the tree only needs regular sanitary pruning. In the process of fruiting, the growth of branches is significantly reduced, so that from time to time it is necessary to thin the crown as part of the spring pruning. Then all parts of the tree will be sufficiently illuminated, and this will positively affect the quality of the harvest.
Unfortunately, apricot is a plant that does not know how to independently create conditions for good fruiting, therefore it requires human help. If you do not interfere with the natural processes, the fruits will be small and firm and will not have time to ripen before the branches break under their weight. Well-groomed tree has a beautiful regular crown, annually brings large juicy fruits and bears fruit for much more years.
How to care for a tree after trimming
In order for the tree to not get sick after pruning and to recover as quickly as possible, you need to follow some rules:
- add additional mass of phosphate, nitrogen and organic fertilizers to the near-stem circle;
- grease each cut with a small amount of garden pitch,
- if the wounds are too large, apply bluestone for additional decontamination.
As you can see, information on how and when to cut apricot is quite understandable. Even a beginner gardener can cope with this procedure if he carefully follows all the above tips. The main thing is to do everything right in the first year, and then actions will become a habit.
Why apricot need pruning?
Pruning fruit tree is carried out for the following purposes:
- Formation of the crown. The natural growth of the branches forms an excessively thick “cap” in apricot. The tree is abundantly fruiting, increasing the load on the crown, but in a short time it is depleted. Many shoots reduce light and air in the crown, which leads to a decrease in size and deterioration of the taste of the fruit.
- Sanitary pruning. It consists in removing dry, diseased and damaged branches, in the wood of which conditions suitable for the reproduction of pests and diseases are created. Wood also spends energy on their support and restoration. This reduces the yield and quality of the fruit.
- Rejuvenation. Over time, the old branches are replaced by young shoots, which maintains the viability of the plant and preserves the yield and quality of the fruit.
Trim and care rules
Work on pruning is desirable to carry out before the active phase of juice or after it ends. So the tree is doing the least damage. In addition to meeting the deadlines, inventory is being prepared for the procedure and materials for processing the sections. You should study the formation of crown and properly perform the work.
Which season can be cut - spring, summer or autumn?
Apricot needs complex pruning, which is why such the procedure is carried out in spring, autumn and summer.
Starting from the first year of life in early spring the tree needs to properly form the crown. This work helps to normalize the number of fruits and significantly improves their quality.
Sanitary pruning is done in autumn., which will help prepare the apricot for winter and improve it. During this procedure, all diseased, dry and damaged branches are removed.
Summer tree rejuvenate, thereby increasing the number of young gains. This procedure is carried out 1 time in 3 years.
In order to annually get a bountiful harvest of delicious apricots, you need to take care of the tree and follow all the rules.
Apricot needs complex pruning, which is why this procedure is carried out in spring, autumn and summer
For work may need:
Before use all tools must be disinfected with a special liquid. This procedure will help avoid the spread of diseases and pests.
Also, so that the tree does not suffer, all blades should be well ground.
A pruner, hacksaw, garden knife and lopper must be sharpened and sanitized.
Scheme and technology
Experienced gardeners recommend form apricot crown discharged-tier method. In this case, 5-7 main branches of the first row are removed at a distance of 40 centimeters.
The scheme will vary depending on the year of the tree.
For the formation of the correct crown it is very important not to delay the pruning, they begin to carry out this work from the first year of the tree’s life.
If the acquired seedling does not have any branches, its shorten and leave 80-90 centimeters from the ground.
If there are already sprouts on a young tree, the work is carried out as follows:
- the main conductor is cut in such a way that he would be 20-30 centimeters taller than other branches,
- even the most powerful branches located along the row reduce exactly 2 times,
- the remaining processes are completely removed, while the presence of hemp is also not allowed, so pruning is carried out “on the ring”.
Further throughout the whole season it is necessary to follow the development and growth of the tree and time to remove the branches that grow inside the crown or in the wrong direction.
In the first year, the apricot seedling is cut "on the ring", leaving 80-90 centimeters from the ground
During this period, work on the formation of the crown continues and the main goal will be laying a new main branches.
To do this, perform the following actions:
- pick up some more strong branches so that they are at a distance of 30 centimeters, both from last year's shoots, and from each other. Then they are cut using the method of subordination. The method of subordination in gardening expresses the fact that the upper branches should be shorter than the lower ones,
- the length of the main conductor must be equal to 40 centimeters from the last branch growing to the side,
- those shoots that were formed last year are also pruned a bit,
- shoots grown on skeletal branches for the season, shorten, taking into account the individual characteristics of the variety. Thus, in rapidly growing varieties, they are halved, and in moderately growing ones by 1/3.
In this period laying the last skeletal branches, while the work is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- the main work on crown formation is performed in the same way as in the second year of apricot life,
- the only difference is that this time the conductor is not shortened, but removed completely,
- in addition, you need to take care of overgrowing branches, whose presence is obligatory on a healthy tree. For their formation it is necessary to slightly reduce the branches that grow from the trunk, but are not skeletal.
Since that time, the crown of the tree is considered formed. In addition, it is at the age of four that many varieties begin to bear fruit.
From this period over 3 years pruning will be performed only as sanitary and recreational work.
Formative pruning apricot:
In adulthood apricot needs rejuvenation every 3-4 years, because it is by this time that the old branches lose their ability to tie fruit and need to be updated.
To rejuvenate the old apricot, you need to shorten several branches of the skeleton to a length of 20-30 centimeters.
If fruits are formed only on distant parts of the tree, then in the spring, you can completely expose all skeletal branches. By the summer a lot of young, fruiting shoots will appear on them.
Apricot pruning scheme depending on the year of the tree's life
Features at different times of the year
Trimming may differ from each other depending on the time of its implementation. In each period, there are several features that you definitely need to pay attention to.
In the spring usually choose the end of March-beginning of Aprilwhen the air is already relatively warm, and the sap flow has not yet begun.
During this period, conduct the following types of work:
- crown formation
- sanitary and maintenance pruning.
The very first such work in the life of a tree should be carried out in the spring.
Otherwise, apricot will spend a lot of effort on the restoration of diseased shoots, which will not in the best way affect the quality and quantity of the crop.
Spring pruning and spraying apricot:
In the people such works are called “chasing”. Usually they are carried out in the late spring and early summer, the main thing is to keep within 10-15 June.
The aim of the summer pruning will be rejuvenation of the tree., which in turn will increase the number of harvested crops. The algorithm of actions for this procedure is as follows:
- young shoots, which were formed in the current year, are shortened so that their length is 20-30 centimeters,
- after 2-3 weeks, young shoots should appear, 3-4 of the most powerful shoots are selected from it, and the rest are removed.
By the onset of autumn, all the foliage on the tree should already be restored, and the places of the cuts should be tightened. On the secondary shoots will begin to form additional fruit buds.
In that case, if for any reason the tree does not have enough moisture, these works should be postponed.
Otherwise, the apricot will weaken and will recover for a long time, with the entire positive effect of the procedure turning into a negative one.
Apricot summer pruning in August:
During the autumn pruning, it is necessary to clear the tree of diseased shoots and restore the balance between the fruiting and deciduous branches.
All fruit branches, except skeletal ones, are cut to 1/3 length. It is also necessary to completely remove dry, damaged or diseased branches.
The best time for such work is mid-October., at the same time, if the weather is rainy or early frosts set in, it is better not to perform pruning.
Good care after
After pruning apricot especially needs high-quality and complete care. In order for the tree to recover as soon as possible, it is necessary to carry out the following work:
- Slices need to grease a thin layer of garden warrior.
- With a large wound size, it is treated with a solution of copper sulphate to further disinfect.
- In order for the tree to have more strength to restore, nitrogen, phosphorus and organic fertilizers are added to the tree circle.
Apricot pruning only seems very difficult at first.. After a certain amount of time has passed, all actions will start to become a habit and their implementation will not require any special efforts.
To trim and process slices, you will need a set of tools:
- pruner for removing young shoots
- hacksaw for trimming thick and old branches,
- garden knife, he cuts and cuts them,
- Lopper, it is convenient for them to remove shoots located in hard-to-reach places of the crown.
Cutting edges of tools should be sharp. Immediately before cutting, the blades need to be treated with disinfecting agents to reduce the risk of transferring diseases and pests to fresh slices.
To reduce the negative effects and speed up the recovery, you must:
- Cover sections with a layer of garden vara or paint over with oil paint,
- for additional disinfection large sections are treated with blue vitriol,
- in case of large volumes of pruning, the tree should be fed with organic, phosphate, and nitrogen fertilizers.
Schemes and technologies
In the apricot tree, it is recommended to form a sparse-tiered or cup-shaped crown. The first type repeats natural forms, the second one is easier to maintain and harvest. For both types there is a scheme of successive pruning by year. It is also useful to know the features of working with young and old trees.
Adult apricot needs rejuvenating pruning. Regularly - every three to four years old branches are updated due to a decrease in their ability to fruit ovary. The shoots of the skeletal branches are partially shortened to 20–30 cm. After 2–3 weeks, 3-4 strong shoots are left of the emerged shoots, others are cut. If the fruits are tied and ripen on remote branches, you should clean the main branches of the tree completely. By the fall, fruit buds will form on the secondary young processes. In the dry season with insufficient moisture supply, such a procedure is undesirable. It weakens the tree, the restoration lasts a long time.
Every three years should be rejuvenating pruning wood
Cupped crown formation
On the main conductor of the seedling, 2 to 4 lateral branches are left at a distance of 2–3 buds from each other. The conductor is cut at a height of 10–15 cm above the upper branch so that a thorn remains without buds. Lateral shoots are shortened by 5–7 buds. Sections are carried out on the external kidney.
In the first year increment, up to 3 second order shoots are left. In the second year, spring pruning of skeletal branches is carried out, leaving a length of 40–60 cm. The ends of the branches are kept in the same horizontal. During May and early June, the upper shoots of the conductor and competitors of the main branches on the trunk are removed. The first shoot is released no closer than 30–40 cm from the trunk, the second after 15–40 cm. The guides at the ends of the skeletal branches and the left shoots of the second year do not touch. The rest of the shoots cut off.
During the third year, fresh secondary shoots are formed on the main branches. On last year's secondary growth, third order branches are determined. Sprouts, directed inside the crown or vertically, are removed.
At age six, rejuvenating pruning is needed to improve yields. The skeletal base is shortened by one third, leaving 2–3 shoots at the ends. The old branches that have been thrown off are reduced in length to a strong shoot closest to the trunk and shortened to 5–8 buds.
Sparse tier crown
This type of crown is close to the natural form. Боковые ветви растут на стволе одиночно и группами (ярусами) по 2–3 штуки.
Крону начинают формировать с однолетнего саженца. Ранней весной на деревце отмеряют примерно 50 см от уровня земли — зону штамба. Above, another 30 cm is noted - a place for skeletal branches of the lower tier. Make a cut over the nearest developed kidney. The growth on the trunk can not be removed completely, but the pruning of the shoots above the 3-4 leaf. Their growth will slow down and help the development of the shtambovy zone, improve the nutrition of the main branches of the crown.
In the second year in spring, the growth on the shtambe is removed. Three skeletal shoots are left in the branching zone: the lower one is half a meter from the soil surface, the following - at intervals of 15–20 cm. The branches should be directed in different directions, the divergence angle can withstand at least 100–120 degrees. They are then shortened to approximately one horizontal level. The escape of the trunk should be advanced 15–20 cm above the ends of the skeletal branches. Next, you need to remove the competing growth shoots from last year’s top of the conductor top.
Developed shoots, not related to the skeleton, completely cut. Short growth (up to 30 cm) can be left - the branches are not prone to growth, but bear fruit.
In the third year, two shoots of the second tier are laid at a distance of 50–60 cm above the upper branch of the first level. New skeletal processes should be determined with an interval of 10-15 cm and align their tops in height. Competitive branches cut. With excessive gain, the conductor is shortened.
In the fourth year, at a height of 40 cm above the second tier, the last skeletal branch is formed. In two years it will get stronger, and the center conductor above it will be cut off. The basis of the crown is considered complete. It is recommended to maintain the height in the range of 2.5–3 meters.
Sparse-tiered tree crown scheme
The need for pruning
Without pruning, an apricot seedling quickly grows its crown, starts producing fruits early, sets many fruits. But this picture does not last long and changes dramatically in a few years. The overgrown crown is thick, the internal branches grow bald and rapidly grow old, the buds of the fruiting are laid much less. Fruits become smaller, their quality drops significantly, fruiting becomes periodic.
Apricot is one of the few fruit trees that cannot independently ration the crop. Without pruning, apricot is overloaded with fruits, which has a detrimental effect on the tree. Under the weight of the fruit branches break, there is no increase in new shoots, which further leads to a decrease in yield.
With regular pruning, the apricot tree has a crown of the correct shape, stably bears fruit, the fruits are larger and juicy, the durability of the tree is significantly extended.
Types of pruning
To form the crown of the apricot tree begin in the spring, the next year after planting. The purpose of the forming trim is to get a powerful, well-lit crown, as well as to stimulate the growth of young shoots. In the process of pruning, unsuccessfully growing annual branches are removed, the rest are shortened.
Apricot tree early comes into fruiting. During this period, the vegetative growth is sharply reduced. To maintain a balance between the growth of young shoots and fruiting, supporting (regulating) pruning is necessary. It is much more efficient to remove several large branches when pruning than many small ones. So the desired illumination of the crown will continue for several years. When rejuvenating pruning remove old branches of a tree, stimulating the growth of young. First of all, growing branches are completely removed inside, thinning the crown, after which the skeletal branches are shortened to five-year-old wood.
Apricot is a representative of the southern regions in our gardens and often freezes over the winter. In this case, sanitary pruning is necessary, during which damaged shoots are removed.
Apricot pruning scheme.
The most common discharged-tiered method of forming apricot crown. This method is based on the output of 5-7 main branches of the first row at a distance of approximately 40 cm. The trimming scheme looks like this.
Attention! Cut a tree only with a well-sharpened tool (garden file or pruner), after having disinfected it.
In apricot only short (20-30 cm) side shoots are stably growing. The annual growth on shortened branches is up to 90 cm. Without pruning, short shoots up to 6 cm long are formed on them, on which in several years the fruits are fastened. The vitality of the short-cut branches retain only a few years, after which they become bare and do not bear fruit. Therefore, it is regularly necessary to update young wood, shortening several branches of each branch of the skeleton for three-year wood.
Spring pruning of apricot is carried out annually in March-April, when the air begins to warm up. The main thing is to have time to hold it before the start of sap flow and leaf blooming.
Council The first pruning of young seedlings is carried out in the spring.
- forming trimming,
- supporting pruning
- sanitary pruning.
In the spring it is very important to remove all frozen and useless branches in time. Otherwise, the tree will try to restore them, wasting precious forces. The fruits will become smaller, their quality will suffer.
The video presented in detail describes the process of spring pruning.
The need for summer pruning
In the summer they spend rejuvenating pruning of wood. It is also called coinage. The main goal of summer pruning is to achieve maximum growth and increase yield. It is held at the end of May and not later than the first decade of June.
In summer, actively growing shoots of this year are shortened, leaving no more than 25 cm of their length. Numerous young shoots will appear two weeks later. Of these shoots, you need to leave no more than three of the strongest, the rest - to remove. By autumn, the leaf cover on the tree is fully restored, and fruit buds are formed on the secondary shoots. Wounds from cuts by this time, too, drag on.
Abuse summer pruning is not worth it. It is held once every three years.
Features of the autumn pruning
In the fall pruning apricot is regulatory and regenerative. It allows you to adjust the ratio of fruit and deciduous branches. Oddly enough, the fruit branches of apricot are cut to reduce the yield, and not vice versa. This significantly prolongs the life of the tree, providing a stable crop and large fruits.
Attention! In the autumn, only apricot varieties with early or middle ripening periods are pruned.
For autumn pruning in mid-October, shorten all fruit branches by a third. At the same time, the main skeletal branches do not need to be cut. Dried, sick, unsuccessfully growing branches are subject to complete removal. Treat the cut sections immediately with garden pitch or paint over it. It is better not to carry out pruning of apricots in a rainy cold autumn with early frosts, otherwise the tree will not tolerate it well.
Grow a fruiting apricot tree in the area is easy. Proper pruning of the tree according to the scheme will extend its durability and provide you with a stable harvest. Pay attention to a seedling from the first year of his life, and he will thank you with juicy, sweet, tasty fruits.
How to cut apricot: photo
- How to grow at home apricot from the stone
- Apricot cultivation: planting and care in central Russia
- A piece of the sun - apricot Khabarovsk - in your garden
- Description of Apricot Dessert: Characteristics and Benefits of the Variety
I have never been able to prune apricots normally, either in summer or in autumn, I think I will have to plant new trees and prune according to your instructions. And then my trees do not grow very well and do not branch very much, I hope everything will work out next season.
At the old cottage we grew an apricot tree and never bloomed, much less. did not bear fruit. It turned out that the previous owner did not trim in time. The article is just about that. It is a pity that they did not know about such subtleties.