Clematis is a herbaceous, woody and perennial plant. Belongs to the family of buttercups. Widely planted in the subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. From the Greek word "klema" means "plant climbing." Other common names of the culture among gardeners: vine, clematis, forest grapes, wild grapes.
All types of clematis are similar in appearance. But among them there are shrubs and dwarf shrubs. Most of them belong to lianas. Plant roots: fibrous, pivotal. The leaves are simple and complex, as a rule, green, but there are also purple.
Liana blooms with many beautiful flowers of various shades. The decorative arches entwined with a plant, arbors draw attention of passersby and guests of the house. Care in open ground for clematis is not difficult. To grow a flower is possible even for an amateur florist.
Clematis in landscape design photo
Considering photos of gardens, park areas with the participation of flowering wild grapes, you can not stop wondering at the invention of engineers who develop unusual solutions to support clematis in nature.
Selection of landing site and ground requirements
In order to grow wild grapes gave the desired result, you need to determine the place, the soil for the plant. The landing site should not be blown by the wind, creating drafts. The plant loves light - consider this factor. At noon, preferably clematis pritenyat.
With regards to the soil, it is preferable to choose loamy, slightly alkaline, fertile, well-drained and fertilized soil.
Preparing a landing hole
Clematis is planted in square holes (about 60 cm). The depth should be approximately the same size. The soil from the hole is removed by adding a planting mixture there:
- 2 buckets of mature manure,
- 400 gr. ashes
- 100 gr. granular and double mineral phosphate fertilizer,
- a bucket of coarse sand / peat substrate,
- 200 gr. chalk
The plant is planted in open ground in spring and autumn. If the seedlings are in a pot, it can be planted at any time of the year with the exception of winter. Suddenly, the planting material could not be planted in the fall, it should be kept in a cool room, sprinkled the roots with moist, barren soil, cutting off the escaping shoots until spring. If clematis has dried before planting, the roots are soaked in cold water for a couple of hours.
Before planting, in the previously prepared wells, shoots are placed with a part of the hardened cuttings and stem. The roots are straightened.
Pruned flower in autumn, after dropping the leaves or in early spring.
For the first 12 months of plant life, all shoots are cut by 25 cm, leaving two buds. This will allow to grow new shoots next year, and the culture will be more magnificent.
If a shrub grows in a garden for more than one year, all dried, diseased, mutilated shoots are pruned from it. The rest of the vine is shortened by 10 cm. If clematis flowers twice a season, then pruning is slightly different. In this case, healthy shoots are cut by 1/2, and damaged and dried cut off under the base.
There is a standard method for pruning a crop: one shoot is cut in half, the second is cut so that there are two buds on it. Such manipulations are carried out with all the shrubs. Thanks to this method, the clematis bush in the open field will be fluffy and well-groomed.
As the lozinka needs to grow, special supports were invented for it. Most often, the flower can be found on the design in the form of arches, fan structures, pyramids.
The main requirement for the base - reliability and ease of installation. With the help of a support, the delicate stalks of a clematis will not be broken, they can be tied up, ensuring the development and full growth of the flower.
The most common type of support is arch. It is mounted for crops that bloom throughout the growing season.
Fertilizer and plant nutrition
Bring nutrients to the soil during active flower growth. With the advent of the first buds, dressing is removed until autumn. It is enough to feed the plant once a month for adult clematis.
Note that the first year after the landing, the culture is not fertilized at all. Since the shrub gets all the necessary elements, covered in the hole during planting.
For plants, an excellent fertilizer is a preparation for strawberries. You can also take plain water, where you soaked raw meat. Or buy in the store ready means.
After a winter holiday with the arrival of spring, clematis is poured over with a solution of chalk mixed with copper sulphate. It is not hard to prepare a solution: a pound of chalk and 200 gr are added to 15 liters of water. copper sulfate. All ingredients are moved. Water the plant at the rate of half a bucket on a bush.
If you want to change the "habitat" of wild grapes, then know that it is preferable to transplant in autumn in September. The flower is carefully removed from the ground, digging up the culture to a depth of 2 bayonets or more. The roots are trimmed, and the bush is dragged to a new place. Planting clematis in open ground is carried out according to all the rules: with fertilizer, good watering, digging.
Patients with clematis are also recommended to replant in the fall. The entire root system of the flower is carefully washed from the ground. The landing pit is treated in order to prevent disinfecting agent. After planting, ground around the ground sprinkled with ashes.
The clematis is propagated in autumn and spring, using cuttings, seeds, or the “Chinese layer” method.
Seed breeding method involves the use of sorted material from new colors. Large seeds sown in January, they germinate longer. Crayons are planted in March: the first sprouted shoots appear in 14 days. To sow the seeds prepared substrate of peat, sand, soil in the same proportions.
The forest grapes are grated in the autumn. The main rule of this breeding method is the clematis shrub must be older than 5 years. From shoots cut prischepy. They should be 2 formed kidneys. The scion is washed with a growth promoter. After the clothespins are sent to the container with the ground, demolished in the basement, keeping them there until the beginning of spring.
Make sure that the soil is always wet, the temperature should be within 0 ° C. In the last days of February, the clothes pegs are transferred to a room with a temperature regime of 10-15 ° C. In March small sprouts will appear on the handle. Capacity endure in the greenhouse. When the seedlings grow 10 cm, the lower leaves are removed for active root growth. The seedlings are planted in the soil in May.
The method of Chinese layers is considered one of the easiest:
- Dig the soil around the shrub.
- Trim the soil by making a hollow in it 6 cm deep.
- In the groove, place the selected stem for removal, pressing it with a simple wire at several points.
- Mature manure and wet soil, mixed, sprinkled on top of the shoot.
- The tip of the process must be on the surface.
This method is used in the fall. Therefore, in winter, the place with insulation is insulated. In the spring, insulation is removed. With the advent of the germ, the ground around the layer is mulched. In September, the grown seedling is dug out, replanting to a permanent place.
Care for clematis in the open field at different times of the year
With the arrival of late autumn should take care of how your "handsome" perezimuet. In dry weather before wintering all leaves are removed. The neck of a flower is treated with a 2% solution of copper sulfate, under each shrub is poured over a bucket of mature manure. After that, the vine is spud ash (250 g. Per bucket) with sand to a height of 10-15 cm.
If clematis bush needs warming, dry leaves are placed on top of it (paws of fir, chopped foam) and covered with a box. In order to circulate air around the culture, an oilcloth is put on the box, pressing it with a stone or brick so that it is not carried away by the wind.
With the arrival of spring, the protective "structure" is removed. Shoots gently lift, stretching on the supports.
Cultivation difficulties, diseases and pests of clematis
Lozinka undergoes disease at least other cultures. Verticel wilting is considered a known disease. To notice it is simple: leaves on top of shoots are affected.
In case of detection of the disease, all affected shoots are cut off. The bush itself is well watered with a solution of potassium permanganate. Clematis may not die without treatment.
Often bacterial necrosis appears on the leaves of wild grapes. To combat the disease using copper sulfate (1%).
Another terrible disease for the plant is rust (leaves are covered with brown bloom). From the disease leaves dry, the stems are deformed. For the treatment of the bush using a weak solution of potassium permanganate. The plant is completely sprayed, all infected leaves are removed.
Among the pests of clematis can be distinguished nematode, affecting the roots of the flower. The problem is that the pest is destroyed only by eliminating the entire bush from the garden. To avoid illness, before purchasing a shrub, inspect the roots. If nematodes are found, immediately remove the affected culture, otherwise the parasite will spread throughout the garden. The place where the vine grew, always treated with boiling water to kill all the eggs of the pest.
Large shrub with stems up to 6 m, well-developed root. The species was obtained by crossing clematis Lanuginoza and Vititsella. The leaves are complex. The buds are single, sometimes collected 3 pieces. Inflorescence does not smell. It blooms in any shade, except for the white color. The diameter of the flower reaches 20 cm. There are varieties with flowers up to 8 cm. The bush blooms long and magnificently.
Clematis Fargesioides "SummerSnow"
Unpretentious and powerful liana. It grows up to 7 m. It blooms massively from July to September with small cream inflorescences, creating the illusion of falling snow. Smells sweet aroma in the evening. Cropped freely.
Low-growing variety of clematis. It grows up to half a meter in height. It is characterized by white flowers with a pale-violet spraying, light purple center in the form of a bell. It blooms from June to September.