Planting and cultivation of hazelnuts in the garden will not be difficult, since this crop is unpretentious, requires only minimal care. In addition, breeders bred various varieties that can be grown in regions with different climates, including in fairly harsh regions.
Description of the appearance of the plant
The cultivated varieties of ordinary hazelnut - hazel is the very hazelnut. Varieties of nut plants are hybrids of ordinary, variegated, large and Pontian hazel. If you plant a sapling correctly and adhere to the elementary rules of care, it will quickly take root on the site, and will give a good harvest.
Hazel is a monoecious plant, bisexual, because the flowers of both sexes are formed on one shrub.
Under good conditions, hazelnuts grow up to 3 m tall. It is presented in the form of deciduous bush. The leaves of the walnut are large, oval-shaped or heart-like. Color saturated green. Large-leaf varieties are used as ornamental plants in landscape design.
The variety forms a dense crown, grows heavily, resistant to frost. Bushes reach 5 m in height, covered with large bright leaves. Nuts can be of different shapes: slightly flat or with three edges, large. The shell is thick, durable. It has a brown color with a reddish tinge. The kernels are large, fill the whole nut. Fruits are tasty and sweet, juicy, without excess fiber. They are being drunk in early September.
This variety can be called the average endurance of frosts. Large dark green leaves with the onset of autumn become red. In the early flowering period, the bush is covered with long burgundy earrings. The shell is thin, at first yellow with a brown tint, when ripe it turns red and darkens. The shell is easily separated from the core. It does not completely fill the shell, has a fibrous skin, slightly flattened or rounded. Light, cream-colored fruits ripen at the very end of September.
Gallic hazelnut aka Galle
Growing in the form of a huge bush, rising to 5.5 m, the crown is not too thick. The sheet plates are dark, slightly to the touch rough, fleecy. Blooms simultaneously with most varieties of hazel, forming clusters of male inflorescences of 5-6 pieces. Their length reaches 7 cm, and a diameter of 5 cm. The shell becomes yellow as it ripens, easily separated from the core.
If you engage in the cultivation of hazelnut in the suburbs, it is better to stop the choice on the grade Akademik Yablokov. A beautiful, bowl-like bush yields up to 10 kg from each plant. Fruits resemble acorns, grow in clusters of 10 pieces.
Planting and cultivation of hazelnuts on the site
Culture is unpretentious to the choice of soil. Planting shrubs is permissible on level ground or on slopes. The soil will suit any, except for highly saline, marshy and sandy soil. It should not be planted culture on the southern sides of the slopes, it will lead to early flowering of shrubs, which is fraught with damage to their night spring frosts. Groundwater should be no closer than 1.2-1.5 m to the surface, and planting hazelnuts should not be flooded with water.
It is preferable to plant hazelnut bushes in areas where there are no strong drafts and wind gusts.
Hazelnut with its superficial rhizome is able to strengthen slopes well, which is successfully used in many countries. In Italy, as well as in Turkey, it is specially planted in places where other shrubs do not take root. This does not prevent the hazel from producing a high yield.
In order for a culture to produce many fruits, it is necessary to start several different varieties in the same area, at least two. Planted bushes at a distance of 4-5 m, not less. If only one variety is cultivated on the plot, there will be few nuts from it.
Planting and growing hazelnuts
Like other crops, hazelnuts are allowed to be planted twice a year: in the first two months of autumn or with the onset of spring, immediately after the soil thaws.
Growing hazelnuts in Ukraine is no different from caring for them in the suburbs.
Hazelnuts should be planted taking into account the fact that this culture is a long-liver, which grows significantly. Between individual shrubs should leave a passage of 4-5 m, and when disembarking in rows, the optimal row spacing is about 6 m. pollination and fruiting.
Dimples for planting should have a depth of 70 cm. Dig them in advance. In the spring planting in the autumn, and in the autumn planting at least 1-1.5 months.
- Humus (12–15 kg), superphosphate (200 g), and potassium sulfate (70 g) are poured at the bottom.
- These fertilizers are mixed with soil, then they form a mound for planting.
- The rhizome of the seedling is immersed in a mixture of clay and manure, and then straighten the roots around this mound.
- The pit is covered with earth, while the root neck of a young hazelnut must be flush with the soil or 2 cm above it.
- Around the plant form the hole, carefully watered with two buckets of water each bush.
- The earth is covered (mulched) with any plant material.
After the procedure, the plant is cut to 15-20 cm. At first, especially if it is spring, young hazelnuts need protection from the bright sun.
How to care for hazelnuts in the garden
Plant care provides for regular loosening of the top layer of soil 15 cm thick. At the same time, weed is removed, the space around the shrub is mulched with sawdust, grass or peat. You also can not forget about watering and feeding plants, pruning and protection from parasites.
Watering. To ensure high yields, it is important to observe the mode of irrigation of the crop, especially in early summer. To do this, in the dry time under each bush should be poured over a bucket of water.
Feeding. Hazelnuts are not often fed. Once in 2 or 3 years should be made of 5 kg of compost mixture or humus (organic) for each instance. Hazelnut reacts well to the introduction of nitrogen compounds into the soil (urea, ammonium nitrate). They make no more than 100 g per copy in the spring and with the onset of summer. Twice per season, it is important to provide nut culture with minerals by feeding. The simplest option is fertilizer OMU (universal), it is organic-mineral. Top dressing bring after watering or during the rainy period. Fertilizers - a prerequisite for a good harvest of nuts.
Crop. Krona is formed at the very end of autumn. This is important because proper pruning provides light access to the fruit, so that they ripen well. Shrub form before the culture begins to bear fruit (up to 4 years). For the basis choose from 8 to 10 trunks. The extra shoots in the middle of the crown are cut off, and the side shoots are simply pulled to the sides and secured with wire to provide ventilation and sufficient illumination.
To obtain the desired result also use the cluster method of planting hazelnuts.
Harvest The time of ripening of nuts depends on the variety of hazelnuts, most often the crop bears fruit from August to September. In this case, the wrappers on the nut change color to yellow, then brown. Nuts just shake off the branches, the strongest - cut off. Dried fruits in the sun or in a well-ventilated room, scattering them in one layer. Then cleaned of the remnants of the wrappers and finally completely dried. In this state, the fruits of hazel are suitable for several years.
The main threat to the hazelnut harvest is the weevil. To protect the culture from this pest, it is necessary to process it twice with systemic drugs. Aktara and Angio, as well as Calypso, will do. Processing should be carried out when insects only appear. The first procedure is carried out at the beginning of May, and then when they actively postpone.
The larvae of the omnipresent May beetle love to eat hazelnut rhizomes. If there are more than 2 larvae per square meter, then it’s time to cultivate the territory. Only after this, plant hazelnuts. The best way is to plant a lupine or a buckwheat in a year before planting, which the Maybug does not tolerate. Otherwise, you will have to resort to special chemicals.
Knowing how hazelnuts grow and how to care for them, you can get a beautiful plant that will produce a bountiful harvest.
Hazel (or otherwise, hazel) is a deciduous shrub, which belongs to the birch family and reaches a height of 10 meters. The crown is flat, but there are specimens with an ovoid or spherical shape. On the gray-brown bark are visible transverse stripes, but the roots of the tree are strong and powerful. The leaves have a dark green color, slightly pointed and rounded.
At its core, hazelnuts are hazelnuts, and they begin to bloom in early spring. From March you can observe how the tree is covered with golden earrings. Interestingly, on one shrub there are both earrings and pistillate flowers, since hazelnuts belong to monoecious plants.
After planting, Hazel begins to bear fruit only in the seventh year, but then it already pleases with a tasty harvest every year. One seed can give up to 30 nuts, which begin to ripen in August. The tree propagates by seed, layering and root suckers.
To date, more than 100 varieties of hazelnuts have been registered, but the most common of them is Panahesky. Fruits have a pleasant taste, and fat contains about 62−65%.
Planting hazelnuts and caring for them will not take much time, because this plant is unpretentious, and life expectancy is 80 years, with each year you can get up to 10 kg of crop from one tree. But in order to achieve this, it is necessary first of all to observe the proper agricultural techniques.
Finding the right place
Hazelnuts can be found in coniferous, mixed and deciduous forests. It grows heavily and even forms thickets. Received widespread in the Middle East, the Caucasus and Europe. He likes fresh, moist and fertile soil, so more often it can be found along rivers and streams.
Despite this, the delicious fruits of the tree can be tasted on your site, because it has been cultivated for a long time. It is enough to study all the details of growing.
Before planting, you need to remember that the plant has many varieties, but it is preferable to grow the eastern, northern and northeastern varieties. It is also necessary to choose a place carefully, the plant does not like the open sun, but in the shade it can produce a good harvest. In addition, the place where hazelnuts will grow should not be exposed to flooding.
In a garden for hazel it is better to choose a free, moderately bright place, which will also be protected from drafts. The best place for planting will be the area near the walls of various buildings, but if there is no such place, you need to plant hazelnuts near the hedge.
There should be trees with a large crown in the neighborhood to provide shade to hazel, but the distance should not be less than 4 meters. As a result, the optimum plant area of 16–25 m2 will be preserved. In general, hazelnuts perfectly adapts to any territory and soil, but despite this it is best to plant it, taking into account all the features of cultivation.
About 6 months in advance, they begin to prepare the soil for hazelnuts. It must be under steam in order to accumulate moisture in it. In addition, it is necessary to monitor the cleanliness all the time - dig out the weeds and loosen the soil. It is necessary during the treatment to affect the deeper layers of the soil, then it will be more saturated with oxygen and the roots of seedlings will soon take root.
If the soil is infertile, then it is best to saturate it with phosphate-potassium fertilizers.
2 weeks before planting, you need to dig holes 60 cm deep and 50 cm wide. Be sure to pour fertilizer there, to make the soil fertile:
- superphosphate - about 200 g,
- humus - 2−3 buckets, but you can replace the manure (5−8 kg),
- potassium salt - 50 g
The next 3-4 years, the plant will not need feeding. In the very center of the pit, a stake made of wood should be installed, which will serve as an excellent support for the young seedling. After that, the seedlings must be placed in a mixture of clay and earth and gently straighten the roots.
The plant is put on a small mound consisting of soil with mycorrhiza, which was obtained from another hazelnut. In order for the roots to start well, they must be 2–3 cm below the ground. After that, the soil must be compacted and watered abundantly.
It is also necessary to mulch the well. for this we need the following organics:
This will allow the soil to remain wet all the time, but you should not do this close to the trunk so that the bark does not break. Planting should be completed by trimming the bush, after which it should remain a stump with buds. After a week, seedlings should be re-watered, this is important if they were planted in spring. When the soil is wet, the roots develop faster, and their hairs actively absorb water and all the nutrients needed by the young plant.
In order for the hazelnut to bring a rich harvest, it is best to plant several varieties on the plot, at least 2–3. In this case, all plants will be able to pollinate well, in other words, the more different plants are planted around the hazel, the greater will be the harvest.
Walnut can multiply in several ways:
- Root shoots. Before planting, sprouts are first grown in a greenhouse for 1-2 years, and then planted in open ground.
- Seeds. Planting must be done in autumn or spring, and the first fruits will appear in 5-6 years.
- By division. This is done by separating the branches from the adult plant, and the branches should not be shorter than 15 cm. Thus, the overgrown hazelnuts are usually seated.
- Cuttings. This method is used when there is a strong growth, which is not less than 2 years.
- Layering. In the spring, the branches should be pressed to the ground and placed in the grooves, and then a little prikopat.
- Inoculation This method of reproduction is done in the summer, and cuttings are prepared in the fall.
To care for hazelnuts in the garden is to organize timely watering and care for the soil. We must not forget that hazel loves moisture and is not able to endure drought. For one season, you should water the tree 5−6 times, even when the nut has faded. Watering should be abundant, about 40−50 liters per tree, and always warm water. After the soil is moistened, it must be loosened. At the same time, one should try not to go deep in order not to damage the roots. Experienced gardeners usually do not take the risk and instead of loosening, they simply fall asleep the trunk with mowed grass.
This herb will fulfill the role of mulch and will become an additional nutrient. In addition, rotted grass begins to attract worms, and thanks to their work, soil fertility is only improving.
Growing hazelnuts and caring for them will not bring results if you do not regularly feed them. They need to be done throughout the growing season. In autumn, the soil should be enriched with wood ash. This will help improve fruiting and increase yields next year. But In the spring and summer, the following components must be added to the ground.:
- ammonium nitrate,
- manure or compost
- potash and phosphate fertilizers.
As soon as the first ovaries appear on the plant, the soil should be poured with a solution of urea. Before each feeding necessarily moisten the soil. When the fertilizer is scattered, the soil needs to be shallow shallowly, and then water and mulch again.
But nitrogen fertilizers need to be added with caution, because during intensive growth they can provoke rapid growth of leaves, and the ovary will be small. This suggests that hazelnuts do not like excess nutrients.
Transition to wintering
Growing hazelnuts in the garden provides for the preparation and pruning for the winter period. To maintain a good harvest, you should not allow a thick growth of branches: those that have become dry or damaged, as the seedlings grow need to be cut. But the old trees must be replaced by young shoots.
Hazel (Hazelnut): Description of Hazel
Hazel, or hazel — it is a deciduous tree (shrub) of the Birch family, growing to 10 meters. It has an egg-shaped, flat or spherical crown. The bark of the tree is gray-brown, dissected by transverse stripes. The root system is powerful, superficial. Hazel leaves are dull, dark green, pointed, rounded, ovate.
Hazelnut blossom (or as it is also called "hazelnuts") begins in early spring (March-April), even before the leaves bloom. During this period golden earrings appear on the tree. Since hazel refers to monoecious plants, both catkins and pistillate flowers are located on the same tree or shrub. Hazel flower consists of forked stamens. Hazel begins to bear fruit in the seventh or eighth year of life and produces crops annually. The fruits are small (2 cm), represented by oval or spherical nuts enclosed in a light green plyus. Each stem can contain up to 30 fruits, although it is usually found 3-4. Mature in August. Размножается дерево лещина отводками, семенами или корневыми отпрысками.
Сегодня известно более 100 сортов фундука, самым популярным из которых является Панахесский. Его плоды обладают приятным вкусом и характеризуются высоким содержанием жиров (62-65 %). Причем, данный сорт ежегодно дает обильный урожай и не нуждается в опылении.
Hazel lives in broadleaf, coniferous and mixed forests, and in those places where common hazel grows, it forms dense thickets, intensively growing on cuttings and pastures. Widely distributed in the Caucasus, the Middle East and in Europe. It prefers fresh, fertile and moist soil, therefore, it is usually found at the bottom of ravines, along rivers, streams, in the steppe and forest-steppe. On poor, marshy, acidic, peat soils practically does not grow.
Nevertheless, tasty and healthy nuts can be tasted not only in the forests — this tree has been cultivated for a long time. Hazel harvest is quite possible to get on the backyards, if you know the details of care and cultivation of this plant.
Where is the best place to plant hazel
Varieties of the described plant are various forms and interspecific hybrids of common hazelnut, Pontic, diverse leaf and large. Northeastern, eastern, northern parts of low slopes are preferable to cultivation in culture, since it is in these places that the fluctuations in daily temperatures are less and, consequently, the risk of burns and frostbite is lower.
Choosing a landing site: how should the lighting be
Hazel —TIt is a tolerant tree and does not like direct sunlight, but with a strong darkening it can produce a bad crop, and its leaves change color. The place where hazel will grow should not be exposed to flooding.
Choose a free, moderately lighted territory and protected from drafts in the garden plot. In addition, the groundwater in the place where the plantation of hazelnuts is planned should not be above 1.5 meters. An ideal place for planting - near the walls of buildings. If there is no such one, then a hedge can serve as protection from the winds. Growing hazelnuts is acceptable in the vicinity of trees with a voluminous crown, but they must be no closer than 4-5 meters from it. Thus, the optimal nutritional area of the hazelnut will be saved - 16-25 m².
For the convenience of further care, it is recommended to plant hazel on a flat plot.
In order to grow fruitful hazel on the plot, it is better to pick fertile, loose, well-drained, neutral or slightly acidic (pH 6-6.5) soil for planting. It is in this soil that hazelnuts quickly grow from the roots, it begins to bear fruit after 3-4 years, and the process of its cultivation does not create any unnecessary problems.
In chernozem soils, for better moisture and air permeability, it is recommended to apply sand and compost humus. Hazel will not survive well on sandy, rocky and marshy soil, and sour soil must be preliminarily lime (500 g per 1 m²).
Features planting garden hazel
To obtain a bountiful harvest, you must first draw a pattern of planting hazelnuts, and you must take into account the fact that when you plant several trees alongside, natural cross-pollination is formed. It is best to plant hazel along the boundaries of the site.
Selection of seedlings
Hazel breeds in several ways:
- Root shoots. Before transplanting in open ground, sprouts are grown in a greenhouse for 1-2 years. At the same time, all characteristics of the mother bush are preserved.
- Seeds. Planting of the fruit (namely, it is the seed) of hazel is made in spring or autumn. The bush begins to bear fruit in 5-6 years.
- By division. Branches that already have a root of 15 centimeters in length are separated from an adult plant. Each seedling is planted separately. With the help of such a seating arrangement it is possible to damage the thickets of hazel.
- Cuttings. To do this, take the strongest shoots no younger than 1-2 years.
- Layering. The branches in the spring bend to the ground, placed in the grooves and lightly added dropwise.
- Inoculation The procedure is carried out in the summer, and cuttings are harvested from the autumn.
Good hazel seedlings (if you plan to grow it as a cultivated plant) should have at least 2-4 lively twigs 30-50 cm long and 1-1.5 cm thick, and the root system should be well branched.
Landing pit preparation
Planting hazelnuts should be held in the fall. For a start, dig pits with a depth of 50-60 cm and a width of 80 cm, humus or compost (10-15 kg), mineral fertilizers (superphosphate, potassium sulfate) and rich soil taken from under the hazelnut are poured into them. The distance between the pits depends on the growth power of the variety. For example, for bush leaves it is necessary to have at least 4 meters, for standard boards - 1.5-2.5 meters. There is also planting with nests, in which several seedlings are placed in a circle around a large (about 1 m) hole, keeping the distance between seedlings at least 50 cm. big bush.
Planting hazel in the garden
Before direct planting, the roots of seedlings are cut to 20-25 cm, wetted with a mash from a mixture of manure and clay, and then placed in prepared (not later than 2 weeks before planting) pits, at a distance of 4-5 meters from each other ( want to create a hedge). Green plantings must be poured abundantly (2 buckets for each sapling). After this, the near-trunk circles are mulched with a 3-5 cm layer of peat or humus, and the branches are shortened to 20-25 cm.
The level of the root of the neck should be buried by 2-3 cm and not cover the ground, which will stimulate the growth and branching of the roots. It is necessary to compact the soil only in the zone of spreading the roots. Since hazel needs cross-pollination, shrubs should be placed side by side, and it is better if they are of different varieties. The first time after planting hazelnuts, free space between the plants can be used for vegetable crops.
Watering and soil care
Young seedlings need to start watering a week after planting. After 2-3 abundant irrigations, the capillaries of the soil will unite, the planting bed will not be separated from the rest of the soil and will retain its wet state, providing the seedling with the necessary elements for the next 3-4 years. If the year was dry, hazel need additional watering. Do not feel sorry for the water - the bushes need to be watered at least once a month. Remembering how the hazel and hazel grows and multiplies in natural conditions, it is necessary to take into account that they are prone to excessive formation of root shoots and, consequently, to lower yields. Therefore, root shoots need to be destroyed at an early age, as soon as they begin to rise above the surface. For effective removal, dig out the soil around each sprout and cut the sprout to the ground. This procedure is carried out in early spring.
In order for the hazelnut to bring a good harvest, not only proper planting is important, but also a certain care. In the autumn, hazel is fed with phosphorus and potassium, and in the spring the bush will need ammonium nitrate. In addition, in order for all fruits to ripen at the same time, they use nitrogen fertilizers - they are fed in July. Fruiting and young plants are well fed in the fall using organic fertilizers (manure, compost, superphosphate, potash salt) per 1 bucket per 1 m².
Pruning hazel garden
Hazel nut, planting and care for which is carried out at the dacha, as well as its wild relative, is capable of letting root shoots. In order to preserve the yield, you should not allow the thickening of the branches inside the bush (when forming the crown, only 6-10 of the most viable shoots are left that are not too close to each other).
As the bush grows, twisting, damaged and dry branches are removed. Twenty-year-old plants are gradually replaced by young shoots, removing 2 “old men” a year.
Hazel treatment for pests and diseases
It happens that common hazel begins to languish, although the landing and subsequent care were carried out in accordance with all requirements.
This is caused by pests and diseases that so “love” hazel:
- nut weevil
- kidney mite,
- walnut barbel
- brown spot,
- powdery mildew.
Having found insects on a bush, it is necessary to shake them from the branches, previously spreading a film under the bush. Insecticides can also be used to control pests. They are processed twice per season: before bud break and after the appearance of leaves. For the treatment of diseases of hazel and hazel recommend the use of colloidal sulfur and boric acid. If at the end of summer leaves are showered on hazelnuts in large quantities, the plant is most likely affected by the moths. They are either collected by hand or used to eliminate chemicals (in case of excessive contamination). As a preventive measure for the appearance of pests in the spring, the bark of the bush should be cleaned in time, the foliage collected in the fall should be cleaned, and during the summer also the wormy fruits should be removed.
Hazel harvest ripens in August and early September. A mature nut is distinguished by a brownish ply, which on fully ripened fruit opens slightly and begins to crumble. The harvest is dried for 2-3 weeks, which makes it easier to separate the kernels from the pluses. Collected fruits are stored in fabric or paper bags in a dry place - then they do not lose their taste in two years.
Any beautiful shrubs can be used for decorative purposes, so the presence of a "forest dweller" on the site has become an affordable option for landscaping. You just need to know what hazel is, choose the right variety, correctly plant and adhere to the rules of further care.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. Planting in the fall
- 3.3. How to plant in spring
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to care
- 4.2. Watering
- 4.3. Top dressing
- 4.4. Care during flowering
- 4.5. Breeding
- 4.6. Wintering
- 5. Trimming
- 5.1. When to trim
- 5.2. How to trim
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 6.1. Pests
- 6.2. Diseases
- 6.3. Treatment
- 7. Types and varieties
- 8. Properties: harm and benefit
- 8.1. Beneficial features
- 8.2. Contraindications
Planting and care for hazel (in short)
- Landing: in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, 2-3 weeks before a steady cooling.
- Bloom: at the end of March or at the beginning of April.
- Lighting: bright light, direct or diffused, at a distance of at least 4-5 m from other trees.
- The soil: rich in humus, light, friable, with a slightly acid or neutral reaction.
- Watering: first watering - one week after planting. During the season, you need to spend 5-6 waterings - about once a month, spending on each adult bush 6-8 buckets of water. In dry summers, you can water more often and more abundantly, and in the rainy season do not water at all.
- Top dressing: In the spring, as soon as the buds swell, and in July, nitrogen fertilizer is applied to the soil for simultaneous ripening of the soil, and in the autumn the hazel is fertilized with potassium and phosphorus. It is better to feed young animals with organic matter - every 2-3 years to make 10 kg of compost or rotted manure under each bush.
- Breeding: seeds, scions, layering, cuttings, grafting and dividing the bush.
- Pruning: in spring, late blooming, to help the plant with pollination. Anti-aging pruning is carried out when the shrub reaches the age of eighteen, and its productivity drops. Do not forget to cut unnecessary basal shoots.
- Pests: nut weevil, leaf beetle and barbel, as well as aphid and bud mite.
- Diseases: affected by rust, rot of the branches and powdery mildew.
Hazel - a tree or shrub.
Hazel can reach a height of 7 m. It has a spherical or ovoid crown with a cone-shaped tip. The leaves of hazel are large, broadly or round, with notched edges. Mono-sex and monoecious flowers: male flowers develop in autumn and form thick cylindrical earrings on short sprigs. In spring, they bloom before the leaves appear. Female flowers form bud-like inflorescences and are located in two in the axils of the bracts. Hazel blooms in late March or early April and gives a huge amount of pollen, which is the main food of bees after wintering. Blooming hazel is decorated with flowers and golden earrings. Hazelnut is a small (about 2 cm in diameter) spherical yellow-brown single-seed walnut surrounded by a notched tubular cover (plyus) and a woody pericarp. Nuts ripen in August.
Hazel nut prefers a temperate and subtropical climate. His plantations can be seen in southern Europe, Cyprus, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Ukraine and central Russia. Unfortunately, in amateur gardens hazel can still be found not as often as other fruit bushes - bird cherry, sea buckthorn, dog rose, hawthorn, actinidia and others.
When plant hazel.
Hazel planting is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, 2-3 weeks before the beginning of stable cold weather, but autumn planting is preferable to spring. Where to plant hazel? Find in your garden a moderately lighted area, protected from drafts, in which the groundwater does not lie higher than one and a half meters from the surface, and it is better if this place is not far from the western or southern wall of the building. Do not plant hazel in places where meltwater accumulates in the spring. The nearest large trees should be located at a distance of 4-5 m from the forest, since the optimum nutritional area of hazel is from 16 to 25 m². As for the composition of the soil, poor, heavy, loamy or marshy soils are not suitable for hazelnut. The best soil for hazelnut is humus-rich light and loose soil with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. If you are going to plant several seedlings, then before preparing the pits, make a deep digging area.
Planting hazel in the fall.
For planting choose saplings of hazel without leaves, with 3-4 strong shoots with a diameter of at least 1-1.5 cm, with a well-developed root system. The length of the roots should be at least 50 cm, but before planting they are cut to 25 cm. If you are going to plant several bushes, place them at a distance of 4-5 m from each other in a row with row spacing of about 6 m.
Prepare planting pits for the month, so that the soil in them had time to settle and condense. If the soil at the site is fertile, then a hole with a depth and diameter of 50 cm will be sufficient. In poor soil, the depth and diameter of the hole should be at least 80 cm. Before planting, fill the hole with a fertile mixture - soil from the top layer mixed with 15 kg of rotted manure and two glasses of wood ash or 200 g of superphosphate. Not bad to throw into the pit several handfuls of land from under the forest hazel.
In the center of the pit form a hill, set on it a sapling, the root system of which before planting is immersed in a clay dung trap. The seedling must be positioned so that the root neck after seeding is 5 cm above ground level. The pit is filled up, the surface is tamped down, a stake is driven in next to it and the seedling is tied to it, after which the plant is watered abundantly, spending from 3 to 5 buckets of water, regardless of In addition, in a dry or wet ground you planted a plant. When water is absorbed, grumble the tree circle with a layer of sawdust, humus or peat 3-5 cm thick.
How to plant hazel in the spring.
The spring planting of hazel is performed according to the same procedure, however, it is advisable to dig holes from the autumn, so that during the winter the soil is saturated with moisture and thickened. For guaranteed pollination hazel need to plant on the site at least three bushes, and it is desirable that they were not of one variety. And do not forget to add a few handfuls of land from the forest hazel to the pit when it is planted: it contains silky fungi. At first, the seedlings are better to shade from the bright spring sun.
How to care for hazel.
Planting and caring for hazel is not laborious, and if you sow mustard, lupine or vetch with oats in the tree near the bush, to use them after cutting as mulch, then you will have even less trouble. You can keep the soil under the hazelnut under the black steam, from time to time loosening it to a depth of 4-7 cm and cleansing from weeds. In addition, you have to fight all the time with the root shoots, and it is better to do it while the offspring is still weak. Each root shoot needs to be dug out and cut off in that place where it departs from a root. The sections on the roots are treated with crushed coal.
Caring for the hazelnut includes watering the plant. Seedlings begin to water in a week after planting. The lack of moisture can adversely affect the formation of flower buds and the ripening of hazel fruits. During the growing season, the soil under the hazelnut should be watered 5-6 times, spending 6-8 buckets on an adult bush. In the dry summer you can moisten the hazel and more often - he loves water very much. But in the rainy season, watering hazel can not remember. On average, hazel water is watered once a month. Water is poured into the near-stem circle in portions so that it does not stand in a puddle, but is absorbed. The next day, after watering or raining, it is advisable to loosen the soil in the circle of a wheel.
Top dressing hazel.
The cultivation of hazel involves the introduction in the stem circle of fertilizers. In the autumn, the hazelnut is fed with potassium and phosphorus: once every 2-3 years, 3-4 kg of manure, 20-30 g of potassium salt and 50 g of superphosphate are added to each bush. In the spring, the hazelnut will need nitrogen fertilizer, for example, ammonium nitrate or urea: as soon as the buds swell, apply 20-30-30 g of fertilizer into the tree circle. Nitrogen top dressing is necessary for hazel and in July for the fruits to ripen at the same time. Молодые растения желательно подкармливать органикой в виде компоста или перепревшего навоза – достаточно вносить их каждые 2-3 года в количестве 10 кг на один куст орешника.
Уход за орешником во время цветения.
Показателем успешного развития лещины является ее цветение. Когда распускается орешник? Flowering occurs in April, before the leaves appear on the shrub. When the air temperature rises to 12 ºC, the hazel earrings grow and add 3 cm per day, and the drier the air, the faster they become longer, and when the ear rings reach a length of 10 cm, they become loose and start spreading pollen. This dusting lasts from 4 to 12 days, while female flowers are uncovered within two weeks. Female flowers catch the pollen of male flowers, either from their own or from the neighboring hazel. That is why it is better to grow at least three hazel bushes in one area.
Reproduction of hazel.
Hazel is propagated by seeds, layering, offspring, grafting, cuttings and dividing the bush. Seed propagation method is used mainly to perform breeding tasks - it allows you to get new varieties adapted to one or another climatic conditions. However, in amateur gardening the generative method of reproduction of the hazel does not justify the time and effort spent, since at best only one seedling out of a thousand reproduces the varietal properties of the parent plants. To preserve varietal qualities resorted to vegetative methods of reproduction, which we describe below.
In order to propagate the hazel with horizontal layers, in the early spring or late autumn, it is necessary to bend low-growing annual branches of hazel to the ground, lay them in the furrows 10-15 cm deep, fix and slightly shorten the tip above the surface. Fill the furrows with earth is not necessary. Vertical shoots begin to grow from the buds on the branches, which should be tucked several times to the middle, cutting off the leaves of hazel from the lower part of the shoots. Gradually, the shoots will take root, and you will have a large number of seedlings that need to be grown for 1-2 years before planting in a permanent place.
The same principle is used for the reproduction of hazel by arc cuttings: in the spring, the branches are bowed arcuately, the bark of the branch touching the soil is cut, the branch is fixed in a hole 20-30 cm deep, the hole is covered, but the top of the shoot remains on the surface - it is tied to a peg . The ingrained otvodok in the autumn is separated from the parent plant, dug out and grow for 1-2 years before landing on a permanent place.
Hazelnut breeding with vertical layers is also quite an easy procedure: after the rejuvenating spring pruning, the hemp of large branches is hermetically covered with a film at a height of 50 cm to awaken dormant buds to grow. When the growth of shoots begins, and they reach a height of 15 cm, they spud them with humus to a height of 4-5 cm, having previously tied them at the very bottom with a soft wire. When the length of the shoots will be 20-25 cm, they will be hummed with humus to a height of 8-12 cm, and when the shoots reach 30-35 cm, they will be tucked at a height of 20 cm and mulched. After the third hilling, the film is removed. All summer the bush is watered and weeded. Hazel leaves in the lower part of the shoots are removed before each hilling. In the autumn the soil is careful not to damage the adventitious roots, dig and well-ripened shoots break off at the waist. Weakly rooted shoots do not need to be separated.
Overgrowth of hazel forest occurs in a diameter of 1 m from the trunks. Siblings form in the second or third year after planting from dormant buds on the roots and emerge from the ground at a distance from the bush. For breeding use offspring age 2-3 years, growing on the periphery - they are called otdirkami. Otdirki separated from the rhizome with an ax and planted for growing in shkolka. You can land them immediately to a permanent place by placing 2-3 otdirki in one pit.
When the hazelnut is propagated by grafting, seedlings of wild hazel can be used as a stock, but the best stock is a bear nut seedling that does not produce offsprings. Hazelnut is grafted in the summertime with the help of budding with a sprouting eye or spring by cutting in the butt, in the slat or behind the bark. Cuttings for grafts are suitable apical or cut from the middle part of the shoots. Harvest cuttings in the winter and store them until spring in the refrigerator or in the snow.
It is also easy to propagate the hazel nut by dividing the bush. The excavated bush should be divided into parts so that each of them has roots 15-20 cm long. After the sections are treated with crushed coal, the delenki are seated in previously prepared pits.
How to cut hazel.
You can grow hazel as a tree on a shtambe 35-40 cm tall, but it is more convenient to form hazel in the form of a bush. The first pruning is done one week after planting at a height of 25-30 cm above the soil surface. Over the summer, shoots will appear on the plant that do not need to be cut off: hazelnuts bear fruit on annual wood. Starting next spring, begin to form a bush of hazel. On the bush leave no more than 10 strong shoots growing in different directions from the center of the bush at a distance from each other. Weak, broken, frozen, woven, deformed and diseased or pest shoots must be removed. Do not allow the thickening of the bush. Fruit plant will begin in the fourth year after planting, and your task is to timely thinning and sanitary pruning of hazel.
They begin to rejuvenate a bush from 18-20 years old when its productivity drops. Every year, cut into the stump 2-3 old trunk, leaving instead 2-3 basal scions, growing close to the center of the bush. New skeletal branches should be slightly shortened to stimulate the formation of lateral shoots on them.
If you grow a hazel tree, one week after planting, cut off all the shoots on it, leaving only the trunk, and then, as the shoots appear, remove them in the lower part of the trunk, and form 4-5 skeletal branches at the top. Do not forget to destroy the root growth.
Pests of hazel.
Of the pests of hazelnut nut can weevil, leaf beetle and barbel, as well as aphid and bud mite.
Kidney mite - small insect up to 0.3 mm long, wintering in the plant buds, and laying eggs in the spring. Such buds can be seen with the naked eye: they swell to the size of a large pea. While the healthy buds begin to bloom, the kidneys affected by the tick dry and die.
Aphid - small sucking insect that feeds on plant sap and carries viral diseases. Aphids are hard to see, and therein lies the danger. As a result of the life activity of aphids, the leaves of the plant curl, the shoots and buds deform, their development slows down, and the fruits do not ripen.
Walnut Weevil - brown beetle up to 1 cm long. The caterpillar beetle has a yellowish-milky body and a red-brown head. The female beetle lays eggs in immature fruits, and they feed on the pulp of the nut. With a strong defeat, you can lose up to 50% yield.
Nut (hazelnut) barbel - a very dangerous pest, black bug with a length of up to 15 mm on yellow legs. He lays eggs under the bark of young shoots. The larvae gnaw through the core of the shoots, and they dry out, and the upper leaves turn yellow and curl on them.
Walnut beetle - a bug with a length of 6-7 mm with elytra purple, the most dangerous leaf-eating pest of hazel. The beetle larvae have a dark green body, poorly distinguishable against the background of leaves, on which their development takes place. Damage to this beetle is not only hazel, but also alder and willow.
Hazel is more resistant to diseases than it is to pests, but it can be affected by rust, rot of branches and powdery mildew.
Mealy dew - A well-known disease to gardeners, a symptom of which is a whitish coating on the leaves and shoots, which eventually becomes dense and turns brown. The affected parts stop growing, darken and die. Inflorescences do not form the ovaries, and the winter hardiness of plants decreases greatly.
Rust - this fungal disease is manifested by the formation of auburn tubercles on the upper side of the leaves, and round or oval pustules on the lower side. The spots gradually turn into stripes, and the leaves of the plant turn yellow and fall off.
White rot parasitizes hazel in two versions: as a mixed rot of the branches and as a peripheral rot, and in both cases the plant can suffer severely until the hazel dies.
If you find insects on a hazelnut, spread a film under it and try to shake them off. If the occupation of hazel by pests is very strong, it will be necessary to resort to treating the plant with insecticides, and sucking insects will be destroyed by acaricides. The best drugs for pest control are Malathion, Actellic, Chlorophos and other drugs of similar action.
Against fungal diseases, if they come into force, it is necessary to apply fungicides - Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate and more modern preparations based on copper. But the best protection of hazel from fungi is compliance with agricultural technology, as well as good and timely care.
Common hazel (Latin Corylus avellana)
- Multi-stemmed shrub, reaching a height of 4-6 meters, with a wide spreading crown with a diameter of up to 4 m. The shoots of this hazel are pubescent, leaves are round, up to 9 cm wide, and up to 12 cm long. The flowering of common hazel begins before the leaves appear. Nuts of spherical shape with a diameter up to 1,5 cm in a light brown peel ripen in September. There is a plant both in culture and in the wild,
Hazel treelike (lat. Corylus colurna),
or bear nut - an ornamental plant with very tasty fruits. This is the only species of hazel, which is a tree. The height of the hazel tree grows up to 8 meters, but in warm countries it can reach up to 20 m. The tree hazel lives up to 200 years. The leaves of this species are broadly ovate, located on the petioles about 5 cm long. Despite the fact that the fruits of the hazelnut tree are larger than those of other species of hazel, they have less kernels, but they taste more pleasant than hazelnut kernels,
Hazel raznifistnaya (lat. Corylus heterophylla)
- shrub up to 3 m with two-bladed leaves and a truncated tip. In the spring on it appear earrings of male inflorescences and almost imperceptible red buds of female flowers. Fruits are formed 2-3 pieces in a sheet wrapper. Distributed species in Japan, China, Korea and the Far East. It is unpretentious to climatic conditions and can grow well in the middle lane,
Red-leaved Hazel (Corylus atropurpurea)
- ornamental shrub with a height of 4-6 m, attracting the attention with a lush crown of dark purple foliage, which acquires a green color only by autumn. The earrings of this hazel are maroon, as are the buds. This species of hazel was the basis for breeding many popular varieties and hybrids of culture,
Hazel large (lat. Corylus maxima),
or lombard nut - shrub up to 10 m. The fruits of the plant are arranged in a tubular wrapper, which is twice the size of the nuts themselves. Fruit kernels are fleshy and elongated. In nature, this species is found in the forests of Turkey, Italy and Asian countries.
There are also Chinese, American, Colchian, horned, Himalayan, or awesome hazel, Ziebold and other, less well-known species.
Of the varieties of hazel, the most popular in our climatic conditions are:
- – Isaevsky - one of the most valuable frost-resistant varieties with large fruits of excellent taste,
- – Masha - fruitful and winter-hardy hybrid of red-leafed hazel with elongated fruits of medium size and excellent taste, enclosed in a thin shell,
- – Roman - resistant to diseases and pests variety of average maturity of Italian selection with large, flat-round beautiful fruits of excellent taste.
In the middle lane, the following Hazelnut varieties have proven themselves: Catherine, Moscow Ruby, Yablokov's Memory, Firstborn, Pushkin Red, Ivanteevsky Red, Kudrayf, Moscow Early, Purple, Sugar, Sugar, Northern Varieties, Tambov Early, Tambov Late, Lentrema, Lentra, Trentino Lentra, Lentra, Sunty, Red Variety, Tambov Early, Tambov Late, Lentra, Sugranty, Sugar variety, a series of varieties Severny, Tambov Early, Tambov Late, Lentra, Sunty, Surat , Lena and others.
In the southern regions of Russia and in Ukraine, the varieties of hazelnut Panahesky, Altai, Cherkessky, Kuban, Perestroika, Futkura and others are popular.
Useful properties of hazel.
The filbert is the richest source of substances, useful to a human body. The core contains vitamins A, PP, C, and E and vitamins of group B, as well as amino acids, fatty oils, iron, iodine, calcium, magnesium, copper, fluorine, manganese, and potassium. The biological properties of the nuts equate to proteins, so eat them is best separated from other products. Useful properties of hazelnuts:
- - it has a positive effect on attention and memory,
- - contributes to the normalization of the functioning of the cardiovascular system,
- - strengthens the body's immune system and speeds up metabolism,
- - has a positive effect when the body is depleted and helps to recover from an illness;
- - It is indicated for anemia, allergies, obesity, rheumatism, urolithiasis, burns, measles, anemia, epilepsy, to cleanse the liver and enhance hair growth.
In addition, the infusion of leaves of hazel is recommended to drink with thrombophlebitis, varicose veins, trophic ulcers and prostatic hypertrophy. Infusion of hazel bark helps with diabetic retinopathy, it is used to improve blood circulation in small vessels and as a vasoconstrictor. A decoction of bark and plumes hazel wash the hair to give them a darker shade, and a decoction of leaves removes redness and swelling of the eyelids.
Hazelnut is the cultivated form of hazel. He belongs to the Hazel family and the Birch family. Translated from the Latin hazelnut means "from the black sea." The homeland and place of growth are the shores of the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
Hazelnut is a perennial shrub that can reach a height of 3-5 meters. The height depends on the type of plant and the formation of the crown by artificial means. The root system of the plant is very powerful and can grow on poor soils. Due to the fact that the plant can grow well in any climatic zones, its cultivation will not be a problem even in the Urals.
The leaves are heart-shaped or oval, usually they are dark green in color. In the autumn period, the leaves get an unusual color, they become bright yellow-red. With such leaves, the plant acquires an interesting decorative appearance.
On the shrub form dioecious flowers:
- female flowers are practically indistinguishable from ordinary growth buds,
- male flowers are in the form of earrings-pendants that bloom in early spring. These flowers are very similar to birch earrings.
Flowering begins in March until the moment when young leaves bloom on the plant. The flowering period begins at a temperature not lower than 12 degrees. Male and female flowers bloom at different times, so there is the likelihood of non-pollination, and as a result, the fruits are not tied. In order to get a bountiful harvest, at least 10 hazelnut bushes should be planted on the plot. In this case, the flowers will be pollinated by wind or insects.
After flowering on the plant fruits are formed. In the phase of the formation of the fruit plant enters 3-4 year of development. But the most abundant fruiting occurs at the age of 10-35 years. From such an adult plant you can collect 5-10 kilograms of nuts. They have the shape of a nutlet in a hard shell, which is wrapped with a leafy ply. Nuts ripen in the fall. A pair of fleshy cotyledons covered with a thin shell is formed inside the nut. Walnut is very nutritious and tasty, it contains 15-20% of proteins, 60-70% of fats and 6-10% of carbohydrates. The usefulness of the nut is complemented by palmitic, oleic, stearic acid, as well as vitamins A, B, C, D, E, which it contains.
If you use nuts, you can lower the level of cholesterol in the blood, reduce the risk of developing vascular diseases and strengthen the immune system.
Hazelnuts can grow over 100 years.
The height of this shrub reaches 5 meters, it has a spreading and dense crown. The leaves are large, green in color, and the lower part of the leaf has a lighter shade than the upper part. On the surface of the leaves are formed small villi. The variety is considered mid-season, nuts can be collected in September. The fruits have a diameter of about 2.5 centimeters, and their tips are slightly prickly. The shell has a red-brown color, and the nut itself has a special taste and juiciness.
Distinctive features of a grade are frost resistance, endurance and high productivity.
The disadvantage of this variety is weakness before a fungal disease like moniliosis.
Hazelnuts of Barcelona can be planted with varieties Davian, Galle, Lambert white and others, they will become good pollinators.
This variety was bred by German breeders. The tree can reach heights of up to 5.5 meters, and even after the formation of the crown, the branches quickly grow. The crown is large and has an average thickness.
The variety has a medium flowering period. You can grow it in any territory.
The fruits ripen in late September and early October. They are egg-shaped and have a diameter of up to 3 centimeters.
Distinctive features of the variety are the regularity of fruiting and high yields. But these qualities are revealed only in a warm climate and grown on fertile soils.
В качестве опылителей необходимо сажать по соседству Косфорд, Барселонский, Ранний длинный.
Выведен английскими селекционерами. Имеет густую крону и высокие размеры. Листья в период развития зеленые, а осенью приобретают красный оттенок.
Сорт имеет раннее цветение. Плодоношение наступает в конце сентября.
Орех крупный, круглый, может быть немного приплюснутым.
This grade is better to plant in areas protected from winds.and the climate is warm. The variety grows well in the usual garden area.
Fruits well, if you plant a variety of Galle and Lambert red-leaved near.
Filbert Warsaw red
The bush is formed vigorous and has a spherical shape.. The leaves throughout the summer have a green color, and with the arrival of autumn turn red. In addition to useful fruits, the plant can be used as an ornamental shrub.
The flowering of male and female flowers almost falls for one period, so the plant is well pollinated, and a large number of fruits are formed. Fruiting occurs in late September. The variety has delicious sweetish fruits that grow to large sizes.
How to grow hazelnuts?
Hazelnut: planting and care are simple. Before planting a tree, it is necessary to correctly determine the location, because the further development of the bush and the formation of fruits will depend on the correct planting.
Place of landing:
- the place for landing is necessary to choose spacious and light. Despite the fact that young saplings are small in size, in a few years the shrub will grow well and will have a sprawling high crown. Good lighting allows the shrub to tie more fruit, so for planting it is necessary to choose the most illuminated place in the garden plot,
- The best soils are loose, fertile and acid-neutral soils. The plant will grow poorly on sands, wetlands and soils with a high salt content. If a site with an acidic soil is chosen for planting, before planting the ground should be lime. To do this, 500 grams of lime are scattered on each square meter of land and they are well dug up. The soil with a high content of black soil or clay should be made lighter. To do this, when digging add peat or sand. Thanks to these components, the soil becomes more breathable and moisture-permeable,
- for planting, you can use flat areas or slopes. The growth of the tree will not change. Strong slopes should be leveled beforehand.
- The plant can be planted near rivers and reservoirs. In this case, the root system will receive the required amount of moisture without irrigation. You can plant a plant even in areas with high groundwater levels.
When a place for planting is selected, it is necessary to determine the period of planting in open ground.
When to plant a hazelnut tree?
The best time to plant is autumn.preferably October. During this period, the soil remained quite warm and wet. This will affect the root system, and it will quickly take root. Already in spring the shrub will be ready for further development.
If the seedling is purchased in the spring, it is immediately planted in the ground. But in this case, the plant will quickly consume moisture from the soil. Therefore, after planting is often watered plant.
How to plant hazelnuts?
Purchased seedlings must be sorted. The smallest are planted in rows with a distance between plants of about 1 meter. And between the rows it is worth to retreat 20-30 centimeters. If seedlings are purchased at the age of 1 year, they can be grown on any site. But the three-year seedlings can be planted immediately to a permanent place in the open field. Subsequent transplantation of such plants is not required. Adult plants should be planted at a distance of 4-6 meters from each other. If the variety of shrubs has a small height and will be planted as a hedge, 2-3 meters should be left between the plants.
Place for planting can be pre-treated with special preparations to get rid of possible pests. For example, the soil can be treated with chemicals. But it is worth carrying out such a procedure carefully and strictly adhere to the instructions attached to the preparation. Also, a year before planting, you can land on the site siderats, for example, lupine, oats or buckwheat.
How to plant hazelnuts? Before planting hazelnuts need to prepare a hole. It is prepared for 1-3 months. The size of the pit should be at least 70 centimeters in diameter. 10 kilograms of humus, 70 grams of potassium sulfate and 200 grams of double superphosphate are immediately introduced into the pit. All these ingredients must be thoroughly mixed with the earth right in the pit. From this mixture at the bottom of the pit form a low mound.
In a young plant, the roots are checked, dry or rotten roots must be removed, and the cut processed with charcoal. The seedling is lowered into the pit, and the roots are distributed over the prepared mound.
When planting, make sure that the root neck does not penetrate below the soil surface. If you plant the plant incorrectly, it will soon die.
The roots are covered with earth and gently rammed. For better compaction, so that air pockets do not form around the roots, it is necessary to periodically fill the pit with water.
When the pit is completely filled with soil, it is necessary to make a small indentation around the trunk. Such a deepening is necessary so that the moisture after irrigation is not distributed too strongly, but absorbed into the soil surface near the roots.
The plant is once again well watered. And the surface around the barrel is mulched. For mulching use dry grass, sawdust, shredded bark, peat and so on.
A week after planting, the plant is watered again abundantly..
Immediately after planting in an open ground, it is necessary to provide a seedling with good conditions for the rapid growth of the root system. To do this, you can trim the trunk. As the aerial parts leave a segment of the trunk length of 20 centimeters.
Popular hazelnut varieties
Breeders brought many varieties of hazelnuts. Each of them has its own characteristics - the size and taste of the fruit, the timing of fruiting, resistance to certain diseases. Denote the species of nut, suitable for cultivation in all regions of the country:
• Early Trabzon. Harvest from tall bushes can be by the end of July. Nuts - large, oval, with a slightly pointed nose. They are easy to clean, because the fruit is covered with a thin shell.
• Cosford. Nuts are harvested from a tree from mid-August. Fruits - large, oblong. Variety is remarkable in that it is resistant to common diseases and pest invasion.
• Warsaw Red. The shrub with red leaves forms a spherical shape. Gardeners grow this variety not only to produce hazelnuts, but also to decorate the garden. The fruits are big, tasty.
• Almond-shaped. The variety got its name because of the unusual taste - the seeds have an almond flavor. Fruits are medium in size with thin shells. The trees, subject to growing conditions, bring high yields.
• Barcelona. The plant develops a dense, heavily leafy crown. Under favorable conditions, it can grow up to 5 m in height. Hazelnuts of this variety tolerates cold. Nuts - very large, slightly flattened. Fruit kernels - tasty, juicy, covered with a thin shell. Gardeners begin to harvest in early September. The main disadvantage of the Barcelona variety is its vulnerability to moniliosis.
• Roman. The variety is famous for large nuts, which begin to ripen by August. The plant is resistant to diseases and pests.
• Galle. The tree grows thickly leafy. Nuts are cone-shaped, large, with a thick shell. This variety of hazelnuts is more suitable for growing in the southern regions, because the fruits ripen only by the end of September. Halle is considered the most prolific variety of all.
Where to grow hazelnuts?
Hazelnut, being a forest plant, prefers warm, sunny, well protected from strong winds places. Allocate for growing trees plot near the south-western or western walls of the house. If this is not possible, then hedging can become a defense against drafts. But make sure that the plants are no closer than 4-5 m to the hazelnuts. Otherwise, the root system will lack nutrients.
Over grown walnut trees will be easier to care for if plant them on flat ground. So the site will be easily accessible for processing - weeding the earth, fertilizing. Hazelnut dislikes often flooded lands - grow it where a lot of moisture does not accumulate in the spring. Groundwater should be no closer than 1.5 m to the ground surface.
Walnut tree is unpretentious to the composition of the soil. But you will get a high yield if you prepare a garden bed properly before planting. The only thing that hazelnuts will not tolerate is sandy, strongly acidified and wetlands. The best option for him will be light, well-drained black soil.
If there are acidic, podzolic soils on the plot, be sure to treat the beds with lime at the rate of 500 g per 1 m2. Make it better a year before planting, otherwise - the young seedling will not take root in the garden. Immediately before planting, remove the weeds and dig the area (one and a half bayonet). Fertilize fertilizers in the upper layers of the earth for the best survival of seedlings - 50 g of potassium salt and 200 g of superphosphate. Dimensions of landing holes - 60 * 50 cm.
The most successful time for planting hazelnuts - early October. Since the tree has a very short period of rest, in the spring many seedlings do not take root. If you missed deadlines, then spring disembarkation is carried out in April-May.
Buy seedlings for planting hazelnuts in specialized nurseries. Pay attention to the root system of planting material - no traces of diseases and pests are allowed. If the individual roots are dried, cut off the affected parts. But strong pruning is not allowed - hazelnuts do not have enough strength for development.
Place the seedling in the hole in such a way that the trunk of the tree is 3–4 cm deeper into the ground than it was planted in the nursery. In this case, the root neck should not be covered with soil. The roots in the pit should be carefully straightened and thrown loose earth. After planting the plant, the near-stem circle is watered abundantly - 20-25 liters of water. And when moisture is absorbed into the soil, grumble the ground using sawdust, bark, wood chips or peat. Planted plant prune to 5-6 buds.
Ready for planting hazelnut seedling
If you plant several copies, then follow a specific pattern:
• distance between rows - 5-6 m,
• distance between plants - 4-4.5 m.
In the future, young shrubs may need support. There will be enough of a wooden peg hammered alongside. A young trunk is tied to it. An adult tree will no longer bend under the weight of foliage and fruit.
When the "trial" hazelnut gives the first harvest, you can expand the plantation, planting a few more specimens. Now it is not necessary to buy seedlings in the nursery - take planting material from the mother plant.
There are 3 ways of breeding hazelnuts:
• Seeds. Seed propagation is difficult. If you are not afraid of difficulties, select the nuts from the best bush. They can be planted in spring and autumn. When autumn sowing (late September), deepen the fruit by 4-6 cm in loose soil. The beds to ensure optimal temperature conditions must be mulched, otherwise the nuts will not hatch. Spring sowing involves preliminary stratification. Place the seeds in a nutrient substrate - peat, sawdust. The container should stand for 2 weeks in a warm place (18-22 ° C). And then you can take it to the basement - it is necessary to provide a temperature of + 1 ... -5 ° C. Here the fruits must be located until the landing on an open area. The best time for planting stratified fruits is early May. If high-quality seed material is chosen, by the beginning of autumn the seedlings reach a height of 25-30 cm.
Sprouted Hazelnut Seed
• Layering. Bend a healthy branch to the ground and lay in shallow grooves. To “fasten the twig, use special brackets. And the top of the escape length of 15 cm, place it vertically and tie it to a peg. In the period when young twigs begin to form from the buds, they are spud. When rooting will take place, "kids" can be separated and re-grown for another 1 year. This method is bad because the rooting of cuttings is slow.
Reproduction hazelnut layering
• Root growth. At the very base of the root shoots are formed branched roots - this is the root shoots. Carefully separate them from the mother tree and transfer them to a new location. Perform the procedure in the spring. Rooting can be accelerated by trimming a part of a bush. This method is the easiest, they often use novices for reproduction of hazelnuts.
How to protect hazelnuts from diseases and pests?
Many varieties of hazelnuts are resistant to diseases and invasions of insect pests. But if you did not plant such specimens on the plot, you will have to monitor the condition of the landings much more closely. The cause of the emergence of diseases (especially fungal) is the wrong conditions - drought, flooded soil, crown thickening.
The most common disease of hazelnuts, which many gardeners are forced to fight - powdery mildew. This is a fungus that infects the leaves and shoots. They are covered with a grayish sticky patina. Later, black spots appear on the mold. It is bad that the fungus can calmly winter the winter, returning later to the plant. If traces of powdery mildew are found on the foliage, remove the damaged parts of the plant and burn them. Hazelnuts can be sprayed several times with a 10-day break with a 2% solution of lime-sulfur decoction.
Powdery Mildew Damage
To prevent or get rid of insect pests already settled in the leaves, regularly inspect the twigs. The most dangerous bugs:
• Walnut Weevil. The insect females gnaw nuts — you can't eat them anymore. Hazelnuts can be freed from the nut weevil by digging deep around the trunk, as the larvae and adults live in the soil. Spraying will help with special products.
Damaged hazelnut hazelnut
• Walnut barbel. The bug hits the shoots of the plant, which affects the decrease in yield. Damaged branches eventually die off. Cut and burn affected stems, process the plant with special solutions.
Follow the planting hazelnuts - no diseases and pests will not be afraid of them.
Growing hazelnut in the garden: planting and care
In nature, common hazel and other species of hazelnut grow throughout the European part of our country, with the exception of the northern regions. These are mainly shrubs up to 6 m high, consisting of several trunks (up to 15 pcs.).
In garden conditions and in industrial cultivation, walnut height rarely reaches 5 meters. At the same time, the duration of fruiting hazelnuts reaches 30 years.
By the way, 80% of world volumes of hazelnuts are grown in Turkey, Italy and other Mediterranean countries.
The root system of the hazelnut is fibrous, located near the surface, and therefore prone to freezing in winter. That is why it is not recommended to remove the fallen from under the hazelnut. Under the bushes do not dig the soil, so as not to damage the roots. In summer, fallen leaves protect the soil from drying out.
Hazelnut Blossoms in April - early Maytherefore, regularly flowers and hazelnut ovary regularly die from spring frosts. Male flowers of hazel are collected in earrings, and female flowers grow on the tops of the twigs. Pollination of hazel flowers in natural conditions occurs due to the transfer of pollen by the wind, and in garden conditions due to preventive pollination by hand.
Hazel fruits ripen in August, and pererezrev hazelnut showered on the surface of the earth. The yield of a hazelnut bush reaches 18 kg of nuts, and an average of 5-6 kg.
Hazelnuts can be propagated by seeds (nuts), but it is better layering. Photo: Gardenerdy
Selected forms and varieties of hazelnuts are usually propagated by vegetative means (layering and cuttings), and wild hazelnut is well propagated by seeds. The depth of embedding nuts in garden conditions is 3-5 cm.
Hazelnut care simple: watering in the heat, protection from frost in the winter, regular pruning of old shoots in the spring and fertilizing with fertilizers (phosphorus-potash) in the summer.
The place for planting hazelnuts should be well lit by the sun - in the shade the yield of hazel is reduced.
Useful properties of hazelnuts
The beneficial properties of hazelnuts are well studied and applied for the benefit of mankind. First of all, hazelnut champion among the nuts on the content of manganese. Hazelnut kernels also contain a large amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium and copper.
Hazelnut is a nutritious nut, its caloric content is 628 kcal / 100 grams of product. Thus, hazelnuts are two to three times more nutritious than white bread and even chocolate.
By the way, if the hazelnut is damaged, the hazelnut starts to lose its useful properties quickly, therefore after six months of storing the kernels of hazelnuts in a peeled form, the hazelnuts dry out and are useless for the body as a medical product.
The caloric content of hazelnuts is compensated by a rich chemical composition. Hazelnut contains peanut butter, which inhibits the growth of blood cholesterol levels, thereby protecting the human cardiovascular system from atherosclerosis, despite the high content of fats in the kernels of nuts (58-71%).
Hazelnut is rich in proteins (up to 18%) and B vitamins (B1A b2A b6A b12), C and E, as well as minerals: potassium, iron, cobalt, etc.
Кстати, витамин E, содержащийся в ядрах фундука снижает вероятность развития раковых опухолей, а также улучшает работу сердца и мышц, вкупе с магнием (163 мг).
Масло из лесного ореха (фундука) применяется в косметологии для лечения кожи. Фото: spiritaroma.com
Калий (680 мг/100 грамм), содержащийся в фундуке улучшает работу мышечной системы в целом и сердечной мышцы в частности. Calcium (114 mg / 100 grams) strengthens the teeth and bone apparatus, and zinc helps the body to produce sex hormones.
No wonder hazelnuts are recommended for the prevention and treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system and anemia, strengthen the prostate gland, diabetes, trophic ulcers and thrombophlebitis. Diabetics can consume hazelnuts without risk to the body, due to the low carbohydrate content (17 grams per 100 grams) in the kernels of nuts.
Hazelnut being regularly eaten cleanses the body of toxins and toxins, strengthens the immune system and prevents the appearance of tumors. The greatest benefits from the use of hazelnuts are children and the elderly.
Harm from hazelnuts: to whom hazelnut is contraindicated
Unfortunately, along with the beneficial properties of hazelnuts go and harmful properties. What is useful to a healthy body can damage the body of the patient.
Hazelnuts are contraindicated for people suffering from diseases of the liver, intestines, stomach and pancreas in the acute phase. In case of chronic disease, it is recommended to consult with your doctor before eating hazelnuts.
You should not give hazelnut kernels to children and the elderly with severe diabetes and liver failure, as well as with individual intolerance. Allergies to nuts should also stop you from taking hazelnuts for food.
Hazelnut in large quantities causes a headache in the forehead (there is a spasm of cerebral vessels of the frontal lobe). The daily consumption rate of hazelnuts - 40 grams.
Hazelnuts and its products are good for health, but excessive consumption can have consequences. Photo: Sprouted Routes
Further care for hazelnuts
Care for hazelnuts should be as follows:
- loosening and weeding. Loosening is necessary in order to make the soil more friable and to allow air to penetrate to the roots. Together with loosening it is necessary to remove the roots of weeds, and then there will be no need for weeding. Loosening should be carried out to a depth of no more than 5-8 centimeters. Deeper loosening can damage the roots, and the plant will recover for a long time. Large weeds take the necessary moisture and nutrients from the seedlings. A large number of weeds flood the soil and make it more dense,
- watering. This procedure should be carried out frequently. If the weather is rainy, no watering is required. But in dry weather it is necessary to conduct 1-2 watering per month. Moreover, watering should be abundant. If it is possible to install a drip irrigation system, it will be the best option
- fertilizer. The plant must be fed when the soil is depleted. In the spring the plant needs to be fed with 15-20 liters of manure, compost, humus, wood ash and 100-200 grams of nitroammofoski. These components are well mixed and used to fertilize one plant. During the period of fruit formation it is necessary to support the plant with mineral fertilizers. For example, urea can be added. It is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers to poor soils. They are made in the spring so that the plant grows well and forms fruits. If the soil is nutritious, nitrogen fertilizers can not be applied. A large amount of nitrogen provokes a rapid growth of branches, which means that the yield will decrease,
- pruning. This procedure is necessary in order to slightly damage the crown of the plant and stimulate the formation of new fruit branches. Pruning is carried out in early spring or autumn. When pruning, you must leave 8-10 main trunks, and cut off all the rest. The cut is best done with a sharp pruner. The cut on the thick branches can be smeared with garden pitch and thus protect the place of the cut from pests and the onset of disease. This procedure is carried out for young plants, because after 3-4 years of growth, the plant begins to form side shoots, which are the basis of fruiting. In plants that have already been growing for more than 4 years, young shoots cannot be cut off, only old and damaged branches are cut off. The bush over the age of 15 years must be rejuvenated. For rejuvenation on the plant leave 2-3 adult stem, and the remaining branches are removed. At the site of the remote branches, new ones will be formed and it will be on them that fruits will be formed,
- shelter for the winter. So that the young root system does not freeze out during the winter frosts, it is necessary to arrange a shelter. In the fall, the plant is gently bent to the ground, tied and covered with a suitable material. For shelter often used lapnik.
Pests and diseases
- the main pests of hazelnuts, especially young specimens, are mice, hares and squirrels,
- They can also be affected by insects such as butterflies, caterpillars, nut weevils and barbel beetles. If any pests are noticed on the site, for example, unripe fruits fall from the shrub, the ground around the trunk is dug up and treated with chemicals,
- You can use a mechanical method. To destroy pests in this way, it is necessary to lay a light covering material under the crown and shake off the pests manually. Then they are collected from the surface of the material and destroyed. This method will be effective in infecting small plants. But for adult shrubs, it is not suitable.
Hazelnut disease powdery mildew can be distinguished. This disease can be noticed if black dots and spider mold appear on the leaves. To combat this disease, all the leaves of the plant are destroyed, and the remaining branches are sprayed with sulfur-lime mortar or another fungicide. The prevention of this disease is the collection and destruction of all fallen leaves. After that, the earth carefully dig.
Hazelnuts can be planted in any garden area, and care will be simple. A properly planted plant on a sunny plot can produce a fairly large crop. But before the harvest, you must wait a few years.