Perennial poppy - a beautiful plant with exquisite flowers. Despite the short flowering period, it still enjoys popularity among some gardeners. The flower was known in ancient Rome. In those days, as now, it was successfully used in medicine.
Poppy is a grassy plant belonging to the Poppy family. It happens to be perennial, annual and biennial. In total, there are about 100 of its species in nature, and in our country and in the near abroad - about 75.
Flowers solitary, regular shape, the stem is long and thin, sometimes pubescent, sometimes - smooth.
The carved leaves are in perfect harmony with the delicate shades of pink, scarlet, yellow, orange, white and even bicolor flowers.
Poppy fruits - boxes, as if closed on top of a carved round lid.
Types and varieties of poppy
Many of us are accustomed to the wild form of this flower: delicate scarlet petals with a black spot at the base of the bowl. But there are also many multicolored varieties of decorative perennial poppies of varying degrees of terry. Consider the most common ones.
The most common annual opium poppy. The flowers are of varying degrees of terry and color: pink, red, purple, violet, lilac, white. Height of a plant is on average 90 cm, diameter is about 15 cm.
In the gardens are often planted peony poppy, characterized by larger terry flowers.
There are a lot of varieties of this rather unpretentious and tender plant. We list the most beautiful:
- ‘Black cloud’. Annual plant. Stems tall (up to 1 m), straight, green. The peduncles are single, peony, dark purple flowers with a diameter of about 10 cm. The beginning of flowering - July-August, lasts an average of 30 days. This variety has a rather high resistance to cold.
- ‘Salmon cloud’. Annual plant. The leaves are gray-green, the stem is erect, up to 100 cm high. Terry orange-scarlet flowers, about 10 cm in diameter, begin to bloom in July. Duration of flowering an average of 30 days.
Perennial poppy. The plant is low (20-50 cm), the flowers are quite small (5 cm in diameter), but they are white, yellow, orange. Such beautiful flowers grow in abundance on Lake Baikal, in the upper Amur region, in Yakutia. The flowering period is June-July. The plant is widely used in medicine. One of the varieties - Atlant - a long-term poppy about 20 cm high. The flowers are single, white and yellow. Flowering begins in June and lasts 2 months.
Eastern poppy perennial
Of all the varieties of poppies that exist in nature, this is the most beautiful and beloved among gardeners. Planting poppies for many years and care will not require special knowledge and skills of agricultural technology. Sometimes there are some difficulties only when transplanting adult plants.
Large, beautiful, rich red buds of this perennial poppy bloom in early summer. Plant residual high. Stems can reach up to a meter in height. Poppy grows quite powerful bushes, and thanks to the efforts of breeders, it boasts a variety of colors, different texture of petals.
Oriental poppy perennial (planting and care will be discussed later in the article) can be propagated in several ways: by sowing seeds directly into the ground, by dividing the shrub and green shoots. Side shoots (cuttings) need to be rooted, it should take about two to three years for them to bloom. Replanting this plant is quite difficult, but still possible, even though the poppy does not respond very well to moving to another place.
Consider further the features of planting poppy perennial and care for this beautiful plant.
When sow poppy eastern?
If annual varieties of poppies begin to bloom in the year of planting, the perennial ones are likely to bloom next season (if they are sown in the fall). When planting in spring, flowers will appear on the bushes later than in autumn sowing. Poppies bloom to the beginning of summer.
The fruits of this plant is a box, covered with a “lid” on top. When it dries, small holes appear between it and the cap. If you leave a box with seeds on a bush, as a result of self-sowing through these holes, the seeds will spill out. And such a cycle will be repeated annually.
How to collect seeds?
This is easy: you need to wait until the boxes are completely dry, after which they are neatly cut and stored in a bag of thick fabric. You can also leave the grayish-black, small perennial poppy seeds in boxes or by removing the lid, pour the planting material into a glass container. Some right on the site wrapped with gauze flower heads. This method does not allow the seeds to wake up on the ground.
Planting poppy oriental perennial - is not at all difficult. Seed material is planted directly into the ground either in spring or autumn. As it was said earlier, flowers after sowing will appear in the second or even third year.
If the seeds are too small, they can not even deeply deepen, but only slightly pressed.
When planting seeds to get seedlings, when there are 5 young leaves, plants can be planted in beds or flower beds. But, as a rule, the seedling method is not used, and the seeds are immediately sown in a permanent place.
It is believed that for good germination poppy seeds need stratification. That is why experienced gardeners are advised to engage in sowing in early spring, when there is a chance of frost. If planting is carried out in a region with a mild climate, it is best to sow poppy seeds in the fall so that the seeds get the necessary stratification. In the spring they safely ascend.
Before planting a flower bed, you just need to loosen the ground with a rake and scatter the seed. Some flower growers mix it with sand. After that, the top seeds sprinkled with a thin layer of earth. In this case, the main thing is not to bury them much, since subsequently they may simply not have enough strength to ascend. The landing site needs to be watered, but at the same time without much water.
Peculiarities of Oriental Poppy Cultivation
This is a fairly unpretentious plant that can tolerate low temperatures well. But despite this, it loves sunny places, although it grows well and blooms in the shade. Like all flowers, a perennial poppy, care of which is not at all difficult, loves well-fertilized soil. To do this, use mineral dressing or compost and humus. It is good to plant seeds in sandy soil. The plant responds very poorly to abundant watering and stagnant water. Poppy garden perennial is not afraid of stones in the soil, grows well on sandy soil. Thanks to the root in the form of a long rod, it extracts moisture from the ground, and can do without watering for a long time.
This type of poppy reacts relatively well to transplantation, but this work is best done in the fall, when the rainy season comes. In order not to damage the roots, it is desirable to transplant the plant together with an earthy clod. So it takes root better.
When digging the soil under the flower bed, it is important to take into account the peculiarities of the core root system of this flower. The depth of digging should be at least 30-40 cm. In this case, it is advisable to immediately apply compost or humus (5-10 kg of organic fertilizer is added to each square meter of soil). At one place the flower grows well and blooms for 5-7 years, after which its place must be changed.
This perennial poppy (photo attached) has a large size, so even when planting (or transplanting) you need to take care that the distance between the bushes is at least 50-70 cm.
You can put mulch or peat. The flower will look more attractive. In addition, it will benefit the plant. Top dressing with mineral fertilizers can be carried out in the spring, during the period of leaf growth, and during budding, that is, immediately before flowering.
When to transplant oriental poppy?
Since this plant is a perennial, after 3-5 years it becomes a large spreading shrub that can be divided and propagated. To do this, completely remove the plant from the ground is not necessary, you can gently separate part of the rhizome from the side.
It’s impossible to say that Oriental poppy in a new place takes root well, but if you pay attention to it, provide proper care, surround you with care, the result will be successful.
It is important to take into account that the roots of the flower are rather fragile, therefore, in order to get a good result, it is better to separate the roots from the sides. The most optimal time for this operation is May, when the poppy has not yet begun to bloom. To minimize the risk of breaking the rhizomes, a part of the plant should be separated with a large lump of earth.
Reproduction by dividing the bush is good because after this procedure there is almost a 100% guarantee that all varietal characteristics of the species have been preserved. So new bushes will have the same decorative properties as the parent plant. For this, the poppy bush is completely removed from the ground along with a clod of earth, then very carefully divided into several parts. They are seated at a distance of about 70 cm from each other. It must be remembered that in the winter, in the first year of life, the plants will need to be hidden under any covering material.
It is also possible to propagate Oriental poppy by grafting. To do this, separated from the bush side shoots. Then, about a day, the resulting cuttings are kept in a disinfectant composition (a solution of “Kornevin” can also be used to stimulate root formation). At the end of this time, shoots are planted in containers with loose and moist soil, covered with transparent plastic disposable cups or plastic wrap. After the appearance of the roots, transplant the cuttings on the flowerbed. If you need to transplant a whole bush to a new place, they dig it together with the earthy clod immediately after flowering.
Oriental poppy in garden design
Unfortunately, poppy pleases with its bright beautiful flowering not for long.
In a flowerpot, cut flowers can stand no more than a day, and on a flowering bed - a maximum of 3 days. Then the plant begins to lose the petals, on the bud together there is only a box with seeds. But such a bush has a peculiar beauty. A rounded seed box is crowned with a “lid” with beautiful carved edges, and an elegant thin stem elevates it above other plants in a flower garden.
Oriental poppy is a tall enough plant that harmonizes with other flowers. It can be used as a background for undersized garden representatives or as a separate decorative part of the flower garden. You can put poppy behind the flower beds. In the period of its short flowering, it will show itself, so to speak, in all its glory, while neighboring flowers will only grow. So they will not obscure it during their flowering.
On the flower bed, as the main accent, the poppy harmoniously looks with geraniums, blue or white garden bells, oregano, yarrow, lupins, irises. Plants with ornamental leaves, such as astilbe or hosts, can act as a frame for poppy bushes. To close the bush after flowering, you can plant perennials next to it with wide spreading leaves, for example - trillium or buzulnik. Oriental poppy planted along the borders looks good, but one should not forget about its high growth.
It is advisable to have any support near the bushes, as the plant can lie on the ground under its weight.
Peculiarities of care
Caring for a plant after its flowering includes cutting the yellowed and dried leaves and stems - this is done if you do not plan to collect the seeds. The ground part of the plant is cut near the soil itself. At the beginning of autumn new leaves will appear, but not so tall and spreading. If you want to save the seeds, then after the end of flowering, everything is left as it is, waiting for the seed boxes to dry, then carefully cut them off. After collecting the seed material, the ground part of the plant is cut. Before the arrival of cold weather, bushes can be covered with mulch, but this is not necessary, since they are cold-resistant enough.
The plant can infect ashes (powdery mildew), black spot. The affected bush must be irrigated with special preparations containing copper in the composition, for example, copper sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, contact Maxim fungicide, and Topaz systemic fungicide. If the bush struck the disease, all affected shoots and leaves should be cut and burned, and the poppy itself should be fertilized with potash fertilizer.
In order to preserve the varietal qualities, the planting of a perennial poppy and its care must be carried out separately from its other species. This is necessary so that the flowers between them do not pollinate and do not change the varietal color and texture of the petals.
Having planted these lush and beautiful flowers in your flower bed, you will be able to admire them for several years.
Planting and maintenance in the open field
A place for perennial poppy in the open field should be chosen wisely, because taking into account the difficulties during transplantation, the plant will bloom on the same plot for about 10 years. Moreover, it is quite difficult to withdraw. Gardeners on forums often complain that even when they dig or replant a flower, it grows back in the same place.
Oriental poppy should be planted in the open sunny area. But it also grows well in partial shade. Avoid places prone to flooding in the spring, as excessive moisture can lead to decay of the rhizome of the plant. Sandy, mineral-rich soil is ideal. Planting time should be chosen in early spring or late autumn, so that the seeds can “harden” in the cold (the so-called stratification). This will increase their stamina and vitality.
The site should be rid of weeds and dig up the soil to a depth of 30−40 cm. It is necessary to fertilize the land with humus or compost. It will take from 5 to 10 kg of fertilizer per 1 square. m. Mineral dressing of 50 grams per 1 square meter will not be superfluous. m
Small poppy seeds can be mixed with sand for more uniform seeding. Since the seeds of this plant are very small, it is not necessary to bury them deeply in the ground, otherwise they may not rise. It is enough to slightly press down and sprinkle them on top of the soil. Then the ground must be watered, but also very moderately, so as not to wash away the sowing with a stream of water. To do this, you can use the sprayer.
In order for the seeds to germinate more quickly, the crop area can be covered with a film or glass, and the cover removed as soon as the first shoots appear. At this stage, the gardener should worry only about weeds, and that the land does not dry out around the sowing.
When sprouts appear, they are recommended to thinAfter leaving a distance of 10 cm between them. After a while, when the plant is still growing, the procedure must be repeated, this time increasing the distance to 30 cm. Large sprawling bushes grow from tiny seeds, so they need extra space.
With proper care, the gardener will receive an award for his work in the form of beautiful colorful flowers 2 years after planting.
Oriental Poppy resistant to coldtherefore, it does not need to be sheltered for the winter. And in the summer you can not water the flower at all. The bristles covering the stem, leaves and petals of the flower additionally increase its resistance to drought. Therefore, plant care is reduced to the most basic activities. The land around the poppy, closer to the root, can be compacted with compost or peat. It is not only useful for the plant, but also looks beautiful. Fertilize the soil should be in the spring, before the growing season, and additionally - when the buds appear. Poppy needs organic and mineral supplements.
Since the poppy is a perennial - a tall plant, it is recommended to make a support for himso that the stems do not bend and fall under the weight of the flower. When the short flowering period is over, the above-ground part of the plant needs to be cut. New shoots appear with the arrival of autumn. However, if there are plans to collect the seeds, the bush should be left intact.
Poppy fruits form the shape of a vase with a carved lid. Over time, they dry up, the greyish-green bags become brown. At this time, and you need to collect them. It is only necessary to cut the fruit from the stem. Seeds can be stored directly in a vase by placing the fruit in a tight bag, or remove the lid and pour the seeds into a glass bowl. If the fruits are not cut in time, the seeds will pour out through the holes in the lids, and poppy will randomly multiply, every year capturing more and more territory. To prevent this, it is also possible to tie the fruits with gauze fabric beforehand.
Oriental poppy can grow abundantly in one site for 5-7 years. After that, the flowering becomes weaker, so it is recommended to transplant the plant to a new place. It is best to do this in the fall, during the rainy season. You need to dig a plant carefully, along with a large piece of land, so as not to damage the delicate roots.
Размножение мака восточного многолетнего может производиться 3 способами:
- семенной способ,
- деление куста.
Выращивание мака из семян наиболее распространено. Семена можно купить в магазине либо самостоятельно собрать их с уже взрослого растения.
Размножение вегетативным способом на 100% гарантирует сохранение сортовых качеств цветка. For grafting using side shoots or rhizome. In the first version, the cutting should be placed in a disinfectant solution for 24 hours. To do this, you can also use the biostimulator "Kornevin." After the expiration of the established period, the stalk is transplanted into a previously prepared vessel with earth and covered with film. After the roots germinate, you need to transplant the escape into open ground.
For cutting through the rhizome, choose thick roots. The resulting cutting is required to be fully buried in the ground in an upright position. In this case, the upper cut of the rhizome should be straight, and the lower - to pass vertically. After a month or two, if you keep the ground moist and warm, the cutting will begin to germinate. Later it should be transplanted to another place.
Another vegetative reproduction method is bush dividing. It is necessary to completely dig up the adult plant, and then carefully divide it into several parts. The distance between the settled delenki should be 50 cm.
One caveat when planting poppies. Do not plant next to poppies of different varieties. Otherwise, in case of mutual pollination, they will lose their varietal qualities.
Oriental Poppy Varieties
Oriental poppy is of different varieties. Numerous cultivars of perennial poppy primarily differ in color and structure of the petals. Here are the most interesting ones:
- "Black and White" - a white flower with a black heart
- "Miss Piggy" - semi-double flowers of white and pink color
- “Papaver orientale Picotee” - semi-double white flowers with orange edging
- "Place pigalle" - white flowers with salmon-red edging
- "Fatima" - a white flower with corrugated pink edges and a black heart
- “Harvest Moon” - orange terry flowers
- "Little Dancing Girl" - light pink flowers with cherry spots
- "Fancy Feather" - terry flowers of salmon color. Narrow petals look like feathers
- Patty's Plum - Plum Blossom Flowers
- "Beauty of Livermere" - scarlet flowers with black spots and stamens
- "Danebrog" - a very rare variety with a white heart and red edging
Description: varieties and varieties of Eastern poppies
The Oriental (low-leaved) poppy is obliged by its origin and, accordingly, the name to the meadows of the Caucasus and Western Asia. This variety is considered one of the most beautiful among all the poppy families.
- stem - thick,
- height - from 30 cm to 1 m,
- leaves - elongated,
- buds - ovate, different shades,
- blooms in June.
Today, many beautiful varieties of perennial are bred:
- Salmon Glow - these poppies have a salmon color with a dark heart, semi-double,
- Markus Perry - the classic form of scarlet with ink stains,
- Pikoti - a bush with luxurious white flowers, bordered by a red stripe, and others.
Planting on the site
Oriental poppy has good vitality. It will even germinate on poor soil, but it is better to pick up a fertile, loose, well-aerated soil. In the acidic soil the flowers will be small. The plot should be sunny. In the penumbra, perennial will also grow and develop, but not as intensively as with sufficient light.
Before planting, you need to dig up the soil, fertilize it. Commonly used compost. On 1 square. m requires 5-10 kg. Sometimes 50 g of mineral supplements are added to this amount for the same area. If sowing seeds, do not bury them too much. The distance between the plants should be at least 0.6 m.
Attention! At one place poppy blooms well for 6-7 years, then it is recommended to update the garden bed.
- Watering. Regular, but not very plentiful.
- Weed removal. Mandatory care because poppy is very clean.
- Soil loosening. Provides air flow to the roots.
- Mulching. Will protect planting poppies from weeds and help keep moisture in the ground.
Fertilizer and dressing oriental poppy
In the spring it is necessary to make a mineral fertilizer for the bushes. In the vegetation phase, you can repeat the feeding. The use of liquid organic mixtures and mullein infusion is also allowed. It is made at the root, combining food with other procedures for the care of poppy seeds: watering and loosening.
Attention! All fertilizers need to be diluted according to the instructions.
Diseases and pests of culture
The peculiarity of the perennial poppy is that it is rarely overcome by insects. If, nevertheless, aphids, thrips, caterpillars appear on the perennial, add insecticides to the main care: Aktar, Aktellika and others. But much more often you can see on the plant signs of reproduction of ailments: root rot, downy mildew, black spot.
A photo with symptoms of diseases will help to put the correct diagnosis, and the problem of copper-containing drugs will eliminate the problem: Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate or Topaz, Maxim. Launched plants must be removed from open ground and burned.
Oriental poppy in a flower garden. Combination with other plants
In addition to all the advantages, there are varieties of poppy and several disadvantages that are not dependent on agricultural technology and care: a short flowering phase, rapid wilting, and after this - the rapid loss of decorativeness. The leaves turn yellow, die off, and an empty space remains in place of the flower, which can be seen even in the photo. These features must be considered when planning the landing site.
It is best to plant poppy in the background of a flower garden or garden, and in front of it - crops that will decorate the emptiness in the garden. It can be sprawling daylilies, silverweed, geraniums, cereals, asters. Successful will be the joint cultivation and the combination of poppy with oregano, Korean chrysanthemum, Cochia, cuff and many-flowered euphorbia.
Kosmey, laureate or tobacco will also make up a beautiful composition with a bright perennial. It looks good with cultures painted in lilac tones - for example, irises. It is possible to plant oriental poppies in open ground in groups or alone, decorating flowerbeds, rabatki, mixborders and even rocky gardens. He is quite capable of becoming both a bright element of a harmonious ensemble and a spectacular highlight in a flower garden.
Oriental poppy (small-leaved) is a species of grassy perennial from the Poppy family. The plant has powerful straight stems up to 1 meter high and green leaves up to 30 cm long with a large number of segments. At the beginning of summer large flowers appear on thick stalks — simple, double or semi-double. The classic color is fire red with a black spot at the base. There are peaches of peach, raspberry, cream, pink, salmon, white and purple, in some varieties of spots at the base of the petals or fringe. The diameter of the flower can reach 20cm. The flowering period of the plant is about a month, one opened bud lives on average about three days. Perhaps re-autumn bloom. In the second half of summer, a fruit box is formed about 3 cm long, filled with small seeds.
Poppy has been cultivated for thousands of years in many regions of the world, and it is used not only for decorating plots.
- Many nations associate with this plant the concept of sleep and death, it is used in religious rites.
- Red poppies - a symbol of soldiers killed in battles.
- Poppy is used in medicine for the manufacture of painkillers and sleeping pills.
- Poppy seeds - a delicious food product that is often used in cooking. It is added to the dough, sprinkled with small poppy seeds pastries.
- Dried flower shoots with boxes are used to make dry flower arrangements.
And, of course, poppy - a plant popular in decorative floriculture. A large number of varieties that are different in size, color and appearance of flowers, resistant to adverse growing conditions and diseases. After flowering, the plant loses its decorativeness and begins to dry out. It is cut, and in the area with poppies it is possible to grow annuals that bloom in the fall, for example, aster. It is also convenient to combine poppy with late flowering perennials - chrysanthemums or daylilies. Different periods of flowering plants allow the flower bed to maintain an attractive appearance for a long time.
Different species of flower pereopilyatsya among themselves. Oriental perennial poppy for seed breeding is grown separately from other species. This will preserve the specific properties: color, texture of petals and other features of the plant.
Rhizome perennial poppy
For cultivation of the eastern perennial poppy use several methods.
Oriental poppy is a perennial that grows over time. It can be in one place for more than 10 years, but it is better to plant a flower about once every 5-7 years. This can be done in May, while the plant is not yet blooming. The procedure is also allowed after flowering. A bush with an earthy clod is dug and divided into several parts. Rhizome brittle, so do the work carefully. The resulting delenki immediately planted in a prepared place at a distance of 50-70 cm from each other. Young specimens before rooting need special care - frequent watering. The first year after transplanting the plants for the winter is wrapped with a layer of dry leaves or spruce branches, and later they overwinter without shelter.
This method is often used for particularly valuable varieties. He guarantees that all varietal and decorative signs of the mother plant will be preserved.
If the poppy planting is completely transferred to a new location, even the smallest parts of the rhizome are carefully removed during transplantation. If they remain in the soil, they can easily grow and eventually spread over the site.
- Reproduction root processes.
You can separate the side of the fragment rhizome poppy, not digging the plant. It is carefully cut with a disinfected instrument before flowering - in April or early May. Sections are treated with crushed charcoal. Planted in the prepared area. The interval between flowers is kept from 30 to 50 cm - depending on the desired effect and the type of plant.
Growing from seed is the most popular breeding method. If on the plot with poppies the fruits are ripe - boxes, then the next year self-seeding often occurs. To ensure reproduction, seeds are harvested and sown.
How to plant poppy seeds?
Poppy can be sown in spring and autumn. Autumn sowing is carried out in pre-prepared soil before winter. Stratification is useful for seeds, therefore in regions with a mild climate, it is desirable to carry out work at this time.
Spring sowing in open ground is carried out early, before the onset of stable heat. Plants tolerate cold. In the excavated area, the seed is dispersed and lightly sprinkled with a thin layer of loose earth. It is impossible to deepen small seeds, in this case they may not have enough strength to grow.
If desired, you can grow seedlings in advance. Small seeds should be planted in containers with nutrient soil in early spring. They are not buried deep in the soil, but scattered on the surface of the earth and then slightly pressed into the soil and covered with a film. Seedlings germinate in about two weeks, they need coolness and plenty of light. The covering material is removed, and when the second true leaf appears, the seedlings gently swoop. The flower does not tolerate the transplant and may die if you do not work carefully. Flowers are planted at a permanent place of cultivation, when five leaves appear on them. When transplanting, they try to dig poppies with a large lump of soil and carefully transfer them to a new area. The plant may bloom in the same year, but some varieties of perennial poppy flowers please only 2-3 years after sowing.
For good growth and beautiful flowering Maca does not need to create conditions of increased comfort, it is an unpretentious plant.
- Eastern Mac will enjoy sandy loose soil without stagnant water. On poor lands with high acidity, flowers are shrinking.
- The most suitable place will be an open and sunny area, but with a slight shading the flower also grows well. In shady places, flower buds are worse tied, in some cases, flowering does not occur at all.
- Oriental poppy is quite drought-resistant perennial. Its long taproot allows you to find moisture deep in the ground. It can grow without watering, but regular humidification provides a more lush flowering. Many varietal plants tolerate periodic drought poorly. Stagnant water can lead to rotting of the roots.
- The soil before planting is fertilized with humus (5-10 kg per square meter of land) and mineral fertilizer (30-50 g per square meter). Then they dig it to a depth of 30-40 cm. Subsequently, nutrients are introduced 1-2 times per season.
- Regular loosening will help to provide poppy air flow to the roots. At the same time, weeds are removed at the site, and then the soil is mulched with peat or other materials.
- Large perennial poppies during budding need to provide support. A tall stalk is tied to it with rather wide ropes. Thin nylon threads are not used - they damage the stems.
- After flowering, dying foliage and stem are cut at ground level. By autumn, smaller leaves will grow. If you need to collect the seeds, then the procedure is carried out after the ripening of the fruit-boxes.
- Poppy can withstand temperatures down to -40 degrees. Adult bushes do not require additional shelter for the winter, but it is better to take care of frost protection for rare and varietal species. They are covered with dry leaves.
If you do not plan to collect poppy heads for seeds, they are pruned after flowering. This prolongs the period of flowering of plants, because the flower spends a lot of energy on the ripening of fruit-boxes.
Pests and diseases
Poppies can suffer from powdery mildew. Signs of the disease - white bloom on the leaves, which eventually turns brown and darkens, the spots merge and completely cover the entire surface of the leaf plate. The flower grows worse, and with significant damage may die.
Bacteriosis of poppy is manifested by greenish-brown spots on the leaves, which grow and move to the seed boxes.
The areas of a plant infected with these diseases break off and destroy. For treatment, spraying of copper oxychloride (40 g of the drug per 10 liters of water), Bordeaux liquid, Topaz or Maxim is carried out. For the prevention of diseases in the fall, all plant residues are burned, they do not plant poppies in shady places, they use healthy seed and do not allow overmoistening.
The main pests that harm poppies:
To combat parasites, plants and the soil around them are treated with insecticides according to the instructions.
The blossoming poppy decorates beds with bright lights of the inflorescences. It is used to design alpine slides, mixborders and rockeries. On lawns grown in groups, creating flower gardens in a rustic style. He perfectly revive any flower arrangement.
When to sow oriental poppy?
If one-year-old poppies bloom in the same year, then perennial, most likely, will show the world their buds for the next season (for example, if you sow seeds in the fall). If you sow in the spring, the flowers on the bushes will appear later than the autumn sowing. By the very beginning of summer, for only 2 weeks poppies bloom. The poppy fruit is like a box covered with a “lid” on top, when this box dries up, small holes are formed between it and the lid. If you leave the seed boxes on the bushes, then by self-sowing, the seeds will spill out through these very holes. This cycle can be repeated annually if not to collect the boxes.
How to collect poppy seeds east? There is nothing difficult here: you need to wait until the boxes are completely dry, carefully trim them, store in a tight tissue bag. You can leave small, grayish-black seeds right in the boxes, or you can remove the cap, pour the seed into the glass container. Sometimes on the plots you can see flower heads wrapped with gauze cloth - this is also one of the ways to collect seeds, which does not allow the seeds to wake up on the ground. As you know, poppy seeds can be used not only for cultivation of flowers, it is also a food product that is widely used in cooking.
Seed boxes, photo:
How to sow oriental poppy? Sowing material is buried in specially designed beds or directly into the ground right in the spring, if it is in the winter, then in the fall. As mentioned above, after sowing the flowers appear in the second or third year.
The seeds themselves are very small, they don’t even need to be deeply buried, you can only press them lightly, cover them with special material for plants from above. If the seeds were sown with the purpose of obtaining seedlings, then at the phase of emergence of 5 young leaves of the plant can be dug and planted in flower beds or beds. However, most often this seedling method is not used, but seeds are immediately sown for the intended permanent residence of the flower.
Oriental poppy, photo:
There is such an opinion that for subsequent comfortable germination poppy seeds need stratification, that is, “shake” with cold. That is why experienced gardeners recommend sowing in early spring, when the probability of frost is still high. If you live in regions with a mild climate - sow poppies in the fall, so the seeds will get the necessary stratification, with the arrival of spring they will safely grow. На месте будущего цветника просто взрыхлите землю граблями, рассыпьте посевной материал, иногда его смешивают с песком – тут уже на ваше усмотрение. Сверху семена присыпаются тонким слоем рыхлой земли. Главное – не сильно заглублять их, так как впоследствии им просто не хватит сил вытянуться наверх. Место посадки следует поливать, но аккуратно, не заливая водой.
How to grow oriental poppy?
This plant is quite unpretentious, tolerates low temperatures well. Despite the fact that it prefers sunny places, it also grows well, it blooms in the shade. Like all flowers, poppies love the soil rich in mineral dressing, you can also pre-fertilize it with compost or humus. Good results are obtained when planting in sandy soil, under any circumstances they react very badly to stagnant water, too much watering. This plant is not afraid of stones in the soil, it grows well in sandy soil. Due to its long rod-shaped root, it extracts moisture from the ground, and can do without irrigation for a long time.
This variety of poppy reacts relatively well to transplanting; however, this process is best carried out with the onset of autumn when it rains. In order to avoid damage to the roots, for better survival, transplantation of the Eastern poppy should be carried out together with the earth clod. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the core root system of the flower, therefore the depth of digging the soil at the place of the future flower garden should be at least 30-40 cm. During this process it will be advisable to apply compost or humus, from 5 to 10- ti kg of similar organic fertilizers.
You should know that the maximum period of comfortable growth, abundant flowering of poppy in the same area is about 5-7 years, after which his place of residence should be changed. This representative of the plant world is of large size, so even when planting (and transplanting), take care that the distance between the bushes is approximately 50-70 cm.
If around the bushes you lay peat or mulch, it will not only look aesthetically attractive, but will benefit the flower. The plant can be fed with mineral fertilizers with the advent of spring, during the growth of leaves, as well as during budding, that is, before the flowering itself.
When to replant poppy eastern?
Since this plant is a perennial, you can imagine what size it can reach in 3-5 years of life. The big sprawling bush can be divided, thereby propagating it. To do this, it is not necessary to completely remove the plant from the soil, you can try to carefully separate the fragment of rhizome from the side.
It’s impossible to say that Oriental poppy gets accustomed to the new place very well, but if you pay attention to it, surround it with care, the result will be crowned with success.
It should be borne in mind that its roots are quite fragile, so for best results, separate the roots from the sides. The best time for this operation is the month of May, when the plant has not yet begun to bloom. To minimize the risk of breaking the rhizome, a detachable fragment should be covered with a large lump of earth. When it is possible to transplant an Oriental poppy, the Internet will help you find a lot of recommendations for this question, where the flower's resting period is mentioned. It turns out that after the plant ottsvetet, the procedure for dividing the rhizomes can also be carried out.
The method of reproduction by dividing the bush is still good because after the procedure, it gives almost 100% guarantee that all varietal characteristics of the species are preserved. Thus, the new bushes will have similar decorative features, like the mother plant. To do this, the poppy bush is completely removed from the soil along with an earthy clod, after which it is extremely carefully divided into several fragments. These parts are called delenki, they are seated, keeping a distance of 70-80 cm from one another. Remember that with the onset of winter, in the first year of life, such plants will need to be covered with a special covering material.
It is also possible reproduction of Eastern poppies by grafting. To do this, separate the side shoots from the bush; weak representatives are usually chosen for this role. After cutting, the cuttings are kept in a disinfectant composition for about 24 hours (you can also use the “Kornevin” solution to stimulate root formation). At the end of the specified time, the shoots are planted in containers with wet, loose soil, covered with plastic wrap or transparent disposable (plastic) cups. After the formation of the roots, the cuttings are transplanted to a flower bed. If for any reason it is necessary to transfer the whole bush to a new place, it should be dug out with an earthy clod immediately after the end of flowering.
Oriental poppy in garden design
Unfortunately, the bright beauty of poppy is short-lived. A cut flower will stand in a flowerpot for no more than one day, and it blooms in a flowerbed - a little more, about 2-3 days. After this time, the plant loses the petals, in the place of the bud remains a box with seeds. It should be noted that such a bush also has a peculiar beauty. The rounded seed box is crowned with a “lid” with carved edges, and a thin graceful stem elevates it above other plants.
Oriental poppy is a very tall plant that looks very harmonious with other flowers. It can be used as a background for more stunted garden representatives, as well as a separate decorative element of the flower garden. It is very convenient to place the poppy in the background of the flowerbed, during the short flowering period it will show itself in all its glory, while its neighbors will only grow. Thus, other flowers will not obscure it during flowering, and later faded flowering bushes will hide when they grow and give color to themselves.
On the flowerbed, as the main accent, it will harmoniously look with geraniums, oregano, white or blue garden bells, yarrow, irises, lupines. Plants with decorative leaves, such as hosts or astilbe, can act as a frame for a poppy bush. To close a bush after flowering, plant other perennials next to it, which have wide spreading leaves, for example, buzulnik or trillium. Oriental poppy looks good, it is planted along the border; however, one should be aware of its high growth.
Poppy with clematis, photo:
It is desirable that some kind of support be present near the bushes, otherwise the plant under its weight may simply lie on the ground. This flower perfectly complements the atmosphere of the garden in a rustic style or the style of "Provence". Remember that poppy does not tolerate excessive moistening of the root system. If there are places on the site that are subject to flooding during the spring thaw, a flower garden or flower bed cannot be placed there. The sunny side of the plot with fertile soil is the best place for poppy, there it will grow in all its glory, it will delight you with magnificent color.
Sometimes on the flower forums you can see such a question - why doesn’t the Oriental poppy bloom? If the plant was planted by sowing seeds, then in the second or even third year of life it can produce only one or two buds. Usually this is followed by a burst of active flowering. If you plant it in a very shady place, the setting of flower buds can slow down significantly. Due to the lack of proper care, the poppy may also not give flowers. Damage to the roots, such as loosening too much, can also be the cause of the absence of buds. Recovery of the plant after such an injury is rather slow. Replanting a bush from place to place is another reason for the temporary lack of flowers (it takes time for the poppy to take root).
Care for oriental poppies after flowering is cutting the yellowed, dried stems, leaves - this is done if you do not plan to collect seed. The ground part of the plant is cut near the ground, by the beginning of autumn new leaves appear, but not so sprawling and high. If you want to save the seeds, after the end of the flowering period, leave everything as it is, wait until the seed pods are completely dry, and then carefully cut them off. After collecting the seeds, the ground part of the plant is to be pruned, by the arrival of cold weather you can cover the poppies with mulch, but not necessarily, because they are quite cold-resistant.
It is also worth mentioning the diseases that can affect the plant - a fungus of black spot, ash (powdery mildew). The affected bush is recommended to irrigate with preparations containing copper in its composition. Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate (copper sulfate), contact Maxim fungicide, systemic Topaz fungicide will help you out. If the disease manifests itself, then all the affected leaves, shoots should be cut, burned, and the plant itself should be fertilized with potash fertilizer.
For a longer flowering, prune the poppy seed heads in a timely manner, of course, if you do not plan to collect seed. In order to preserve its varietal qualities of the Oriental perennial poppy, it must be planted and maintained separately from other poppy species. These are needed so that the flowers do not pereopilya among themselves, subsequently did not change the varietal color, the texture of the petals. Plant these lush flowers in your garden - you will be able to admire them for many years.
Features of planting and cultivation
If you want to plant a plant at your dacha, first of all find the right place. It should be well lit by sunlight and be protected from wind gusts. Now take care of the ground, pre-fill the humus.
Perennial propagated by seed method and division of the bush. After the poppy has been planted, seeds will spill out of the flowers and the plant will appear again and again.
But this does not mean that care for poppy seeds is not needed, often such sprouts are weak and often do not tolerate cold winters. Most gardeners grow perennial from seeds that are sown in late summer, July or August.
It is necessary to take care of the constancy of the place where poppies are grown, since after the first transplant the plant may die. If reproduction is carried out by dividing the bush, then it is done in the summer, after the flower has completely bloomed.
Turkish or Oriental poppy in turn is divided into the following types:
"Perry White" - the flowers in this variety are white. Inside the poppy there is a black spot. Perennial reaches a height of 90 cm.
"Marcus Perry" - refers to the classics, has bright orange-scarlet flowers, in each of its petals there is a black speck at the base. In height, this species also reaches 90 cm.
Salmon Glow is a type of terry poppies. The color is salmon orange.
"Goliat" - the same descriptions, only the color of the poppy is red.
We provide the right care
Oriental poppy can be attributed to plants with such features:
- Drought tolerance.
- Frost resistance.
The main disadvantage of the plant is that it does not tolerate the transplant, especially if the flower is too young.
Since all flower varieties like well-lit places, it is necessary to select a plot for planting a light plant with already cultivated soil.
The development cycle of the Turkish poppy is as follows:
- May - a leafy rosette appears.
- From June to July - flowering.
- August - the complete death of the leaves.
- The end of summer - the beginning of autumn - a new formation of a leafy rosette.
Sometimes autumn flowering occurs in oriental poppies, but the flowers are small and weak.
The main method of reproduction - seed
As mentioned above, the eastern poppy breeds mainly seeds. They are sown either directly into the ground, or on a planting bed, which serves as a temporary place. This is done in the fall or spring.
Flowers usually appear after 2-3 years, but some varieties may please you with their flowering in the first year of planting (for example, Allegro variety).
Since poppy seeds are too small, do not bury them in the soil, just lightly rub the soil over the seeds.
After that, the ground is covered with a special material or film. After five leaves have appeared from the soil, the plant together with the earth is transplanted to a permanent place.
Application in landscape design
Most often, the plant is used as a decorative plantings. Large bright flowers of Turkish poppy will give charm to any flower garden.
But, as it was found out, poppy tends to fade quickly, so if you don’t want to find a “bald” flowerbed in a couple of days, plant other flowers at the same time.
Creating the composition of the flower bed, it is also worth considering the high pedicels of the Oriental poppy, therefore it is planted mainly at the end of the flower bed or flower bed, placing low plants in front of it (asters, chrysanthemums, daylilies, and purple).
From the dried bolls of the plant, make up beautiful compositions in the style of ikebana. If you plant an Oriental poppy in a flowerpot, it will bloom only for one day, on a flower bed its flowering will last two or three days.
When the petals fall off, there is a box full of seeds. Many connoisseurs of beauty note that in this state, poppies also have their charm.
Above the round seed box there is a foxglove with carved edges, all of which is erected on a thin, long stem that dignifies over other flowers.
You should not plant this plant alone, it is perfectly combined with other flowering herbs. If you plant poppies in the background, they will rise above other flowers. During the flowering period, poppies stand out with respect to their stunted neighbors, and when their leaves fall off, the same neighboring plants will be able to hide the bare stem of the poppy.
Plant poppies in the eastern or western part of the house, and these beautiful flowers will grow quickly in partial shade, giving the shaded area bright colors.
How to plant an Oriental poppy, how to care for it, see the tips in the following video:
Varieties and types
Oriental poppy has numerous varieties. Thanks to the selection, plants of different heights were obtained, with petals of unusual shape and amazing shades. Garden forms of oriental poppy with white, pink, orange, lilac, purple flowers, with smooth, toothed, terry petals can be found almost all over the world. Most different varieties of oriental poppies are of hybrid origin. To date, there are more than two hundred species of Oriental poppies.
Choosing a place
Oriental poppy is a light-loving plant, prefers bright, open areas, quietly growing with a slight shade. When planning a landing site, you should know that poppies look most spectacular in the center of the flower garden, in sunny glades.
All members of the Poppy family react extremely badly to all kinds of transplants. As a result, the site for planting should be chosen with special care, since the poppy will grow there for many years. The best option would be a small hill, because the poppy does not tolerate constantly wet ground and stagnant water. If it is not possible to create such conditions, a good drainage layer is made to drain excess water before planting.
Peduncles, quite high and under the influence of the wind can break. To prevent such a situation, you should install supports and tie stalks to them.
Oriental poppies are able to live on almost any water-permeable soil, however, like all plants, it grows more actively and blooms on fertile, loose soil.
To fertilization poppy reacts rapid growth, lush and bright flowering. Top dressing can be entered throughout the entire growth period. On a poor, sandy soil, the plant blooms less luxuriantly; on such a ground, poppy flowers shrink.
At one place, poppy is abundantly and actively blooming for no more than 5-7 years, after which it should be moved to another place. Growing up, the poppy bush can take up a lot of space. In order not to thicken the planting, the distance between the plants should be approximately 50-70 cm.
During the entire growing season, the eastern Maca needs timely, moderate watering. The land around the plant should not dry out, but it is also dangerous to flood with water, excessive watering, stagnation of water can cause rotting of the roots and the death of the plant. A long stem stem can go deep into the ground, providing the plant with nutrients and extracting moisture from the soil, as a result, the flower can stay for a long time without watering.
The plant is thermophilic, but also frost-resistant, in the cold period of the year, it is able, without additional shelter, to survive a drop in temperature to -35 degrees.
The plant does not like transplants, resort to this procedure should be in cases of extreme necessity, with the threat of death of the flower. Transplantation carried out in the autumn, after flowering. It is necessary to try to remove the flower from the root while preserving the coma of the native land. And given that the poppy root is long, it will have to be done very carefully, trying to dig it out completely and not damage it.
After completion of flowering, the oriental poppy shrub is cut to the very root. Since, after the flower withers, all the foliage turns yellow and falls, the bush loses all attractiveness. After some time, new leaves will appear from the basal rosette, a little smaller in size than the previous ones. Full pruning is carried out if there is no purpose to collect seed.
If there is a need to preserve poppy seeds, the bush is pruned only after the seed pods ripen. После сбора семян, куст обрезают у самой земли.
Растение довольно морозоустойчивое, укрытие на холодный период года не обязательно, при желании можно укрыть маки мульчей.
Болезни и вредители: способы лечения
Насекомые — вредители на растение нападают редко, в основном только тля. А вот различные болезни могут часто поражать мак. При нарушении несложных правил по содержанию, восточный мак может заболеть:
- грибком черной пятнистости,
- powdery mildew,
- root rot.
Upon detection of the affected parts of the bush, they are immediately cut off and destroyed by burning. To prevent further spread of the disease, the plant is treated with Bordeaux mixture, copper sulphate, Maxim and Topaz fungicides.
How to propagate the eastern perennial poppy
Oriental poppy can be propagated in different ways - by dividing the bush, cuttings and seeds.
Seed method is the most accessible and simple, because of which, in most cases, it is used in the reproduction of poppy.
Seeds are sown in early spring or late autumn. For a healthy, robust plant, poppy seeds must be stratified. To this end, sowing into the soil is carried out with a high probability of frost. In the fall, poppies are sown in November, when the soil has cooled and its temperature does not rise above 3-5 degrees, otherwise the poppy may germinate and seedlings will die with the onset of winter. Since the cold ground and low air temperature is not an obstacle for seed germination. When sown in spring, seeds are sown as soon as the snow melts.
Flowering plants obtained from seeds should be expected no earlier than in 2-3 years.
All vegetative methods require pre-rooting, these methods are more labor-intensive. Oriental poppy is not always well acclimatized in the new place, it should take at least 2-3 years for the plant to give color.
A large, spreading bush at the age of 3-5 years can be divided, thereby propagating it.
With this method, you can not dig up the bush entirely, it is enough just to the side, carefully separate the fragment of rhizome. In various literature on gardening, it is advised to make the division of the bush in the spring before flowering, or later - in the fall. In any case, the rhizome should be divided, keeping a large amount of native land, since the roots are quite fragile and can be easily damaged.
Also, the division produces a fully excavated plant. It is good to divide a poppy bush when transplanting an adult plant to a new place. A large bush, with the help of a knife, is neatly divided into parts. Fragments are planted at a distance of 50-70 cm from each other.
The method of reproduction by dividing the bush allows you to get identical to the parent plant, with a 100% guarantee of preservation of varietal characteristics of the species.
However, young plots are very vulnerable and may die under the influence of the weather. With the onset of cold weather, in the first year of life, such plants need shelter.
Sowing seeds in autumn
The prepared soil is divided into grooves up to 3 cm deep, at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other. Bringing seeds, sprinkled them with earth. Poppy should not be deeply buried in the ground, a large layer of earth can prevent seeds from germinating. They just do not have enough strength to break through to the surface. Seeds "wake up" as soon as the snow melts and the soil warms up by 3-5 degrees.
Sowing seeds in spring
As soon as the snow melts, and the temperature of the soil will be slightly above 5 degrees, the seeds are introduced into the prepared soil. Optionally, you can make grooves, and you can simply pour the seeds on the surface of the earth, while they sprinkle them with a small layer of sand. When spring planting poppies, beds should be covered with cellophane to create a greenhouse effect. Shoots will appear in 10-14 days, during this period, the soil is maintained in a moderately moist state.
As soon as sprouts appear, the greenhouse is removed. Should protect young plants from direct sunlight. Weather in spring is extremely unstable, there is a high probability of frost. In such cases, young shoots covered with a film or other covering material.
In order not to thicken the planting, the seeds are laid out at some distance from each other. Otherwise, seedlings will have to thin out when the second sheet appears.
Why does not poppy bloom
The reasons why the plant is not happy with bright flowers, there can be several:
- The plant is too young.
The first few years, the eastern poppy grown from seed, spends on the formation of the root system. By the second or third year of life, the plant can produce 1-2 peduncles. Only after this bush can be expected to full, lush, bright bloom.
- An unsuitable place for a flower.
If the plant grows in a very shaded place, it can significantly affect the formation of flower buds.
- Mistakes in the care of the flower.
Although the eastern poppy is considered to be a rather unpretentious flower, yet lack of attention, lack of proper care can cause the absence of buds. Too deep and active loosening can cause damage to the root system. The plant spends all its strength in restoring and healing the wound.
"Moving" from one place to another, the plant carries very hard. In most cases, the next year, after transplanting, the bush may be left without flowers.
You should know that, according to the current legislation, the cultivation of Eastern poppy in Russia is prohibited. And all because of the presence of narcotic and hallucinogenic, toxic substances in its composition. For example, an Oriental poppy contains oripavine, included in the official list of narcotic drugs.
If you have doubts whether the plant belongs to the forbidden or not, you should pay attention to the seed box, if it is large, then most likely this type of poppy belongs to the forbidden and you should not grow it.
For the cultivation of oriental poppies in small quantities, no more than 6-9 bushes, may impose an administrative fine. Even for one bush can be fined. Criminal liability is incurred only for growing “drug-containing” plants on a large or extra large scale. For this, the eastern poppy on the site must be at least 10 plants, regardless of their size.