One of the most charming flowers in the garden is hesperis. Vechernika Matrona (this is how his name is translated from the Latin language) includes about 30 different types. It is found in the wild in the Caucasus, the Mediterranean, Western Siberia, as well as in Eastern Europe.
Cultivate the plant began in Europe in the 16th century. In our country, the flower was introduced in the 18th century. Matrona decorated the lawns, flowerbeds and paths of landowner estates with an evening party. Today, this beautiful flower is used for various compositions in the gardens and gardens. To independently breed Hesperis, you need to know the features of this process.
Vespers Matrona, she is night violet or Hesperis Matrona (Hesperis matronalis) belongs to the Cabbage family. Despite the fact that in appearance these flowers do not look so regal as roses, dahlias or lilies, but the extraordinary tenderness, simplicity and magical fragrance make this flower somehow native, simple and natural.
Not a single garden plot or flowerbed in our area is complete without these lovely flowers. Yes, and in flower compositions, this plant for a long time retains a fresh look and favorably emphasizes the beauty of the bouquet.
Usually Matrona Vespers is a perennial or biennial flower. It is popular and widely known. Sometimes it is called by this name - "bull phlox" because of the external similarity of these two garden plants. By the second half of August and until September, this decorative flower grows widely and stretches to about 1 meter.
In the 16th century, Matrona's Supperbox appears in Europe, gaining fame, and in 18 years already becomes the favorite of Russian gardens, manor plots and parks. The homeland of the plant is considered the Eastern Mediterranean, Central Asia.
- The matron has a slightly pubescent sturdy stem that branches upwards.
- The leaves have a rich bright green color, narrow in diameter - only 3 cm, but long (more than 10 cm) and pointed at the top of the leaf. The shape of the oval and lanceolate, also have a slight pubescence. Grow thickly.
- In the upper part of the stem on high peduncles inflorescences are located, which are similar in color and structure to the branches of ordinary lilac. Sepals have a straight shape, and at the base of the bag-shaped.
- Petals are white, lilac color, shades of pink. A flower about 2 cm in diameter has 4 petals, which are arranged crosswise. The ovary is sessile, the column with petals is short in size. The snout is bilobed in shape.
- The night violet also has fruits - linear-shaped pods, slightly flattened, tetrahedral.
There are more than 50 species of Matrona Vespers in total, and in the central European part of Russia there are mostly only 11, here are some of them:
- Supper two-edged.
- Vespers Persian.
- Vespers night violet.
- Evening party Steven.
Terry varieties (purpurea plena) with pinkish-red fluffy terry inflorescences are also derived. But it should not be confused with matriole two-legged. She is also mistakenly called some flower growers by the night violet, but these are completely different plants.
The beginning of flowering in the bush comes at the end of spring and lasts up to one and a half months. Although in sultry arid summer with low precipitation, hesperis quickly blooms.
Matrona Vespersch multiplies with the help of brown seeds, which have excellent germination. They can be used for planting for about two years.
Reproduction night violets
This flower is perfectly capable of breeding self-sowing. No special effort required. But if you wish, you can propagate hesperis rassadnym way.
If you decide to transplant some of the bushes, then it is desirable that the root system was with a clod of soil in which it grew. This can be done even with flowering plants.
- It is better to land in the first warm June days directly on the plot to the ground.
- Pre-seeds are planted in bowls or small pots. This solves the weed problem.
- If, after all, seeds are sown just in the ground, then not deeply and not too often. Need to keep some distance between seedlings.
- If the method of breeding hesperis from seedlings is chosen, then it should be started in the first decade of April. Drawers are taken, the earth is prepared and seeds are poured on top.
- Top of them can be sprinkled with a small layer of soil (about 0.5 cm), which consists of humus and peat.
- Then the earth is compacted and moistened.
- Cover with foil or glass. It is important to periodically open the sprouts to get fresh air, and the mold does not start, and spray to avoid dryness of the soil.
- The air should preferably be heated to 18 - 20 degrees Celsius. Then after 2 - 3 weeks, small shoots appear. During sprouting it is very important to ensure timely moderate watering of the germinated seeds of hesperis.
- The appearance of several large leaves suggests that it is time to replant the escape to a flower bed. The distance between seedlings should be at least 30 cm.
Hesperis blooms for the first time a year after planting, but if you plant early, then in the current season you can wait for several flowering shoots. In the first year, the plant increases its leaf mass. Seeds can multiply Matrona Supper in the fall, before frosts, and in the spring - when the earth is already warm.
Terry varieties multiply in such a way as dividing a bush. This process is carried out in late summer or early September.
There is another such option - some gardeners in the autumn season cut off the upper parts of the shoots with pods (fruits of night violet) and determine them to the free space on the plot. In the spring, there appear enough seedlings from the pods, which can then be transplanted.
This flower loves both well-lit places and partial shade. It also adapts well to shaded areas.
The composition of the soil should be light, fertile, neutral or slightly alkaline (the percentage of lime is small). The plant does not tolerate too much moisture and moisture, but also does not like drought. Therefore, watering should be necessary, but in moderation.
The soil should not only be dry, but it is also advisable to loosen it regularly so that the root system receives enough oxygen and does not rot.
In winter, the night violet will not require any special shelter, as it normally carries frost. A snow cap serves as protection. But if there is no snow, then you can cover with spandbod.
Matrona's party can be slightly trimmed so that the shrub looks neater. It is also recommended to remove dried inflorescences and leaves, then the process of flowering at night violet will be a little more. And in the spring the plant often crumbles under the snow, so in early spring the leaves that have sprung out are removed.
In order not to break the shoots and bend under the weight of inflorescences in spring and summer, you need to tie up supports or twigs as needed.
Pests and diseases are almost not afraid of hesperis. Sometimes the lower leaves near the soil can precipitate caterpillars or slugs, and at times cruciferous flea plants precipitate, but after washing the sheets and stems thoroughly, you can get rid of pests rather quickly. Root rotting occurs due to over-wetted soil.
Where to plant the Matrona Supper
A set of multicolored violet bushes will look great. It looks good when it does not grow alone, but as a group, next to other plants and in a large area where it can be clearly seen.
You can also plant near artificial ponds, along paths and garden paths, near arbors, benches. There, the scent of these flowers will bring real pleasure on a summer evening.
Evening flowers Matrona (photo presented in the review) are also called night violet. This is due to the strengthening of its flavor in the evening. This plant belongs to the genus Cabbage. The stem of a plant can grow up to 1 m in height. He has a little fluff. At the top of the stem forks. On these peduncles bloom lilac inflorescences.
The leaves of violets have a rich green color. They are narrow (no more than 3 cm), but rather long (up to 12 cm). During flowering, Matrona’s evening party is vaguely reminiscent of lilac. Buds have four petals. They are located relative to each other crosswise.
The flowering period begins in late spring. It lasts about one and a half months. If the weather in the yard is hot and arid, the flowering period may be shortened. With their aroma, the buds may resemble Saintpaulia, a violet that is widespread in our area. However, these two plants belong to different families. Night violet fascinates with its delicate buds, forcing the gardener to admire it. That is why the popularity of the plant is constantly increasing.
Features of the plant
Vespers Matrona (photo below) is a small plant. Her small flowers are quite small. They gather in groups on their ramifications. The delicate shade of the petals can vary from white to deep lilac.
These little buds exude a giddy sweet aroma. They open in the evening. All night they envelop the gardens and flowerbeds with their scent. This creates an indescribable magical atmosphere in the garden. In the morning, their sweet smell gradually disappears.
Presented flower is considered a perennial plant. However, with each subsequent year of growth, it will exude a lesser fragrance. Therefore, more than two years night violet is not grown.
Matrona party days can be grown not only in the open field, but also in tubs on the balcony or veranda. This plant is a honey plant. This allows it to be used as an additive to livestock feed. Also in many recipes of traditional medicine night violet is involved.
Cultivation requirements and care
The Matrona Evening Party (night violet), the photo of which is presented below, is an unpretentious plant. It grows in well-lit areas, not afraid of even direct sunlight. In the penumbra, the flower also feels great.
Night violet prefers to grow on light neutral soils with high-quality drainage system. She also likes fertile, slightly alkaline soils. The plant needs regular watering. This is especially felt during the growing season (late spring - early summer). However, the flower does not tolerate waterlogging. Its roots begin to rot. The period of drought also blooms poorly. Therefore, watering violet night should be timely, but not too plentiful.
It is a frost-resistant flower that easily survives the winter even without shelter. It is recommended to cover the plant with some protective material only in snowy winters, but frosty winters.
If the stems are tall, they can bend under the weight of their peduncles. To avoid this, you can tie up the plant to the support.
Vesper matron, growing from seed which is produced by seedlings, requires maintaining certain conditions in the greenhouse. The temperature should not be below 20ºС. Watering should be moderate. Plant can not be poured.
If everything was done correctly, in 15-17 days the first shoots will appear. Saplings water, air. Inside the greenhouse, they maintain the specified conditions until 3 full leaflets appear on the stem. At this time, the night violet can be prepared for transplanting into open ground.
After this process, the plant must be rooted well. To do this, it is recommended to loosen the soil near the trunk. This will ensure the access of oxygen to the roots, contributes to their full and rapid development. In the first year after transplantation, the plant will not bloom. It increases the mass of the sheets. Flowering will occur next year.
Introduction of seeds into the soil
Vechernika Matrona (night violet) is propagated by seed. The division of the bush, cuttings in this case are considered labor-intensive techniques. Seeds are purchased in specialized stores. This contributes to updating the site.
Not wanting to grow seedlings, you can make seeds immediately in the ground. This method is used in both spring and autumn. In the second variant, it is necessary to bring the seeds into the soil before it frosts. In the spring the land should warm enough. Therefore, to rush to the landing is not worth it. Some gardeners claim that it will be possible to perform this procedure even in late June or early July. At this time, the soil will already be well warmed.
Seeds make the soil is not deep. Topsoil should be no more than 1 cm. The distance between the seeds should be sufficient. After that, the ground must be watered. Next, shoots need to ensure proper care.
Choosing a landing site
Vechernitsa Matrona requires the gardener to choose the right site for planting. This may be a shaded area under the trees. In this case, the young leaves are not affected by the scorching sunlight. For residents of middle latitudes, it is recommended to plant seeds in a well-lit area. Shading is preferable to provide in a hot climate.
Ground before planting must be well dig up. The soil must be fertile. The presence of high-quality drainage system is also welcome. In this case, the water will not stagnate at the site, the root system of the plant will not rot.
The beds before planting must be fertilized with organic matter. Also make mineral dressing. After three weeks or even earlier, the first shoots should appear. Seedlings need to thin out. Between each plant should be at least 40 cm. Then they are watered in a timely manner. In late summer, flowers can be transplanted if desired. There are no special requirements for the choice of neighbors.
Evening flowers Matrona undemanding to humidity. This is quite a hardy plant. It grows equally well with both high and low humidity. In general, night violet does not require special care.
In order for the flowering plant to be long and beautiful, it is recommended to weed, water (but not pour) the soil around the stem, loosen the soil around the stem. You can also periodically make fertilizer. If the weather is normal, there is no drought or prolonged rain, the flower is watered about once a week. The soil around loosened. It is best to perform such a procedure in the morning.
A night violet is more afraid of drought than over-watering. It is resistant to pests. When excessive watering root may rot, increases the likelihood of his defeat earthen fleas. However, the flower does not need disease prevention. Fertilizers can not make. If the soil is poor, you can feed the flower with mineral compounds twice a month.
Vechernitsa Matrona is actively used in modern landscape design. It is recommended to use in the process of registration of the yard, front garden or paths for walking. The plant looks beautiful in the flower garden. Designers recommend planting night violet groups. They can include up to 10 plants.
During the flowering period, such a concentration of flowers will please the eye with its delicate shade. You can select groups of inflorescences of various shades. This will create an extra decorative effect.
Having considered how to grow a Matrona’s evening flower, each gardener will be able to independently decorate his plot with delicate lilac buds.
Vesper matron does not need constant care. At the site of the plant is often destroyed as weeds. Hesperis prefers brightly lit areas. May maintain decorative in the penumbra.
It is very important to choose a place with a deep location of groundwater. It should also limit the contact of the plant with the stagnation of spring melt water. Substrate swampiness causes decay on foliage and mold.
In winter, the plant is not damaged by a sharp decrease in temperature. Under large snowdrifts, the leaves of the night violet can swell away. In the spring it is desirable to clean the matron sockets from damaged leaves.
The plant needs regular soil moistening. In the hot summer, it is necessary to constantly water the matron evening party. In the cool season, the amount of watering should be reduced.
The plant tolerates sudden temperature drops and cyclone changes. A thick drainage layer will help protect the flower from fluid accumulation around the root system after heavy rainfall.
Matron seedlings should be planted at a permanent place of cultivation in late August or early September. It is necessary to observe the distance between plants of at least thirty centimeters.
When planting, the plant must provide sufficient distance.
After transplanting you need to pour plenty of night violet. Humus or peat can be used as a mulching layer.
Regular trimming of the ipomoea is not necessary. In the spring, you should perform sanitary cleaning of the plant. To extend flowering, you must promptly remove fading buds.
Mattron's party in the open ground
Ночная фиалка способна «одичать». Культура может сформировать групповые насаждения в тени деревьев или кустарников. Чаще всего появляется цветок на плодородном суглинистом и влажном субстрате.
Hesperis often turns into a weed.
For the cultivation of night violet should prepare similar conditions. It is desirable to provide a fertile soil. It is important to regularly moisten the soil. It is recommended to use a loamy substrate with a high content of humus. The pH should be between 7.0 and 7.5.
The combination of dry and acidic substrate reduces the development of night violet. The plant may stop the formation of inflorescences.
The matron woman has a short rhizome. For planting should loosen the substrate at a depth of about fifteen centimeters. The filler for the landing hole can be made from humus, sand and sod land. It is advisable to choose a brightly lit area with periodic side shading.
It should be periodically loosen the soil at the base of the culture. It is important to protect the plant from weeds.
In the open soil the evening dress can be planted in a grown form or sow the seeds. Hardy night violet can successfully survive a transplant, even in bloom. It is advisable to carry out the procedure immediately after prolonged precipitation. The soil should be well moistened.
The individual varieties of the night violet have a short life cycle. You can periodically sow seeds of culture. Seedlings obtained by self-sowing, are particularly resistant. Thick plantings will need to be regularly planted and thinned.
A detailed botanical description of the night violet can be found in the video:
Features of growing
For breeding night violet, it is desirable to prepare a slightly alkaline, breathable and fertile soil. The matron evening party survives perfectly on a sandy substrate. Peat mixture slows down plant growth.
In the open area it is necessary to thoroughly clean the landing site from weeds. Competitors can cause significant damage to small seedlings of night violet.
In poor soil, you need to make complex mineral fertilizer twice during the period of active vegetative development. Organic compounds are enough to use once in the summer.
Vesper matron does not need constant feeding.
Vesper matron in the container
Night violet is often grown in greenhouses and hotbeds for spring bouquets. Especially popular is the container matron. Seedling boxes or greenhouses can be used to grow the night violet. After the formation of the first full-fledged leaves, seedlings can be dived into separate pots. It should prepare a pot with a diameter of about eight centimeters.
The care of the pot matron is no different from the cultivation of garden culture. It is important to observe moderate watering, timely application of complex fertilizers for flowering plants and periodic loosening of the substrate.
In the pot it is necessary to provide a drainage layer. The surface structure of the root system can periodically squeeze the surface of the substrate from the pot. You can change the container to a large container. Experienced gardeners also recommend gently pushing the roots into the ground and top it with a mixture of sand and humus. Then you need to gently press and level the surface of the substrate.
Typical pests and diseases
Night violet refers to resistant plants. Vesper matron rarely affected by pests. Lower culture can damage caterpillars and slugs.
Under unfavorable conditions, flower-colored fleas settle on the flower. Insects can be neutralized by the usual pressure of water from a garden hose. There is also the danger of the appearance of the keel, the main enemy of the colored ones.
The plant is characterized by increased resistance to pests and diseases.
It is important to observe moderation in soil moistening. Rotting roots often leads to the death of the plant.
The culture can multiply in favorable climatic conditions by self-sowing. You can grow mattress party and seedling method.
It is necessary to prepare shallow containers in advance. In early April, seedlings should be sown on the surface of the substrate. Soil mixture can be prepared in the same way as for an adult plant. Seeds should be carefully covered with a thin layer of humus and peat (no more than one centimeter).
After planting, it is necessary to gently compact and moisten the soil. The pot should be covered with clear glass or polyethylene film. The first shoots appear in 20 days. It is important to maintain the temperature at + 20 degrees.
With constant moisture, seedlings develop rapidly. After the formation of independent leaves, you can repot the flower. A few weeks will need to regularly water the soil. After moistening, the substrate should be carefully loosened.
In late August, thick rosettes from a group of leaves will appear on the matron evening party. Next spring the night violet will produce buds.
You can ensure the continued spread of culture. To do this, you need to sow the beginnings of the plant twice. The first time should disperse the seeds after melting snow. The second - in the late autumn, before the first frost.
The night violet can breed by self-sowing.
Night violet can also be planted in the form of a flowering bush. Podroschennye flowers are often implemented in garden forums and exhibitions. You can not be afraid of instances without long roots. The plant is able to settle down and provide a numerous crop of seeds.
Hesperis refers to biennial plants. There are cases when, during early sowing, night violet produced inflorescences at the end of August of the first year of the life cycle. The fruit of the matron evening dress appears in the shape of a pod that is only 6 centimeters long.
Terry varieties desirable to propagate by dividing the bush. This method of distribution makes it possible to preserve species advantages. It is desirable to carry out the procedure in late August or early September.
Seeds of the night violet can be purchased at online stores, nurseries and garden forums. The average price for a matron party dress is 14.40 rubles.
Gorgeous night violet! In my suburban area I took a separate territory to this beautiful plant, around the arbor. In the evening, the plant begins to smell stronger. Aroma pleasant, uplifting. You can plant an evening matron in a pot and enjoy its beauty indoors. My neighbor grows a plant in a greenhouse in the spring to make beautiful and delicate bouquets.
WE HAVE THIS PLANT CALL (((MEMBER OF BLUE))) THIS FLOWER IS OLD. IT WAS VERY LOVED OUR GRAPPERS. I also planted in my flower in the flower and love each year in its color. BEAUTIFUL COMPOSITIONS in the BOUQUET WITH ROSES AND IRISSES.
Matrona's party bag may run wild and turn into a weed, forming groups of plants under trees and bushes. Usually found on fertile, moist soil. To cultivate the evening party, it is necessary to create similar conditions: to prepare fertile loamy soil containing humus. With dry and sour soil, the development of the plant will decrease, and flowering may stop altogether.
Before planting, the soil is loosened to a depth of about twenty centimeters, fill the planting pits with humus and sand, plant the plants in them. Next, you need to regularly produce loosening and destruction of weeds. Violet is very enduring, so it tolerates a transplant without any complications even during flowering. One of the main conditions is regular soil moistening.
Some subspecies of the varietal party has a short life cycle, therefore sowing of seeds is possible. With the growth and excessive density of the plants are thinned out.
Twice a season, violet can be fertilized with mineral fertilizer, organic fertilizer is applied no more than once per summer.
Often the party is grown in greenhouse conditions for the preparation of early bouquets, as well as in pots and containers. For this purpose, various landing tanks are used. Seeds are sown in the prepared soil, slightly sprinkled with earth. After the appearance of the first leaves, the plants spike in separate containers. Caring for pot plants does not differ from garden care, that is, to observe the correct mode of watering, periodically loosen and fertilize the ground. The tank should contain a drainage layer (for example, small stones). With the growth of the flower should be transplanted into a larger container.
Hesperis is very resistant to diseases and rarely attacked by harmful insects. However, you should know how all the same dangers exposed to this plant.
- Quila. A disease of the root system to which all cruciferous can be subjected. In this case, there is no effective treatment, therefore it is necessary to remove and burn diseased plants, and dig up the ground with the addition of lime.
- Root decay. May occur as a result of increased soil moisture. The main sign - the defeat of the leaves. Alternatively, you can try to drain the soil, but the best choice would be to completely remove the sick evening girls.
- A threat to violet can be cruciferous flea, it infects the leaves, leaving holes in them. In order to get rid of the pest, you can sprinkle violet with ashes, or treat with a special ready-made preparation, which is sold in a shop for gardeners.
Vespers Matrona night violet is not only very beautiful and fragrant, but also a useful plant. In medicine, use its tubers, which are harvested after flowering. The roots are dug out, cleaned of bark and dried. To prevent germination, before drying, the roots can be dipped in boiling water for five to ten minutes. Prepared raw materials suitable for use for six years.
Since the roots contain mucus, a decoction is used for diseases of the stomach, digestive and urinary systems. Evening roots help with high temperature, toothache, female diseases, promotes quick healing of wounds.
Some nations use the roots of the evening meal for food. For example, in the Caucasus, they are added to soups, and pounded into powder as seasoning to main dishes. However, it should be borne in mind that a large consumption of the roots of the dressing can lead to poisoning, so the use should be very moderate, and before medical use it is necessary to consult a doctor.
The possibilities of using the party in the design of the site are huge, and the cultivation is easy. It looks beautiful in flowerbeds independently and in compositions with other flowering plants (for example, with nasturtium and petunia), serves as an excellent frame for an artificial pond or garden path. Violet is good for decorating verandas, terraces, loggias, balconies, flower beds near multi-storey buildings. With the use of the evening dress you can make beautiful fragrant composition bouquets.
The Matrona Vespers - the original flower, beautiful, healthy, incredibly fragrant, and ease of care will allow anyone to cultivate - both an experienced gardener and amateur beginner. That is why gardeners should pay attention to this plant and be sure to have it on your site.
How to care for the evening?
Night violet plant is not demanding, its cultivation is simple, only minimal care is required - watering, loosening, weeding and feeding.
The basic rules are as follows:
- Watering. The frequency of soil moistening depends on weather conditions. If it's hot outside, water the flower every other day. During the active growing season of the plant, the water volume must be increased. Hesperis does not tolerate drought, however, it is important to ensure that there is no stagnation of water and waterlogging. For tall stems not to fall, they must be tied up.
- Lighting. Vechernitsa can grow both in the lit area, and in the shade. But it should be borne in mind that the flowers growing under the trees, as a rule, are shorter.
- Temperature. Night violet is considered to be a cold-resistant plant, but with timely watering it also tolerates heat. The flower is able to withstand temperatures up to -5 degrees.
- Top dressing. Before planting hesperis in the ground is added lime. In the summer, during the period of active growth and flowering, the evening dress is fed with complex fertilizers for flower crops according to the instructions. It is enough for 1 or 2 feeding for the entire summer period.
- Wintering. Night violet does not require shelter for the winter. However, if there is no snow cover, it is better to warm the plants.
- Crop. In order to prolong the flowering period of the bursa, periodically cut off her flowered inflorescences.
- In addition, the care of hesperis includes thorough weeding, thinning and loosening the soil.
Pests, diseases of the evening
Night violet, like all crucifers, often suffers from keels (a fungal disease that is characterized by the appearance of growths on the roots). You can fight this disease only by timely removal of the affected specimens. It is very important to dig the plants carefully so as not to damage the root system and not leave some of the growths in the soil. Keel prevention is the introduction of lime into the soil before sowing seeds.
Also, if the care of the flower was carried out incorrectly, the soil was watered too often and abundantly, the roots of the “Night Beauty” evening dress can rot. This often leads to the death of the plant. To avoid this situation, the cultivation of night violet should begin with the introduction of drainage into the soil (small pebbles, gravel).
In addition, in dry weather, flowers may be affected by cruciferous flea. You can determine the pest by small holes on the leaves of the plant. If there are too many fleas, the evening woman may die within a few days after their invasion. Fighting cruciferous flowers is quite simple. It is necessary to pour a little ash or simple road dust into the gauze bag and lightly pull the flowers. You can also scatter a little ash around the plants.
Tip! Growing an evening dress next to cumin, coriander, marigold, nasturtium or calendula will help prevent damage to flowers by pests. These plants emit phytoncides, which, moreover, kill and suppress the number of bacteria, microscopic fungi.
Evening blooms for a long time - from 1 to 2 months (the duration of flowering depends on weather conditions). Its main advantage is an unforgettable aroma, which is enhanced in the evening, overcast day or rain. Many gardeners practice its cultivation because of the ability to multiply by self-seeding. That is, it is worthwhile just to spend time on sowing seeds, as the night violet will appear on this place again and again. In addition, the care of the flower is minimal.
Evening party "Night Beauty" grows well not only in flower beds and garden beds, it is often used for gardening balconies, loggias. It coexists well with other colors, which allows you to create fragrant original compositions. Apply the evening dress and in medicine, from its seeds receive substances such as steroids, biovihozid, digitoxizid, cardenolides, glycobiovihosis, alkaloids.
Decoction from the leaves and seeds of night violet is an excellent diaphoretic agent, and its shoots are rich in vitamins A, C, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron and magnesium. They are quite sharp in taste, so they can be used as a spice in the preparation of various dishes. Thus, the cultivation of the “Night Beauty” evening dress from seeds brings not only aesthetic pleasure, but also benefits for the body.
The plant Matrona party (also known as night violet and hesperis) hails from Western Siberia, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus. Hesperis matronalis is a perennial crop. The plant is often grown as a biennial. Differs erect stems. In height night violet can reach about eighty centimeters. Leaves can have a sharp, bare, lanceolate and slightly toothed structure. Inflorescences depending on the variety are milky, lilac and purple. The size of the flowers does not exceed two centimeters in diameter. The plant is famous for its pleasant and strong smell. Especially the aroma is pronounced in the period of high humidity, in the evening after sunset, and at night. Flowering continues from late May to August. The first buds are formed one year after planting. Appreciated for high winter hardiness.
Botanical description and distribution
Vesper matrona or hesperis perennial herb of the cruciferous family (cabbage). It can be found in the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Europe, Asia and Western Siberia. Gardeners brought a flower to North America, where he got accustomed perfectly. There are about 30 types of evening dresses. The form of inflorescences Hesperis is similar to phlox, one of its many names is "bull phlox". Under natural conditions, it grows on meadows, forest edges, along ponds and roads.
The upright stem of the evening dress reaches a height of 80-100 cm. In the upper part it branches. Green leaves with jagged edges have a lanceolate shape. The size of the sheet plates is 3-4 cm wide and 12 cm long. They are covered with silky hairs. Small flowers are collected in loose racemes. Обилие расцветок порадует садоводов – лиловые, розовые, фиолетовые, белые и сиреневые оттенки создадут буйство красок на клумбах. Каждый цветок имеет 4 лепестка диаметром 2 см и больше.
Информация. Ночная фиалка – распространенное название среди декоративных цветов. Гесперис часто путают с маттиолой двурогой, которую также называют ночной фиалкой.
Цветение кисти начинается в мае и продолжается до конца июля. Petals gradually open from the periphery to the center of the inflorescence. Effective brush can grow up to 20-30 cm in length. The fruits of hesperis are narrow oblate pods with brown seeds arranged in two rows. Seed size 3 to 1 mm. They are distinguished by good germination, which lasts up to two years. In hot weather, the flowering period is shortened. For the unique aroma that appears in the evening, the plant is called night violet.
Tip To prolong flowering evening help timely cutting dried inflorescences.
Decorative culture refers to the biennial. In the first year of development, a thick rosette of oval lanceolate leaves is formed. In some cases, small flower stalks are formed. By the end of May of the second year a stalk with lush buds will appear. From the third year on, the ability to bloom drops sharply, old plants give way to young ones.
Matron's purple party
Ornamental plant, preferring loose soil. Blossoms in the second year of life. Flowers of purple color are collected in large cylindrical brushes. Possess strong persistent aroma. Flower diameter up to 2 cm. Can be grown by direct sowing in the soil in May and June.
Popular decorative biennial with simple or double flowers in white. For plants characteristic persistent pleasant aroma, exuded at night. It prefers light areas, but in the penumbra it feels good. Used for cutting and decorating group beds and paths.
Branched biennial with simple flowers lilac, purple or white color, collected in the brush. Prefers slightly alkaline soils. The plant is suitable for planting in mixborder, rabatka. Height is 80-90 cm. Abundant fragrant blossoms will decorate any bouquet. Differs in frost resistance.
Crimson matron's party
Unpretentious flower known as night violet. Branched erect stems adorn a lot of crimson flowers. At night and evening, the biennial spreads a pleasant fragrance. It blooms from May to July. Looks great as a background plant for landscaped gardens. Seedlings are planted in June at a distance of 30 cm from each other. It can multiply by self seeding.
Evening party night beauty
One of the most fragrant varieties of Hesperis blooms in the second year after planting. Her flowers of a gentle lilac shade are collected in beautiful large brushes. The plant is resistant to frost and disease. It grows to a height of 50-75 cm. The flower is suitable for cutting, used in group and single plantings. Can be grown on the balcony.
Vespers sad, dark
One of the rare plant species Hesperis tristis L. Found in central and southern Europe. Its height is 25-50 cm. Light-loving and moisture-loving plant grows on clay and sandy soils. The brushes are large, the flowers are whitish or cream, covered with red streaks. The petals are oblong in shape with a blunt tip, their length is 2-3 cm. It blooms from May to June. The leaves of the basal rosette grow up to 10 cm, the stem is shorter.
The choice of location and soil
It is recommended to plant night violets in the lighted areas. In the lowlands, where the melt water stagnates and drifts lie for a long time, it is better to plant the plants. Excessive moisture will cause rot on the leaves. Hesperis feels good in the penumbra, it can be placed under the crown of the tree.
The plant develops well on slightly alkaline soils. It loves the air, so loosening is desirable after each watering. Neutral fertile land is also an acceptable option. But the acidified peaty areas are unacceptable, the vesperson will die on them. One of the most important agrotechnical measures is regular weeding. We must not allow the growth of weeds.
Waterlogging is not desirable for night violet, so you should take care of drainage. During the period of growth it is necessary to ensure adequate watering, but without stagnant moisture. Dryness leads to poor flowering. Watering is performed 1 time per week, preferably in the morning.
On depleted soil before flowering, hesperis needs to be fed with complex mineral fertilizers. Further enough once a month to make wood ash. It will improve the structure of the soil, make it more friable. Wood ash reduces the acidity of the soil, increases the resistance of plants to infections.
Madon's Vespers is frost resistant, it withstands temperatures up to -20 ° C. In the winters with little snow, it is better not to risk an ornamental plant and cover it with non-woven material.
Planting and caring for a flower night violet is not difficult, the photo shows how it blooms profusely during self-seeding in the field.
Madonna's vesch multiplies in several ways: seeds, seedlings and grafting.
Tip To self-seeding plants do not fill the entire flower bed, young shoots are planted every three years.
Seeds and seedlings
Evening pods harvested after the first frost. In them small oblong brown seeds ripen. Seeds are sown in spring after warming the ground or in autumn. When sowing in spring, the beds are covered with plastic wrap, creating greenhouse conditions.
Propagated by plant and seedling way. For this you need a container with loose soil, fertilized with humus. Seeds are sown in early April, falling asleep with 5 mm of soil. From above the soil is watered, and then covered with a film. The containers are kept in a room with a temperature of 20 ° C. After 15-20 days, shoots appear. After the formation of the three main sheets, the evening dress is transplanted to a permanent place. They are seated 25-30 cm apart. During the adaptation period, the plant especially needs watering. The development of the root system is promoted by air exchange, which provides loosening. Weeds should be weeded in time to slow down the growth of flowers.
Diseases and pests
Night violets are resistant to diseases, so problems with their content are rarely occurring. One of the possible pests on flowers is the cruciferous flea. These insects eat leaves, stalks and roots of plants. You can get rid of them with plenty of watering from a hose. But this is not the best option, because the evening girl does not like dampness. Another method is more suitable for the plant, it is to pollinate the leaves with a mixture of wood ash and tobacco dust 1: 1.
Evening in landscape design
The long flowering period made the night violet a desirable acquisition for city parks and garden beds. Hesperis, drop-down after sunset, planted in flowerbeds near the gazebos. The pleasant aroma of flowers will make the evening rest unforgettable. Designers recommend planting Madonna party girls in groups of at least 10 plants. They look advantageous against the background of fern and ornamental grasses.
Attention. Heavy inflorescences lower the stem down, which loses the decorative appeal of the composition. To avoid this situation will allow the installation of supports.
To grow a night violet on your site does not require special knowledge and skills of a grower. With minimal care, hesperis will delight most of the summer with its fragrance and abundant flowering.