Despite the fact that the houseplant euphorbia is considered poisonous, and therefore dangerous to humans, it has become quite widespread. The culture has attracted lovers of home floriculture for its original appearance and unpretentiousness. On sale today you can find a huge number of varieties of milkweed. There are about two thousand species in the family, among which there are both leafy plants and succulent forms. There are also shrubs and trees belonging to this family.
Euphorbia experts often called euphorbia. This name of the plant was in honor of the man who first discovered the healing properties of the culture. It was Eforbe - the court physician of the Numidian ruler Yuba, who lived in 54 BC. er It was he who first used the medicinal properties of milkweed.
It should be remembered that all varieties of plants of this family contain poisonous milky juice. It contains substances that cause burns, which can lead to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes or nose. Milky juice when injected into the stomach violates the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Despite these dangerous properties, spurge is used in medicine as a laxative, analgesic or antihelminthic. It is widely used in perfumery. One of the most popular species among fans of indoor floriculture is spurge euphorbia.
This flower has many names: it is popularly called the cactus, banana or palm tree. And this is not surprising: the white-milk spurge came from sunny Madagascar. If you look at the plant, it becomes immediately clear why it is so originally called. Euphorbia, white-toed or white-toed, has a thin and very dense fleshy stem base, but to the top it begins to thicken. The cactus resembles a pronounced scaly type of ribs. The leaves of the milkweed belozhilchatogo painted in greenish-emerald color. They gather at the top of the outlet. Over time, the lower processes disappear, which, together with the fringed stem, gives the plant a “palm effect”.
Another distinctive feature of the plant are white small flowers that appear directly in the leaf axils. Euphorbia, care at home for which does not require deep knowledge, produces buds in early spring. The flowering period lasts until mid-August.
Euphorbia flower belozhilkovy considered unpretentious culture. Therefore, it is most often recommended to grow for beginners. This thermophilic plant needs primarily a constant temperature - from +20 to + 25 degrees. It should be borne in mind that from prolonged exposure to too hot conditions in adult cultures, the foliage begins to dry out, and the seeds just “suffocate”.
For the winter period, the temperature is about +18 degrees Celsius. The endangered euphorbia white-leaved is experiencing a short-term decrease in temperature to +15 ° C without any particular consequences, however, lower rates on a thermometer are already dangerous for it.
Euphorbia leuconeura perfectly transfers the neighborhood with heating devices. In the wild, this plant is also not spoiled by an abundance of fresh air. However, experts do not recommend putting the pot very close to the heat source, so as not to overdry the soil. In the spring you can arrange the ventilation of the flower. For this purpose, the pot with the plant can be taken out for a couple of hours on the balcony or loggia. This seemingly simple procedure perfectly affects the growth of milkweed and “accelerates” juice throughout its entire stem.
Euphorbia, care at home for which is quite simple, is not very decorative. Against the background of imported exotic crops, its flowers look rather modest, besides, they bloom in limited quantities. They protrude from the solid scales of the basis of the stipules and look like thin white threads. After flowering, spurge begins to bear fruit. Appearing oblong box cracks, "shooting" seeds. Their range of "flight" is enough to reach the neighboring pots.
In milkweed belozhilkovogo, like other representatives of the family of euphoric, there are no special “whims” in the light regime. The requirements for normal growth in this plant are extremely simple: it needs an abundance of light. At the same time it is necessary to minimize the risk of direct sunlight. Otherwise, the leaves appear burns, spoiling the appearance of the culture. But the constant presence in the shadow of euphorbia is undesirable. Penumbra is considered ideal for compliance with agrotechnical norms.
Some growers use to ensure the light mode of the lamp. But it must be remembered that a too powerful fluorescent light bulb can also burn through barely penetrating processes with intensive switching on. Therefore, natural lighting is more preferable. Ideally, it is adjusted "seasonally." For example, in the summer, a pot with milkweed belozhilkov can be taken out into the garden, covered from the sun or just put the plant under the tree. From October to March it is better to turn on the lamp for several hours.
If these conditions are met, those who live in the winter alone and the euphorbia in the spring will thank the owner not only for their lush growth, but also for the richly emerald color of their leaves. Experienced growers recommend turning the plant pot almost daily. This procedure provides the most symmetrical lighting of all parts of the flower.
Euphorbia sprouts is particularly picky about soil moisture in summer. Therefore, in this season the plant must be watered in large quantities. As the winter months approach, the water supply should be gradually reduced. In this case, the main condition is not to let someone dry up the ground. Best of all, this culture reacts to soft, warm water.
How to root milkweed
There are two ways in which this plant breeds: seeds and grafting. The most common is the first option. Seeds are sown on the surface of the substrate and lightly sprinkled on top of the soil. No need to comply with any additional conditions. With regular watering shoots will appear very quickly and their growth will begin.
Euphorbia, which can be propagated by grafting, can also be grown from a lateral stem. To do this, cut off the planting material, put it in a jar with warm water for some time, so that the milky juice is drained completely from it, and then pull out and powder the cut with crushed coal. The stalk prepared in this way should be left to dry for two or three days. Then it must be placed in the ground and left in a warm place until rooting. This breeding method is best suited for the summer months - June or July.
It is believed that white-milk spurge brings well-being and prosperity to the house. It is widely used in feng shui. According to the experts of this doctrine, it protects the home from the negative, so it should be grown near the front door. Some people think that the plant perfectly neutralizes the radiation from the TV or computer.
The healing power of milkweed is well known. Healers prepare ointments from it for healing deep wounds, it is used in the treatment of paralysis, used as part of a means to rejuvenate the skin and to relieve swelling. In modern medicine, the infusion of euphorbia is widely used, which helps with some diseases of the stomach or intestines, hemorrhoids and cystitis.
Description of white-topped milkweed
At first glance, white-clad milkweed is very similar to a palm tree or a cactus, but this is actually not the case. It belongs to the euphorbia family, and its homeland is Madagascar. This the flower has a rather interesting and thick trunkwhich thickens at the top.
On the sides of the stem are four scaly ribs. If the plant is old, then the stem of it may begin to branch, as well as it eventually becomes bare. The fall of the lower leaves is quite normal. Under favorable conditions, white-leaved euphorbia can grow up to two meters in height.
The leaves of this flower ovoid, light green in color and at the very top they are going to the outlet. And also on the sheet plates he has clearly visible streaks of white or silver color. Sheet length can be 25 cm, and width - 8 cm.
In early spring or mid-summer the plant blooms, usually it happens in the second year. The flowers themselves are inconspicuous, they have white or brown color. Flowers appear in the axils of the leaves, but they do not attach particular beauty to the euphorbia. After flowering, the boxes are formed, which later ripen, and from them in different directions the seeds fly. Often they fall into the ground next to the flower and germinate on their own. To avoid this, you need to cut all the flowers in time to their full maturity.
All work with the plant must be carried out with gloves, since its juice is poisonous, it can cause irritation or even burns if it comes into contact with the skin.
And also this plant should not be put on a prominent and accessible place for children or pets.
Basic rules for growing plants
Care at home for belozhilkovom euphorbia quite simple. That is why it is often grown at home by novice flower lovers. But in order for the plant to grow strong and healthy, you need to water it properly, fertilize, time to replant and trim.
White-clad milkweed does not tolerate direct sunlight very well, as from them it may appear yellow spots on the leaves or even burns. Therefore, it is best to put the flower in a place with diffused light. This plant is also useful airing. In the summer, you can safely take out into the yard or put on the balcony.
Euphorbia is quite thermophilic and does not tolerate low temperatures, and in winter it can be put even next to the battery. Dry air is not a hindrance for him, so he also does not need spraying.
And to keep the leaves clean, you can simply wipe them with a damp cloth.
In the spring, the succulent should be watered as the soil dries out, as it does not tolerate stagnant water. It is better not to water it, than, on the contrary, to pour it. If the temperature in the room is low, the plant is better to water after the soil has completely dried. And in winter, watering is reduced to once a month.
The main condition for the proper and rapid growth of this plant is its constant feeding. If this is not done, then the leaves will gradually turn yellow, and the flower will look neglected. In the summer, it is advisable to do top-dressing every month, and in winter it will be enough once every two or three months. In order for the plant to grow beautiful and with the same leaf color, it needs to be turned with different directions to the sunlight once a week.
In white-milk spurge there is also a period of rest. At this time, he accumulates strength, but practically does not grow.
This period begins in October and ends at the end of April. At this time, the plant should be moderately watered and try not to bother him, and in early May, the flower will begin to grow again actively.
Reproduction and transplanting
The first three years, white-clad milkweed needs to be constantly replanted, since it is during this period that the flower grows actively. Large plants do not need frequent transplants. The succulent root system is superficial and fairly compact, so for him it is best to pick wide pots, but not very high ones.
As a soil, you can use a mixture of sand, peat and turf. All these components need to be mixed in equal proportions, or you can buy a ready-made mineral complex for cacti. It is desirable to put a drainage layer on the bottom of the pot so that the roots of the plant do not rot. You can replant it at any time.even in winter. It will not affect the state of succulent. For. to make it look prettier in a pot, it’s best to plant a few shoots next to each other.
It is desirable to plant the smallest sprouts in small pots, which will then need to be increased annually. If such rules are not followed, then the stem with leaves will grow extremely slowly, but the root system will start to rage. The pot can be taken from any material, but it is desirable that at its bottom there are large holes.
Such a succulent can be propagated in three ways, namely:
Quite quickly and easily reproduction of white-leaved euphorbia occurs by cuttings. In late spring, small processes are usually formed on the adult plant. They can be used for plant reproduction. But immediately cut such shoots are not worth it, but you need to wait until they grow up, and several leaves will appear on them. Circumcision plants are usually carried out at the end of the summer. Received cuttings should be immediately put into warm water. After two days, the shoots should be sprinkled with coal powder and planted in a pre-prepared soil.
At first, the plant must be kept in a dark place with a diffused sunny color, and when it is already well established it can be transferred to a more sunny side.
For reproduction of milkweed with seeds, it is necessary to prepare in advance a small greenhouse with moist soil. It should plant seeds to a depth of no more than half a centimeter. Put it best in a warm, but darkened place. Seeds germinate rather quickly and in a week the first shoots will be noticeable. The greenhouse needs to be ventilated once a day so that the soil does not become covered with mold and the seeds do not start to rot.
Multiply belozhilkovy euphorbia at home can still division of the bush. But this method is only suitable for an adult plant that needs to be put in order and made more compact. To do this, carefully cut off the top of the flower and immediately put it in water, and the other part of it should be sprinkled with coal powder. After a few weeks, the mother flower will give several cuttings, and the part of the plant that remains in the water can be planted in a separate bowl in two days.
This method can also be used to increase the number of shoots per plant, thanks to which it will look more interesting.
Diseases and pests
With the wrong care for white-milk spurges The following problems may occur:
- leaves fall and turn yellow
- the stem began to fade,
- the leaves became pale and began to curl,
- there was a white scurf or rot.
If a disease has appeared on the plant or it has lost its original beauty, then you need to carefully examine it, and also pay attention to the rules of caring for it. For example, if his leaves began to fall off and become very yellow, then perhaps the flower began to rot the roots from excessive moisture. In this case, it must be transplanted into a new soil and reduce the number of waterings. If the soil is dry, and the leaves still turn yellow, then perhaps the soil lacks mineral fertilizers and the flower needs additional feeding.
Description of appearance and features
Delivered to us from Madagascar, often found in the subtropics of Africa and America. The stem base is dense, round in cross-section, refined. As it grows, the stem thickens, and 4-5 distinctly pronounced ribs appear. Edge of ribs covered with fringed stipules. The lower part of the trunk is gradually exposed. In place of fallen leaves scars are formed.
The leaves are saturated, dark green, sometimes with a yellowish tinge. Petioles long, light streaks. The leaves are collected from above, which makes the euphorbia white-toed-like look like a palm tree. Blooms modestly, flowers small, imperceptible with hard scaly bracts.
After flowering, a small seed box ripens. An interesting feature - a ripe box bursts, scattering seeds. Fresh seeds germinate quickly under favorable conditions. To collect the seeds, they choose the moment when they matured, but the box has not yet burst.
Under natural conditions, forms dense, impassable thickets. As a houseplant, euphorbia white-leaved is unpretentious, it is easily reconciled with any growing conditions. Proper care contributes to the formation of a smooth, lush, well-leafy crown.
- Lighting. Grows better with enough bright daylight. The optimal location is the east side. The flower is regularly rotated around the axis to form a smooth trunk and crown.
- Temperature. Heat-loving culture. Favorable temperature for growth - 20-23 ° C. Severe cooling and drafts can not stand. Summer is allowed to make fresh air. Flower rearranged on the glazed balcony. With the first autumn cold snaps, they are brought back to the apartment.
- Watering. Moisture loves and absorbs abundantly. Летом частота поливов — около 3 раз в неделю. Зимой поливают аккуратно — дожидаются просыхания почвы, чтобы не спровоцировать загнивания корневой системы. Средние интервалы между поливами — неделя. Изредка молочай споласкивают под теплым душем или аккуратно удаляют пыль с листочков мокрой губкой.
- Влажность. К влажности относится нейтрально. But if the humidity in the apartment is below 50%, it is recommended to periodically spray the flower with warm water from a small sprayer.
- The soil. The optimal composition of soil for growing euphorbia is a mixture of river sand, peat, small pebbles and humus. All components are taken in the same quantity, thoroughly mixed.
- Transfer. Up to 3-4 years of age transplanted annually. Adult specimens do not need frequent transplants - they have a compact root system. The pot is used small, a layer of washed river pebbles is poured at the bottom for drainage.
- Feeding. The fertilizer most suitable on structure - mineral complexes for cacti. Feed up, starting in spring. Overfeeding is not recommended - one additional feeding per month will be enough.
The most common question about euphorbia, is it possible to keep this flower at home? Fears of people are connected with the toxicity of the milky juice of milkweed. He does not emit harmful substances into the air; it causes severe poisoning only in large doses. Negative consequences can be avoided simply by using rubber gloves when pruning and transplanting.
Features and breeding methods
Before you multiply euphorbia white-veined, take a look at the adjacent pots. Perhaps the flower managed to isolate itself. Artificially euphorns are propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
- Seeds. Germination of seeds is very high. They are sown immediately after collecting in the planting tanks with loose, moist soil. To accelerate germination, you can use a sheath of plastic film, but usually there is no need for this. Seeds germinate quickly - literally within a week. The strengthened seedlings are transplanted into separate containers. Keep in a well-lit place, monitor the level of soil moisture.
- Cuttings. By the end of spring, stepchildren appear on the plant. They are used as cuttings. Cutting stepchildren is recommended in the summer when they grow up. Clipped shoots per day immersed in warm water to remove the milky juice. In a day the cut is dried, powdered with coal powder. Two more days the cutting is dried in a shaded place. Planted stalk in loose soil with the addition of peat and sand, to rooting kept in a warm, lit place at 20-25 ° C.
How to prune spurge? Strongly stretched specimens with a long barrel become unstable, slope in the ground, crooked. The position is saved by trimming the crown with subsequent rooting. Cut in the middle of the trunk. The top is placed for several hours in a container with water to remove the milk, dried in the shade for two days. Planted in a light, loose soil. Rooted cutting without problems, quickly goes to growth. Do not throw away the remaining stump - shoots will appear on it.
Homeland euphorbia is close to the equator, there is always warm.
Euphorbia heat-loving at the level of genes, therefore do not tolerate cold.
If the temperature drops below 15-16 degrees, then spurge can be affected by root rot.
Special protect the roots from hypothermia plants.
The plant loves fresh air, in the summer it can be brought outside, but it must be remembered that it falls ill easily when temperatures drop. As soon as night and daytime temperature drops begin, it should be cleaned into the house.
The best substrate is sand, peat, humus in equal proportions.
In frequent feeding euphorbia dont needand white-vein is not an exception. It should be fed no more than once a month with fertilizers for cacti, starting in spring and ending in autumn.
pruning of milkweed is performed after flowering, shoots are cut about 10-15 cm.
Benefit and harm
Can I keep at home milk euphorbia?
There is a belief that such a succulent brings home material well-being and calm.
He is loved by connoisseurs of feng shui.
According to them, houseplant euphorbia indoor plants protect the house from unkind forces, it should be installed closer to the door to the apartment. It is recommended to place it and closer to the computer and TV in order to neutralize radiation.
Use in traditional medicine
The healing power of such milkweed has long been known. Healers prepared from it ointment for healing heavy wounds, it was used for the treatment of paralysis, made a means for skin rejuvenation, infusions that relieve swelling. It tends to relieve vomiting, anesthetize, act as a laxative and diaphoretic.
Now doctors prescribe milkweed infusion. with diseases of the stomach and intestines, lungs, hemorrhoids and cystitis.
It must be remembered that milk spurge (belozhilchaty) in addition to its benefits can also be harmful.
For medical purposes, use only roots, and the terrestrial part of euphorbia poisonous.
Of course, if he just stands on the windowsill, it does no harm to anyone.
What is dangerous indoor flower euphorbia white-leaved?
Only his juice is a threat, he poisonous, contains the substance eufurin.
Leaving it in places accessible to domestic animals is also not worth it, although animals at the instinct level are able to recognize dangerous plants and do not touch euphorbia. But because of all this, milk spurge more suitable for officesthan for home.
When poisoning can feel dizzy. With these symptoms better turn to the doctors.
Juice on the skin, often causes burn. Affected area need rinse under cold water and take an anti-allergy agent.
Observing all the precautions, you can grow luxurious euphorbia, resembling a palm tree. It will take a worthy place in the collection, decorate any room.
Will play the role of tapeworm in a flower arrangement.
Description of milkweed whitemill
The homeland of the growth of this flower culture is considered to be Africa or America. That is why the plant and refers to the succulents. Developing in the climate of Africa, this flower culture has learned to accumulate a huge amount of fluid within itself. The place of accumulation of moisture is exactly in the stem.
Milkweed barrel is rather wide and large. Even the milkweed stem has ribs, they appeared due to the fact that during heavy rains the stem absorbs a large amount of moisture. Under such an onslaught, the stalk can not stand and burst, but it is precisely the additional stiffeners do not allow the stem to crack.
It is also worth noting that the absence of leaves around the perimeter of the stem is easily explained by the same severe climate. The extra leaves will be to him in the burden, so he throws them off, and at home you can remove them yourself. As soon as the stem begins to stretch, the leaves that are on the lower tier begin to wither and fall. It is worth noting that in the wild this plant can reach a height of 200 centimeters. But, and at home the plant can develop in height only up to 150 cm.
Leaves of elongated flower with narrowed base. The color palette of leaves is also very diverse. Color can vary from yellow to rich emerald green. The leaf has white lines around the perimeter. It is thanks to this uncomplicated pattern of white veins, the plant got its name, such as milkweed.
If you are just beginning to be interested in indoor flowers, then this plant is perfect for you. This flower culture very unpretentious and not too demanding. There are several basic rules for growing healthy and strong milkweed.
- Humidity and watering.
- Temperature and lighting.
- Soil and additional food.
- Capacity for plants.
Humidity and watering
The intensity of irrigation depends on the season:
- In summer, watering is carried out moderate. Choose not too hot days for this procedure. Watering milkweed in the summer no more than three days a week.
- In winter, watering is necessary only once in 7 days.
Remember to watch next, so that the flower does not dry out. This applies to both summer and winter. In the high humidity of the air in the room the plant does not require. But it is worth noting that spurge likes when the room in which he is located, often airs. Another very important thing is the heating season, during which we recommend rearranging sparse spurge away from heating devices.
When you water the plant at home, make sure that it is not flooded, its root system is more accustomed to ariditythan to excess moisture. The fact that the palm needs additional watering, she will tell you. Her foliage will fall, and she will sadly wait for your attention. But as soon as you water it with water, the leaves will spread, and again will delight you with its beauty. Remember that overflow can cause rotting of the root system.
Conducting flower hygiene at home, do not forget about every six months spill it under the shower. This will wash away the accumulated dust from the leaves. If you do not want to do this, then wipe the foliage with wet wipes.
Soil and additional minerals
Of course, white-euphorbia, like any plant, requires special soil for itself, for good growth. Soil mix can be purchased at any flower shop. The soil for cacti or a group of succulent plants is perfect for you. But it’s best to make the soil mix yourself.
You can make such a mixture at home from equal proportions of ingredients such as:
- Small stones, pebbles are best.
- River sand.
Mix everything in equal shares and you can plant your favorite houseplant for permanent residence. But, of course, do not forget that it still requires the addition of additional nutrients to the soil.
It is necessary to carry out top-dressing in spring and necessarily summer, it is during this time of year that most of the photosynthesis occurs and the plant develops. In autumn and winter, plants prefer to rest. In order to feed these charming flowers, you need a fairly common top dressing for cacti. Fertilize can be 2-3 times per month. If you decide to feed spurge anyway in winter and autumn, you can reduce the concentration of fertilizer by half, and spill no more than once a month.
Milkweed transplantation and reproduction
This flower is very similar to a palm tree, and, of course, the question arises as to how to replant and propagate it. Reproduction can be done in only two known ways to science:
- Growing a plant from seed.
- Reproduction by cutting.
Cuttings can be made from leaflets, which began to grow at the beginning of the summer period. They are suitable for breeding. They need put in a glass, note with warm water. This is necessary in order for them to come poisonous milky juice. Keep the leaves in the water until the full release of the milky juice. To cut the cuttings, we recommend using a secateur or a sharp knife to avoid damaging the leaf structure.
After waiting a day, it is worth sprinkle cut areas with pounded activated charcoal. And set aside to dry for about 2-3 days. Before you take any further action, look carefully if the edges of the wound have dried up. We prepare containers with the soil, specially prepared according to the recommendations that were described above in our article. And all we plant and wait rooting cuttings. We recommend maintaining the optimum temperature for plant growth of about 21–23 degrees.
If you decide grow spurge from seed, or you simply do not have the opportunity to get cuttings, then, perhaps, this method of reproduction will seem to you much easier than when grafting. Take the seeds, pre-harvested and processed with manganese. Seed treatment is very important, they can be bacteria and diseases that then can harm the sprout that appeared. After planting seeds, we are waiting for the first shoots, and remember, we don’t water with any additional growth enhancer.
Close the pot package from ordinary polyethylene. Watering is not required just as much as possible to spray the soil, not over-wetting. Approximately 7–14 days are allotted to the seedlings, if more time has passed, it means that either the seed is planted too deeply into the ground, or it simply does not grow.
Botanical Portrait of White Milkweed
The homeland of this plant is Madagascar. The perennial culture of the Euphorbia family is often called the cactus. Partly a flower like him, and partly - on a medium-sized palm tree. Its characteristics:
- height - half a meter, in a natural range - up to 1.5 m,
- stem - straight, fleshy, ribbed, without branches, but with small spikes (4 mm each),
- at the top are juicy green leaves with a pattern of white or silvery veins,
- leaf plate form - ovoid, with a sharpening to the base,
- leaf length - 15-25 cm, width - up to 8 cm.
Attention! As it grows, all the leaves of the lower levels disappear, and the stem becomes like a fleshy palm trunk. With age, it begins to branch not only at the top.
Blossom euphorbia white-clad begins in the second year. The process lasts all spring and summer, but has practically no decorative value. Flowers of pale brown or white color are collected in inflorescences of 2-6 pieces, arranged in the axils of the upper leaves. Flowering is the main visual difference when comparing milkweed whiteness with euphorbia comb. Both indoor species are often confused with each other due to the strong external similarity. The peculiarity of the comb is that its flowers do not grow in the axils, but on 5 cm peduncles.
Methods of reproduction of milkweed white-faced
If you saw euphorbia from your friends or relatives and are eager to plant it, ask for one or more side shoots of the shoot. They usually appear on the plant in June. Scions play the role of cuttings:
- On the day, place the twig in a container with warm water.
- Treat the cut area with crushed activated carbon. Leave for 3 days until the cutting is done.
- Deepen the plant in a substrate consisting of equal parts of peat and sand.
- Leave at room temperature.
When the stem releases the roots, it needs to be transplanted. Best for a permanent place of growth suitable slightly acidic soil. Buy a special substrate for succulents or prepare it on your own by mixing equally soddy soil, sand and peat. Up to 3 years of age, euphorbia white-clothed is transplanted annually, then once in 3 years.
Heat-loving white-haired ladies need constant access to heat.
The optimum temperature is considered to be + 20 ... + 23 ° C. For the upper "limit" taken +25 ° C, with prolonged exposure to excessively hot conditions, the seeds of the seeds "choke", and in adult plants the leaves begin to dry. +18 ° C will also be suitable for the winter months. An enduring flower survives without any particular consequences and short-term +15 ° C, but smaller numbers on a thermometer are already dangerous for it (and you shouldn’t use “hardening” too).