Zucchini is a thermophilic, grassy, annual vegetable crop with oblong, juicy and fleshy fruits. The appearance of the plant itself, depending on the variety, can vary and have a bush, long-sleeved or half-custa form. In addition, there are differences in the color of the leaves, fruits and, of course, to taste.
It is grown by sowing or transplanting sprouts in open ground and greenhouses. The cultivation of zucchini through seedlings is considered the most promising way. In this case, commercial products can be obtained almost a month earlier, in comparison with the non-seedless method.
When to sow squash on seedlings?
For the middle band, the time for sowing seeds for growing zucchini seedlings varies:
- April 20 to May 12–16 - receiving early products,
- July 14-30 - late harvests, fruits are suitable for long-term storage and preservation.
For the cultivation of zucchini in greenhouses and under film shelters, seedlings are planted 15 days earlier than for growing plants in the garden.
Tip! You do not know when to sow squash for seedlings? - Take an interest in the weather forecast for the next month, in particular, you need to know the expected air temperature. The optimum daytime temperature for transplanting seedlings to a greenhouse or open ground is +23 ° C, and nighttime is +19 ° C, respectively, the period in which weather forecasters predict stable warm weather, with the right temperature and no threat of frost, can be considered the best time to disembark grown plants in the garden. From this date, you must subtract 30 days (the time from sowing seeds to getting shoots with several true leaves), in the end you get the best period for sowing squash for seedlings specifically for your region.
Peculiarities of growing zucchini seedlings
- When growing seedlings of zucchini on the windowsill:
- south side - no additional lighting required,
- north side - installation of artificial lighting is required,
- west and east - it is desirable that the total duration of the day was not less than 11 hours.
Tip! Carefully watch the air masses coming from the street through the vents and transom - cold air entering, directly on the plants can destroy the tender and, as yet, weak shoots.
- Agrotechnics recommend growing squash seedlings only in individual cups, even better if they are disposable peat pots. This moment, perhaps, is the peculiarity of growing zucchini seedlings. This is due to the fact that the plant “does not like” the transplant, and the individual containers make it possible to move the sprout into the soil without injuring the root system.
- The optimum diameter of the container for seedlings is 80–100 mm, height 10 cm.
- Nutrition and selection of fertilizers:
- the first feeding is done 7 days after the sprout appears, a solution is being prepared for it - add 0.5 tbsp to a liter of water. spoons of superphosphate and urea. The solution can be replaced with the finished dressing “Bud”,
- the second feeding is done 10–11 days after the first - 0.5 st. per liter of water. spoons of ash and nitrofoski.
Important! Fertilizer is applied directly under each plant, a maximum of 1.5 tablespoons. l solution for one container.
- Watering. Only warm water is suitable for irrigation, its average temperature should vary between 21–25 ° C. One pot is enough 100 ml of water, every 5 days. In very hot weather it is necessary to water a little more often, every 3 days.
- Squashes need a loose, fertile soil rich in nutrients and trace elements. The simplest and most common among gardeners is the composition of a self-prepared soil substrate that includes sawdust, humus, peat, and ordinary soil in a proportion of 0.5x1x0.5 × 1.
- Young plants are transplanted to a greenhouse or open ground 20–29 days after sowing. The term of planting in the soil is individual, it depends on the temperature conditions at which the shoot developed and the selected variety. The determining factor is the presence of at least 3 true leaves before disembarking.
How to plant squash seedlings in open ground?
- 7–8 days before disembarking, the seedlings are gently tempered, for this, the pots are taken out onto the street, kept there during the daylight, and put into the room for the night.
- The fundamental point in deciding how to plant squash seedlings in open ground is the correct layout of plants - thickening is unacceptable, the bushes should not interfere with each other, otherwise you can only dream of good yields.
Scheme of landing in an open ground:
- On the landing day, prepare the wells and spill them with warm water (35 ° C).
- Root the plant, gently compact the ground around it, shed 1 l of water for 1 sprout. Watering only radical, it is necessary to ensure that the water on the leaves in any case did not fall.
- The first time, approximately until June 19, for the night of the ridge with seedlings should be covered with a nonwoven protective material or film. This is done in order to exclude overcooling and death of shoots due to lack of heat or night frosts. In the morning, after warming up the air, protective materials are removed.
How to grow zucchini seedlings in the north?
Despite the fact that the northern summer is rather short, and the risk of a sudden cooling is great, farmers still successfully cultivate such a thermophilic and light-loving culture as zucchini. And they grow it mainly in the seedling way. The question “How to grow seedlings of zucchini in the north?” Is not worth it, this technology is the same everywhere, in the middle lane, and in the northern regions, the difference in planting dates, they are significantly shifted in time due to the climate.
Tips! For the northern regions, select zoned zucchini seeds, such as “Roller”, “White fruit”, “Pharaoh”, etc., all of them have a short growing season, about 50 days before harvesting, and high resistance to a slight decrease in air temperature . Cover the seedlings with protective materials for the night and during cold snap.
Greenhouse - arc and covering material
- If possible, grow zucchini in a greenhouse, in the north this is especially important because of the risk of sudden cold weather, and even to cover, as well as to warm the greenhouse is much easier than a bed.
- Do not listen to well-wishers who are happy to give advice to everyone about when to plant squash for seedlings better. Better - this is when the outside temperature is optimal for the growth of zucchini, the temperature of the prepared soil substrate, capacity for seedlings, fertilizers and, of course, selected the best seeds for your climate zone.
When the bushes of seedlings are already green on the windowsill, it is too late to choose a place where you will plant it for permanent residence. It is desirable to plan this from autumn to the snow to carry out preparatory work. Find a site where in the previous 3 years there were no representatives of the pumpkin family. It is better to plant on the beds where siderata, legumes or cruciferous crops, potatoes, carrots, onions or garlic were grown. The place should be well lit and protected from the wind. Squashes do not like acidic soils, they are best planted in weakly alkaline or neutral soil, preferably in light sandy loam and loam. If the soil is acidified, add chalk or ash to it.
In the autumn after harvesting, dig deep the site, adding the following components to 1 m 2:
- humus or compost - 5 kg,
- superphosphate - 30 g,
- potassium sulfate - 20 g
When the bed overwinter and process fertilizers, in the spring sprinkle it with ammonium nitrate (15 g per 1 m 2), loosen the soil to a depth of 10 cm and level. You cannot plant more than 3 plants per 1 m 2. Mark the holes according to the scheme: 0.7x0.9 m for varieties with long shoots, 0.7x0.7 m for bush zucchini. Do not save space, it is better to plant few bushes that will give a good harvest, than to place them closely and not get full fruits. Install arcs so that in case of a cold snap you can quickly cover the seedlings with a film or non-woven material.
If you want to grow pure varieties of zucchini, provide for each species a separate section. These plants are easily pereopilyatsya from each other, the harvest from the garden, where there is a mixture of varieties, may surprise you with absolutely incredible shades and shapes. Fans of experiments can plant a row of bushes with long green and round yellow fruits and see what “offspring” will turn out.
Correctly choose the time to prepare the beds, so she was ready to accept the seedlings, but did not stand long empty and did not dry out. On the street should be established warm weather without the threat of frost. The best temperature for zucchini is 18–23⁰, in different regions it may be May and June. Plants should be planted in open ground at the age of about a month, 3 true leaves should be formed on the sprouts.
Squashes are demanding for heat, so it is advisable to plant them on warm beds or special mounds. Prepare the hole and pour into it in layers of 1 bucket:
- sod land
- fertile soil.
You will have a slight elevation that needs to be covered with a film to keep warm. From above, cut a hole in which it is necessary to plant a sprout.
How to transplant zucchini?
A week before being placed in the open ground, teach the plants to live outside. In the morning, take the seedlings to fresh air, return to the room in the evening. Watch the forecast, start planting when it is warm outside but cloudy. It is desirable - in the late afternoon or early morning, but then for the day, cover the plants from the sun's rays.
Dig holes about 10 cm deep, spill them well with warm water. In each hole, put a little compost and ash, mix with the soil. The roots of zucchini are poorly restored, so take the seedlings out of the container carefully, trying not to destroy the earth bed. It is most convenient to carry out such an operation if you plant seeds in special cups with a rising bottom. Place the sprouts in the wells, cover with earth until the cotyledon leaves, and gently compact the soil. After planting the ground around the roots need to be watered at the rate of 1 liter of water per 1 sapling. The liquid should not fall on the leaves, do not use watering cans with a net and sprinklers. The next day, plow the ground in the holes and grumble it with rotted sawdust or compost.
In order not to injure the roots when transplanting into open ground, it is better to plant squash in peat pots, which can be completely buried in the ground.
Until the plants are stronger, cover them overnight with a film in arcs or non-woven fabric. In areas where frost may occur, each bush can be covered with a plastic bottle with a cut-off bottom. In hot weather, the caps are removed from the necks, and the zucchini are ventilated, and the plugs are screwed back overnight. Do not forget to remove the film for the day so that the seedlings do not overheat.
Care of seedlings
Squashes are not very demanding of moisture, but do not overdry the soil. Water seedlings in the evening with warm water, which is well warmed in the sun. Do not pour on the entire plant, water should fall only at the root. Until the leaves grow, it is advisable to water daily on very hot days - about 2 liters of water per well. When the green mass attracts the surrounding soil, it can be moistened once a week, but abundantly. Do not allow a crust to form on the ground; keep it in a loose state. When the plants release the fifth leaf, they need to pile up.
2 weeks after planting in open ground, seedlings should be fed with organic fertilizers. Prepare herbal infusion: fill the container with weeds or mowed grass and fill with water. Mix daily composition, after a week you can drain the liquid. To feed 1 part of the infusion, take 8 parts of water and water under the root. After another 2 weeks feed the slurry. When the ovaries appear, spill the earth with one of these compounds, adding a glass of ash and a tablespoon of double superphosphate to 10 liters of liquid.
If the planting was successful, after a week the plants will get stronger, and it will be possible to carry out preventive treatment for diseases and parasites. To protect the zucchini from fungal infections, spray them with a solution of Bordeaux liquid 1%. Karbofos will help you from aphids, whiteflies and other harmful insects. Opponents of chemicals can use drugs on a natural basis or infusion of tobacco.
In order to enjoy fresh vegetables at the beginning of summer, you can plant several squash bushes on the windowsill. Such fruits can not be stored for a long time, they need to be immediately eaten or made preparations. Pumpkin cultures are difficult to tolerate transplanting in open ground, damaged roots are poorly restored. It is better to plant seeds in peat pots, which are buried in the ground along with the germ.
Landing in open ground - the first stage, now you need to properly take care of their green pets to help them quickly settle down at a new place. Timely watering, feeding and loosening will create the necessary conditions, the seedlings will get stronger and begin to develop well. It is advisable to treat young plantings from pathogens and pests for prevention: when problems arise, it will be much more difficult to deal with them. Do not spare the forces, take care of the zucchini, and very soon you will fill up with fresh tasty fruits.
When to plant zucchini for seedlings
The exact time when sowing squash for seedlings is optimal, depends on the climatic conditions of the region. It may be April or May. Seeds are sown a month before they are planted in open ground. If you plan to grow vegetables in a greenhouse or under cover, the seedlings need to be planted 15 days earlier.
Presowing seed treatment
Fruitful and more resistant to disease zucchini grown from 2-3-year-old seeds. First of all, the seeds must be carefully inspected and removed unsuitable for planting. Store seeds of zucchini are most often already prepared, and no additional steps will be needed for any treatment. Often these seeds are colored. Homemade seeds or purchased with hands must be processed.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, the seeds are kept in hot water (48-50 degrees) for about 5 hours, after which they are immediately dipped into cold water for several minutes. Often used 20-minute treatment in a solution of potassium permanganate with further washing with cold water. Seeds can be heated in the sun for several days or treated with aloe and kalanchoe juices in a ratio of 1: 1. Also for seed treatment, you can use the drug "Fitosporin-M". Processing is carried out for 8-18 hours at room temperature.
Soil for seedlings
The optimal soil for planting squash on seedlings should have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. Well suited to the mixture in this proportion: 5 parts of peat land, 2 parts of humus and sod land, 1 part sawdust. If the substrate is too acidic, you can add chalk or ash to it. An excellent option will also be store ready mix for vegetable seedlings. On sale you can find special soils for pumpkin crops.
The procedure for sowing seeds for seedlings
Before sowing, seed seeds should be soaked before swelling. Swollen seeds can be stored in the refrigerator. If they germinate, they will sprout faster, but it must be borne in mind that the seedlings of the zucchini are very thin, they must be treated very carefully and sown such seeds immediately. Finished treated seeds should be wrapped in a damp cloth and plastic bag, put in a warm place and provide ventilation, ventilated several times a day. The fabric should not dry out or be too wet.
It is very important not to injure the root system of zucchini when moving a seedling into the soil, therefore it is best to sow the seeds in cups or peat pots. Two-thirds capacity is filled with soil mixture, moistened with warm water and sown zucchini seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm. If there is no confidence in the high germination of seeds, it is better to put two seeds in the recess. Capacity should be covered with glass or film.
Care for seedlings zucchini
With the advent of germs, the containers need to be freed from the coating and transferred to a light in a cooler room (balcony or loggia) with a temperature of 15-18 ° C during the day and at least 13-15 ° C at night. Before landing on the site, the temperature for the zucchini seedlings should be in the range of 17-22 ° C during the day and 13-17 ° C at night. To sprouts develop normally, the seedlings need to provide good lighting, which can be increased with the help of a screen made of foil and cardboard. It must be placed so that the reflected sunlight falls on the shoots. If the air in the house is too dry, a damp cloth should be placed on the nearest radiator. With the emergence of a third leaf seedlings, a soil mixture should be gradually added to form a strong root system in the tank.
A week after the sprouts appear, the first feeding is done with a solution of superphosphate and carbamide (0.5 tablespoons per 1 liter of water) or a finished feeding “Bud”. After 10 days, fertilized a second time with a solution of a liter of water, ash and nitrophoska (0.5 tablespoons).
Во время выращивания рассады кабачков полив совершают отстоянной водой комнатной температуры. Для полива 8 горшочков нужен литр воды.
Когда сажать рассаду кабачков в открытый грунт
When the average daily temperature is 15 degrees, you can plant the seedlings of zucchini in open ground. Sprouts are ready for planting if they have several dark green leaves, the root system is well developed and covers the entire volume of the reservoir, and the roots are white and intact.
PApproximately 2 weeks before planting the plot, the soil needs to be dug up to the depth of a shovel and fertilizer applied: a humus or compost bucket, a bucket of rotted sawdust, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 2 glasses of wood ash, a tablespoon of urea and a tablespoon of potassium sulfate per square meter . For reasons of economy, fertilizer can be applied directly to the wells. They need to be mixed with the soil, pour the bed with hot water and cover with foil before transplanting. A week before disembarking in the afternoon, pots of seedlings are brought out into the street to be tempered.
Good and bad predecessors
It is better not to plant squash again in the same place where they or other pumpkin crops (cucumbers, squash, squash) grew last year. In this case, the vegetable will not be able to please the high yield and risks succumbing to the diseases typical for pumpkin.
Good predecessors for zucchini areearly and cauliflower, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, radishes, onions, parsley, lettuce, garlic, green mans. The last plants are grown for green manure, they enrich the soil with nitrogen and trace elements, inhibit the growth of weeds. These plants are legumes and cereals, calendula, sunflower, mustard and others.
How to plant seedlings in open ground
The distance between the beds for zucchini should reach 1-1.5 m. For each square meter of the site should be no more than three plants zucchini.
It is recommended to plant zucchini in open ground in warm cloudy weather. In each hole before planting you need to put a little humus and ash and moisten with warm water. Peat pot or sprout with a lump of earth is dipped into the hole to the cotyledon leaves, add soil and tamp.
If there is a threat of frost, sprouts should be covered with plastic bottles or polyethylene. To do this, set up arches of wire above the beds and stretch the film.
How to conduct watering
Watering squash in the open ground is produced mainly in the evening under the root of water heated in the sun. During the heat zucchini should be watered daily. When the plants grow enough and the leaves close the soil, watering can be done every few days in hot weather and after 5-6 days in overcast. If the leaves become lethargic from the heat, the plants are watered with a nozzle with small holes. Squash growing in the greenhouse, need less watering than plants in open ground. Excess moisture can cause rotting of the fruit.
How to feed zucchini
Organic fertilizers for feeding zucchini in the open field can be used purchased or prepared by yourself.
Weeds after weeding or mowing need to be collected and placed in a barrel to the very top, pour water there and stir occasionally. A week later, the contents of the barrel must be filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8. Next, herbal infusion watered zucchini, trying not to spill it on the leaves and stems. Do it two weeks after landing in open ground. Repeated feeding done a week after the first.It is possible to alternate such top dressing with manure fertilizer. Manure must be diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10, insist on sun for several days and water. When zucchini will ovary, fertilizing do the third time. To do this, prepare fertilizer from 10 liters of herbal infusion or slurry, a glass of sifted wood ash and a tablespoon of double superphosphate. It is recommended to water the area before the fertilizer.
Processing (protection) of zucchini from pests and diseases
HThe necessary care measure is to protect squash from pests and diseases. For the prevention of fungal diseases, one week after planting, it is recommended to treat with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride, and against pests - Karbofos. In the autumn, after stripping the plot, the soil must be deeply dug up and prepared for another crop.
To combat melon aphids, plants are treated three times with soapy water (300 g of soap, dishwashing detergent for 10 liters of water) at weekly intervals. Whitefly needs to be washed off the leaves with water and loosen the soil around the plant to a depth of 2 cm. If such methods against pests do not help, use insecticidal preparations.
Slugs need to be collected manually, if there are a lot of them, they make baits from tanks with dark beer. Zucchini can be affected by many diseases. At the first signs of powdery mildew, it is necessary to make the treatment of the area with a 10% solution of fungicides (“Topsin”, “Bayleton”), if necessary, after two weeks, it is repeated.
When black mold or white rot (sclerotinia) appear, the affected plants should be removed and burned; after harvesting, the area is completely clean of plant residues. Bacteriosis is controlled by treatment with Bordeaux liquid (1%).
With improper care (planting in cold soil, irrigation with cold water, excessive feeding) zucchini may appear root rot. For its elimination, it is necessary to remove unfavorable factors and process the courgettes with drugs containing copper. In hot rainy weather, zucchini is sometimes affected by anthracnose, which can be controlled by treating with Bordeaux liquor (1%) or dusting with ground sulfur (15-30 g per 10 m² of planting).
Preparation of soil and capacities for seedlings
Squashes require fertile soil throughout the length of their lives, including during the cultivation of seedlings. An average family does not need a lot of zucchini bushes, 4–5 plants are enough. Therefore, the required amount of soil is easier to buy in the store in finished form. If you have to save, you can make it yourself, but this requires several ingredients, and not all of them will be at hand.
One of the best mixtures for seedlings consists of half peat, 30% of humus, the rest - equal parts of sod land and half-sawed sawdust of any tree species. In addition, mineral fertilizers are added to a bucket of such a mixture: a few grams of any saltpeter, about 10 g of superphosphate and 5–8 g of any potassium salt. It is easier, of course, to replace this mixture of fertilizers with a complex composition, for example, a nitrogen-containing fertilizer. Thus, the independent preparation of the mixture may not be much cheaper. When buying soil, it is advisable to choose one that is designed specifically for zucchini
In the absence of peat, you can mix the sod ground in half with humus and add a glass of wood ash and 20–40 g of ammophoska to a bucket of the mixture obtained. In any case, the self-prepared substrate should preferably be disinfected by spilling it with a hot pink solution of potassium permanganate a week before sowing the seeds.
Preparation of zucchini seeds for sowing
From the shoots of zucchini to the beginning of the fruiting, 60–80 days pass, therefore, for growing the seedlings, you can not resort to the special preparation of seeds: they will have time to ascend with dry sowing. To speed up the seedlings, you can soak the seeds before sowing before sowing before sowing.
Zucchini seeds are not the case when there may be problems with germination, unless they are hopelessly spoiled. They are stored for a long time, and in specialized stores now sell quite reliable varietal seeds.
If the seeds are of unknown origin, it is better to first slightly prepare them. It is worth doing the following work.
- Calibrate, throwing out the smallest and not very thick. This is a matter of a minute, easy to do manually. The seeds of zucchini are large, and to choose among them feeler is not a problem
- Disinfect. In the case of zucchini, it is not necessary to apply potassium permanganate; it is enough to hold them for a couple of hours in water with a temperature of about 50 ° C, then cool in cold water. If you use potassium permanganate, you need to prepare a strong solution (as on the left), but you can do with just hot water
- Hardened by placing them in a wet state overnight in the refrigerator.
- If you want to speed up the process, sprout a little, placing it on a saucer in a wet cloth and covering it. Water should be added periodically until tails of roots appear. If the tails grow too large, they can be broken when sowing
Do not wait for the tails to become large: the seeds will be difficult to plant. The length of the tails of a few millimeters is sufficient: the seeds that have not woken up can be left on the rag longer, and the germinated seeds should be planted immediately.
Some growers process the seeds also with growth stimulants, but this, nevertheless, is far from an obligatory procedure.
Planting rules zucchini seedlings
Seedlings of zucchini are grown necessarily in separate cups: it is better to peat, but it can be reusable, with a removable bottom. Shared large boxes are completely unsuitable, since squash is extremely painful for any transplant, the slightest damage to the roots slows down their further development.
How to sow seeds
It is desirable to grow seedlings not at home, where it is strongly drawn out, but in solar greenhouses: it requires the maximum possible amount of direct sunlight. The size of the cups depends on the age at which the seedlings are supposed to be planted in the garden. There are no clear criteria. It is better to hold it until the age of 25-30 days, but then the cups should be at least half a liter, and better even more. You can plant in the garden and at two weeks of age, then enough volume of about 300 ml. The optimal diameter of cups is 8–10 cm, height is 10 cm, that is, the volume is almost a liter. Among the many available peat pots for zucchini need to choose the largest
Sowing seeds is elementary. They are buried by 3-4 cm. The seeds that have been hatched are sown one by one, dry seeds - by 2-3 pieces, and after the emergence of seedlings, the best plant is left, the rest are removed. Soil is plentifully watered with warm water and put in a warm place (temperature from 25 to 30 o C). In a few days, shoots will appear that will climb up literally "before our eyes." The cups should be immediately transferred to a well-lit place with a temperature of about 18 o C. Failure to comply with this condition will lead to the rapid stretching of the seedlings, and literally in 2-3 days it will be possible to throw it away.
Terms of sowing seeds for seedlings
For growing seedlings, squash seeds are sown in the middle lane from about April 20 to April 25. But this term is approximate, each gardener determines on his own when he is going to relocate the seedlings to the beds. It will be possible to transplant zucchini in the garden when the weather is warm. Zucchini absolutely does not tolerate frosts at any age: when the temperature drops to 10 o C, its vital activity is sharply slowed down, and at the minimum negative temperature the plant dies.
Therefore, when sowing seeds, one should take into account both the climatic features of the region and the fact that it is impossible to keep seedlings at home for more than a month: it grows. Some value has a variety that affects the early maturity of the plant. The seeds of most varieties, for example, in the latitudes of Volgograd or Kursk can be sown in mid-April, in the Moscow region around May 1, and in the Urals and in Siberia - closer to the 20th day of the last spring month. Talk about seedlings zucchini in the southernmost regions does not make sense at all.
Conditions for growing squash seedlings
The most critical in the life of seedlings - the first few days, when it requires a low temperature and bright, but diffused lighting. Squashes in the first month need only watering, feeding and compliance with light and temperature regimes. That is why it is desirable to grow seedlings in a greenhouse, if there is one: it can be a bit dark in a city apartment (which means it will have to be equipped with a backlight), and also too hot.
According to the complexity of growing seedlings in urban areas, zucchini occupy an intermediate position. So, tomatoes or peppers in the apartment are very comfortable, it is almost impossible to grow strong cabbage seedlings at home because of the heat, and squash can be uncomfortable only if the gardener unknowingly or due to lack of time does not perform the required procedures in time.
Lighting and temperature for growing seedlings on the windowsill
The optimum temperature for growing zucchini is 20–25 ° C, but they also feel good at 15–20 ° C, therefore, when growing seedlings at home, there is no point in thinking especially about temperature. The main thing is not to be too hot in the first 4–5 days after the emergence of shoots: at this time you need to find a place on the coldest sill. In the future, the usual temperature of most city apartments is great for this culture.
The lighting should be diffused, but the power is sufficient: direct April sun rays can burn the leaves, and the courgettes are too dark on the northern windowsill. Light day should be more than 12 hours, but in April-May it already exceeds this value. The intensity of the light has to be adjusted by installing additional lamps. They are not required on the south side; otherwise, a phytolamp or cold-fluorescent luminaire should be placed directly above the cups. Incandescent bulbs heat the air too much and burn the plants. On the southern sill of light, there is enough seedlings of any crops.
Watering and moisture
Watering zucchini seedlings should be only warm water (at least 25 o C) so that the soil never dries out. But no less harmful is excessive moisture, which causes root rot and seedling death. Therefore, if the gardener knows for himself the weakness of abundantly watering the plants, he must put at least a centimeter layer of drainage material on the bottom of the cups. The frequency and intensity of irrigation depends on the conditions, but on average it is necessary to water once every 3-5 days with a dose of 40-50 per one pot and then up to 100 ml of water.
In addition to soil moisture, air humidity is also important, which should not be too high. It is not easy to fight it, but at least one should not allow neighboring plants to interfere with each other, and moist air stagnated in the plantings. The cups of the seedlings must be moved in time away from each other to such a distance that the leaves of the neighboring bushes do not touch each other.
If the seedlings are kept in cups for about a month, during this time it is fed twice. The first time - a week after the emergence of shoots, the second - after another 7-10 days. The easiest way to use ready-made feedings for seedlings, but you can take any complex mineral fertilizer and use it according to the instructions on the package. In ready-made feedings the composition of nutrients is always balanced.
If the soil was taken highly nutritious, you can do without mineral fertilizers, and feed the plants with infusion of wood ash. When feeding the nutrient solution should not fall on the leaves. Both before and after applying the fertilizer solution, the seedlings are watered with clean warm water.
Picking seedlings zucchini extremely undesirable. At least, in its classical sense, when a plant is transplanted into a larger volume of soil, it pinches the central root. Damage to the roots, even minimal, zucchini is experiencing very painful. Therefore, if you have to transplant seedlings into another container (from a common box to individual cups or from a cup to a larger pot), this should be done extremely carefully.
If it is necessary to transplant, the soil before the procedure is plentifully watered and they try to extract the plant with a large clod of earth without damaging the root system. A hole for him in a new place is made in advance by pouring water on it. Slowly, voids in the hole are filled with soil, then the seedlings are well watered in a new pot and removed for half a day in partial shade. In any case, for squash, transplantation is a big stress, after which they slow down growth and development for almost a week.
Planting seedlings in the ground
In the south of the country there are no problems with growing zucchini, and almost no one grows seedlings there. In moderately warm regions, areas well warmed by the sun are allocated for them, planting crops on the ridges. In the North-West region, the heat in the open ground is not always enough, and zucchini is grown under the simplest film shelters. In any case, it is desirable to plant seedlings in the 25-30-day age.
Zucchini grows best on light fertile soils, but it is possible to get good results even on clay. But shading is absolutely contraindicated. Therefore, the bed is prepared in sunny areas, having previously dug it onto the spade bayonet with the introduction of traditional fertilizers for garden crops, but it is better to focus on organic ones.
Since the zucchini forms a well-developed root system spreading in all directions, the wells for planting are made at solid distances from each other - at least 70 cm. With a shovel or with a shovel they dig a hole of at least the size of a bucket so that, despite the area previously dug up with fertilizers, apply local fertilizer. В лунку помещают полведра перегноя и пол-литровую банку древесной золы, минеральных удобрений лучше избегать.
Перед высадкой рассады в лунки заливают большое количество тёплой воды, чтобы как следует промочить всю почву вокруг будущего растения. Нормально развитую рассаду сажают без заглубления, а переросшую или вытянувшуюся опускают в лунку глубоко, до самых семядольных листочков. Seedlings for the first time must cover from the bright sun, and if it is still possible frosts, then protect them from exposure. To do this, use nonwovens - lutrasil, spunbond. Good seedlings are planted without deepening.
Terms of planting seedlings in open ground
Terms of planting seedlings come simultaneously with the planting of tomato seedlings. Specific dates are completely dependent on the climate of the region and the current weather in a particular year: one should not let zucchini under even the slightest frosts and generally low temperatures. If the seedlings have outgrown, it will still have to be planted, but under temporary film cover. More than a month to keep it at home is impossible.
If you do absolutely no shelter, in the central region and, in particular, in the suburbs to plant squash in open ground without risk is possible only after June 5th. In the conditions of the Urals and most of Siberia - even a week later. But, of course, these are approximate dates, one year is not necessary. If zucchini is grown for winter storage, then you can not deal with seedlings at all, but calmly sow the seeds in the garden after the threat of frost has passed.
The seedlings of zucchini ready for planting should have 2–3 true leaves of dark green color, a thick short stem, and the roots should be white, intact. If there is only one sheet, the landing is possible only in the case of peat pots, that is, without the slightest disturbance of the root system. Seedlings better planted on cloudy days in the morning.
Possible problems with growing seedlings
If you strictly follow the rules of growing seedlings, the whole process goes smoothly, there should be no problems. However, failure can occur, and the gardener sometimes faces the following points.
- If the sprouts did not appear on the tenth day after sowing, there is no need to wait any longer: the seeds that had spiked at that time would have sprouted long ago, and if the seeds were planted dry, then they are unfit. Normal seeds in moist soil will germinate at room temperature. It is urgent to buy new and replant.
- Seedlings can stretch out, this is the most common problem, and there can be several reasons, but the main one is the high temperature in the first week after germination. In addition, this happens when low light or cramped location cups. First of all, you need to add light and try to pour soil into cups. Perhaps gently transplant courgettes in more spacious pots, greatly deepening the stems. If things haven't gone too far, it can help. Such seedlings urgently need to be transplanted into a large pot, deeply deepening
- Seedlings can grow slowly only because of poor-quality soil: the temperature in the apartment is sufficient for normal growth, and the plants would wither in dry land. It is urgent to feed the zucchini full mineral fertilizer.
- Wilting seedlings is possible not only because of dry land, but also, on the contrary, from excessive moisture. Overflowing, especially with cold water, can lead to the appearance of root rot, as a result of which the root tips die, then the root collar turns brown. Such plants wither and die, they cannot be saved.
- With a lack of nitrogen in the soil leaves may turn yellow. The process begins with the edge of the sheet, then moves to the entire area. If she caught herself at once and fed the seedlings with a solution of urea or nitre, she can get better. If the leaves are yellowed whole, the seedlings will die.
Further care for zucchini
Watering zucchini in the first time spend less than cucumbers: in two or three days. This is done until the seedlings are mature and clearly do not grow. And during the summer, especially in the period of mass flowering, water is watered as necessary, when leaves of a strong day evaporation and lack of moisture in the soil by the evening fade and sag. Water for irrigation must be warm, heated during the day in the sun. Watering should be done in such a way that the soil is soaked to almost the entire depth of penetration of the roots, that is, at least 30–40 cm. With a lack of moisture, the fruits grow medium-sized, but more sugary.
Summer care is the same as for other plants, but slugs that gnaw the bark on the ovaries cause concern, after which they fall off. Therefore, the fight against these pests should be constantly. During the growing season, 2-3 fertilizers are applied with mineral fertilizers, trying not to overdo it with nitrogen, which increases the leaf mass, but the fruits do not ripen well.
There are climbing and bush forms zucchini. Depending on this, one has to arrange the plant stalks in different ways. It is easier to work with bush varieties, but climbers often produce a more solid crop. Scourge should be placed on the bed so that they do not interfere with each other, but when caring for plants try not to disturb them. Shrubs do not need to be formed, their fruits are formed mainly on the central stem. Long-eyed need pruning, which significantly increases yield. In such plants, above the fourth or fifth leaf after their appearance, the top of the stem is pinched, as a result of which lateral shoots develop: it is on them that the main crop grows. Spray forms are much more convenient: they take up less space
The ovaries of zucchini 7–12 days old must be systematically collected, otherwise the further fruiting may stop. But if there is a desire to preserve the fruits for winter consumption, in August you can leave no more than two pieces on a bush and allow them to fully mature. Harvested in September, they already have a thick bark and are normally kept at home until at least the New Year, and this applies to most varieties.
Video: from sowing seeds to seedlings to harvest
Growing zucchini does not always require the seedling stage, these vegetables grow well even after sowing seeds directly in the garden. But in order to get early production, they try to sow seeds in pots at home, than to bring the harvest almost a month closer. Grow quality seedlings easy, you just need to clearly fulfill some of the conditions that are well-known gardeners.
Selection of varieties for planting
Different types of plants are preferred in each region. The choice of variety depends on the result expected from the future harvest. It is important to take into account the peculiarities of the local climate and focus on proven species recommended by experienced gardeners.
Among the early maturing representatives, the following varieties are distinguished: Tsukesha, Zebra, Zolotinka, Helena, Waterfall, Gribovskie 37, White Swan, Roller, Odessa 52, Skvorushka. By planting these varieties, you can count on an earlier harvest. Black handsome, Pasta, Jade - varieties of medium ripening. Later harvest give Nut and Long-fruited.
Zebra, Tsukesha, Aeronaut are varieties of zucchini squash, the fruits of which have a dark green color and a slightly elongated shape. The average weight of one fruit is 1-1.5 kilograms. Variety of zucchini squash Aeronaut has an early harvest: the first harvest occurs on the 47th day after germination. The flavor qualities of zucchini zucchini are not very different from the usual ones, but many gardeners prefer them.
When to plant squash for seedlings?
Planting squash for seedlings, depending on the climatic conditions of the region is usually carried out from mid-March to mid-May. In 25-30 days the seedlings will be ready for planting in open ground. You can replant seedlings from the end of May to mid-June. This should not be done later, as the plant will not have time to gather full force.
In central Russia, zucchini seeds can be sown for seedlings on such dates:
- for early production - from April 20 to May 12-16,
- for preservation and long-term storage - from 14 to 30 July.
To correctly determine the time of planting squash for seedlings in any region, you need to ask about the weather forecast for the next month, in particular, the expected air temperature.
For transplantation of seedlings in the greenhouse or in the open ground, the daytime temperature is optimal at 23 ° C and the night temperature at 19 ° C. From the date of the onset of warm weather, 30 days are deducted, which will go from sowing seeds to getting shoots with a few real leaves. As a result, the optimal period is obtained for planting seedlings of zucchini in a particular region.
How to prepare the seeds?
The first step is to treat the seeds against diseases. First, they are filled with hot water for 4-6 hours, and then placed for 5 minutes in the cold. Aloe and kalanchoe juice mixed in equal quantities is suitable for dressing zucchini seeds. Seeds bought on the market must undergo such treatment.
Germination of seeds contributes to an increase in the germination rate and improvement of the quality of seedlings. At the bottom of a not very deep container they put cotton wool or toilet paper, spread the seeds, cover with any of these materials and moisten with water.
It is important not to let them dry out. After some time the seeds swell, sprouts appear. Non-germinated grains need to be removed and the rest to be prepared for planting.
Hardening is recommended before planting. Planting material without sprouts is first kept in the refrigerator for 12 hours, and then the same in a room at a temperature of about 20 ° C. After this procedure, seedlings will be much stronger.
This manages to achieve good seed germination. Also, sprouts will be less sensitive to cold. The germination of domestic zucchini seeds persists for 7 years, but over time they lose these qualities. Immediately they can not be planted, it is better when the seed a year lay. The leaves and lashes of such plants will be small, but the yield is high.
How to choose a capacity for seedlings?
Each grain of zucchini is best grown in a separate container. Peat cups are very convenient, which do not need to be removed later on when landing.
The optimal diameter of the container for senes is 8-10 centimeters, height is 10 centimeters. Squashes do not like transplants, so when disembarking in open ground they should be disturbed as little as possible.
You can plant seedlings in cartons of milk, paper cups of small size and other containers. Practice shows that experienced gardeners are always able to find cheap tools at hand.
Planting technology zucchini seedlings
The cups are filled with nutrient primer, shed with a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate or hot water. At a depth of about 2-3 centimeters lay germinated seeds. Sprout should be directed downwards. Top seed poured earth.
Until the emergence of seedlings, crops are kept covered with cellophane at a temperature of 18-25 ° C. With the advent of sprouts, the temperature is reduced to 15–20 ° C during the day and 13–15 ° C at night, keeping the seedlings in this mode for 4 days. Before planting in the ground daytime temperature should be 17-22 ° C, nighttime 13-17 ° C. Seedlings require a lot of light, with the lack of which it becomes too long and weak.
Some gardeners for growing seedlings use boxes of sawdust. The bottom is covered with foil, and then steamed sawdust is laid with a layer of 10 centimeters. At a distance of 4-5 centimeters, grooves are drawn, on the bottom of which a small layer of humus is poured.
At a distance of 3 centimeters between them they plant seeds, which are again filled with sawdust sprinkled with a mixture of macro-and microelements. After appearing on the seedlings of the cotyledon leaves, the plants dive, watering the seedlings an hour before transplanting. The roots are very easy to remove from sawdust without damaging.
Squashes are large plants that grow strongly during the summer period; therefore, they should be planted at a sufficient distance: about 90 centimeters between the rows of semi-cousy and long-glistening crops and 70 centimeters between the rows of bush varieties. Between the bushes of seedlings should remain a distance of at least 70 centimeters.
In each well before planting add a tablespoon of organic fertilizer, which is mixed with the ground. For this purpose, you can use ready-made substrates sold in specialized stores. One liter of Agricola solution is poured into each well (a tablespoon in a bucket of water).
Plants are best planted on cloudy days in the morning. On sunny days, the procedure is recommended to transfer to the evening. Seedlings in peat cups are planted with the container, without damaging its integrity. Plants deepen to the first leaflets.
Having rooted the plant, gently compact the earth around it. If cooling is still possible, the ridges with seedlings are covered for the night with a film or non-woven protective material. In the morning, when the air warms up, the protective materials are removed.
Difficult agrotechnical receptions do not require squash. It is necessary to timely remove weeds and loosen the soil. It is recommended to water the vegetables with warm water. During ripening, plants require more moisture.
Once a week, zucchini can be fed infusion of bird droppings. In 10 liters of warm water dilute 3 liters of litter, mix with a wooden stick. Cover with a lid, let it brew for 3 days. Before use, dilute the infusion with water in a ratio of 1:10.
Large leaves are recommended to be removed. Harvest must be collected in a timely manner so that the plant can form new fruits.
Site preparation when to plant squash
Squash should grow in a sunny, warm place. Often planted seedlings prefer in a small area, where one or two grains are placed. For the good development of the bushes and high yields, it is enough to provide proper care for courgettes.
- After feeding the soils, the bed is watered with manganese solution (1.5 g of potassium permanganate / 20 l of warm water). A square meter requires approximately 3 liters of manganese solution.
- In the peat soil pre-make a bucket of sod. In the clay soil is recommended to mix 2-3 kg of peat.
- When planting seeds on uncultivated soil, when digging, roots, larvae, insects are selected. In the first year of planting, this soil is enriched with 2-3 kg of compost or humus. The alternative is mineralization with a mixture of 10 g of nitrophoska and 20 g of wood ash. It is re-digging and landing.
- No need to plant squash in areas where pumpkin crops were previously grown, as this is fraught with the transfer of pathogens accumulated in the soil.
- The width of the beds - 60 cm. The earth is dug up and leveled, holes are made.
- If zucchini seed planted immediately into the soil, the bed will be high. Gardening trash is brought under the digging: fruit stalks, leaves.
With the arrival of spring, rotted manure, compost and garden soil are introduced into the prepared beds. The treated areas are covered with polyethylene for a week. After this period, it is time to plant seedlings or seeds. Then the bed again Cover with non-woven material and film. Insulated beds should remain until May-June, depending on the climate of the region. Under good weather conditions, the bed is ventilated during the day.
- When choosing zucchini seeds for seedlings, it is important to find out who their producing country. There are enough foreign hybrids in our markets, because zucchini is grown everywhere. Due to long-term fruiting, hybrids are ideal for growing in the southern regions.
- In our conditions, zucchini is mainly planted in the center and in the north of the country. Russian varieties better adapted for these areas and have the best nutritional characteristics. Domestic zucchini marinated well and salted. True, they ripen fairly quickly. If you overdo them on the bed, they will outgrow and become "old."
- Grains of foreign varieties are small and soft, with thin skin, fleshy, no overgrowing. Perfect for cooking. However, it is not recommended to spawn or grow for storage. So we plant squash right! In foreign hybrids there is less pectin fibers, sugars and vitamins than in domestic varieties.
Plant squash necessary in a sunny placeprotected from cold winds. Ideally, when the plant grows on the southern or south-western slope. Fruiting is better with good light.
Before planting seeds in the soil planting site must be moistened beforehand. When sown in dry soil, seeds will die. So as not to burn the seeds, fill the hole with humus mixed with the earth, add a pinch of ashes, watering is done. After that, the seed is already planted in the ground.
- The distance between the rows is 70 cm.
- The interval between plants is 50 cm.
- On 1 m² consumed about three seeds.
- During the planting, a handful of humus with ash is added to the well; 3-4 seeds are placed there at a depth of 3-5 cm.
- After germination, seedlings, less developed, are removed.
- In the wells leave one plant.
Seeds germinate at a temperature of 13-15 ° C. Frost zucchini destructive. On the open area, landing is carried out at the end of May. To consume fresh vegetables longer, the seeds are sown weekly.
To get the harvest ahead of time, the plants need to be planted in spring. For this purpose, a steam bed or a pile is excavated. The ridge is made by digging out a groove of 25 cm depth and 40 cm width, a heap is 30 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter. The recess is filled with hot manure and covered with earth. На утепленных участках сажают семена с приходом мая при условии наличия теплого укрытия из пленки. Урожай собирают с грядок в конце июня.
Рассадным способом кабачок выращивается не только под пленкой, но и на подоконнике в горшках. Диаметр горшка – 10 см, наполняется он перегноем с торфяной смесью. Далее туда наливается теплая вода, а семена заглубляются на 2-3 см. Температура выращивания рассады – 20° C. Каждый куст поливается 0,25-0,5 л воды в течение 10-12 дней.To avoid diseases, seedlings are fed with a superphosphate mixture with urea.
Before planting in soil seedlings soil is pre-moistened. The plant is planted with a lump of earth from the pot, which will not damage the roots. Planting squash is recommended in the morning or on a cloudy day.
Top dressing, fertilizers
Squash planted, mixing a special soil with a neutral reaction, in which a lot of humus. An alternative can be one of the following components:
In the soil of high acidity make ash and chalk.
Top dressing is carried out at the following stages:
- Before flowering.
- When the vegetable starts to bloom.
- With fruiting.
Mineral composition is used for fertilizing:
An alternative is mullein. The first feeding is carried out 10 days after the appearance, the second - a week later.
The first solution is prepared on the basis of nitrogen fertilizer, in the future should be potassium and phosphorus.
In the feeding should not be chlorine.
For watering an area of 10 m² you need 2 liters of mortar. Under one root should be made 1 liter of solution. The prepared soil will be enough for one additional feeding, which is applied in a week. A month later, with the arrival of May, squash planted in a closed ground. In open ground they need to be planted in early June. When transplanting, the earth is not shaken off the bush so that the root system is preserved. Deepened by 5 cm.
Squashes on film
This option is more suitable for those who visit their dacha infrequently. With use of a film there is no need for constant weeding of beds and watering. Fruits will be clean and dry. The main thing is land preparation: digging, fertilization, irrigation, film covering. The film should exceed the bed by 20-30 cm on each side. After 2-3 days, condensation forms, which means you can sow zucchini.
A hole is made over the holes in the film with a finger, two seeds are planted, covered with earth. Through time, seedlings are checked. If they do not hit the hole, they are gently pushed.
Of the two shoots, the largest and the strongest, the second - pulled out. The hole on the film does not increase, the vegetable will stretch it.
This method is only suitable for bush varieties, in other varieties of lashes crawl and go beyond the limits of the film.
Although the zucchini and thermophilic culture, it is more resistant to cold than watermelons or cucumbers. The optimum temperature for germinating seeds and the subsequent cultivation of vegetables is about 25 ° C. Squashes, like cucumbers, love fertile soil and mineralization with a solution of fertilizers.
Appearing plants need:
- Regular watering.
- Loosening the soil.
- Weed protection.
Since our vegetable is moisture-loving, it needs regular watering at the root mostly water temperature 22-23 ° C. Leaves are recommended not to moisten. When flowering, the plant is watered weekly (4 liters of water / 1 m²). With the onset of fruiting, the rate of water doubles - the plant is watered twice as often. Watering is recommended every five days. Timely procedure contributes to high yields, protects against over-aging. A week before harvesting zucchini stop watering.
To prevent the formation of young fruits peel, the nearby soil is mulched peat or humus product.
When flowering, the vegetable is pollinated by hand.: petals are plucked from a torn male flower; a male pestle is driven through a female flower so that the pollen is transferred. Female flowers are in the center of the bush. With the help of one male flower, three women can be pollinated. To attract pollinating insects zucchini is sprayed with honey solution: 5 g of propolis per 0.25 l of water. The procedure is carried out in the morning.
Pollinating insects can be attracted by spraying a sugar solution with boric acid. So increase the yield.
To ensure good ventilation and open access to flowers by pollinating insects, 2-3 leaves are cut off during fruiting. This at the same time prevents the formation of rot. The diseased plant is sprayed with copper-soap solution. Soap and copper mixes are prepared separately. Soap pours into the copper.
It is necessary to remove vegetables from a bush, without waiting for their ripening. Latency threatens to reduce ovaries and lower yields.
Continuous fruiting allows you to consume zucchini from summer to late autumn.
The last harvest is harvested at the first frost.
Collection and storage of zucchini
The first harvest of zucchini can be obtained within one and a half to two months after disembarkation. Under good conditions, one plant can give 15-20 fruits. It is desirable to collect them every other day so that they do not outgrow and new ovaries form.
The optimal fruit of the zucchini for food has a thickness of 5-7 cm and a length of 15-20 cm. These are unripe Zelentsi with soft skin and small seeds. They are fried, stewed, pickled, eaten raw (for example, in salads). Young immature fruits have already become traditional ingredients in diet and raw food.
For long-term storage only ripe zucchini is suitable:their skin is hard enough, and if you knock on it, you can hear a dull sound. It is not necessary to wait for the full maturity of the fruit, because with proper assembly, they can ripen indoors. Green zucchini for direct use can be plucked at the base, but neatly cut long stalk is important for storage. If the zucchini is simply picked, the “tail” will begin to rot and spoil the fruits themselves. Cut the stalk need a knife or shears.
Young fruits can be stored at a low temperature for no more than two weeks. Ripe zucchini in dry and cool rooms with good ventilation can be stored for up to 5 months. They need to be folded in a box or box so that the fruits do not touch each other, and fill the space between them with straw or pine sawdust. Also zucchini can be stored in the refrigerator in the lower compartment for vegetables.
Growing zucchini in the open field does not require special costs. Certain agrotechnical knowledge and some efforts will allow to get a big crop of vegetables for your table or even for sale, because zucchini is a highly profitable culture for the agricultural business.