Creating an artificial reservoir on a country site is a difficult, but very exciting business. The owner of a private house, who decided to dig a pond, first of all should decide on its location. Decorative artificial pond can be equipped almost anywhere in the yard or garden. It is important to try to make the pond fit into the landscape design of the site as harmoniously as possible.
Swimming ponds are located in a place well lit by the sun. In the shade, the water in such a swimming pond will probably remain too cold even on the hottest day. If you place a pond under the trees, there will be much more debris in it.
Making the project of an artificial reservoir, the owner of a country site, certainly, needs to be defined with its sizes and a form. The easiest way is to dig a rectangular or round pond on the site. But in most cases, the owners of the suburban areas still settle the ponds of complex shape. Reservoirs of this type look as natural as possible in the yard or in the garden. Such reservoirs are called designer.
Reservoirs in the landscape design of country areas play a very important role. Even the swimming pond in the yard should look attractive. Changing the water in such a reservoir is too often the owners of the site, most likely, it will be difficult.
In most cases, the pond is filled only once a year - in the spring. Because of this, the water in the country "lake" can stagnate, bloom and silt. To prevent this from happening, the owner will have to, among other things, take care of cleaning the pond. The easiest way to prevent flowering in an artificial pond is in two ways:
- by periodically adding special chemicals to the pond,
- by arranging bioplato.
The first method of cleaning can be used mainly only for decorative pond. And even then it will be suitable only when there is no intention of keeping fish in the pond or planting any plants.
In most cases, the owners of suburban areas still at the digging stage of the pond provide for it and bioplato. So called a small part of an artificial reservoir, which is a shallow water and planted with special plants, contributing to the development of beneficial microorganisms. It is believed that in order for a bioplato to work efficiently, it must occupy at least 15% of the area of the reservoir itself.
Large garden ponds silted rarely enough. Basically, the problem faced by the owners of small reservoirs of this type. But to equip the bioplato just in case it should be and when digging a significant area of the pond.
What tools and materials are needed
To create an artificial reservoir in the suburban area with your own hands, you will need to prepare:
- waterproof geotextiles
- shovel and garden wheelbarrow,
- concrete mixer
- natural stones of different sizes
- seedlings of marsh plants.
For the arrangement of the swimming reservoir, you will also need washed river or artificial sand.
How to make an artificial reservoir: earthworks
Before you start digging the pit under the pond, you need to identify its boundaries. It will be easiest to do this with the use of pegs and some bright cord.
The depth of the ponds - both decorative and swimming - usually have no more than 1.5-2 meters. The main thing when digging the pit is not to reach the soil vein. Otherwise, the water in the pond in the future, even when using a waterproofing agent, may be too cold for swimming or for fish or plants.
Excavation work is carried out when arranging an artificial reservoir in the usual way. That is, take out the ground with a bayonet spade and put it in a pile near the border of the future pond. Next, collect the land with a shovel and take it on a wheelbarrow beyond the boundaries of the site.
To the bottom of the pond in the future was flat, it is best to begin to carry out excavation work from its center. Next you need to move to the edges, gradually reducing the depth.
Creating an artificial reservoir on the site: the arrangement of the bottom and walls
After the excavation has been dug, its bottom and walls should be carefully leveled. Also from the pit you need to completely remove the roots of plants and stones. At the next stage, the foundation pit should be laid out with geotextiles with an overlap of at least 20–30 cm at the edges. The hydroinsulator will not let rain or flood muddy water from adjacent ground layers in the pond next.
At the next stage, the geotextiles in the pit are filled with a layer of sand. Further, colored pebbles are placed on the bottom and walls of the ornamental pond and beautiful stones are placed on it in a chaotic manner. In the same way they mask geotextiles on the sides of the reservoir.
How to strengthen the pit
If a swimming pond is being dug up at the site, the work on arranging its bottom and walls after sanding will have to be continued by concreting. The solution for this purpose should be prepared using moisture-resistant portland cement, sifted sand and crushed granite.
Fill the bottom and walls of the swimming pond rely layer of not less than 5 cm. In this case, the cement substrate must be reinforced.
After the concrete has gained sufficient strength (not earlier than in two weeks), the arrangement of the bottom and walls of the swimming pond can be continued. In most cases, the cement layer in such reservoirs is filled with river washed or artificial sand.
Next to the main trench when digging the pond should be provided another depth of about 15 cm. The bottom of the sump in the subsequent also laid with geotextile and covered with sand or pebbles. In order for the bioplato to work as efficiently as possible, such marsh plants should be planted over its entire area in increments of about 20 cm:
- cattail broadleaf,
- black sedge,
- marsh toffee,
- marsh calla
Pond design rules
Creating an artificial reservoir on a country site is certainly a creative affair. To arrange the pond in the garden or in the courtyard should be correct.
Artificial reservoirs are usually decorated according to the style of the most suburban area. For example, it is believed that in the Japanese garden in the design of the pond must be present large stones. When choosing such a decoration method, banks are often planted with low-growing shrubs.
Artificial pond in the French style must have a clear form. In addition, almost always it is a fairly large garden pond. The shores of such reservoirs are usually emphasized with tiles made from natural or artificial stone.
The Chinese-style pond can be distinguished from any other by lush vegetation. Such artificial reservoirs usually have a very complex natural shape.
It is very fashionable today to decorate ponds, decorated in any style, with lighting. At the same time, to make the pond more spectacular, lamps can be positioned not only on the shore, but also under water. In the evening, the design of the site looks just great.
What plants to choose for registration
Of course, in order for an artificial pond to look as spectacular as possible, in order to decorate it, it is necessary to choose the plants correctly. To arrange a beautiful pond in the country, you can use, for example:
- watch trifoliate.
Such plants are placed on the shore of the pond. In the reservoir itself, you can plant:
- water lilies
- water hyacinth
- azollu fern.
Planting aquatic plants is better not directly in the pebbles, but in pots. In this case, in the future it will be much easier to control their reproduction, as well as remove them in the room for the winter. In the cold season, dacha plants intended for planting in a pond, usually kept at home in aquariums.
How to care
Properly decorated pond can be a real decoration of a country site. The artificial reservoir will not cause any problems to the owners of a private house in the future only if it is properly cared for.
Very often, the owners of country sites are faced with such a nuisance, as the blooming of water in the pond. To prevent this from happening, the landlord should:
- time to clean the pond from the foliage and flown debris,
- Do not allow aquatic plants to grow too much.
To weed the marsh flora on an artificial reservoir you just need to hand. The cleaning of the pond from foliage and debris is most often done with a net.
Silting the bottom and walls often also becomes a very big problem for pond owners. To get rid of green plaque in the pond by hand is unlikely to succeed. In this case, even if there are beautiful plants in the pond, you will have to use chemicals.
Owners of country sites usually use flocculants to fight silt in artificial reservoirs. Fish from the pond, if they are in it, must be removed, of course, before using such agents. From contact with aggressive chemicals, they may die.
Ponds are usually filled with well water. At sites in different localities, it may have an unequal composition. In some cases, it may contain too much iron. The peculiarity of such water is that too little oxygen is dissolved in it. And this, in turn, badly affects the state of pond fish. To correct the situation, an aerator should be installed in the pond or a fountain should be mounted.
How to keep a pond in autumn and winter
While caring for the pond at the site in autumn (from September to November), you need to carefully monitor the plants and remove the dead in time. Some pond crops for the winter must be removed from the reservoir in a warm room.
They need to dig and transplant in pots or tubs before the onset of the first frost. At the same time, remove all equipment located in the pond. The bottom of the reservoir should be cleaned, eliminating bottom debris. You can use a bottom pump for this. Before the beginning of the leaf fall, it will be necessary to tighten the fine-meshed net over the pond so that no fallen leaves and other garbage will fall into it.
During frosts, the main danger to aquatic life is ice. If the reservoir is covered with a stable ice shell, then in a day it will lead to the accumulation of poisonous gases in the water, which will be formed as a result of decomposition of the remains of vegetation. And if fish live in a reservoir, then this phenomenon will cause their partial or complete death.
How to maintain a pond in winter to protect its inhabitants? It is important to ensure that part of the pond is always free of ice. For this the best option would be to use a special small heater. Breaking ice with force cannot be used - strikes on the ice layer can stun and even kill fish. If the reservoir is deep enough, then you can use a pump to supply warm water from the depth to the water surface.
This measure will protect the pond from the formation of ice. In the extreme case, if all the methods described earlier are not available, you can arrange an exhaust hole in the ice shell - a wormwood. For this you need to put a pot of boiling water on the ice. The main thing - after the formation of polynya do not forget to remove it.
Important pond construction rules
Having decided that the artificial water on the site is to be, it is necessary to decide what kind of reservoir will be constructed and what for: whether fish will be bred in it, or it will be a place with a beautiful landscape of nature, or it is supposed to equip a place for family rest and socialization. Questions that must be answered before the construction of the reservoir:
- the site on which the ensemble will be located,
- the size and shape of the place that water will occupy,
- What materials will the walls and bottom of the future reservoir be made of?
- what plants will be planted pond and its surrounding area.
Having answered these questions, one should proceed to the selection of materials for construction. The size of the reservoir is directly dependent on its purpose.
Sure to draw a detailed plot plan indicating the location of the decorative pond. The plan will help to solve several important tasks and calculate how much materials will be needed for construction, as well as help to see the area that will be occupied by water, decoration with plants or shrubs.
Choosing a plot with a pond under the trees, note that in the fall with them will fall foliage. Flowering trees will bring even more trouble. In the spring, they bloom, and by the fall they give the owners of the site with their fruits. The surface of the water will need to be cleaned quite often. The use of the grid for collecting leaves is labor intensive. It will be difficult to make cover from the leaves to close the surface of the water. If the fish live in the water, excess foliage, not cleaned in time, can destroy them.
Decorative pond is desirable to place from trees and bushes at a distance not closer than 1.5 m. The roots of the plant are quite strong and can damage not only the bottom of the water tank, covered with foil, but also a plastic bowl.
The environmental component is no less important so that the picturesque corner does not become an “artificial” swamp. It is most advisable to plant the plants in the water and around it are the same that grow near the reservoirs of your area. They are more adapted to the soil and climate than purchased exotic plants.
The next important rule to consider when building an artificial reservoir is the location of the sun and the angle of incidence of the sun's rays. Open sunlight of stagnant water is not an assistant if there is no fountain or stream in the pond. The water will begin to turn green, so the portion of sunlight should not exceed six hours a day. The best place for a reservoir will be a plot near the fence or wall of an arbor or building. It is advisable not to have a pond on the south or southwest side of the site. The best place will be where the sun is in the morning and in the evening, and during the day the water will be in the shade.
Determine the illumination of the place for the future of the pond will help draw a contour or a stretched rope. So you can trace the movement of the sun over this place and understand whether it is worthwhile to construct a water reservoir here.
Decorative pond can be made absolutely any shape, depth and even different levels of height. It will look spectacular pond flat geometrically regular shape, if the house and buildings around it have the correct straight geometry. Landscape, decorated in Japanese or Chinese style, assumes the form of a reservoir of natural outlines, the natural reservoir has a winding shore. The round pond is suitable for home and plot, designed in the English style. When setting up a reservoir, consider the style of the entire site: a house, gazebos, trees, flower beds, and even paved paths. In this case, the reservoir will be in the general ensemble and the main attraction.
The location of the reservoir depends on its proximity to the house. The larger the surface of the water, the farther from home it must be placed. A small pond can be set up in front of the veranda. Visually increase the space of the local area.
The total volume of water in the pond is another equally important nuance during construction. When planning, consider how much time, money and effort you can spend on caring for him. A large amount of water in the pond and a large adjacent area around it implies a rather serious care. The goal to have a reservoir on the site is pleasure, not permanent maintenance.
Variants of the device of small reservoirs
Most professionals involved in the construction and arrangement of domestic reservoirs, advised at first to install plastic containers that can be purchased in stores. Such an option would not be costly financially, moreover, the forms, sizes and volumes of the water placed in them are so diverse that they can satisfy any requirements of the owner. The plastic bowl of an artificial reservoir will allow to gain experience in care of water and the territory around it.
Plastic forms have a wide variety of colors and are easy to transport. They are chosen if the composition will occupy an area of no more than 5 square meters. m
The installation of such a reservoir is simple. It will be necessary to fulfill several conditions:
- Carefully prepared ground. The soil under the bowl is dug out somewhat larger. It should be compacted so that precipitation and precipitated land do not move it and do not change the horizontal location of the tank. The bottom of the plastic is designed for a uniform load of water, so if the container moves even one degree, the weight of the water can damage the bottom.
- The pond is installed in a prepared pit.. The voids around the plastic mold are carefully covered with sand and tightly packed. Sand needs to be shed water. The form will gain stability.
- Registration may have many options. Поверхность воды можно оставить пустой, можно высадить в горшках водяные растения, на поверхности воды могут плавать искусственные лилии и кувшинки. Тут можно использовать всю свою фантазию.
- Место вокруг водоёма заполняется на любой вкус. Можно высадить вокруг пруда цветы или красиво уложить камни.In any case, the decorative pond will have a reflection of your character and a particle of the soul.
It is easiest to build an artificial plastic pond from a plastic container; servicing such a reservoir is easy. It is easy to clean the plastic trough, it is enough to drain the water and carry out cleaning with specialized tools for domestic water bodies. You can buy them now in any country shop. The lack of a plastic bowl is its stationary size, which cannot be changed, and a small water capacity.
Term viability plastic pond is more than three years. Such a period will help the owner to understand whether the place under the reservoir is correctly chosen, whether it is worth building a larger stationary object.
A small dacha reservoir can be built independently, without the help of a plastic bowl. Films are used as waterproofing material. This may be polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene or butyl rubber film. Each material has its pros and cons. The most durable film is butyl rubber. A film of a small thickness of 0.8 mm can be used for the construction of a pond with a depth of 80 cm. A deeper pond is insulated with a film 1.5 cm thick.
The device is a large stationary pond
Building a stationary large pond is more expensive. The form of such bodies of water is complex, it can have height differences both in the design and in the depth of the water. Waterproofing materials are selected depending on the end result. The purpose of such a pond may be different:
- breeding and growing fish,
- depth differences can be constructed so that it is possible to use the pond as a pool,
- You can build an image of a stream around a large area and zone recreation areas for noisy gatherings or your own privacy.
Make out a large body of water with the use of fountains. Their installation is simple, so often the help of a specialist is not required. The waterfall will help the landscape to play with new colors and make the territory alive. The main requirement in the arrangement and design of the pond is a large area of the site.
Picturesque will look alpine slide and rockeries. The decoration with stones will make it possible to link the water space and the coastal territory into a single composition. Disguise the film, laid on the bottom, will help the stones, which will hang over the water surface.
It will be interesting to look at the design of the composition backlit. You can build lights in the water and outside the reservoir. The electrical part of the design of decorative ponds for the dacha must be installed in accordance with safety precautions. Lighting elements are purchased specifically for water with a high level of protection and moisture insulation. Illuminated pond, even in a small area, will present a reservoir in other colors and create a unique atmosphere.
The device is a small pond of improvised means
To create a small reservoir, an old bathtub for adults or children can be used, a basin of any size and depth, a bucket and a barrel, a pond can be made from an old car tire. The size of the tire can be applied to any, but the pond looks more harmonious and advantageous if the tire is from a large car. It is wide in diameter and deep.
The top of the wheel is cut off with a jigsaw or grinder. The pit is dug a larger diameter than the wheel. The billet is lowered into the pit and covered with film inside, it is advisable to lay it in two layers. Carefully lined the bottom and side walls of the tire. The free edge of the film is folded under the side of the cut wheel. The resulting container is filled with water and made to your taste. The edges of the tire with the film are preferably reinforced with stones.
Care for a decorative pond
Any artificial reservoir requires careful and constant care. In this case, the ensemble will delight with its freshness. Care is necessary not only for the area around the water, but also includes the purification of the water, the bottom and the walls of the pond tank.
Clean water maintained using specialized care products behind a decorative pond. Such funds do not allow microscopic algae to multiply, because of which water blooms. Insects do not grow in treated water. If fish live in a pond, then they acquire a means that does not affect the vital activity of the fish.
A reservoir whose walls are made of plastic winter is better not to use. Water in such a tank will freeze and damage the integrity of the entire tank. Such decorative pond is not subject to repair.
Fountains must be cleaned. Artificial algae and plants also need to be cleaned and treated with means to prevent algae from developing.
Flowers planted around the water also require care.. Faded plants must be removed. If time allows, in their place you can land new ones. It will be strange to look like a pond, around which are dry flowers.
Decorative pond at the cottage or a plot of the house, without a doubt, will give the owner a lot of positive emotions. After all, a cottage or a private house is not only a place where potatoes and radishes are grown, but also a place of solitude and harmonious connection with nature.
Many wondered how to make a pond on the site with their own hands. It is necessary to think not only about the form and materials, but also about the good instructions for creating a pond in the country. Do not neglect the advice of experienced gardeners who already have their own artificial reservoir.
Place under the reservoir
It is necessary to approach the choice of a place responsibly. Pond should not be located in direct sunlight or be constantly in the shade. It is desirable that he was at some distance from the garden. Falling leaves will add trouble in cleansing it from pollution. It should be combined with the landscape and blend in with the landscape.
It is necessary to take into account the relief of the territory and the composition of the soil when creating a pond in the country. Do not chase after something supernatural.
A pond is a biological system that lives its own life, and the more careful the approach to choosing a place, the more successful the project will be. Choose a location so that there is room for expansion. A good reservoir does not happen much. You always want to reconstruct, add or improve.
Making a pond with your own hands is a doable task.. After selecting the location and form of the facility, you can proceed to construction work:
- Draw the contour of the pit. Circle the selected shape with any sharp object
- Add about 20 centimeters to this form to add sand,
- Each level should be dug separately, if your form has steps or ledges, remembering to leave room for sand,
- To avoid a drawdown, sprinkle everything with a thick layer of sand,
- Tamp and straighten everything well, clean from stones, rhizomes of trees, glass and foreign bodies,
- Install the form and check it with a building level
- Fill with water a little less than half. Do it carefully
- Possible voids between the form and the edges of the pit itself should be covered with sand. Sand pour water without using a large pressure.
The first week you need to constantly water the land around the building and check the presence of voids in the sand. Until the soil settles, the sand should be added. After this period, the form is filled completely with water.
This instruction will help build a small artificial pond near the house. If there is an idea to thoroughly equip your summer cottage, it is recommended to invite a specialist. Special devices may be needed to construct a large water reservoir.
In order for the reservoir to look harmonious and to please the eye, attention should be paid to its design. For decoration of the shore, you can use wooden flooring or stone slabs. Some gardeners prefer small stones or pebbles.
Along the entire coast are planted vegetation, which is selected based on the shape of the pond, the area where it was built, and climatic conditions. Very often prefer these plants:
- Iris marsh,
- Livistous lashbill,
You should think about the plants that will grow in the pond. A good solution would be a rogolofnik that swims in the water. Look great water lilies on the water surface. Then proceed to the selection of shrubs. This may be astilba or gunner, the main thing is that they fit into the decor of the reservoir.
Forget-me-nots will look great if the beach is lined with stone. The stone must be of different shapes and colors. Do not take them the same size, so that the shore does not seem monotonous and impersonal.
Another important factor is the consideration of plant durability. When composing a composition, consider not only the growth rate, but also the size of flora representatives. Look great dwarf tree species. Experienced gardeners are advised to choose thuyu, Japanese maple or juniper bushes.
To add zest pond, you can build a bridge. A good design will be a waterfall. This will visually increase the space, will look aesthetically pleasing and help the water not to stagnate. Good to use the backlight. This will revitalize the comfort zone in the evening.
A gazebo near the water or ordinary benches will add charm to the relaxation area near the water. Your personal plot will receive a new status. It will not be an ordinary garden, but a place of rest for the whole family. The Alpine hill perfectly diversifies the relief and creates a shadow zone, which will favorably affect the growth of algae. On the coastline is recommended to put large pots of flowers. At the water itself it can be concrete bowls, the size and shape of which can vary and depend on the style you choose.
For the most demanding owners, the idea is to run the fish into the pond. This is not only an original solution, but also an improvement of the microclimate on the site, which can be turned into a small oasis. It is important to consider the following aspects:
- place of reservoir
- depth and size
- the presence of vegetation
- climatic conditions.
The amount of fish depends on the amount of water. It follows from the calculation of about 50 liters per average fish. In a small pond you should not start a large flock, otherwise the fish will not have enough oxygen. Gardeners can opt for these types:
- gold fish,
- Japanese carp,
- crucian carp
- river trout,
All these types of fish do not require specific care. They are very attractive and will be a terrific addition to the decor of the reservoir. Only a minnow will require additional installation for oxygen supply. This problem can be solved by installing a pump or planting special oxygen-producing plants.
The choice of fish depends on climatic conditions. Water should be sufficiently heated and with an acidity of about 7 units. Too acidic or alkaline environment is detrimental to living creatures in the pond. You can check with the help of litmus paper or a special test. The pH varies with the precipitation composition. It is necessary to consider the option of feeding fish. Suitable dry food and cereal grains. There is a mistaken opinion that it is possible to feed the inhabitants of the reservoir a lot and often. It is enough to do it once a day.
Fish will revive the water surface and decorate your creation. Such a pond is worthy to become a place for relaxation and meditation. In the age of big cities, this is the ideal place for the reunification of man with nature.
Care of the lake
If you figured out how to make a pond in the country with their own hands, it is useful to know how to take care of it. A few care tips:
- It's a good idea to use a net to remove debris and fallen leaves,
- If there are trees on the bank, the solution to the problem of falling leaves will be a network on the frame,
- From time to time it is necessary to add water,
- To prevent the rapid spread of algae, it is recommended to plant a cattail or lily,
- At the bottom to put the tank with charcoal wood - this will protect the water from flowering,
- For the winter, move the fish to the aquarium, transfer the plants to the house,
- Once a year to clean the reservoir. It is more convenient to do this in winter. Remove the ice, and with it silt with garbage.
We check the condition of the pond, help clean the reservoir from ice, prepare the plants for planting
Experts advise starting spring work on an artificial reservoir in March. Firstly, during this period there is not so much in the garden and the garden, and the owners have time to pay enough attention to their pond. And secondly, the sooner you take up the reservoir, the sooner it will start to please the eye with well-groomed greens and cheerful inhabitants.
First you need to check how your pond "survived" the winter. It is necessary to check how the equipment works (pumps, power supply system, filters, etc.), whether the fish that you decided to leave in a sufficiently deep reservoir survived, whether the shore was fortified with stones, if the concrete bottom cracked, to remove the heater for storage. In general, outline a plan of work that will help the pond to “recover” and again, like last summer, become an ornament of the site.
It is clear that to study the state of the reservoir should wait until the ice comes down. But in March a layer of ice on the pond is no longer as durable as in winter, and you can help the reservoir get rid of it quickly by pouring ice with hot water or by carefully tapping several holes.
In parallel, you should prepare the plants that you would like to plant in spring. You can buy ready-made seedlings in specialized stores or on the market, which in March-April, while the water and soil have not yet warmed up, will grow in pots. Another option is to purchase seeds and grow seedlings yourself. Just remember that aquatic plants need a special soil, and the soil should always be wet, so it is better to put the pots in a container with water.
Regarding which plants to choose, experts advise you to buy rdest and urut, which perfectly purify the water in the pond, as well as beautiful floating aponogeton and salvinia. Water lilies and water lilies, Siberian iris, which loves shallow water, as well as Tradescantia, preferring a dry shore, have long become classics.
Plants, of course, are the main decoration of an artificial reservoir. Their landing should be taken care of in early spring.
Spring cleaning pond
The main task of the owners of an artificial reservoir immediately after the ice has descended and the shore has dried up - cleaning the pond from debris. In the fall, leaves fell into it, some plants and small inhabitants could freeze over the winter, so there was enough garbage in the spring. The main problem is not to collect leaves and litter floating on the surface of the water, but that organic residues accumulate at the bottom of the reservoir, therefore, no serious “general cleaning” of stones on the shore, walls and bottom is necessary.
To carry out the spring cleaning of the pond, you should pump out the water, leaving only a small puddle for the fish, catch all the living inhabitants and temporarily transplant into some container, and carefully clean the bottom and walls of the reservoir using a regular brush. A good helper will be a water vacuum cleaner, the so-called ilosos, which sucks all the remnants from the bottom. And its special nozzles will allow you to clean the stones and all surfaces of the reservoir. The price of the German-made ilososa reaches 8–9 thousand rubles, but the time and effort savings during the cleaning of the reservoir are very significant.
In small ponds, the water in the spring should be changed completely, however, they are usually dried even on the threshold of cold weather. Of course, the dirty water left after cleaning should be drained or pumped out.
In the spring, a pond in the country requires general cleaning - literally every pebble will have to be cleaned. At the time of cleaning all living inhabitants should be transplanted into temporary dwellings.
Transplantation of plants that will decorate the banks and the surface of the reservoir should be started after the soil has dried and the water has settled and warmed up. Plants that wintered on the street, seated, carefully separating the roots. If, for example, a marsh toffee grew in a plastic pot, it may need a larger container next year, so you should take care to purchase a suitable container for plants in advance.
It should be remembered that, for example, there are many varieties of “queen of ponds” - a water lily - from large, with leaves up to 70 centimeters in diameter, to miniature. Accordingly, it is necessary to plant different varieties at different depths. If you could not find special trellised containers for the roots of aquatic plants, you can also use ordinary plastic pots for indoor flowers. Just do not forget to plug the drain hole at the bottom.
Those plants that do not need transplantation this spring should be fed using special fertilizers for flora growing in conditions of high humidity. It is also necessary to apply a special soil - heavy and clayey, with a minimal amount of organic matter.
By the way, due to the constant presence in the water, water lilies, lilies, marsh and Siberian irises, calamus, bean and other aquatic plants usually tolerate transplanting and division, almost without ill.
Выбирая водяные растения для своего пруда, необходимо помнить, что ирис болотный любит мелководье, водяные лилии с размахом листьев до 30 сантиметров следует высаживать на глубину от 15 до 40 сантиметров, а стрелолист отлично растет на глубине порядка 10 сантиметров. В общем, каждому растению следует подобрать свое, оптимальное «место жительства»
Следим за уровнем воды
Летом искусственный водоем не требует еженедельной чистки, растения уже пересажены, так что хлопот доставляют немного. Однако существенной проблемой для небольшого прудика может стать испарение воды.
During the heat, the water level drops quickly enough and almost every week you should add it to the necessary mark. It is, of course, more convenient to do this with a hose, but too much pressure will cause concern for the fish and may damage aquatic plants, so it’s better to pour in water slowly, with a thin stream. Experts advise you not to add water directly from the tap, but to let it settle and heat up so as not to harm the inhabitants of the pond.
In a small pond located in an open area of the site, in summer, up to 5 centimeters of water can evaporate daily. If you do not add water in a timely manner, soon your pond will turn into a normal puddle.
Fighting pests and trash
High temperature and humidity are ideal conditions for the development of various pests. Insects usually pick out the leaves and stems of plants that live on the banks of a reservoir. The easiest and safest way to control such pests is to rinse them off with a hose. This option has two more advantages: harmful insects, washed into the water, will become fodder for fish, and the “cleaned” hose of the plants will get rid of dust and delight with fresh greens.
In addition, after feeding the fish, you should remove the remnants of food and make sure that no debris accumulates on the surface. If the pond is small, you can do it manually, but for a medium-sized reservoir it is already worth buying a skimmer - a device that collects the upper layer of water, along with floating debris. The skimmer filters the water from the litter and returns it to the pond. Such a device costs on average from 4 to 36 thousand rubles, depending on the size, it can be bottom, wall or floating.
Fish should not be overfed, and plants should be fertilized too often - this will disturb the biological balance in the pond and create an ideal environment for the development of pests and weeds.
The important point is that if you plan to treat ground plants with chemicals, make sure that the poisons do not get into the water.
It is possible to clean garbage from the surface of an artificial reservoir like this. Skimmer for pools and ponds will help to get rid of the need to work with hands
Excessive growth of algae in the pond will lead to the fact that the water turns green, and even completely disappears under a layer of "green occupants." Particularly annoying to owners of artificial ponds are the duckweed, filamentous algae, and azolla (aka water fern). Uncontrolled breeding, such plants can eventually flood the entire small pond, leaving no space for your favorite lily pads.
A leopard should not be launched into an artificial pond at all, since it is practically ineradicable due to its simplicity. True, these small green leaves are very fond of ducks and other poultry, so that the owners of the houses should not throw out the caught duckweed - everything will be useful on the farm.
Small and seemingly innocuous duckweed is able to flood the entire reservoir, leaving no window of clear water. Regularly catching it with a butterfly net, it is difficult to cope with this alga, skimmers, filters, and also fish can come to the rescue - lovers of a bite of duckweed, such as carp or carp
Remove the leaves and prune the plants.
The main task of the owner of an artificial pond in the fall is to prevent a large amount of organic residues from entering the water and rotting. Therefore, we catch all fallen leaves regularly, and we timely prune the plants on the shore - most of them will die off and fall into the water with the onset of cold weather. Cut the plants to such a level that they do not touch the water.
To prevent the ingress of leaves into the pond will help small barrier nets. The network along with the accumulated debris can be removed when the leaf fall is over.
No one argues with the fact that the yellow and red leaves on the surface of the water - it is very beautiful. But after a couple of days, they will turn brown and begin to rot, turning your pond into a real swamp. Therefore, in the fall, the reservoir needs cleaning no less than the paths in the garden or an open terrace.
We gather overwintering buds and thermophilic plants to save them indoors until spring.
In late autumn, most aquatic plants form the so-called winter buds, from which new shoots will appear in the spring. If you plan to dry the pond completely or you are afraid that the plants will freeze in strong cold, such buds should be carefully collected, placed in a flat vessel with sand, poured with water and left in a cool, but not freezing place. In February, a vessel with buds should be brought into the room and let the shoots germinate. In the spring in the form of already grown plants, they will return to their native pond.
If the plants at the reservoir grew in pots, they can simply be brought into the room, providing a fairly high level of humidity. Leaving aquatic plants to winter in a pond, they should be moved to the deepest part so that there is at least half a meter to the surface. Some representatives of the flora, such as water lilies, can be transplanted into the ground in the fall and covered with peat, sawdust or leaves from above to protect it from frost.
At the bottom of a sufficiently deep reservoir, the plant buds formed in autumn are well wintering. But if the pond is small, it will freeze completely, so the plants should be overpowered for warm "winter apartments"
Feed the inhabitants
Before the onset of cold weather, fishes should be “fattened up”, therefore, they should be provided with protein in sufficient quantities. Fish can spend the winter in a pond only if its depth is at least 1.5, and better - 2 meters. Water temperature at the bottom should not fall below plus 5 degrees in winter. Otherwise, the fish should also be moved to the aquarium in a timely manner.
Remember that in the winter time the fish in the pond is not active and does not need feeding.
The most popular inhabitants of artificial reservoirs are bright and very active koi carps or Japanese carps, ide, bleak, gorchak and goldfish. It is not necessary to overpopulate the pond - for relatively large karps, the koi will need a sufficiently capacious reservoir with an area of at least 5 square meters, and no more than 10 goldfish can comfortably live in a pond of just 100 liters
As mentioned above, in winter a pond with a depth of 50-100 centimeters can freeze out completely. Therefore, such small ponds drain. Conveniently, if the pond has a drain hole. Otherwise, you will have to either use a pump or pump out water using a hose, using the principle of communicating vessels.
To prevent fish or debris from getting into the hose, which can cause blockages, it is better to put a special filter on the hole or simply to sack burlap.
A drained pond can be covered with foil, boards, or thick cloth to keep leaves or other debris out of it.
Such a small body of water will freeze completely in winter, so the water should be drained back in anticipation of the cold weather.
We provide fish access to oxygen
If the fish remain to spend the winter in the pond, they will have to worry not only about them, but also so that the ice does not damage the concrete walls of the pond. The last problem is solved quite simply - a regular board should be placed in the center of the reservoir and it will take on the pressure of the ice, protecting the walls.
In order to ensure the flow of air to the fish, it is necessary to take care of the presence of a polynya. Experts do not recommend cutting ice with an ax - a shock wave can damage underwater inhabitants. It is easier and easier to put a container with hot water on the ice, for example, a kettle or a saucepan. So that the resulting polynya does not freeze, you can regularly water it with boiling water.
Another easy, but more costly way to provide the fish with air in the winter is to install an electric water pump that has a vertical drain pipe. With the help of such a tube, an ice-free polynya with constantly boiling water will appear in the pond, which will contribute to its saturation with oxygen.
In such a thin, the first ice to make a hole is not difficult. But in severe frosts, in order to provide the fish with oxygen, they will have to make significantly more efforts
We warm the water in the pond to the optimum temperature for its inhabitants
Koi carp and goldfish, which are from Southeast Asia, for a comfortable life requires a temperature of at least 7, and even better - 10 degrees Celsius. It is impossible to provide such favorable conditions in the region, where in winter it is often minus 20–30 degrees without special heating.
The heating system of an artificial pond includes a heat exchange tank, which is equipped with an electric pump with a biofilter. The power of the pump and heat element is calculated based on the size of the reservoir. Conveniently, if the system includes an automatic temperature sensor that turns off and turns on the heating, not allowing you to waste energy.
Heating the pond will eliminate the need to monitor the presence of open water, as there will be an ice-free window on the surface of the water.
The heating system of the pond is not a cheap pleasure, however, if you want to leave exotic fish in the pond for the winter, you cannot do without it
As you can see, an artificial pond requires attention all year round. However, the rules of care for the pond in the garden are simple and easy to do. If you adhere to the recommendations and rules listed in this article, the pond for many years will delight you with beauty, and its inhabitants will enjoy excellent health.
1. The choice of shape and size
Most often, these ponds have a small area, as they are not designed for swimming or boating, but only for the contemplation or breeding of ornamental fish. With these objectives in mind, the optimal size of a water mirror is from 1 to 3-5 square meters. The area of the artificial pond may be less if there is very little space on the site, or more if the area with the reservoir is the central element of the composition on which the whole landscape design will be based.
In areas with a classic design with a symmetric landscape gardening ensemble and smooth paths, it is better to look for reservoirs that play around the shape of a square or rectangle. Round and oval ponds - almost universal solution. However, asymmetrical ponds are most often created at summer houses. They most closely resemble natural reservoirs.
2. Choosing a location
It is better to place a decorative pond in an open area away from trees and shrubs. This is necessary so that the reservoir is well illuminated by the sun (for normal vital activity of plants, amphibians and fish), is not littered with foliage and is not damaged by its roots. It is advisable to build a pond near the house so that it can be watched from the threshold or from the window, checking the state of the water or controlling the children playing near it. A pond will look very picturesque in a country house near a recreation area - a barbecue, a gazebo, a walking path.
3. The choice of material
The most popular today are 3 materials for creating a bowl of artificial ponds:
- PVC film laid on a concrete-brick or earth foundation,
- finished plastic container
- waterproofing material "Akvaprof."
The film is the simplest and cheapest solution. However, it does not have a very long service life. Plastic tanks for ponds - a more modern version. Such products are diverse in design and depth, but are usually small in size. The most modern method of waterproofing to create a durable decorative reservoir is the coating of a brick-concrete bowl with a special material, Aquaprof. This multi-layer coating serves 30-50 years. It can be applied to the bottom and walls of any configuration and size of water bodies.
4. Earthworks and communications laying
This is the most time consuming stage. When constructing a pond, it is necessary not only to dig a pit with flat or stepped edges, but also to carry out other preparatory work. Their list depends on the type of construction of the reservoir. When using polyethylene film, this is a preliminary sanding of the bottom and laying of geotextiles, while building a concrete brick foundation - this is laying or pouring a pond bowl with subsequent waterproofing.
Finally, you should take care of the water purification system. She may be:
- mechanical (organization of forced circulation of water through filtering materials),
- biological (using special microorganisms that accelerate the decay of dead material),
- chemical (adding special disinfecting or enzyme reagents to water).
Pond decor is a challenge for a real designer.
Below we describe the 5 main tools for decorating a decorative pond, which you can use yourself or under the guidance of specialists.
Stones. Such rocks as limestone, granite, marble, basalt, gneiss and dolomite are widely used. They are different in color, so choose a stone based on artistic considerations. It is better to combine large and small elements. Do not overload the artificial decorative pond with stones. It is enough to cover them with a water mirror around the perimeter and to build in the “hill” of the waterfall, if there is one.
Plants. For the coastal zone, you can use conifers, elderberry, meadowsweet, ferns and badany, for the coastline - marigold, handguard veronica, highlander snake. The calamus, reed, cattail, arrowhead and other plants are located in shallow water in the pond, and in the water there are water lilies, pods, duckweed, water-rose, and telorez.
Buildings You can build a bridge over the pond if its shape is elongated. At the same time, walking paths can be brought to the bridge so that your daily route is decorated with a picturesque water zone. Near the pond, wells, barrels, “huts” and “pagodas” are often installed as decorations. By the way, under one or another structure, you can mask the system of mechanical water purification. Often, near the decorative pond, benches and tables are mounted to admire the sitting pond.
Fountains.This is one of the most spectacular ways to decorate. You can create a simple system with one jet or a single nozzle with multiple holes, and also order a spectacular multi-level fountain with variable water supply.
Backlight. The market offers a huge number of underwater colored lights that can make the pond very beautiful in the dark. You can use both single-color and multi-colored lamps within one reservoir, the main thing is not to overdo it with the number of colors. In addition, along the banks, you can install waterproof street lamps to visually highlight the area of the reservoir.
Very often, the owners of suburban areas choose a combination of fountains and lighting for their ponds, since it is this “set” that, according to many reviews, promotes maximum relaxation. The splash of water and the play of light help relaxation very well.
Caring for a decorative pond
After the ice has melted, you should carefully inspect the entire water body and determine whether cracks caused by temperature changes or expansion of the frozen water appeared in the sides and bottom. If a fish has hibernated in your pond, you need to check if it has survived the cold. It is mandatory to check all the water supply pipes and pumping equipment (whether there are cracks, whether everything functions normally). In the fall, a lot of foliage is usually accumulated in the artificial pond, brought by the wind from the other ends of the plot. In the spring, it must be removed from the pond so that it does not rot in the water. Small ponds are often pumped out, temporarily moving the fish to clean the walls of the bowl. At the end of March they usually begin to take care of the plants: plant habitual ones or buy new ones.
The most important task of the pond owners at this time is to maintain a constant water level and clean it from pollution. This is even more relevant if a fish lives in a pond (dirty water and lack of oxygen can contribute to the death of the fish). In the heat of the water pumped. Another urgent task is to control the growth of aquatic and coastal plants. It is necessary to cut them, if they grow very strongly, remove weeds and clean the water from fallen leaves and fruits. Fish that live in an artificial reservoir, you need to regularly feed, not forgetting to remove the remnants of uneaten food, so that it does not litter the water.
The main task of the owner of the pond during this period is to protect the reservoir from debris and leaves that the wind brings. To do this, the pond is cleaned with a specialized net, mowed coastal plants and / or stretch a fine mesh over the pond, catching the leaves. Un-resistant plants should be removed from water or soil and stored in a warm dark room until spring. If there is fish in the pond, you should feed it for the winter so that she can get nutrients.
Deep ponds with fish do not pump out. It is recommended to provide polynyas, drilling through ice or warming it up to the formation of a hole. Often in winter the water is heated. Shallow ponds are usually pumped out, and if there is a fish in them, it will be resettled in an aquarium.
Decorative ponds to order: quickly and without worries
Decorative ponds are a very effective element of landscape design. That is why many want to have it on the site. Однако весь процесс его строительства сложен и трудоемок, что может свести на нет все удовольствие от последующего созерцания водоема, вызывая воспоминания о затраченном времени и совершенных ошибках.
Если Вы не из тех, кто все делает своими руками, и у Вас нет сил на поэтапное строительство и украшение водоема, закажите декоративный пруд в специализированной фирме. Компания «Водоемчик» с 2003 года занимается созданием прудов и фонтанов, органично вписанных в ландшафтный дизайн участка. We undertake all work on the construction of such facilities.
- design of artificial ponds taking into account the appearance and configuration of the site and the wishes of the customer,
- purchase of all necessary materials to create a reservoir,
- the creation of waterproofing with the help of modern material "Akvaprof"
- laying and connection of communications,
- pond decoration, including natural and artificial stone, fountains and lights,
- emergency and periodic maintenance of pipes and installed pumping and cleaning equipment.
You can ask any questions about the technological features of the creation of reservoirs and the cost of our services by phone +7 (495) 729-25-78 or email [email protected]
Our related services:
Decorative pond in the country
Registration of a country pond
Decorative design of reservoirs
General principles of pond construction
Surely, you are ready to pick up a shovel and get to work! Do not hurry. Before you make a decorative pond, it is important to determine where it will be located, choose the optimal shape and size, buy the necessary materials. At the last stage of the arrangement, vegetation is planted.
Once again we focus your attention on the fact that difficulties in building should not scare you. In fact, they are all easily overcome. Costs will be small, it will take 5-7 days of free time. The result is that on the personal plot there will appear what each summer resident dreams of. This is a quiet water surface, which will sparkle in the sun with all the colors of the rainbow!
Choosing a place for the reservoir
Decorative pond in the country with their own hands - this is not a place for swimming breaststroke. It is an ornament of the territory. At the same time, it is important to take care of the proper organization of the natural environment. Otherwise, instead of a charming picture, you will get a “magical” swamp. Hence the conclusion - the construction site of the pond for summer house should be chosen with special care.
Illumination of the site plays a big role. Any plants need ultraviolet radiation, but its excess can quickly destroy the entire ecosystem.
If the summer is hot, there is a rapid reproduction of algae. Ideally, the sun's rays should warm the decorative pond only before or after lunch. Even before the start of construction, you can mark the contours of the future pond with string or sand, and then trace how the lighting changes during the day.
The main thing is to choose a place in advance for the reservoir.
The source of the shadow is not only the house, but also the crowns of trees. Especially beautiful will look trees that have a weeping shape. The only drawback - decorative ponds will need to be regularly cleaned of foliage.
- Choose the lowest and, accordingly, wet areas of the cottage.
- If the plot is flat, pay attention to the border of the garden, which is indicated by bushes.
- A good option would be a playground near the bloody. But in this case between the reach and the plantings make the transition from perennial plants.
- The spectacular solution is to build a decorative pond with your own hands near the alpine slide. It is easy to link them in one composition if you use stones of the same shape.
We determine the shape and style
Each summer resident agrees with the statement that the design of the pond should match the style of the site. For example, if you have an English landscape, the construction of a round pond will be the most successful. The ponds of irregular shape look great on the plots decorated in the Oriental style.
By the way, to strive to ensure that the design of the pond had some clear geometric shapes is not at all necessary. The main thing that the reservoir fit into the overall landscape of the garden.
The sizes directly depend on the area of the garden plot. But remember that the larger the pond, the easier it will be to create a stable, sustainable ecosystem in it. It can be concluded that it is much easier to care for a large body of water than for a small one.
What materials to use?
For the arrangement of ponds used a variety of waterproofing materials.
- Plastic. If the area is small (up to 5 square meters), plastic containers will be most welcome. They are easy to install, and the service life is tens of years.
- Film. Those who plan to build a reservoir according to an individual project, it is best to use waterproofing film. By itself, the material is very elastic, rather easily deformed. Depending on the composition, there is a film to create a pond of polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and butyl rubber.
- PVC, polyvinyl chloride. In most cases, black film is used. In the event of damage, they are easily covered with glue.
- Polyethylene. Although it is cheaper, it does not have durability. It is easiest to “cure” it with self-adhesive tape.
- Butyl rubber. Of all types of films, this is considered the best. Thickness is selected depending on the depth of the pond. When planning a shallow pond (up to 80 cm), use a material with a thickness of 0.8 mm. For a deeper pond, it is better to take a film up to 1.5 mm.
To hide the free edges of the film, you can use stones. Lay them so that the edges hang slightly over the water.
Attracts the correct geometric shape for the pond? The foundation of concrete is exactly what you need! Of course, the construction is fraught with difficulties. You will have to fill the walls with the transition between the terraces.
How to create a beautiful pond on the basis of hard capacity?
What is good plastic containers, so it is easy and quick installation. Self-installation will not cause questions even for a beginner, and you can do it in just 1-2 days. And if the form for the pond is framed under a natural stone, you can forget about disguise.
Plastic pond tank
The order of work will be as follows:
- The finished container is installed in a predetermined place. You can put a few bricks on it to avoid tilting. The edges are surrounded by sand to mark the boundaries. To achieve full compliance with the capacity of the tank, it is important to mark the zones of different heights.
- The pit is dug by markings that expand and deepen by 10 centimeters.
- The bowl of the reservoir is installed in the pit. The level will make sure that the structure is set strictly horizontally. If necessary, the depth of the pit can always be adjusted.
- The tank is filled with water by about a third. The gaps are filled with sand. He periodically pours water.
Master class on the creation of a reservoir of film
Waterproofing film is a great way to create a pond of absolutely any, even the most unusual form. As soon as the place for construction is chosen, we proceed to work.
Creating a pond with a film
- Using dry lime or plain sand, mark the contours of the pond.
- On the contours dig a ditch, but shallow - approximately on the bayonet of the shovel. Ground and turf do not throw away.
- Take the dry lime again and label the contours. The bottom of the reservoir in the center should get the deepest.
- How to calculate the desired film size? This will help you rope and tape measure. Add 50 cm on each side for better fixation of the banks.
- Pour a layer of sand on the bottom, the next layer will be non-woven or geotextile. The material is good because it protects the film from contact with the roots, stones. You can lay the film.
- Pressing the bottom of the stones, slowly fill the pond with water. Ensure that the settling of the film is gradual.
- After 2-3 days, you can proceed to the design of the coastal zone. To do this, you need to fill the edges of the film, lay the plates and stones. The resulting gaps are gently filled with sand.
Each plant has its own place
Error number one - you want to plant a plant completely different from where it should grow. The fern will never grow in shallow water, and the water lily - in the coastal zone.
- Coastline: bushwood, marshmallow, highlander snake, forget-me-nots are allowed.
- The coastal zone: elder and ferns, lilies of the valley, conifers.
- Shoal (depth up to 20 cm): susak, arrowhead, reed.
- Depth over 30 cm: nugget and water lily.
- Water surface (only for decoration): duckweed (where are the classics!), Water-colored paint.
You can pour the earth safely
Container gardening has its pros and cons. Of the disadvantages - poor growth, as in a plastic container the plants develop worse. Many gardeners think that if you fall asleep land in the dacha pond, it will always be muddy. This is not true. The soil used for aquatic plants contains clay that strengthens the roots. It is not washed out with water.
It is better to forget about stones of the same size.
Same stones ... It's so boring and trite! Why don't you decorate the beach with completely different cobblestones? Combine small stones with large ones; don't forget about medium ones. Of course, in this case, it is also recommended not to "go too far." And then you fill up the entire area with them - it will also look ridiculous.
Dream with a selection of stones
About filters and pumps
Do you want your reservoir to always be clean and the water in it is fresh and clear? In this case, do not spare money and buy a special filter, as well as a pump. Small pumps are somewhat reminiscent of containers. They easily hide under stones. It is better to choose a pump with a specialist, since the power of the device is determined by the volume of water.
Pond filtration system
Having decided on the place, concrete model, place it on a concrete slab or brick. Then make a marking of the line along which the water pipe will be laid, the electric wire. The cable is placed in a reinforced pipe, masked by pebbles and stones along with the pipe. Then you connect the pump to an electrical circuit using an interrupter. Do not forget to change the filter.