One of the most useful perennials in agriculture is the bare fire - grass, which is indispensable as feed for livestock, and also enriches the soil with nitrogen, producing it from carbon dioxide consumed by the plant from the air.
Bonfire bezosti is a horse rhizome grass, whose height can reach one and a half meters. The stem is smooth, densely leafy with a large number of elongated shoots. Leaves flat, from 4 to 10 mm wide, dark green color. In cold weather, their color turns pale. The inflorescence in the form of a panicle, whose length is 15–20 cm, consists of large spikelets with a size from 12 to 30 mm. The bottom floral scales are purple and have a wide, filmy edge. The tip of the weevil and ovary are covered with dense pubescence. The flowering period is short, depends on the weather and lasts a maximum of 2 weeks. Watching this grass in windy weather, you can see how when tilted in different directions, panicles gleam with red light, which is very similar to a flame.
The root system of the plant is quite powerful and reaches two meters in depth. Thanks to such a rhizome, a boneless fire can endure any drought, giving high yields of hay even in regions where rainfall is minimal. It is also resistant to prolonged flooding.
Most often this plant can be found in Europe, Asia Minor and North Asia. In Russia, it grows almost everywhere, with the exception of the Arctic and some parts of the Far East. It mainly grows along the banks of rivers, ponds, in meadows and sparse forests, forming clean thickets. The neighborhood of such plants as meadow tea, eastern sverbig, bluegrass and some other representatives of cereals does not tolerate good fire. Sowing in grass mixtures with alfalfa has a positive effect on its growth.
Bezosti bonfire - the grass is quite unpretentious. It grows in well-lit places. The soil prefers sufficiently rich in nutrients, well drained. It grows best on loams, sandy loams and drained peatlands. Unsuitable are saline soils. On them the fireless bezosty is quickly replaced by wheatgrass. The water permeability of the soil is of great importance for this plant, it grows rather poorly on dense clays. Negative effect on the growth of grass and the proximity of groundwater. In favorable conditions, the period of economic use can be up to 20 years, in dry places it is very small and rarely exceeds 6 years.
Although a bare fire is grass drought-resistant, when air temperature is above 38 ⁰C, its significant burnout occurs. However, dry winds are tolerated by this plant much better than other grasses. At the beginning of growth, fire can be oppressed by high-stem cultures, but gradually, as it grows, it begins to force out many plants on its own, leading successful weed control.
This crop is resumed by seed and vegetatively. The first option in vivo has the lowest value. Despite the fact that grass seeds are formed in a sufficiently large amount (up to 18 thousand per 1 m²), only a small part of them germinates, and the adult state reaches one.
The possibility of vegetative propagation occurs only in the fourth year of the life of the plant. The space that the growing root system occupies is gradually increasing. From fresh shoots formed by young roots, new plants are formed. Thanks to this method of reproduction, an awnless bonfire is a very hardy grass and adapted to various adverse conditions.
Planting and care
On agricultural land this plant is sown after sunflower, corn, potatoes. This is best done in the fall, although you can sow in the spring and summer. With continuous sowing in rows, the seeding rate is up to 7 million seeds (about 25 kg per 1 hectare). On fertile soil, the amount may be slightly reduced to 5 million, and on unfavorable growth conditions - increased by 1–2 million. Grass seeds are very light, and sowing them can be difficult. This task is facilitated by the addition of granular superphosphate at the rate of 50 kg per 1 hectare. Depth of seeding is 4 to 5 cm. After sowing, wet soil is slightly rolled.
Of great importance for the crop is not only how to sow grass, but also how well its fertilizing is provided. To enhance the growth of the vegetative mass, nitrogen fertilizers that are applied annually, in the spring, 50 kg per hectare provide great assistance.
In the first year of the plant's life, weed control is required. They are cut 2 or 3 times during the summer. After 2 years, it can be treated with heavy harrows, and on the fourth - with a disc choker.
A grapeless fire is a valuable pasture and hay plant capable of producing a very high yield. Even in dry and unfavorable areas, it can be up to 50 centners per hectare. Both green grass and hay containing nitrogen-free extractives up to 47%, fiber 21%, protein 19%, protein 16%, 9% ash and 3% fat have very high nutritional value. This plant is happily eaten by animals. It is used as feed for livestock, and for securing the soil in areas prone to flushing, for securing the slopes of ravines.
Stampless fire is a good predecessor for cereals, able to restore the fertile soil layer. He copes with weeds, suppressing them already in the second year of his life.
It is recommended to use an awnless bonfire on pasture subject to certain techniques. Crops need to be planted only no earlier than three years of age, when the sod is quite dense. Up to three cycles are carried out, and the above-ground part is alienated at least 6 cm. Grazing on pastures occupied by this crop is not allowed in the fall. This can lead to the fact that nutrients do not have time to accumulate, as a result, shoots are not formed, which next year leads to a decrease in yield and forage, and seeds.
Due to the large number of useful properties, an awkless bonfire finds a very wide application in agriculture. The price of the seeds of this plant is small and averages 110–120 rubles per 1 kg.
Specialists in zootechnics are well aware that the grass bonfire is a perennial plant, widely used as a fodder crop. In appearance, it looks like a typical supreme oat. It has another purpose: growing grass contributes to the enrichment of the soil with nitrogen, which is a useful feed for other plants growing in the area.
This herbaceous crop has the ability to release nitrogen by processing carbon dioxide taken directly from the air. The roots that feed this plant reach a length of almost 2 meters. The development of the root system distinguishes this variety from other types of grass that do not have the following advantages:
- Bonfire grasses described in this section are able to withstand severe droughts.
- At the same time they provide a good harvest of hay, even in regions with minimal average annual precipitation.
- Kostrets grass besides easily copes with long stagnant moisture.
Thanks to the specified properties, this grassy look can be referred to the category of especially hardy cultures.
Forage rump grass has many varieties (about 150 species), among which the most common are:
- Boner Beneken (scientifically it is called the cereal B. Inermis). It is a perennial plant with a well-developed branched root system, reaching 2 meters. In height, this species can grow up to 1.2 meters.
- A cleansing bonfire, or B. Catharticus, is as perennial as everyone else. In this species, you can find samples, the lifetime of which is limited to two years. In height, this grass is rarely more than one meter, but in the soil it forms a chic sod layer.
- A decorated botanical bonfire, called B. Ornans breeders, is the same perennial plant, but in height reaching 1.5 meters. Its root system, in comparison with the already considered species, is rather poor. The leaves of this herbaceous plant are wide and beautiful. On their surface there is a hair covering, the color of which is deep green.
On a note! Breeding herbs such as rump can be either by seed or vegetatively. Under natural conditions, sowing seeds is completely disadvantageous, since only a tiny percentage sprouts from a huge amount of them.
Vegetative reproduction is realized naturally due to the expansion of the root system and the formation of young roots, from which new shoots appear (to plant in this case, nothing is needed). But this approach is not without drawback, since the ability to reproduce appears in the grass only on the 4th year of the growing season. In the case when it is not possible to wait for so many years, you will have to sow the seeds and be content with a poor harvest.
The bezostiy bonfire prefers loamy and sandy soils and does not tolerate the presence of a peat component in them (as well as increased acidity).
In order to sow this grass, coastal zones in river valleys, as well as drained marshlands, are commonly used. Very saline soils are considered completely unacceptable for cultivation of the rump.
Descriptive characteristics can be represented as follows:
- Bonfire perennial grass reaches a height of 1.5 meters.
- On the stems of this variety of perennial grasses there are many long shoots mixed with leafy part.
- The leaflets on the stem are flat, from 4 to 10 mm wide (they usually have a dark green hue).
Note! At low temperatures, their color fades somewhat.
- The inflorescences, blooming in the period of maturation, are panicle type (their total length reaches 17-20 cm).
- They are collected from large spikelets, about 15-30 mm long.
Among the characteristic properties of perennial grass should be counted its frost resistance and moisture resistance, which is also explained by the peculiarities of the root system. When spring comes with thaws, and after flooding the soil, young shoots grow on the rhizome, after which the plant is fully restored.
Useful properties of this grass are shown in its ability of continuous growth for several years in a row. And every year it is possible to mow it for hay twice per season, which is widely used in animal husbandry, where it is used as a fodder crop. Nothing is known about any influence of the rump on a person.
About diseases and pests
Diseases and pests affecting this plant are the same as in most cereals. These include various types of root (stem) rot, as well as spotting, mosaics and rust. Another type of bacteriosis and smut should be attributed to another group of diseases.
All of them cause great damage to the cultivation of agricultural crops and force producers to deal with them in the most decisive way.
Important! This struggle is practically reduced to the periodic pollination of the sown areas with special disinfecting chemicals that prevent the spread of infection to the next crop.
For the prevention of possible diseases, specialists in agriculture have developed a whole system of preventive measures taken throughout the growing season (autumn in this sense is also no exception).
Time to harvest and harvest
Harvesting grass is carried out in the following three ways:
- By grazing animals on overgrown crops.
- For green food.
- Hay harvesting.
In the first case, the tillering stage of cereal ears and up to the formation of inflorescences is selected for pasture feeding. For green nutritious food, this perennial species is harvested with the beginning of the formation of tubules and until the beginning of flowering.
Additional Information. In the overwhelming majority of cases, boneless stands are used for making hay.
In the latter version, it is recommended to start collecting grass with the onset of sweeping out panicles, and to finish it after the complete cutting of the acreage.
In conclusion, it should be noted that the growing season of perennial cereals is of interest from the point of view of their breeding for very specific purposes. Depending on this, one or another approach to the cultivation of this culture is implemented.
Description and photo
Bonfire bezosti has the appearance of rhizome grass, which can grow up to 1.5 m in height. The stem of this plant is smooth, has many elongated shoots and leaves. The leaves are flat, from 4 to 10 mm wide, of a dark green shade. Color under low temperature conditions slightly pales. Inflorescences of panicle type, up to 17–20 cm long. They consist of large ears, reaching a size of 15–30 mm. The roots of the plant are very powerful, can penetrate the soil to a depth of 2 m. Due to this feature of the root system, the perennial can tolerate almost any drought, yielding a good harvest of hay even in those areas where rainfall was minimal. Also, a fire without a bridge endures enduring long-term flooding.
The spread of the rump over the site is due to a rather powerful rhizome. It grows gradually and over time captures more and more territory. From the young roots sprout new shoots. Thanks to this form of reproduction, this culture is considered to be one of the most enduring.
Gardener should consider some properties that are inherent in this perennial grass:
- Resistance to frost. A powerful rhizome allows the plant to calmly survive the winter, even if frost is expected to be quite strong. When the temperature becomes more favorable and the snow melts, the awnless brome pretty quickly dissolves the young shoots.
- The plant can also tolerate flooding by flood waters. Such a phenomenon does not pose a threat to the fire even in the case when the stagnation of water lasts up to two months.
- Perennial can withstand repeated mowing. This feature is extremely valuable and provides to the rump a high level of demand as a culture for food. A bonfire is able to grow for several years at the same place, while it can be mown twice in one season or more.
Distribution and habitat
Perennial grass fire is mainly found in Europe, as well as in Asia Minor and North Asia. Usually grows on the banks of ponds and rivers, as well as in sparse forests and meadows. Unfavorable neighbors for this plant will be some cereals, in particular, bluegrass, eastern sverbiga, and also meadow tea. A positive effect on the growth of the rump has a neighborhood with alfalfa.
Use of fire
The bushes of the fire are quite powerful, reaching a height of the order of one meter. Due to this, the plant looks very impressive as a lawn edging. Also decorative features are in the presence of panicles-inflorescences with multi-colored scales. If you provide a plant dense planting, then look at the site it will be very beautiful and lively.
An equally important feature of a campfire is that it has a creeping root of a sufficiently large length. Such properties of the rhizome allow the culture to be used for soil consolidation and soil protection from washes. So it is quite advisable to use an awnless bonfire for planting artificial mounds and natural slopes. As a result of such a landing, a strong sod layer will form already next season, which cannot be destroyed even by the strongest rain showers and floods.
It is impossible not to recall the value of the bare apron as a hay and grazing plant that can produce a great harvest. Even in the most adverse areas and in conditions of excessive drought, the culture can be up to 50 centners per hectare. Green grass is also nutritious, as well as hay, because it contains extractive nitrogen-free elements up to 43-47%, more than 20% of fiber and about 20% of protein. Grass love to use animals. Even this perennial plant will be an excellent predecessor for all sorts of grain crops, because it can restore soil fertility. Perfectly fights weeds, as it is capable of suppressing their vital activity in the second year of their growth.
Choice of soil and location
Immediately it should be noted that the plant is quite unpretentious. It will be best to grow in areas that are maximally illuminated by the sun. Что касается почвы, то она должна быть питательной и качественно дренированной. Оптимальным решением будет выбор суглинистой либо супесчаной почвы, также подойдет осушенный торфяник.
А вот засоленные грунты не подойдут для выращивания костреца, поскольку там растение вытеснит пырей. Не менее важно обращать внимание на водопроницаемость почвогрунта, она должна быть высокой. The proximity of groundwater also has a negative effect on perennial growth.
Norms and seeding scheme
Sowing the fire of the brothel recommended in early springabout the last decade of April. You can also carry out sowing in the first decade of May. It is important that the soil be sufficiently moist, so it is not worth tightening with the sowing, because after May 10 the soil can already be quite drained. The same should be said about the summer period, when the land is usually dry, unless the summer was extremely rainy. Sowing the rump can be done two ways: uncovered and under the cover of other plants.
If the choice falls on the second method, then the placement should be carried out next to the culture, which has a high level of moisture reserves. These include fodder millet and oats, if they will be used as hay or green mass. Both cultures should be sown at the same time or immediately after each other. The seeding rate of all plants in this case will need to be reduced by about 20-30% compared to the standard. But in the case when the fire is sown with the aim of obtaining seeds, then you need to choose only bezoprovny method.
Sowing the seedless clearing for the purpose of obtaining food, should follow the width between the rows of the order of 20-45 cm. The seeding rate per 1 hectare in this case will be about 12-17 kg. It should be understood that higher productivity of the plant is achieved in wide-row sowing, so it is necessary to comply with these recommendations.
Despite the overall unpretentiousness of perennials, it is necessary to bleed it on a mandatory basis and at a precise time so that the powerful rhizome does not become exhausted. The grass grows fast enough, but it is still recommended to use it for pasture purposes only starting from the third year after sowing. By this time, powerful turf will have time to form. If you do not adhere to this recommendation, animals will be able to damage crops, compacting the soil, and the plant will not be able to recover again.
Also experienced farmers recommend to adhere to the following rules:
- Bleed plant need not more than three times a season. In this case, the aboveground part should have time to grow no less than 6 cm, otherwise the plant will not be able to recover.
- To carry out the bleeding in the autumn period and later it is forbidden, since photosynthesis will be deteriorated and the roots will not be able to stock up on nutrients for the winter. As a result, by the next season there will be very few young shoots and the plant carpet will be restored within a few years.
- Kostrets tolerates drought well, but at the same time does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater. It is important to remember about this feature in order to choose the right site for planting.
If the fire is planned to be used as a green feed, you can resort to two methods: either to graze on such pastures of animals, or to mow the green mass and bring such food to the place where the cattle is kept. It is possible to graze animals from the tillering stage to the formation of inflorescences. To finish grazing is recommended about a month before the end of the growing season perennial.
Very often use a rump for hay production. Mow the grass in this case should be at the stage of formation of inflorescences. It is during this period that the fire is rich in protein and fats, and there is less fiber in it. It is worth noting that the dry matter in the plant accumulates at a later time, but it is not recommended to lag behind with mowing, since the volume of fiber in the composition increases and the cell walls begin to woody. As a result, animals eat food reluctantly, and the hay in the body is digested much slower.
If we are late with mowing the grass, the yield of the second crop will be noticeably lower. The plant should be mowed at a level of about 5-7 cm from the ground, then the grass will grow more efficiently and quickly.
The final stage in the cultivation of awnless bone is the cleaning. Determine the readiness of grass for this process can be based on the level of moisture of the seeds. Every day, moisture is reduced by about 2-2.5%.
The method of harvesting each farmer can choose at his discretion, based on the general condition of the plant, and also paying attention to the weather and the availability of the necessary equipment.
- Separate harvesting is implemented in cases when the seed herbage ripened unevenly, and the moisture content of the seeds is about 40%. Also, this method is suitable in the presence of strong clogging of the rump. This method works well in dry areas. Grass mown and fit into rolls. After they completely dry out (after 7-8 days), you need to collect them and thresh using a combine.
- It is necessary to apply direct combining at unstable weather conditions. It is necessary to keep a high cut. Such a collection should be carried out at the stage of drilling the seeds in the panicle and their moisture level in the range of 30-35%. After collecting, you must immediately resort to the preliminary cleaning of the heap and drying. It is important that no more than 3-4 hours pass between harvesting and drying the seeds.
The mass that remained after mowing and threshing can be used for feeding animals in a green form, or for drying on hay. Crop residues are harvested shortly after harvesting the seed part, no later than August 20, the cut is kept at a height of 10-12 cm from the ground. As you can see, the bezosti fire is distinguished by its simplicity and versatility. Any farmer can grow it, and it can be used for various purposes. It is also important that the plant can grow for several years even under adverse weather conditions.
Very often the fire is found in Europe, Asia Minor, in Europe, northern and north-western regions of Asia. In the CIS countries it is considered to be a weed. This plant is not afraid of even long floods.
Bonfire begins to bloom in late June - early July. This process originates in the middle or upper part of the panicle, gradually spreading to the lower part. Flowering time depends on the type of plant and weather conditions, it varies from 4 to 15 days. As a rule, it blooms in the afternoon, provided that the humidity is low. Sometimes the grass can bloom early in the morning, most often it can be observed in the forest zone. In Siberia, plant flowers appear in the morning and after dinner.
Seeds ripen in early August.
The most suitable soil for growing plants - rich, slightly acidic or neutral, while they must be well drained. This plant does not like the close location of groundwater, it is difficult to grow in anaerobic conditions. Bonfire prefers completely open or places with a faint shadow. He is not afraid of frost.
Bonfire is able to form dense thickets. He can react differently to the plants near him. The plant does not get along with Eastern sverbig, meadow bluegrass, meadow tea, some kinds of cereals and legumes.
Bonfire has many useful properties. The grass is drought tolerant, tolerates heat well, loves moisture. It is able to withstand flooding by flood waters for 40 days. But the plant does not like close groundwater. The fire has good frost resistance and winter hardiness, therefore it is considered to be considered semi-eternal or winter cereal. When planting in early spring in the first year, this plant is capable of forming generative stems. Less developed shoots are formed in summer and autumn, while they elongate and become vegetative.
Often the fire is used in fodder crop rotations, to create cultural and improve natural pastures and hayfields, during sodding of sloping lands. A bonfire can grow in the steppe, forest and forest-steppe zones, in the mountains, on various soils. But the best for him are black soil, loamy soil, dried peatlands. Sometimes the plant can settle down on fertile forest soils, and in meadows in the saline. Cannot grow in dense and acidic lands.
In connection with the habitat, the fire is divided into three main groups:
Each of the varieties of plants quietly adapts to the conditions of the environment in which it lives. Among themselves, these groups differ in the number of leaves, vegetative mass, shape and size of the panicle.
This plant is widely used for seeding near and sloping lands. It is also considered the most productive cereal, has good fodder qualities. As a rule, the plant forms a pair of cuttings or aftermath and one cutting. If you mow it too often, it quickly becomes rare.
Bonfire is a valuable pasture culture, it is loved by all kinds of domestic animals. But the crop of a plant on a pasture is often uneven, it is distributed in cycles, this is especially noticeable in dry years. From one hectare of a plant it is possible to collect from 12 to 50 centners of hay, but this depends on the climatic conditions. For example, on very dry plots of land its yield will be minimal, but on the abundantly moistened meadows, the hay yield of this plant sometimes reaches 135 centners from one hectare. Each 100 kg of hay contains 57 different feed units, as well as 6 kg of easily digestible protein.
Using a fire on pasture, you must adhere to certain rules. Bleeding crops should be only in the third year, after the formation of dense turf. During one season, no more than three set points can be performed. If you decide to use the aftermath of the plant for grazing, then in the fall you should not allow late grazing of cattle, this can lead to the oppression of the plant. In this case, the amount of nutrients in the plant is sharply reduced and the plant practically does not form shoots. This leads to a decrease in seed yield and feed mass in the next year.
The plant can be used with lawn mixtures. All kinds of this plant with multi-colored panicles are used for decorating mixborders, flowerbeds, alpine slides.
This plant is also used by florists to make dry bouquets. In addition, the fire helps to improve the condition of haymakings and pastures, it is used for sodding of riparian and mountainous areas, they fix lands subject to leaching. The long and creeping rhizomes of this plant qualitatively prevent erosion in the soil, so the seeds of the fire are often planted on the banks and slopes, areas with loose sandy soil.
Growing feed grass
In order to choose a place for sowing a fire plant, you need to decide on what you plan to plant this grass for. But there are, of course, a few general recommendations for growing. If you stick to them, then you will be able to provide the plant with proper and proper care, as well as a good place for growth and development. So, for the perfect growth and development of such a plant as a fire grass, you need:
- Smooth ground with soil.
- The terrain should be well ventilated from all sides.
- Without any other planted plants and weeds. It is best to take a plowed field with a tractor.
- The place should be well lit by the sun.
At the selected site of planting grass, nutrient and well-drained soil should prevail. Best of all, of course, can be suitable for such purposes of soil with a high content of sand and clay. Possible planting of this plant on dried peat soils. But it is important to note that this grass will not grow and develop on salty soils. The soil should perfectly pass oxygen through itself. And have a viscous structure. It is also not necessary to locate the landing of grass, a bonfire near a large amount of groundwater.
Grass should be planted in early spring. The last weeks of April are the best for this procedure. The main thing is to ensure that the soil where the plant will be sown, was properly saturated with moisture. And we’ll focus on sowing this perennial until May 10th.
The disembarkation takes place by two known methods:
- Bloodless mode.
- Sub-cover method.
If you decide to plant Koster by such methods, then place the planted plants best next to crops that store moisture. Best suited for this:
Sow these plants one after another. The rate is reduced by one third. This method of seeding is not recommended if you later want to collect the seeds of that crop. For the collection of seeds is best to choose the method of planting a non-bleeding.
If you decide to grow grass for animal feed, then pay attention to such recommendations. Create aisle at least 20 centimeters from each other. In order to sow about a field the size of one hectare, you need about 15-18 kilograms of seed. All plantings must have wide aisles, otherwise germination and yield will be very low.
Bonfire Care Tips
Despite the fact that the plant is very unpretentious, the bleeding should be done carefully and strictly in the time allotted for this. This is to ensure that the root system of the plant does not die. The plant grows and grows well from the first year of sowing. But it is worth noting the fact that it is recommended to feed it to livestock only after the third year of life. This is due to the fact that it must form a good sod layer. If you do not do this, then you risk leaving livestock on pasture without planting next year, they will be able to trample everything and destroy it. There are a number of rules for the care of a plant:
- Bleed this kind of grass should be no more than three times for the entire season.. Note that the shoots must be at least 60 millimeters tall. If this is not followed, your crops will not be able to recover.
- In no case do not bleed in the autumn period.. By allowing such a process in late autumn, you will disturb the process of photosynthesis and, accordingly, the root system will not be able to set aside all the nutrients that should help the plant in the winter. And since the plant cannot overwinter, it will be possible to achieve a good germination rate for the next season and, accordingly, your meadow will be restored for a very long period of time. That is by no means permissible if you sow it for feeding livestock.
- Drought for this type of forage grass is not a negative factor for development.. But, on the contrary, the occurrence of a large amount of groundwater can adversely affect it. Choose a terrain for this plant where underwater will run very deep in the soil. The extensively growing root system of the plant will provide him with good nutrition and will not rot.
- This variety of forage grass is very often used and prepared for livestock in winter.. But note that with such a billet, seeds that contain grass spikelets start falling out when cut. The plant is very fond of fresh animals during growth. It is very nutritious and fortified for them. When eating very quickly grows back and they can begin to regale themselves again.
Bonfire for a long time began to apply to feed livestock. According to the ancient records of our predecessors, it is clear that this grass has been highly valued as a fodder crop for many centuries. Used to feed her cows and sheep. Breeders are in the process of breeding new varieties and species of this plant. They manage to develop in it even greater resistance to bad weather conditions and external factors.
General description of the awnless bone
Kostrets bezosti has a powerful root system, so in terms of nature grows extensive colonies. You can find this grass from May to September-October in almost any field or meadow. The name of the plant was due to fluffy inflorescences that ferment in the wind like a fire flame.
Bonfire bezosti has the following description:
- the stems are long with many leaves, their height reaches 1 meter,
- leaves are flat saturated green, slightly rough at the edges,
- in early spring and closer to mid-autumn, the leaves have a pale, yellowish color,
- inflorescence in the form of a large panicle, grows up to 30 centimeters in length, becomes sprawling during flowering.
- about 7-8 flowers grow on each spikelet.
Due to the obvious similarity in the vegetative propagation system grass, fire is often mistaken for wheat grass. Like wheatgrass, the rump quickly spreads over the area due to its long roots, which eventually grow into the depths of the soil. But, during the period of seed ripening, the grass varies significantly - wheatgrass has more dense "panicles" that remain green (while the buds of the rump redden slightly).
The rump is also propagated by the root method - new shoots start to grow from the separated roots, then stalks with petals appear. Особенность этой травы в том, что она имеет высокую выносливость к негативным изменениям окружающей среды:
- Устойчивость к заморозкам. Корневая система без каких-либо опасений может находиться под слоем снега, и даже суровые морозы в регионе не смогут истребить растение.
- The active growth of the awnless bone marrow is observed from the first thaw - as soon as the snow melts, the soil warms up, the first shoots will begin to appear.
- The roots of the plant do not suffer even in the presence of floods - they turn into a “waiting state”, in which they persist for two months. After the elimination of floods grass quickly give new shoots.
- Bonfire is allowed to mow many times, it does not affect further growth. Thanks to this feature, the plant is loved by farmers.
Advanced plant root system
Each new season the fire grows in the same place, regardless of the weather and climate change. For example, in drought, the grass does not suffer in the absence of watering precisely because the roots go deeper into the layers of the soil.
Growing an awnless bonfire
In nature, grass-fire grows in loam and sandy loams, so you should not sow the culture in peat soil with a high level of acidity. Salted soil is categorically not suitable for growing crops - such land is enjoyed by wheat grass, which instantly displaces the bonfire.
The plant has excellent drought resistance, but to obtain a good harvest, it is recommended to plant it near large rivers, various water bodies, marshlands. Beginner farmers who are going to grow feed grasses should read some recommendations:
- prepare a flat ground with soil
- the terrain must be fairly well ventilated from all sides,
- It is advisable to choose pasture cultivated plants, plowed by a tractor,
- landing site should be illuminated by the rays of the sun.
Ideal for grass-fire place
The plant propagates by seed and vegetatively. You can choose any, but the first option is considered less reliable - despite the fact that during the flowering season a huge number of seeds form near the rump, not all of them germinate. Some shoots die in the first weeks.
In a vegetative way, the plant multiplies only in the fourth year, when the root system gradually grows into the soil, forming many new plants. Despite the fact that the bone is called a single type of plant, it has several varieties that are slightly different in appearance - the height and shape of panicles.
The most famous varieties of the rump, which are often sown:
- Poltava 30.
Poltava rump grows almost in human growth
Features of seeding the rump:
- for 7-8 minutes before sowing, warm the seeds with warm air,
- then the planting material is sprayed with anti-fungal agents,
- sow the grass in the spring or autumn season,
- when growing the rump to obtain seeds should be left between rows of about 55 centimeters,
Usually, the sowing of this herb begins after planting potatoes, corn. The first shoots begin to peek at the end of spring, closer to the beginning of summer, there is an active flowering. It is supposed to use about 20 kilograms of seeds per 1 hectare, but when sowing in fertile soil this amount is significantly reduced - you can count on ten to twelve kilograms.
Seeds are sold in horticultural departments
On average, the cost of one kilogram of seeds of the rump varies from 100-120 rubles. Farmers usually make bulk purchases of planting material, and it comes out cheaper by 20-25%. Despite the possibility of savings, the purchase of a large number of seeds involves significant spending. Therefore, you shouldn’t sow more than one tithe of the whole pasture for the first season - next year there will be an opportunity to collect your own planting material in large quantities.
Seeds deepen into the soil by 5-6 cm. After that, the wet soil will need to be rolled a little.
Soil preparation for planting
An important point! In order to get a large amount of grass, it is important not only to choose the right planting material. It is necessary to provide the plant with a special dressing. Experienced gardeners recommend using nitrogen fertilizers, they significantly accelerate the growth of shoots. They should be introduced into the soil every 12 months for 45-48 kilograms per hectare.
It will be necessary to periodically remove small weed plants from the territory. The next season, the ground is treated with heavy harrows.
Collection of seeds of the rump
Often, a large number of inflorescences are observed on one stalk of the fire - they do not need to be removed, and they do not interfere with the grass. When the spikelets of the rump become brown in color, they begin collecting seeds, which is carried out with the help of people - they mow dry panicles with sickles. Large areas are processed by combining.
Mature seeds have a reddish tint.
The method of manual harvesting is used on large fields, too, but in the case of gradual ripening of grass stands or at high seed moisture (more than 40%). Manually, the rump is harvested in regions with a dry, persistently hot climate.
The use of direct combining is relevant for areas with abrupt weather changes. Begin harvesting at a seed moisture content of about 30%. After harvesting, thorough drying of the seeds is performed (the time interval between harvesting and drying is usually about three hours). Seeds are put in dark, dry rooms, then cleaned with specialized machines. After which they are stored for 7-8 months, and only then they are planted again.
Green mass, which remains after harvesting, is used as animal feed immediately or left for winter - for hay. Grass remains are removed from the fields at the end of the last month of summer.
Bezosti bonfire: growing on pasture and harvesting
Grass-bonfire is used as cattle feed both by the method of harvesting hay and by grazing on pastures. The cows begin to be let out to the fields from the moment of the stems grow to the first flowering, and one month before the end of the growing season the plants graze on the animals completely.
In most cases, grass-bonfire is used for harvesting hay for the winter period, so it is recommended to mow it when the first inflorescences appear. During this period, the maximum protein content in green fodder is observed and coarse fiber is practically absent.
Hay harvesting, shredding
You can harvest the plant and during the period of active flowering, but it is important not to miss the time when the grass contains a high percentage of useful components. Closer to the fall, cellulose accumulates in shoots, cell walls become coarse, and such feed is considered less suitable for feeding livestock.
Animals reluctant to use it, in addition, feeding the livestock this hay can provoke indigestion.
Recommendations for plant care
A bonfire is an unpretentious grass, but it is recommended to mow it only in certain periods of the year (otherwise there will be a strong depletion of the root system).
Grazing on the sloping field of the rump
The crop sprouts appear rather quickly after sowing - already within a month, but the territory can be used as pasture only after three years. It is during this time that the most dense turf is formed, and if cows or sheep trample it ahead of time, the plant will quickly degenerate and die.
You should also follow important rules:
- Mowing grass is allowed no more than 3-4 times for the entire season of active growth. The height of the above-ground shoots should be about 6.5 centimeters, otherwise the plant will not be able to recover.
- Herbs do not mow in the last months of autumn. This contributes to the deterioration of the process of photosynthesis, the roots do not receive all the nutrients and dry quickly. Such negligence will lead to the fact that the next season will increase the minimum number of shoots and take several years to fully restore the entire colony.
- Culture grows comfortably in arid places, so you should not sow a rump near swamps or groundwater - this contributes to the accumulation of excess moisture and rotting of the root system.
- Bonfire is often used for harvesting hay, but farm animals more like this grass in a fresh green form.
Cleaning the rump with a combine
Grasses like the rump were used to fatten livestock several centuries ago, according to scientific sources. Kostrets were widely used for raising cattle and sheep, and many farmers now believe that it is more difficult to find more nutritious and healthy than this forage grass.
Therefore, breeders are working on breeding new, more productive varieties of this valuable plant in order to achieve maximum yield, green mass and grass resistance to adverse weather conditions.