Onion beds found in the garden of almost every landowner. And this is very justified. Excellent spice to many dishes has a number of irreplaceable properties for the health of the body. Fresh is used as greens, and heads.
Any fruit culture requires certain rules of fit and care. Following the recommendations worked out in practice, conducting our own observations and accumulating experience, one can get a rich harvest even from a small area for planting.
It is worth taking note: for onion turnips slightly different methods of preparing seedlings are used, rather than on feather production. Nuances of fit and care not very difficult, but qualitatively affect the timing and quantity at harvest.
It is necessary to find answers to important questions before starting the landing work. After all, even general knowledge will help avoid simple mistakes. What to use as a seed?
What does sevok look like and by what parameters should it be selected? What is chernets? When and how to plant onions?
Plot for sowing
Rto catch the ground in advance. Selected areas are cleared from previous use. Remnants of weeds, cultivated stems and roots are harvested. These works are carried out immediately upon completion of the harvest. All collected garbage is packed in piles and then burned.
This process is due to the destruction of pathogenic bacteria that can survive from the previous seasonal occurrence.
The productivity of onion crops depends on several factors: sufficient lighting, fertility of the selected soil, humidity level.
Of great importance is the soil type and level of fertility. These indicators serve as a guarantee of successful planting of onions with an eye to high yields. Light soil is good to use (for example, loam). Lack of nutrient content is easily remedied.
The main thing is to ensure free growth of the root system and good throughput with respect to moisture.
Excessive saturation can play a bad joke. The close occurrence of groundwater to the surface causes an overabundance of moisture (especially during the spring flood).
This situation is unacceptable for obtaining a quality product. Planting in such places is permissible when cultivating high beds (half-meter structures with installation of boards and filling with earth). Not the last place is played by the acidity parameter.
A very acidic earth prevents the onions from assimilating nutrients correctly, causing a deterioration in development. Deacidification is carried out by liming the selected area, preferably, right from the fall.
The need for warmth and good lighting in the bow is high. Based on this circumstance, the sunny territory on the plot is selected.
Lack of light provokes stunted growth, dullness and thinness of the feather part of the vegetable, a weak and fine final product.
The bed should be cultivated in the open, without the presence of tall plants nearby that can shade the planting. Along with good illumination, a poorly blown arrangement of onion allotment is desirable (if there is a choice).
Love bow to water is quite a known fact. But the excessive saturation of the soil with water has nothing to do with the above condition. Everything is good in moderation. Planting onion sets in the openly flooded land will result in a waste of effort, time and money.
Putting onions is necessary every time to a new place.. The use of the same geographical location is not recommended. The land for the season gave the culture all the necessary nutrition for growth and maturation.
But landing on any vacant space is unacceptable. It is required to take into account the influence of one or another grown plant on the elemental composition of the soil.
Do not fit the place where they grew cucumbers, garlic, carrots. In addition to nutrient depletion, pathogenic fungi and pests that can affect the bulbs can be detected.
Bean crops, white cabbage, various siderats, zucchini and representatives of the nightshade (potato, tomato) are good predecessors. The relationship is built on the use in the previous season of plots for crops that require a large amount in the application of complex fertilizers (organic in particular).
Preparation for landing
The main works include digging up the selected area with further fertilization. The initial stage is carried out in the autumn period. The depth of the horse trailer is full of a spade bayonet. When plowing plow goes to three dozen centimeters.
The operation is repeated in the spring, as soon as the land is free of snow cover. Loosening of the upper soil layer is carried out by the cultivated method, leveling using a rake. The softer and airier the earthen layer is, the better and faster sowing seeds will take root and grow.
Feed the landing should be in the fall. Use a good compost content or manure, a small amount of ash.
At the same time, lime is added if necessary.
Do not mix with organic complexes of additives. The reaction that occurs during the interaction reduces the level of nitrogen.
On a note: Bird droppings and cow dung should be used when swollen and bred.
Directly to lay in the ground in its pure form can be manure from rabbits and goats. Adding directly during planting, use as a substrate (strictly these two derivatives) is permissible.
When conducting the spring preparatory phase should use mineral supplements. The total volume is calculated in four steps. The first part is added during the final preparation of the soil (before planting). The remaining - at regular time intervals throughout the vegetation period.
Preparation of material for landing
Two types of crops are used: onion sets and seeds (onions of cherts). You can buy one and the other options when buying in stores selling sowing varieties. And you can grow yourself.
Another name "nippy". In fact, is the seeds of onion, formed after flowering. In the first season after planting, the same onion sets are obtained, more common among summer residents and novice gardeners. There is an opportunity for one season to get a full-fledged product, bypassing the intermediate state (sevok).
You should not count on large rivers in this situation, but the average size with excellent port qualities is quite real. And yet, the main purpose of Chernushka is quality sevok. The treatment of small onion seeds with stimulating preparations is used to reduce the time interval from sowing to the first shoots.
At the same time, it is possible to form an onion in an extended period. Phased processing is carried out in this way:
- Disinfection of seeds is performed by half-hour immersion in manganese solution.
- Germination is checked by keeping for a couple of weeks in a moist breathable matter.
- Stimulation of growth and development is achieved using specialized solutions, according to the instructions attached to them.
At the end of the preparatory process, the seeds are dried under natural conditions until friability appears on individual units. For ease of distribution in the bed mixed with a contrast agent. Sand and chalk are suitable for this purpose.
How to prepare for planting onion sets? The question that often asked novice farmers. Although the vegetable is quite simple, pre-processing takes a very long time.
Originally required to select healthy bulbs. They must be dense, elastic, free from external defects and damage. Sprouted specimens are not suitable for growing on a turnip.
The origin of the planting material (bought in a store or grown on its own garden bed) does not matter much when preparing for disembarkation. Both should be dried and heated before planting. The procedure is carried out in two positions.
Initially, it is placed in a temperature environment of at least two dozen warm degrees, lasting from half to a month. In the future, the temperature rises to forty degrees for ten hours maximum. It is important not to overheat! All these actions activate the growth potential within the onion head, improving germination and rooting.
In the absence of the possibility of long-term warm-up let's say the method of hot soaking. The bulbs are filled with hot (50 °) water for a dozen minutes, dried. This is done immediately before placement in the ground.
The process of disinfection and reduction of time from planting to the appearance of sprouts - as is the case with seeds - is carried out using a solution of manganese manganese or copper sulphate, and stimulants.
Planting work. Location maps
The location of crops in the garden is determined by the purpose of the grown product. For large onion turnips, one plantation planting onion sets is required, for greenery another. From the task depends on the qualitative approach to the harvest.
Some basic varietal parameters are suitable for winter storage of table onions:
- Saturated with vitamins, medium sharpness. Planting 10 centimeters between the bulbs and 25 of the same units between the rows.
- Acute, resistant to peronosporoza. Respectively, 10 and 20.
- Sweet, not subject to gray rot. 9 and 20.
- Semi-sharp, with good immunity. Scheme 8 and 25.
Planting is carried out in heated soil., carefully, rooted down. The upper part of the sevka is completely covered with earth. Depending on the selected variety, it is placed in rows or individual holes according to the parameters specified by the scheme. Receipt of the pen product follows the plantations according to the following schemes:
- Arzamas poorly acute. 5 × 13 (cm).
- Bessonovsky spicy, not exposed to root rot. 4 × 14 (cm).
- Pogarsky acute, immune to diseases of cervical rot. 5 × 16 (cm).
- Chalcedony is spicy-sweet, not afraid of Alternaria and Peronospora. Distances are 6 × 15 (cm).
The suitability of growing on “Zelenka” is determined by the number of leaf buds observed in the cross section of the bulb. Quantity directly plans quality. Soaking is not carried out before planting. But, many gardeners use the method of pruning.
Shallow cut top sevka. This pushes sprouting and regulates amicability of shoots. The place is planted with ridges in increments of up to three dozen centimeters and a gap between the entrances to a dozen centimeters. Also fully covered with earth onions.
Hscoop sown in grooveswhose depth is three centimeters. The sowing volume is used in the ratio of 1.5 grams per square meter. Cover over the crops can be ground, peat layer or well wet sawdust (scalded in boiling water).
Practiced by two methods of planting onions - spring and podzymny. Placing on the garden at the end of autumn allows you to receive the first bunches of young onions in April. Varieties for this purpose should be frost resistant. Do not forget about the recommendations to the seeds on the property in the regional distribution.
Spring cultivation technology is akin to planting in the winter. The start of work falls on the period of the end of frost temperatures. It is possible to use both a beet harvested from autumn and freshly bought in specialized outlets.
It is necessary to plant dry sevka in order to avoid premature germination. The sowing period lasts on average from about mid-October to mid-November.
The main condition - rooting without germination before the onset of frost. The distance between the heads is maintained in the region of seven centimeters. The depth of embedding is provided for at least five measuring units.
Where to plant onion sets?
Onions grow well in a sunny place. The soil should be moderately fertile with the obligatory addition of sand and wood ash. When growing greens (feathers), more organic matter is added than for turnip. Stagnant water adversely affects the growth of this culture. Excess moisture and fresh manure lead to decay and a number of diseases.
Soil acidity should be close to neutral. The best predecessors for onions are potatoes, cabbage, peas and beans. Re-planting onions in the same place should not be done.
When to plant onion sets?
When sowing seeds (niks) we get sevok. The next year will grow out of it turnip. Landing sevka, i.e. small onions grown from seeds sown in the previous year, called planting on the head. Very small seva with a diameter of 1 cm ("overshoot") It is difficult to maintain until landing next year. It is better to use it for subwinter seeding. There is also onion pick. This is a small turnip (diameter up to 3.5 cm), which is rarely used in cooking. Samples are usually planted for the cultivation of greenery, with early planting it often gives an arrow. It follows that it is important to choose just such a bow, which we will plant in the spring in the garden or in the greenhouse.
Onion samples also need to be prepared for planting
An increasing number of gardeners are interested in growing onions from seeds in just one year. I wrote about this in the articles “Description of varieties and hybrids of bulb onions for growing from seeds in one year” and “Growing seedlings of bulb onions from seeds and planting them on a bed”.
Onions belong to relatively cold-resistant plants of a long day. Onion varieties for growing in the middle lane require 15 - 17 hours of illumination. Luka, zoned in the southern regions, for the formation of a good turnip sufficient longitude of the day is 13 - 14 hours. This means that during late planting periods, part of the time of onion ripening will take place on a short day, which is undesirable. But you can not hurry with the landing, because Sevok, planted in early spring in late March or early April, often does not have time to take root before the return of cold weather and the beginning of spring frosts. Sometimes with sleet in sub-zero temperatures. In the damp cold ground, it is rotting. Moreover, the early landing time is fraught with marksmanship.
Tightening with the landing of a purchased onion set is not worth it, because it starts to sprout. Be sure to reject
The best time for planting sevka in the open ground in the Moscow region - the end of April - the beginning of May. We all know how often early spring surprises. To secure the early planting of seed, I immediately cover the bed with lutrasil, on which I put a plastic film.
The onions begin to germinate early, when the night-time air temperature becomes positive, and the soil warms to a depth of at least 6 cm. First of all, I plant shallow sevok. Larger later. Leaves appear after a few days or a week. It depends primarily on the weather. On the germination effect and landing method. They say that you can expect a good harvest of onions, if you plant during the flowering of the bird cherry.
Recall the national calendar for the month of May: May 5 (April 22, Julian calendar) - St. Luke's Day, or Lukin's Day. He was popularly called Chaschebny round dances. In Russia, people all over the world were going out on the field to plant onions that day. They wished each other health, shared onion recipes. Knew that "Who eats onions, is delivered from eternal torment". Bulbs and used as a talisman against the evil eye. On the autumn day of St. Luke’s memory, on October 31, they would certainly cook onion, arrange onion bazaars. Gardeners hoped for the help of the saint.
In the greenhouse Sevok can be planted earlier. I annually place it at the edges of all beds, on which tomatoes and peppers will grow in the future. The distance between the onions about 5 - 8 cm, which allows thinning the onions with a feather and use it in cooking. The remaining plants by the fall give a good turnip.
How to cook for planting onion sets?
Sorting. Before planting, gardeners sort sets. Large onion shoots are more suitable for growing greens. On a turnip select smaller sevok. The exception is the "Exibishen" variety, famous for its excellent taste and very large turnip size.
Sprouted sevok I plant for greenery
Warming up. Before planting, you need to warm up the seams for two or three weeks. He is kept in the warmest place or put a box with him on the battery. Desirable temperature - plus 25 - 30 ° С. The harvest is well influenced by the subsequent short-term (by 7–10 hours) increase in air temperature to 35–40 ° C. Some gardeners, before planting, lower sevok for 10 - 15 minutes in hot water (about + 50 ° C), and then cool it in cool water. These techniques allow you to avoid bracing and accelerate the emergence of shoots.
After warming up, I found some rotten and withered onions
Disinfection - An important point to grow a healthy turnip. I use two-stage processing. The first - in salty water. To do this, dissolve 1 - 2 tbsp. l salt in 1 liter of water and leave it sevok for 3 hours. Затем промываю и помещаю лук на 30 минут в достаточно тёмный раствор марганцовки. Снова промываю и просушиваю при комнатной температуре воздуха. Севок после таких процедур выглядит замечательно. Если у меня совсем нет времени, то ограничиваюсь одним солевым раствором высокой концентрации.
Лук-севок после дезинфекции
Some gardeners prefer drugs such as “Maxim” or use a solution of copper sulphate for 10–15 minutes (one teaspoon of powder per ten-liter watering can with water). But is it worth to abuse "chemistry", if there are other options?
Growth stimulants. I have a friend who grows fine onions. She soaks sevka for five hours in a solution of complex fertilizers for vegetable crops. Approximate dosage - one teaspoon of fertilizer per five-liter watering can with water.
I carefully cut off the dry tops of the onions so that the hard “tails” do not hinder the growth of the feather. Some gardeners remove scales from tiny onions or cut the top "on the shoulders." And while collecting excellent yields.
I cut only the dry ends of the fence, throwing out the bad onions. The quality of the purchase set is different
How to plant onion sets?
The distance between the onions is (depending on the variety) 8–10 cm, between the grooves - 20–25 cm. Planting large-fruited varieties is planted at a greater distance (up to 15 cm). I thicken the crops, thinning them as they grow. "Waste" I use when cooking.
Planting sevka in the "cut grid" makes the beds with onions especially neat. To do this, draw longitudinal and transverse lines on the bed at intervals of 20 cm. Sevok is planted at the intersection of grooves.
I plant onion sets in shallow (2–4 cm) pits made on the leveled surface of the bed. The tops of lukovichek leave open, if, of course, the weather allows. In the cool spring I sprinkle them with earth. Recently, I have been experimenting with planting a high rise ("Chinese method"). At the foot I sow carrots and parsley root. Gradually the roller of the ground on which the bow is planted settles. The top of the bulb is open. It is well heated by the sun and dries quickly after rain.
Choosing a landing site
To get the onion feather in April, a garden bed is prepared in the fall. It is advisable to choose a site that is protected from the wind and located on the southern slope so that in spring the soil warms quickly. The soil should be loose and fertile.
Under digging humus or compost is applied - 40 kg per 10 m 2 or mineral fertilizers at the rate of 200 g of superphosphate and ammonium nitrate and 100 g of potassium chloride per 10 m 2. After digging, the soil surface is leveled, ridges are made in areas with excessive moisture.
Planting is carried out when the temperature of the soil drops to 2–3 ° C. The optimal time for planting is 15–20 days before the onset of sustained frosts. Planting method depends on soil fertility.
On humus-rich soils make thickened, solid, so-called pavement landing, placing the bulbs tightly, to each other. With the bridging method of planting, they spend 8–12 kg per 1 m 2 of onion sampling (bulb diameter 2-4 cm).
It can also be planted in a half-bridge way, leaving a distance of 2-3 cm between the bulbs. On poor soils, it is necessary to increase the area of plant nutrition.
With an ordinary method of planting with a row spacing of 45 cm, the bulbs in rows are placed at a distance of 3-4 cm, consuming up to 0.3 kg of planting material per 1 m 2. After planting, the onions are sprinkled with a layer of earth or humus 5–7 cm high.
In March and early April, snow is raked from the beds and film frames are installed. To accelerate the germination of planting watered with warm water. During the period of growth of feathers, the plants are watered and fed 3–4 times.
The best feeding for the rapid growth of green mass is a solution of fermented mullein or bird droppings diluted 8-10 times.
The onions are removed on the feather when the leaves reach a height of 20–30 cm. Depending on the maturity of the onion, its size, storage conditions, and the method of preparing the planting material, the forcing of the feather can last from 20 days to 2 months. To extend the period of receipt of the pen, part of the ridges are not covered with foil.
It is possible to extend the terms of receipt of the pen until late autumn due to summer, late-summer and early-autumn planting of turnips in the open ground (from July to September).
Care for summer planting is timely watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds and feeding plants. The first time is fed after the germination of the bulbs, the second time - after 1–1.5 weeks, using nitroammofoska or ammonium nitrate at the rate of 20 g per 1 mg.
Onion on feather from seeds
In the spring onion feathers are obtained not only from turnips, but also when growing onions from seeds that are sown in the second half of July. The soil for summer sowing is prepared very carefully.
If the soil is poor, organic fertilizers must be applied before digging. The beds are dug up 1.5–2 weeks before sowing, and for 2-3 days they spend moisture-charging irrigation. Before sowing, they loosen, level and well compact the soil.
The sowing method is ordinary, the aisles are 30-45 cm. In the rows they sow a continuous, the seeding depth is 1.5–2 cm. The seedlings appear after 10–12 days. Thin out them in the phase of the 1st true leaf, gradually increasing the distance between plants to 4–5 cm.
By the winter, plants have time to form 5–6 true leaves with a height of 20–30 cm. In winter, the crops are mulched with peat or straw. In permafrost soil in spring, plantings are fed with nitrogen fertilizers (150 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 m 2).
As soon as the leaves reach commercial ripeness (20–30 cm in height), they start harvesting onions. It is impossible to be late with the harvesting of plants from summer crops, since the overwintered onion quickly goes to the arrow.
In the open ground, high quality feathers are obtained from shallots. Agrotechnical cultivation is the same as when growing feathers from turnip onions. However, it is impossible to count on the harvest of shallot feathers when planting bulbs in the second half of the summer, since this species has a long rest period and does not germinate until spring.
Batun on the feather
In the conveyor of the receipt of the green feather occupies an important place bow-batun. It is sown in open ground at the end of May - beginning of June in a broadband way (10 cm wide strip, 45 cm distance between strips). In the fall, 3–4 weeks before the onset of cold weather, the plants are fed with potassium chloride (150 g per 10 m 2), loosening the spacing.
The onion batun is a cold-resistant and winter-hardy plant, therefore it does not require a special shelter for the winter, but in the spring a film frame shelter is installed to accelerate the growth of the feather over the planting. Under the film, the feather of a batun is more delicate, therefore it is always in high demand.
For the distillation in the winter, 3-4-year-old plants of old plantations of onions-batun are used. In the autumn, before the onset of stable cold weather, the plants are dug out with a clod of earth and transferred to a greenhouse. They are planted close to each other in the ground greenhouses or under the rack, as well as in greenhouses.
After planting, water and feed with a solution of mullein or bird droppings, diluted 8-10 times. This contributes to the rapid rooting and the beginning of the growth of the feather. During the forcing period, the temperature in the greenhouse is maintained at + 14–16 ° C.
In the same way spend distillation pen chivesusing 2-3 year old plants. Unfortunately, gardeners rarely use this type of onion for forcing, although it deserves attention, as it forms a gentle, high-quality feather.
Multi-tiered onion feather
Before other perennial species in the spring forms a feather and multi-tiered bow. Outwardly, it is similar to onions, but along with underground bulbs, on its seed arrows, air bulbs are also formed, which are located in 2–3 tiers. Basal bulbs reach a mass of 20-40 g and have 2-3 buds each.
To obtain a feather, both basal and ripened onion bulbs are used (they usually begin to grow roots when fully matured). They are planted on previously prepared beds. Soil preparation and fertilizers are the same as for onions.
With early plantings (late July - early August), the onion takes root well, grows, has enough time to accumulate enough nutrients for winter, and quickly grows in the spring and gives a high yield of feathers.
Planting bulbs carried out according to the scheme 20-30 × 10-15 cm. The depth of planting 3-5 cm. The bulbs of the upper tiers (2nd and above) are planted in pairs in pairs. In the spring, as soon as the snow melts, the bulbs grow back, and after 3-4 weeks the feather reaches the technical (economic) ripeness.
A higher yield is obtained when used for forcing not air, but basal bulbs. They are planted in the autumn at the same time as onions, in a bridge way. Apply the same agrotechnology, as in the cultivation of turnips.
In greenhouses, multi-tiered onions are planted in a pavement and semi-bridge way and driven out just like onions. Planting material quickly takes root and does not need special preparation.
From October to March, green onions are grown in greenhouses. In greenhouses - from October to April (May), in greenhouses - from February to May.
In greenhouses, onions are planted only in the bridge way. For planting, annual or biennial sampling is also used (bulb diameter 3-4 cm).
The acceleration of germination is facilitated by the preparation of planting material: before planting, moisturize the bulbs with warm water, cover with sacking and maintain for two days at + 20–25 ° C. A good effect is obtained by keeping the planting material in a solution of ammonium nitrate (30 g per 10 l of water) for 12–16 hours at a temperature of + 35–38 ° C.
Accelerates the germination and pruning of the tops, which shorten about a quarter of the bulb.
How to plant onions correctly
The rate of onion disembarkation is 10–12 kg per m 2. The bulbs are not pressed into the soil, but laid out on the surface. In greenhouses, the distillation can be carried out with the shelter of planting material soil (humus, peat) and without shelter. Cut bulbs do not fall asleep soil.
Well succeed green feather when planting bulbs in the seedling boxes. Use drawers of size 40 × 60 × 6 cm with racks. They are filled with fresh compost, peat or humus.
Planting material is prepared in the same way as for planting greenhouses in the ground. After disembarkation they fall asleep with humus or peat.
The first 10–15 days, before the start of regrowth, the boxes are placed in a stack, then they are placed in a greenhouse. This method of forcing allows you to economically use the area and increase the period of receipt of greenery, because in the place of the box from which the products are selected, you can install another box with sprouted onions.
To obtain a good crop of green onions in the greenhouse, you must comply with the following agricultural techniques. During the 24–34 days of the growing season, maintain the optimum temperature: for the first 7–10 days it should be + 18–23 ° C during the day, not to exceed 16–19 ° C during the following days (2–4 ° C lower at night, respectively).
Greenhouses should be aired regularly, maintaining an air humidity of 75–85%. At elevated temperatures, the feather grows faster, but the plants are drawn out and the feather falls, which reduces its marketability.
During this period, at least four waterings should be carried out, alternating them with fertilizing with mullein and mineral fertilizers (1% solution of ammonium nitrate), using 5 liters of solution per 1 m 2. 4 days before cleaning, watering is stopped.
From the third decade of February onion forcing is carried out in greenhouses. The soil for the greenhouse take light, consisting of equal parts of humus and sod land. The air space between the ground and the frame after packing should be at least 20–25 cm.
On a standard greenhouse frame (160 × 106 cm), 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride are introduced.
The bulbs are planted in the bridge way, from the top falling asleep with earth or humus (layer 1.5–2 cm). Before germination, especially on cloudy days, greenhouses are covered with mats.
From the moment of the growth of the green feather, the mats are taken off: on days when there are severe frosts, for 3–4 hours, and on warm days - for all the light time. Onions are watered once a week with warm water over the entire depth of the layer of earth.
Onions are harvested when the green feather reaches a height of 25–40 cm. Plants break in, choose, shake off the ground and put in boxes with their roots down. To improve the commercial quality of the pen, the bottom of the boxes is lined with foil and the plants cover it from above.
Diseases and pests
When growing onions for greens can not use chemicals. And diseases, as is known, are always easier to prevent (observing the agrotechnology of cultivation, temperature and light modes), rather than cure.
In open ground, green onion feathers can be affected by peronosporosis from mid-May, when the fungus forms spores. The primary source of the disease is infected planting bulbs. Plants of such bulbs are oppressed, the leaves are yellowish, sluggish. Spores are dissipated by air currents, with raindrops, infecting the entire landing in a short time.
When identifying diseased plants, they must be immediately removed and destroyed. To protect the plants from disease, the bulbs must be heated at a temperature of 40 ° C for 8 hours before planting.
To prevent disease in a protected ground, selected planting material prepared as described above is used. Before planting a greenhouse or greenhouse, plants should be disinfected (400 g of bleach should be poured over 10 liters of water and infused for 4 hours, then the liquid should be drained and sprayed with greenhouse, soil, and the sediment should be used for painting wooden parts of the cultivation structure).
When detecting small foci of the disease, the plants should be immediately removed, plant residues should be collected and destroyed, and sprinkled over the area with wood ash. After growing onions on the greens, the soil in the greenhouse must be completely replaced with fresh.
Types and varieties of onions, giving thick greens
Thick greens give multi-varieties. Consider the most productive varieties - a multi-starter variety, which gives a large number of feathers and popular varieties of shallots during the season:
Chipoluccio is an early maturing, fruitful variety of shallot. Greens after planting can be cut in 2-3 weeks. The pen has an original spicy taste. Bulb weight up to 50 g. The growing season is 70 days.
Aristocratic - Shallot. From one sowing bulb in the nest, from 6 to 12 pieces of new ones weighing from 50 to 100 g are formed. This type of people is called family.
The variety is early ripening, full-fledged bulbs ripen in 70 days. Cut greens ready in 4 weeks.
Variety Aristocratic used to produce greens on an industrial scale.
From one Aristocratic variety bulb, 6-12 new ones are formed
Starorussky (red, yellow) is a type of shallot. It gives a powerful, bright green feather with a wax coating. Seed material is stored well and for a long time (2 years). The variety is resistant to many diseases of bulbous cultures. Up to 10 pieces are formed in the nest.
Reproduction is only vegetative, since the arrows do not form. Gardeners consider this view the most cost-effective for forcing greens. Cut shallot ready in 20-30 days after planting.
Lilac Chime this 7 kg of green per season from 1 sq.m. soil. The variety is early ripe, when grown in open ground, cutting is carried out after 20 days. During the summer, spend a few cuts. Frost-resistant.
When is it best to plant onions on greens in the open field
For home consumption, turnips for greens can be planted in open ground at the end of April, provided that the earth warms up and its temperature at night and morning is not lower than 12 degrees.
For commercial purposes, the turnip for greens is grown in a greenhouse. If there is heating there, distillation can be practiced throughout the year.
On an industrial scale, onions for greens are grown in greenhouses
The main thing you need to get a pen:
- high-quality seed,
- fertile substrate
- top dressing
The full harvest of the green feather is obtained at a 12 hour light day. For cultivation in the greenhouse pick varieties with a short period of rest.
With a long light day the optimum air temperature 18-22 degrees. Yields at lower temperatures fall. At higher air temperatures, product quality decreases.
How to plant sevok
There are proven methods for planting turnip greens. Experienced gardeners successfully apply planting methods:
Bridge landing method
In addition to the method of landing is important choose the right place and prepare a fertile soil (substrate) before sowing any variety.
Choosing a place to grow
Choosing a place for planting a sevka on greens, consider the principles of crop rotation.
Plant after crops:
In the shade, the bow grows poorly, the feather is pale and thin. Ridge better to have in an open, sunny place. During the rains it should not be stagnant.
Proper soil preparation for planting
We prepare the bed for planting in the fall before planting. Determine the acidity of the soil. With increased acidity add dolomite flour. Consumption - 50 g-sq. m. Onion loves loose soil with a pH of 6.5 to 7.5.
With increased acidity of the soil you need to add dolomite flour
In the autumn under digging make:
- Humus ½ buckets,
- Superphosphate 2 tbsp. lt
- Potassium chloride 1 tbsp. l
Consumption is indicated in square meters. m. Dig the soil to 20 cm with a shovel or motoblock. Spring dig again and make urea 10 Mr. square m. 7 days before sowing the ridge pour a solution copper sulphate. Pour 10 liters of water into a watering can and dissolve 20 g of the preparation in it.
Planting onions for forcing the feather
A good growth of greens will provide high-quality seed material.
До посадки луковицы должны храниться в теплом помещении. Перед тем как садить семя севка в огороде, их нужно перебрать. Отбраковать поврежденные экземпляры. Рассортировать по размеру. Наибольший урожай пера дают луковички от 2 до 4 см диаметром, весом от 15 до 40 г.
For growing onions on the feather is best to choose the bulbs 2-4 cm in diameter
Experienced gardeners recommend before planting to hold activities that increase yields, accelerating germination:
- The selected material must be moistened and kept for 48 hours in a warm room at an air temperature of 25 degrees.
- A quarter length trim the tops in the bulbs.
- Dissolve 30 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 liters of warm water (35 degrees) and dip the onions in it for 16 hours.
Approximate consumption of sevka at the bridge mode 13 kg per square meter. Consumption is big because the bulbs stick into the ground tightly to each other. Inter-row do not. The advantages of this method are obvious:
- landing space is saved,
- all the forces of the plant go to the formation of the pen.
The bridge method is particularly advantageous to use to grow onions in greenhouses.
Tape method involves formation of furrows with an interval of 10 cm. The bulbs fit into the furrows tightly to each other or with a small indent of 1-2 cm. Furrows fall asleep with a thin layer of earth (2 cm).
Belt planting onions
The main care for outdoor culture is in the right watering. In its absence, the feather is bitter and thin. With an excess of bulbs rot, the crop suffers.
To maintain the necessary humidity, take into account the weather and check the soil moisture at a depth of 3 cm. Approximately recommend watering 2 times a week with no rain.
Water only in the evening. This eliminates unnecessary heating of the soil. Onions do not like high temperatures.
If the soil is prepared correctly and filled with organic matter and mineral fertilizers, you can not feed them. When the belt planting method to loosen the land between the rows, remove weeds.
How to grow a large family onion?
To grow a large family onion, it must be prepared for planting. First of all, it must be cleaned of dry scales, to juicy. Different pathogens are often hidden under dry scales. Then the bulbs are etched in a solution of copper sulfate -1st. spoon for 10 liters of water. Etching time 20 min. Pickled onions rinsed with clean water.
During storage, the onion dries out slightly and loses nutrients. To restore the supply of moisture and nutrients, onions should be soaked in nutrient solutions of any complex fertilizers.
For this you need to cut the heel to clean white scales. Do not be afraid that you will cut off the excess. The rudiments themselves are deep. Even if you damage one or two, there are a lot of them in the bulb. If out of six rudiments damage two, then the remaining four will give a decent crop. Damaged buds do not grow. But it's better not to hurt much, cut only the heel to the bottom. Removing dry scales and trimming the heel of the bottom makes it easier for moisture to reach the roots, especially for the roots, so a strong root system develops first of all, ensuring strong plant growth.
I try to do without chemistry and use Gumistar or Biohumus for soaking onions - 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water. Soaking time is 8-10 hours.
Then put the onion in a bucket, close the lid and put it in any unheated room until the roots grow back (3 - 5mm).
Brief description of the vegetable
Such a popular product in the diet of each person, like onions, has a spherical shape of fruits covered with purple, white or orange husks. Above the bulb are feathers in the form of bloated, fisty stems. They can be bushy and contain only a few linear formations with a height of up to a meter and low sprouts.
The flower is inconspicuous, small, located on a long stem, collected by an umbrella, in which seeds of a round or angular form, with an ovary of one-nest or three-nest, are formed.
Full ripening and harvesting depends on the region of cultivation. In the middle lane, this time falls on the end of summer - the beginning of autumn; in the southern regions, onions from vegetable gardens are harvested in mid-July.
According to what schemes popular varieties are planted
The choice of the purpose of growing a plant determines the accuracy with which the bulbs should be placed in the seats.
Farmers implement different planting methods to get plants with strong bulbs.
To obtain large fruit heads use the same location.
If the gardener has a desire to quickly obtain green shoots with spiciness and piquancy, then the planting scheme of onion seedlings is somewhat different.
An example would be the varieties planted to keep them in winter:
- medium-thick, rich in vitamins - 10 to 25 cm, resistant to the disease peronosporoza
- sharp - 10 to 20 cm., do not perceive the disease gray mold
- sweet - 9 by 20 cm. Botanical diseases of peronosporosis and neck rot are not much noticed.
- semi-sharp - 8 to 25 cm do not get root rot
The most popular varieties include:
- stuttgarter rizen
- stardasta white
Special yield and preservation of white onion stardust varieties differ, it quickly ripens and produces up to 7 kg. with 1 square meter. By the size of the bulb, a variety of stuttgarter is secreted; root crops weighing 170 grams were observed.
The fragrant leaf is loved by many culinary specialists, they are seasoned with soups, added to salads, they are used by people as a snack in their natural form.
To get a good pen, planting bulbs is as follows:
- acute-sweet chalcedony with a distance of 6 to 15 cm, this variety is resistant to peronosporoz and Alternaria
- acute Pogarsky - 5 to 16 cm, characterized by the absence of diseases of cervical rot
- acute Besson - 4 to 14 cm, without root rot
- weak acute Arzamas - 5 by 13 cm, not seen in perinospora disease
Gardeners determine whether the tuber is suitable for growing green shoots, on a feather, in a transverse section of the head, leaf buds are visible in it, and the fertility of the bulb depends on their number.
Seed preparation rules
When the scheme of planting onions on a turnip has been studied, you can proceed to the preparation of seed composition, which is selected from whole onions without damage.
Of the best queen cells, previously sorted out and selected, are the seed stock and the guarantee of the future harvest.
They are sorted, discarding those exposed to diseases, with the formation of preliminary sprouts.
Sevok dried and quenched in areas with temperatures up to 3 degrees. and humidity within 80%. It will take 120 days.
Before planting in the soil, the seeds are heated by sunlight, can be placed in an apartment under warm batteries or other heat sources, do not overdo it and do not destroy the plant by overheating, the optimum temperature is compliance with +18 degrees.
Gardeners apply soaking tubers for 15 hours, and also cut off the top of the bulb, this procedure results in the simultaneous ripening and development of each fruit, and as a result they get a good crisp yield. Cuts are performed by farmers, if they want to get full-fledged bushes of greenery. For the cultivation of good tubers with long-term storage is better not to cut anything.
What is required from the soil
Like any vegetable, onion productivity is completely dependent on the fertility of the soil, the location of the site in a bright place, not darkened by shrubs, trees.
Despite the susceptibility of a spicy plant to moisture, it does not tolerate oversaturation of soil with moisture, so you should not have onion plantations close to the groundwater.
Vegetable garden for the production of future harvest must be prepared immediately after its autumn harvest. To do this, remove the remaining roots, grass and lash from the trunks of harvested vegetables.
It is advisable to collect all the garbage in piles and burn it in order to destroy the pathogenic bacteria that have survived after the diseases that have arisen during the season. The site is digged with a shovel or plowed with a plowing depth of 30 cm.
Sprinkle with organic earth, suitable:
- rotted manure
- peat compost
- a thin layer of ash, add a little lime to the acidic soil
After the snow melts, earthworks continue in the spring with the site. Loosen the method of cultivation of the upper layer, level the soil with a rake.
What are the methods of landing
To do this, use the method:
- planting small black seeds into the soil
The use of “Chernushka” allows you to get full-fledged large fruits for the next year, as in the first season the heads are formed. Many gardeners even from last year's seeds manage to grow a good harvest.
- shortens planting season
- accelerates the emergence of shoots
- increases the time for fetal development
- allows you to form an onion
Processing includes the following points:
- the destruction of fungal microorganisms occurs in a solution of manganese, there is placed for half an hour the seed composition
- check for productivity, for this seeds are kept for 14 days in a wet napkin
- the acceleration of germination is carried out with an additional seed content in stimulatory solutions
After carrying out water procedures, black granules are thoroughly dried to a flowability. They are interspersed with a substance that differs in color from grains; sand or chalk will be suitable for this. At the site, prepared to grow vegetables, make a furrow with a 3 cm depth, between the beds observe a distance of not less than 75 cm.
Onions - nippy
"Chernushka" sown in the amount of 1.5 grams. on one square, if the seeds are mixed with an additional agent, it is easier to distribute them in the right amount on the bed.
A pinch of the granules is transferred to the ground, you can simply sprinkle with earth, suitable sawdust or peat moistened in boiling water.
After planting, the plantation is not watered, otherwise a hard layer is formed, which will be difficult to overcome with gentle shoots.
After the appearance of the first shoots, the seedlings are thinned, pulled out the shoots that are not suitable for later life, leaving between them by centimeter. In the course of growth, they perform several similar actions until the strongest and healthiest shoots remain on the beds, and the distance does not increase to 5 cm.
Black seeds are planted in the same beds and before winter. Furrows are cut in the spring, and the seeds should be sown after the first frost. They are covered with rotted manure for 3 cm, and after the snow has melted, they check the bareness of the seeds and carry out additional powder with soil.
This method is considered to be troublesome, requiring certain labor costs and is used in large farms or in the gardens of farmers who are fond of such activities. A more simplified method is the method of planting the already formed bulbs. They are tangible, tangible in the hands, they can see all the flaws of the seed and dignity.
Choosing a scheme for growing, depending on the variety, sevok easily deepen on the furrow, leaving a cut or tail on the surface, they do not need to fall asleep soil composition. For good greens use only bulbs.
Conditions for growing root crops
Vegetables require attention from a person, certain labor costs.
During this process, perform:
- watering regularity
- soil loosening
- top dressing
- anti-botanical treatment
Onion crops are watered, depending on the natural conditions of the region, conditions in a given seasonal period. Not every spring or summer is the same in terms of the amount of precipitation on the ground or has a strong aridity.
These vegetables, used as seasonings, as separate foods for snacks or salads, like regulated soil fertility, certain regulatory moisture.
They should be watered every day only during the dry period, they cease to perform irrigation activities in rainy weather.
The lack or excess of moisture is recorded visually by the appearance of green feathers. They prematurely begin to dry if there is not enough liquid in the soil and turn white when overwetted.
The next important issue is the implementation of dressings. If in the fall they belong to organic fertilizers, then in spring, preference is given to mineral additives in the soil. When there are no great results in growth, good green shoots, the onions are fed, adding a solution of chicken manure, soaked in water beforehand, under the root.
This is a strong-acting fertilizer and in order that it does not burn a vegetable, it is necessary to create conditions for a week to ferment 1 kg of pure manure in water. on 3 l. fluid.
Then, in a bucket of water, add only a glass of the obtained substance and pour 100 g for each root. This growth stimulator is effective for all vegetables grown in the garden - those who are not too lazy to follow the composition strictly according to the recipe will get a good result. During the season, feeding is done three times.
The timely fight against diseases will protect adult root crops from defective formations and will provide juicy feathers. Carrying out preventive treatments is performed by almost all experienced agronomists. As soon as the greens rise a few centimeters from the ground level, you can begin to splash the liquid with copper sulfate. He will need only 1 tbsp. on 10 l. water, some add the same amount of rubbed soap, fill the spray bottle and process the onion bushes.
The combination of compliance with all agrotechnical procedures is a guarantee of a good harvest even for beginners who like to grow vegetables in their backyards, and the experienced have long since checked these orders and can now share their secrets.
You can watch the video on how to plant a bow:
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Family onions, like other species, extremely negatively reacts to heavy and acidified soils. If the site is dominated by clay and stony deposits, then it is necessary to deposit sand, organic matter and mineral fertilizers, lime or dolomite flour into the soil at least a year before planting. If you plant a family onion in clay soil, then the output will be a nest of small turnips the size of a sweet cherry, which will quickly shrink during storage.
Family onions grow well on light crumbly soils with a uniform structure. An excellent folk way to make the soil more loose is to add crushed eggshell to it. Experienced gardeners gather it all winter, and in the spring they grind it and put it in beds together with compost or rotted manure (the latter in the amount of 3-4 kg per 1 m2).
Place for planting family onions should be well ventilated and sunlit. This is important because during the aging period almost all the nest leaves the soil.
Preparation of planting material
Experienced vegetable growers know a number of features for preparing family onions for planting, so they get good results when they are grown.
- If you plant a whole large onion, then a large “family” is formed around it, all the members of which will be very small, since many buds will sprout.
- This variety has a very hard "heel" - the root part. It is carefully trimmed to live white formations. This contributes to the early development and growth of the bulb, increasing the yield almost doubled.
- In order to get new large onions, the planting must be cut lengthwise into 2-3 pieces so that each has a rudiment on it. Should be guided by the location of the roots on the bottom after trimming the "heel": they are unevenly distributed, there should be several pieces on each part of the bulb. On a correctly made cut, the bottom looks mowed.
- Some cut off the tip of the bulb almost “over the shoulders”, but this will lead to an abundance of feather and small root part.
If the site has an unfavorable infectious background (the plants often get sick), then it is not recommended to plant the cut bulbs. You can first try this method on multiple instances.
2-3 hours before planting, a family onion with trimmed bottoms (but whole bulbs) is soaked in a pink solution of potassium permanganate (any fungicide is also suitable). To stimulate growth, drugs of the type “Gumistar” (“Biohumus”) are used, diluted in a ratio of 1 tablespoon to 10 liters of water. In this solution, the onion is soaked for 8-10 hours. Then the water is drained, the bulbs are cut, if this method of preparation is chosen, and planted on the garden bed. Some remove such seed material for several days in an unheated room in order to grow roots up to 3-5 mm, and then they plant it.
Family onions are cold-resistant, but since it matures fairly quickly (70-80 days), there is no need for an early planting. Regarding the terms, vegetable growers are divided into two groups: some plant it in the open ground until the day of Luke (May 5), others later. The soil should warm up to + 5 ° С (it ceases to be “smeared”).
The beds for family onions are usually made about a meter wide, grooves are cut along them by 3-5 cm depth at a distance of 20 cm. After spilling water, the grooves are sprinkled with ashes, the halves of onions are laid out, and then closed with a slight hilling.
Landing is done in a staggered manner so that at the exit of the onions formed equilateral triangles with edges of approximately 23 cm - a very convenient layout.
It is impossible to press the bulbs into the soil, since the roots on the cut donuts will be damaged, the plant will be sick for a long time.
Уход за семейным луком заключается в поливе, рыхлении, формировании гнезда и подкормках (при необходимости). Если почва благоприятна для выращивания, то хлопоты минимальны.
Опытные овощеводы рекомендуют ничего не делать, пока у лука не отрастет несколько перьев по 10 см. Так корневая система лучше разовьется в поисках влаги. Затем полив производится раз в неделю. Прекращается увлажнение в конце июля. В воду можно добавлять нашатырный спирт (2 столовые ложки на 10-литровое ведро). This will scare away the onion fly and at the same time serve as feeding. Loosening after watering or rain is necessary.
In order for the moisture to evaporate more slowly and to suppress weeds, it is advisable to mulch the beds with the family onions about 5 cm (to the height of the regrown feather). You can use grass mowed and chopped with a lawn mower.
If the soil is depleted, it is necessary to feed.
- The first - after the growth of 3 leaves. Urea or carbamide (a tablespoon per 10-liter bucket) mixed with half a spoon of potash fertilizer is used.
- The second - at the stage of 5 leaves. Potassium monophosphate is added - 1 teaspoon per 10-liter bucket of water.
If the soil is well fertilized in the fall, then you can do without additional summer dressing.
Around the middle of June, you can see how many bulbs are planned in the nest - they begin to separate. This is the period when there is an opportunity to influence the presentation and quality of the harvest. The optimal composition of the nest - 3-5 bulbs. If there are obviously more of them, then in order to get a larger turnip, the extra ones are carefully removed: with one hand, the nest is held, with the other, separate onions are carefully removed from the ground.
Plucked rudiments with feather are eaten or used in blanks. They can be cut and frozen and added to dishes in winter.
As it matures, the nest gradually comes out of the ground. Many growers deliberately rake off the soil so that the bulbs warm up and light up - this deters the onion fly and promotes ripening.
If the tips of the feather turn yellow, the onion is poured over with salt water or slurry. Some pre-sprinkle a pack of salt on the bed where they plan to plant family onions.
Sometimes vegetable growers notice that some of the onion feathers seem to have been cut off. This is the work of the scoop larvae. To find it, you need to turn the soil around the affected plant - most likely you will find a thick gray caterpillar that needs to be eliminated.
Rot and fungus this variety is almost not affected.
Growing the family onion culminates in harvesting in August, when the feathers will be harvested. Do not overdo it, otherwise the turnip will be poorly stored. The bulbs are already on the surface by this time, it remains only to separate them and send them to dry.
To make the onion better filled after harvesting, the feather and roots are not cut, but give them time for natural drying.
Those who once managed to grow a family onion, no longer "let" him from their gardens. So this is a delicious and unpretentious variety. It can be stored up to one and a half years. Usually onions are woven into bundles and hung on the wall.
Some, having unsuccessfully planted this variety several times, refuse it because of small bulbs. However, having adopted the experience of successful vegetable growers, one can quite easily correct the situation with competent preparation of planting material and soil.
Having heard the name “family bow”, many (I confess, and I once did) shrug their shoulders in perplexity: what kind of new bow is this. In fact, no, he is not new, just this bow is better known in my homeland as “kuschivka”.
In fact, the family onion (family) is a type of onion. But, in contrast to the single-seed bulb, which is customary for us, this onion has several rudiments inside - usually 5 or 7, but sometimes their number can even reach 20. All these rudiments grow in one “house”, one family, wrapped in a common external husk hence the nickname - family.
Distinctive features, the description of the family onion
In comparison with the usual onion, the family onion is more juicy and fragrant. In addition, it is not as bitter as onions, so some gourmets even consider it dessert, if such a definition applies at all to onions.
The family onion is precocious and less demanding on the soil and growing conditions. In comparison with the usual onion bulb, it is more resistant to diseases, primarily various kinds of rot.
And yet most of the housewives dislike this subspecies of onions, planting it mainly for growing on greens. This is understandable: the head of such an onion has not only to be cleaned, but also disassembled into its constituent rudiments, most of which are often wrapped with their own husks. Therefore, in comparison with ordinary onion, cleaning of a family onion takes more time and effort.
But still rarely what kind of vegetable garden in our country does without a bed of family onions. Depending on the preferences of its owners, it can be more or less, but there is almost always. Appreciate it not only for its excellent taste, but also for its early maturity and high keeping quality.
Small shallot bulbs contain more dry matter and are better suited for long-term storage than large onion bulbs. Not that they do not rot at all, but their quantity, saturation with dry substances and their isolation from each other do their job: if one onion has rotted, the others remain healthy and good for food.
The precocity of the family onion also contributes to its keeping quality. It quickly forms heads, but then it also quickly grows old and dries out, therefore its bulbs are very rarely affected by cervical rot and peronospora.
Due to the fact that in a family onion, not one but several bulbs grow from one bulb, although the weight of individual bulbs is smaller, but the overall crop yield is invariably higher. Moreover, depending on the variety, weather conditions and the efforts of the owner, this difference can be very tangible and reach 50%.
Appearance of family onions
Bulbs of family onions, small, weigh from 25 to 50 grams, although now there are already varieties of it with larger bulbs. Below all the bulbs are attached to a single nest. The appearance of the mature heads of the family onion is like a fantastic flower, with its outlines a bit like a tulip. Depending on the variety, they can be of various forms, oblong, egg-shaped, pitcher-shaped, elongated, cuboid.
Also, the color of the scales depends on the variety: red, bronze, golden or purple. The flesh of the bulbs on the cut is predominantly white, but in some varieties it may show a pinkish-gray tint.
The family onion sprouts before the bulb, and at once with several feathers - it kuschitsya. These green leaves are thin, juicy, covered with a slight waxy bloom, and almost without bitterness. Salad from the crushed leaves of the family onion and young radishes is the first vegetable dish of the new crop, appearing annually on many tables.
And the family onion itself, as it were, is specially adapted by nature for such use, and easily gives 2-3 leaves per salad without any damage to the yield. In addition, unlike the onions, leaves of the family onion almost do not leave any smell from the mouth, so you can enjoy this dish even at breakfast before work or in the evening, before a romantic date.
Planting and caring for family onions are almost the same as planting and caring for onions. Yes, and these two varieties are often grown on the same bed.
Best of all family onions grow in the open field on loose fertile soils, with a close to neutral pH. The best precursors for him would be legumes, potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, or tomatoes.
Family onions are planted mainly in spring, although autumn planting is also possible. The bulbs are planted on the garden bed very early: as soon as the snow leaves the garden and the earth dries out enough to start its processing and planting. Depending on the weather conditions and the growing region, the dates may slightly shift, but in most regions this is the beginning or middle of April.
Such early terms of planting are explained simply: the onion is a cold-resistant plant, and calmly transfers frosts to minus 6-7 °. Moreover, its root system can actively grow and develop just at low temperatures. But the leaves, although they can withstand frost, grow better at a higher temperature - from 15 to 25 °.
If you are late with the planting of a family onion, then it will “chase” the ground part to the detriment of the root system, and will not be able to eventually form full-fledged healthy bulbs.
Another argument in favor of early spring planting of a family onion is that it is a plant of a long day, i.e. grows better and develops with increasing length of daylight. The longest day of the year is June 22, and usually, on this day, onion bulbs are already formed.
Preparing for planting and planting bulbs
Immediately before planting the bulbs of the family onion, be sure to sort out. Often, family onion bulbs are stored right in the nests - before planting, they need to be divided, discarded rotten and damaged.
For planting it is better to select medium sized bulbs: large planted wasteful, and small - it is impractical, a good harvest of them will not. Small bulbs can only be useful for forcing the green feather.
Immediately before planting the bulbs should be soaked for 15-20 minutes. in a weakly pink solution of potassium permanganate or a fungicide to protect against disease and pests. Some gardeners advise for this to warm up the bulbs for 7 hours at a temperature of 35 °. I myself have never used this method of disinfection, so I can not judge its effectiveness.
Bulbs are planted in grooves cut during planting with a depth of 5-6 cm. Wood ash is brought to the bottom of the planting furrows - 2-3 glasses per linear meter. Planted this variety of onions according to the scheme: 10-15 cm between the bulbs and 20 cm between the furrows. This scheme allows you to care for a bulb plant without any problems, and to provide each bulb with enough space for its growth and development.
It should be planted with a sharp tip up, because it is from it that the sprouts of the future leaves will sprout. On top of the bulbs sprinkled with a layer of earth in 2-3 cm. In this case, depending on the weather, green shoots appear 2-3 weeks after planting. If you plant the bulbs deeper, then the time of emergence of shoots will increase.
Features of the autumn planting
Family onions, as an unpretentious and frost-resistant plant, can be planted before winter. Usually, they recommend optimum planting dates - the end of September, but for many years I have been planting a bush after Pokrovy - on October 14, and have never been without a crop.
For planting using bulbs 1.5-2 cm in diameter - a little smaller than planted in the spring. If you land the same as in the spring (2.5-3 cm), a lot goes to the arrows, I was convinced by my own experience.
At the same time, the spring cultivation agrotechnics left almost unchanged, adding only two nuances to it:
- The bulbs are planted in the same furrow depth of 5-6 cm, but I fall asleep to the top. After all, I do not need the onions to start growing season in the winter, the main task is for it to safely winter in the soil until spring.
- In mid-November, I lay a bed of beds in 2 layers: first about 10 cm with a layer of fallen leaves, and on top of them - about the same thickness with a layer of corn stalks. The latter, firstly, do not allow the wind to wave lighter leaves, and secondly, they hold the snow well.
In the early spring, when the snow had already gone, but it was still freezing in the morning, I was sheltering the shelter, and by the time my neighbors just planted a bow on the garden, mine was already sprouting. That's all the wisdom, no autumn watering and fertilizing, I do not spend on planted onions.
While the ground part of the planted bulbs does not grow by 10-12 cm, any actions on the bulb beds are not only unnecessary, but can also harm the future harvest.
Do not forget that at this time, planted bulbs actively form the root system, and artificial "forcing" of onion leaves will lead to its weakening.
The only exception is if there is a need for loosening the soil (for example, after heavy rain), then this must be done to prevent the appearance of a crust. For the rest, no watering and top dressing at this time are necessary for the family onion.
When the leaves of the family onion grow to 10 cm, the garden should be watered and multiply.. It is necessary to decide on the conduct of irrigation, based on the specific situation: during early planting, when there is still enough moisture from the melted snow in the ground, and if the earth is still raining, it may not be necessary.
Mulching is also not an obligatory agrotechnical device, but I advise you to carry it out. Unlike common bulb, family onions form bulbs practically at the very surface of the earth; moreover, these bulbs are small, so they are more susceptible to the effects of hot sun. Mulch will not only cover them, but will also help retain moisture in the soil and prevent weeds from sprouting.
Water onions should not often, but copiously: 2-2.5 buckets of water per m², depending on the weather, should be irrigated 1 time in 7-10 days, taking into account the amount and intensity of the rain that has fallen. If during the growing season and especially the formation of bulbs, the onions will not be enough moisture in the soil, the heads will form small, and with its excess will be poorly stored.
When growing family onions, fertilizing is usually not carried out with mineral fertilizers. This variety of onions has a short fruiting period, and it almost does not manage to “take” itself from the applied mineral fertilizers.
If during cultivation there is still a need for additional feeding, then it is better to carry them out with organic fertilizers: diluted in water in the ratio of 1:10 with mullein or in the ratio of 1:15 with bird droppings. Usually, such top dressing is introduced at the beginning of the formation of the bulbs, But on poor soils it is acceptable to conduct another, earlier top dressing - in the phase of intensive growth of green mass.
In general, the question of feeding a family onion is rather controversial. In my opinion, the introduction of organic dressings during the formation of the bulbs delays their maturity, impairs taste and keeping quality.
I, for example, if I see that its feathers have slowed down its growth and their tips begin to turn yellow, spend feeding ammonium nitrate, spreading 15 grams of fertilizer in 10 liters of water, and for greater efficiency I add a glass of wood ash to this solution.
One should not even mention the timely loosening of the soil and the removal of weeds - these are necessary measures for growing any vegetable crop.
Fight against diseases and pests
Like common bulb, family onions can be affected by many diseases and pests. And although this happens relatively rarely with the proper agricultural cultivation, it is impossible to completely exclude such a danger.
One of the most "annoying" pests of onions is the omnipresent aphid. To get rid of it, onion leaves are sprayed with Verticillin. You can use and proven folk remedies: tincture of wormwood, yarrow or hot pepper.
Wormwood and yarrow can protect their garden beds and onion flies, simply spreading their twigs across the garden and occasionally changing to fresh ones. I have been practicing mixed planting of onions and carrots for many decades, alternating two rows of one and another plant. It is a little more difficult to care for such a bed than for ordinary plantings, but neither the onion nor the carrot fly bother the plants.
Harvesting and storage
Depending on the timing of planting family onions ripen in late July-early August. On ripening onions indicate dried leaves and "dressing" the bulbs in the dry husk. To harvest start when the neck of the bulbs become dry.
Preparations for harvesting begin in the beginning-middle of July, when they stop watering. At this time, an excess of moisture in the soil can lead to a resumption of the growth of the bulbs, which subsequently will negatively affect their storage.
Choose bulbs from the ground in dry sunny weather to be able to dry them in the sun. It is best to dry the bulbs on a cloth, such as a blanket, laid out on the ground, but if you have to choose the bulbs from the damp ground, it is better to use plastic wrap.
To dry the bulbs, they are cleaned from the ground stuck to them and cut the roots, and then laid out in one row on a blanket or film. At this stage, trim the dry leaves of the onion is not necessary, they are cut just before being sent to storage. Although I don’t cut the dry leaves of the family onion at all, it’s more convenient for me to pick and sort the onions with them.
When the weather is sunny, it usually takes 2-3 days to dry the onions well, while at night it should definitely be removed under the shelter. If the weather is rainy, then drying the onions is best carried out completely under a canopy, but increase its time to 7-10 days.
Keep the family bow, like bulb, braided in braids or in small wicker baskets. You can store them in small paper boxes, having previously made in their walls 10-15 pieces of small holes for ventilation.
Before the onset of cold weather, bulbs can be stored in a shed or in a veranda, and in the winter you will have to find a suitable place for them at home in a closet. Taking bulbs for winter to the cellar or basement is risky, because they often have high humidity, which adversely affects storage.
Семейный лук и шалот — одно и то же?
Вопрос интересный и неоднозначный. Семейный лук и шалот настолько похожи, что воспринимаются как один вид. Но большинство ботаников все же сходятся во мнении, что это два разных вида лука. В доказательство своей правоты они приводят несколько аргументов по строению и биологическим особенностям этих видов, которые лично меня ни в чем не убедили.
According to the opinions of gardeners, most of them make no difference, planting shallot varieties as family onions and vice versa. Yes, and what we, gardeners, the difference, one is a kind or two.
What is important for us is that our garden beds please us with a generous harvest of tasty and healthy vegetables. And how this vegetable is correctly called: family onions or shallots - to me personally, it makes no difference. As my grandfather liked to repeat: call at least a pot, so long as they do not put it in the oven.