In late winter, when most flowers are already resting, cyclamen blooms with beautiful, very delicate flowers. With good care, flowering lasts a very long time - from September to March. The plant is capricious, sharply reacts to the slightest changes in conditions of detention. If you decide to purchase Alpine violet, carefully study how to care for cyclamen at home.
Description and features
Tuberous perennial plant. The leaves are wide, ideal proportions, with patterns. The flowers are bright, unusual - they rise above the foliage on long peduncles, resembling fluttering butterflies. The size and color of flowers depends on the variety.
In nature, an ephemeroid plant - the aboveground part lives for several months, dies, only a sleeping tuber remains in the ground. The dormant period of cyclamen grown in an apartment is not so pronounced. Hybrid varieties that grow and bloom almost year-round. Types and varieties of cyclamen differ in appearance, shade, size of flowers, bush height. They are short in size (up to 15 cm), medium-high (up to 20 cm) and standard (up to 30 cm).
Tip! When buying a tuber, check with the seller for the variety of flower, age. Carefully inspect the nodule from all sides. A healthy tuber is resilient, hard, heavy, with buds at the top. When buying plants pay attention to the elasticity of the leaves, the smoothness of the surface of the tuber. It is better to acquire a plant at the very beginning of flowering - in the fall. Choose an instance with unblown buds.
Home and garden varieties of cyclamen
In nature, there are more than 50 species. In the culture are mainly used hybrid varieties.
- Cyclamen Persian. The root is spherical, flattened to 15 cm in diameter. The leaves are heart-shaped, green with a marble white and silver pattern and edging. It blooms with white, red, purple flowers from autumn to early spring.
- Caucasian cyclamen. Call the Kosovo cyclamen. An interesting feature of the natural form is the appearance of leaves in the fall, their wintering under the snow cover. Blooms immediately after the appearance of thawedin. The flowering of cultural, indoor forms continues from February to April. Small flowers, different colors. The presence of dark spots at the base of the stem is characteristic. Low-growing variety - no higher than 10 cm.
- European cyclamen. Tuber irregularly shaped. Underground stolons form underground nodules. The leaves are heart-shaped, small, covered with a silver pattern. It blooms from spring to autumn.
- Ivy cyclamen. The leaves are shaped like foliage ivy. Flowering begins in early to mid-September. An interesting feature of the species - flowering occurs before the appearance of leaves. Flowers are not large, but beautiful. Does not like transplant - in a constant capacity blooms longer and more abundant.
Garden cyclamen - a group of varieties suitable for cultivation in open ground. As a garden culture, it is recommended to use Kuznetsov cyclamen, kosky, small-flowered, ivy-like.
Important! Why does not bloom cyclamen? The lack of flowering indicates a high temperature in the room, lack of power and light. To stimulate flowering, the plant is rearranged to a cooler place, sprayed daily and aired the room. Recommended phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Nitrogen products are temporarily excluded.
Cyclamen: how to care for him
Choose the right plant in the store. Cyclamen is better to buy in the fall, before the start of the active flowering period. Choose a specimen with strong stems and a large number of buds. Having brought the cyclamen home, place it in a permanent place - best of all on the window facing north. Do not remove the cyclamen in the center of the room - the flower needs a cool. Ventilate the room often, making sure that the frosty air does not get on the flower. But he will feel great in the mode of micro-ventilation. Cyclamens love temperatures between 12 and 15 ° C.
During the flowering period, water cyclamen copiously, using only soft water. It is best to use the immersion method. Place the flower pot in a deep container to the level of the soil, making sure that the leaves do not fall into the water. Wait until the ground is wet, then remove the pot. To maintain a cyclamen-friendly atmosphere, place the plant on a tray covered with wet pebbles. Spray the air around the flower daily. Never pour water on the upper part of the tuber - leaves rot, and the plant itself quickly dies.
After the rest period, the plant should be transplanted. Pick up a moderately light soil - it is best to use ready-made mixture for cyclamen. Begin intensive watering, but with dressing wait until the formation of new buds.
One of the main problems of cyclamen is shortening the flowering period. The most common cause of fast falling flowers and the lack of new buds becomes improper watering, too high a temperature in the room and dry air. Watch the watering carefully and feed the plants on time. Ready-made industrial fertilizers suitable for this type are suitable - dilute the liquid or powder according to the recommendations on the package.
Dry air and direct sunlight can cause yellowing and leaf fall. Shade a cyclamen - for this light blinds are suitable. Note that the sun not only shines, but also warms, and cyclamen does not tolerate temperatures well above 17 ° C. To make the cyclamen feel comfortable, purchase a household humidifier. This useful device is also useful to other home plants.
Cyclamen is quite resistant to pests. Most often, it is affected by a cyclamen mite, resembling dust on the underside of a leaf. Affected leaves roll up and fall off. It is useless to treat the plant with pesticides. Tear off the affected leaves and temporarily stop spraying intensively.
Many novice gardeners have a question - how to care for cyclamen flowers at home? There is an opinion that this plant is fastidious and demanding, and it is very difficult to take care of it - in the apartment a mountain plant does not bloom well, it suffers from incurable diseases. In fact, the opposite is true - home cyclamen is unpretentious, and the problems associated with it often happen because of the lack of knowledge of gardeners how to water, grow, propagate and protect the flower from pests.
Alpine violet has more than 20 species, but in room culture the most popular are two of them: Persian and European cyclamen. The life of the plant lies in the tubers, because there are all the nutrients that help dryakva survive in the rest period. The growth and flowering of cyclamen falls on the period from October to March, and the rest of the time he rests. Therefore, it is very important to know the nuances of proper care for alpine violet: how often to water, where to put it, what temperature is needed.
During this period, the plant requires a room with bright light and moderate watering. The flower prefers coolness (12 - 15 degrees of heat), therefore florists do not recommend placing cyclamen in a pot close to batteries or lamps. Alpine violet loves bright, diffused lighting, but not sunny - burns may appear on the leaves, and they will begin to turn yellow. Clean air and optimal humidity (50%) will help the plant to maintain flowering and healthy appearance, as well as to avoid diseases.
Cyclamen watering should be moderate and regular, at room temperature water. When carrying out this procedure, it is advisable not to spray the leaves and tubers, since excessive moisture leads to rotting of the plant. The best option is to gently pour water into the edge of the pot. European or Persian cyclamen during flowering must be fertilized every two to three weeks. Top dressing should not contain a lot of nitrogen, because it leads to the growth of leaves, not buds and flowers.
After the cycle of active growth and blooming (3-4 months) followed by a period of rest. At this stage, the cyclamen “sheds” the flowers and leaves, which begin to turn yellow and die off after two months. Throughout this period, it is necessary to gradually reduce the watering of the plant to the minimum - excessive moisture leads to rotting of the tuber. In the dormant period, the alpine violet is moved to a cool place with poor lighting.
How to Replace Cyclamen
Toward the end of the summer, it is advisable to transplant the alpine violet into fresh soil. This procedure has its own characteristics. Before transplanting cyclamen, it is necessary to prepare the soil, which contains: two parts of peat, leaf and sod land, one part of sand. Repotted in the pot should be carefully, so as not to damage the roots. It is desirable to treat the earth with a solution of potassium permanganate and steamed, since this indoor plant is easily affected by various pests. Not fully bury tuber - the roots are at the bottom of the cyclamen - they need a place to grow.
This procedure is actually carried out independently at home, but in order for it to pass correctly, one should know how cyclamen reproduces. There are two ways - seeds or vegetatively (dividing the tuber). Alpine violet is very sensitive to all sorts of interventions, so both breeding processes should be carried out carefully. Novice florists advise to buy a mini cyclamen mix and experiment. This set includes plants with two or three tubers that will allow several reproduction operations.
The vegetative division method is traumatic for a plant, therefore it is rarely used in room conditions. Cyclamen root does not produce shoots - it is necessary to cut the mother tuber, which threatens with the rotting of the whole flower. For this procedure, take old plants, whose age is several years. For the division process to be successful, it is necessary to carry out a number of operations:
- Wait until the plant leaves are completely dead.
- Carefully remove the tuber from the pot and free it from the soil.
- Propagate the tuber with a clean knife in the center from top to bottom so that each part has roots.
- Treat with fungicides (antifungal chemicals) and let dry.
- Plant in different pots.
Growing cyclamen from seed
How to grow this plant from seed? Very simple. This method of reproduction of alpine violet is more common and not as complex as vegetative. To obtain cyclamen seeds at home, you must artificially pollinate the plant. To do this, you need a soft brush, which gently applied pollen from one flower to another. After some time, seeds are born. Their cyclamen hides in a small box under the leaves closer to the ground. It is desirable to get the fruits before the moment when they fall into the ground - ripening takes place before the beginning of alpine violet flowering.
It is best to sow the seeds of cyclamen at the onset of spring, having previously soaked them with a drug that accelerates the growth of flowers (for example, "Appin"). Place the fruit in sterile fresh earth to prevent the occurrence of rot. The first shoots will appear 30–40 days after sowing, under suitable circumstances for germination and flowering: a temperature of 18–20 degrees above zero, a dark space and moist soil.
Alpine violet is a delicate home flower, so it is prone to various diseases. Caring for a plant implies that a person has the skills and knowledge about how to revitalize cyclamen, if it began to fade, or what to do if its leaves began to turn yellow. Rot, aphids and mites are among the main enemies of alpine violet. There are a number of symptoms that distinguish one particular disease of cyclamen.
If this happens - the plant does not have enough light, clean air or it is hot. When the leaves turn yellow, the flower should be moved to a brighter room, but not under direct sunlight. It is better to give the cyclamen "breathe" fresh air by placing it on the window sill by the open window. Another reason for the yellowing of leaves may be insufficient watering of the plant - it is necessary to moisten the soil, but do not overdo it. Due to an overabundance of water, alpine violet will start to rot.
In the process of damage to the flower by pests or the environment, cyclamen may curl leaves. This negative effect can be caused by several reasons:
- The presence of pests (mites, aphids, thrips).
- Home flowers are affected by bacteria or fungus.
- Soil contamination or waterlogging.
- High air temperature in the room.
To get rid of pests, fungi and bacteria, you should conduct a series of procedures. It is possible to see parasites only through a microscope, so it is very difficult to detect the disease at an early stage. In this regard, the plant requires prevention, which consists in the processing of its pesticides. If pest-damaged tips have already become visible, then the best solution would be to remove the twisted leaves, transplant the cyclamen into fresh soil, with the addition of insecticidal substances to combat mites or aphids ("Topaz", "Phytosparin", others).
Why does not bloom
The slowdown in the growth and flowering of cyclamen can be due to different reasons. One of the main ones is fusarium. This disease causes tissue damage in alpine violet. With fusarium, the plants' vessels are filled with toxic substances. This leads to the fact that cyclamen stops blooming, and the leaves turn yellow. The initial lesion is difficult to determine by eye, since the cause of the disease is in the soil or seeds. It is desirable to combat fusarium with fungicides (for example, Agat-25K), which have a destructive effect on the source of the disease.
Video: Cyclamen transplant at home
When do I need to replace cyclamen room? Should I do it immediately after purchase or wait for the start of a new flowering cycle? How to care after purchase? What is the necessary soil and what it consists of? How to care for the flowers of cyclamen at home and what threatens the wrong transplant process? What to do if the plant does not stick in the new soil? Want to know everything about cyclamen? You will find answers to these and other questions by watching a detailed video tutorial:
History of development and description
The history of a perennial plant with dark green heart-shaped leaves dates back to the 16th century. Then cyclamen (also “Alpine violet”, “dryakva”, “pork bread”) first appeared in Europe and was grown mainly in botanical gardens.
For several centuries, breeders have brought indoor flower species, as well as many hybrid varieties of different colors. Some types of cyclamen are distinguished by a corrugated form of petals.
On the basis of the Persian cyclamen, the Dutch brought out hybrid varieties characterized by a long flowering period.
Below you will see a photo of a flower:
Conditions of detention
Distinctive features of cyclamen are beautiful appearance and pleasant delicate aroma. While other cultures bloom in summer, and in the dormant period they dive in autumn and spring, Alpine violet in winter pleases its owner with lush bloom, and in the summer restores strength.
Growing a plant "in captivity", comply with certain conditions:
- Shine. Cyclamen tolerates diffuse daylight well. It is necessary to protect it from direct sunlight.
Humidity. Dryakva leaves are sprayed at the stage of their growth and development. The plant loves moisture, it is recommended to keep the pot away from the heating pipes, and in the winter to create an artificial fog, placing containers with water around the flower. In autumn and winter, the plant is watered more often than during the rest period. In order to avoid rotting of the root of cyclamen, water is poured into the pan for the pot.
The soil. It is important to give the plant roots the chance to breathe. The substrate for this purpose is made up of peat, sand, humus and earth. The larger the peat and humus fibers, the better.
The root part of dryakva in the summer "hibernates." At this time, the plant is not disturbed, leaving in a cool dry place. It is required to monitor the soil moisture, it should be moderate.
At the top of the tuber in cyclamen is located the point of growth, from which stems depart. It should not be flooded with water or overdried, you should monitor the appearance of characteristic dark spots of rot on it. The growth point is responsible for the development and growth of the flower as a whole and must be kept in appropriate conditions.
How to care for indoor flower in a pot?
How to care for him? Given the number of features of cyclamen, its specific growth and development cycle, then you need to know how to care for it, so caring for a home flower follows some very important rules:
- Watering. Alpine violet is poured regularly with a small amount of water, the temperature of which is room temperature, plus or minus a couple of degrees. After the plant has put flower stalks, watering is carried out directly in the pot tray. The excess is drained, ensuring that the soil is not saturated with moisture, but also does not dry out.
Fertilizer. В период цветения (то есть осенью и зимой) цикламену необходима подкормка. 1 раз в несколько недель растение удобряют средствами для красивоцветущих культур, содержащими полезные минеральные компоненты, например: Юнифлор цветок, Бона Форте и другие. If you use the tools more often, then all their benefits will fall foliage, and flowering will come to naught.
Transfer. The older the plant, the less it needs to change the soil. Young plants are transplanted every year. Transplantation is performed after the end of flowering, before the spring and summer dormancy period.
The tuber, along with a lump of old land, is transferred to a new habitat with a loose substrate (peat, earth, turf, sand, it is advisable to lay pebbles or small pebbles on the bottom for better soil permeability), leaving about a third above the ground so that the growing point is well ventilated and not exposed to water. The pot take a larger diameter than the previous one. The recommended acidity of the soil is 5 pH.
Pruning plants during flowering do not produce. To prolong the process, wilted flowers are carefully removed by twisting them from the peduncles without the use of sharp objects.
You must be careful not to damage the growth point on the top of the tuber, otherwise the whole plant will die.
As such, pruning of leaves and rotting roots is done immediately before transplanting.
Diseases and pests
Proper care for a flower at home will protect it from possible diseases and pests. Despite this, some factors do not depend on the gardener.
- Insects. If the soil is constantly not sufficiently hydrated, a spider mite will settle on the plant. Also a flower may be interested in aphid. The characteristic signs of its appearance are damaged and deformed leaves.
Avoiding such a neighborhood will help the placement of adhesive tape traps for insects in the vicinity of the pot, as well as the treatment of planting with special means. If the plant is already damaged, you should carefully remove all insects from visible parts of the cyclamen, rinse the leaves in the shower and treat with insecticides.
Yellowing foliage. It appears when the temperature is not observed or in case of excessive or insufficient watering. In this case, it is necessary to adhere to the instructions on the optimal conditions of plant maintenance: move the pot to a damp and cool place or reduce / increase the frequency of spraying, etc.
As with all representatives of flora and fauna, proper care is important to cyclamen. Now you know how to care for a houseplant. In this case, it will grow, develop and delight with its beautiful, delicate flowers and their pleasant aroma for many years. The rules for maintaining a culture at home are rather specific, but if they are followed, the long life of the alpine violet is guaranteed.
Home Cyclamen - Cultivation Features
Argued that the cyclamen room - capricious plant. Do not believe it! Cyclamen is unpretentious, just in its agricultural technology, as in the agricultural technology of any other plant, there are certain requirements, the mandatory implementation of which will allow you to easily cope with its cultivation. So:
- - in any case, do not store the tubers of faded cyclamen in the refrigerator - after such storage the bulb does not wake up,
- - cyclamen flower does not tolerate heat and stuffiness, but it lives beautifully in a cool room at a temperature uncomfortable for humans - only 6-12 ºC,
- - direct sunlight can cause burns on the beautiful leaves of cyclamen,
- - do not bury the cyclamen tuber in the ground: at least one third of the bulb should remain on the surface,
- - cyclamen does not tolerate an excess of mineral salts in the soil, so be careful with fertilizers,
- - a pot for cyclamen is needed small, so that from the bulb to the wall of the pot there is a layer of soil no thicker than 2-3 cm.
How to grow cyclamen.
A species like Cyclamen Persian, propagated by seeds. Cyclamen seeds are sown in February or March, although cyclamen growing at home can be propagated at any time of the year. On the eve of planting, soak the seeds for 12 hours in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate or in Epin or Zircon preparations prepared in accordance with the instructions.
After that, sow the seeds in a cyclamen earth mixture consisting of two parts of pre-steamed earth, one part of a tulip or terra vita type soil mixture, and part of river sand to loosen the soil.
It will be better if you make a groove in the ground 1 cm deep, spill it well with water and spread the seeds into it after 2-3 cm from each other. Top sprinkle the seeds with a layer of soil and cover the container with glass or film. At a temperature of 18-20 ºC, the seeds germinate in 30-60 days, although there are torsional varieties germinating in five months or more!
When the sprouts appeared, remove the shelter and move the container with them to a more lighted place, but away from direct sunlight! When two true leaves appear, shoots swoop down 2-3 seedlings in one pot, completely covering the nodules with soil.
The soil should be loose, such as a mixture of "tulip" or the same mixture in which you sowed the seeds. After 6-7 months, you can transplant grown-up cyclomenchics into pots with a diameter of 6-7 cm with the same soil mixture.
Planting cyclamen in this case requires the corms to be deeper no more than two-thirds of its size, so that the growth point rises above the ground surface. If home care for cyclamen is right, you can see its flowering a year and a half after sowing seeds.
Home Cyclamen Care
Cyclamen is a flower that requires bright diffused light and a cool (6-12 ºC) temperature. In addition, it is often necessary to ventilate the room, but in no case do not create drafts in it - this is unacceptable for cyclamen.
Frequent spraying will make the air humidity in the room higher, which is very popular with cyclamen, in addition, it can reduce the temperature in the summer heat by a couple of degrees.
The plant needs fertilizing with complex fertilizer for flowering plants, but be careful with the consistency - it is better to underfeed this plant than to overfeed.
How to water cyclamen.
In the period of active growth, cyclamen requires regular watering, but try to avoid fanaticism in this matter: watering should be sufficient, but not excessive.
To be sure that the plant has enough moisture, use the bottom irrigation method - put the pot with cyclamen in a container with water and keep it until it gets wet top layer of soil, then remove the pot from the water and allow it to drain to excess .
This method, by the way, will not allow moisture to get to the top of the tuber, where the growth point is located, thus the risk of plant rotting will be minimized.
Cyclamen after purchase.
How to care for cyclamen immediately after purchase? Sometimes the next day after you brought home a bought cyclamen, he drops flowers and even leaves. Do not panic - for cyclamen, this is a completely natural behavior.
- He needs to get used to your environment, and you try to create the conditions in which he will be comfortable.
- Cyclamen flower should occupy the lightest and coolest place at home.
- Check the substrate, and if it is dry, give the plant to drink, using the bottom watering or watering in the pan - in these cases, the plant will receive only as much moisture as it needs.
Be sure to spray the plant. Do not feed cyclamen for two or three months after purchase - the plants that go on sale are well and permanently filled with fertilizers.
Cyclamen blooms either in summer or in winter, and the time, that is, the duration of the flowering of the plant, directly depends on how you observe the rules for the care of cyclamen. Recall that the optimal conditions under which cyclamen will bloom long and abundantly are as follows: plenty of light, but without direct sunlight, the optimum temperature for flowering is not lower than 10 ºC and not higher than 20 ºC. Watering either the bottom or in the pan so that the moisture does not fall on either the growth point or the leaves with flowers. Trim wilted flowers.
How to transplant cyclamen.
Cyclamen is transplanted into a new substrate about once every two years, if the pot has become too small. This should be done at the end of the rest period before the start of the active growing season. But remember that cyclamen does not need a spacious pot, it blooms well only in close, when from the bulb to the wall of the pot a layer of earth is not thicker than 2-3 cm.
For example, a pot with a diameter of 7-8 cm is suitable for a bulb of 1–1.5 years old, and a diameter of 14–15 cm for a two or three year old bulb. Put claydite, a layer of fresh substrate for drainage, and then a bulb with an earthy clod and roots and add the substrate so that the tuber is two-thirds immersed in it. Well tamp the ground. The transplanted cyclamen fertilizers will be needed not earlier than in a month.
Temperature, location and lighting
Cyclamen likes bright light around him, but it’s not desirable for him to directly hit the sun’s rays, it’s better to hide the flower from them. In winter, a plant is recommended for a similar plant, where the air is heated only by 12 degrees, not higher and with good lighting. In the summer, room temperature is sufficient for favorable flower growth.
- Purple cyclamen does not have a clear period of rest, usually it does not winter, but it would not hurt him. In this way, it differs from the alpine violet, which, in turn, after a period of flowering (May-June) goes to rest and begins to drop foliage.
- The best place to grow cyclamen is the east and west windows. If the plant is located on the south side, it is important to protect it from direct sunlight. The room where cyclamen grows should be aired regularly.
- Hybrids cyclamen persian - heat-loving plants, so the temperature below 10 degrees for them is uncomfortable as well as the heat.
Along with the coolness cyclamens they prefer relatively humid air, but spraying from a spray gun is strictly contraindicated for them. Instead, you can just hold pots with cyclamens on a tray with wet gravel or near a water source.
Cyclamen - a plant that loves high humidity. During growth, the leaves need to be sprayed. As soon as the cyclamen starts blooming, spraying is no longer necessary. To increase the rate of moisture, you can create water mist near the plant. You can also put it on a pallet with wet pebbles. In winter, cyclamen must be placed at a great distance from the central heating radiators.
Water cyclamen follows only when the surface of the substrate is slightly dried. It is better water cyclamen bottom leaving the pot with flower in a container with tepid water for 10-15 minutes, and then always pouring all the water before you install it again cyclamen in pots. Getting to the base of the tuber and leaves of cyclamen, water can cause dangerous cyclamen fungal disease - gray rot (Botrytis cinerea) and rotting plants.
Cyclamen, like orchids, it is easier to tolerate the drying up of the soil than excessive watering, although the plant should not be brought to dryness either. From excess water cyclamen leaves turn yellow, and the tuber rots!
Feed cyclamen common fertilizer for domestic plants during the entire period of active growing season (from autumn to spring) every 2-3 weeks. Excess fertilizer stimulates active growth. cyclamen leavesbut not budding.
At the time of flowering should be watered so that water does not fall to the roots. It is necessary to distribute moisture evenly in order not to overflow or, conversely, not to overdry the earth bed. A view of the Persian plant during dormancy should be watered less, but make sure that the earth does not dry out, but the European one irrigates the same year round.
Feed and fertilizer
Full mineral fertilizer, which is applied to flowering plants, or organic matter - this is exactly what is needed every two weeks to feed the cyclamen. This should start from the moment the leaves develop and continue until it blooms.
Alpine violet transplantation takes place when new leaves appear on it (end of June). With European, this should be done in early spring (March-April) and transplanted annually.
- It is advisable to replant the plant in a low capacity and rather wide.
- Being engaged in transplanting, it is necessary to take into account one moment, the fact that the roots of the purple cyclamen are completely covered with earth, and in the Persian root system is half hidden in the ground.
- Then, until the roots thoroughly take root, you need to water less frequently, and then increase moisture.
At that time, European cyclamen or, as it is also called, Alpine violet could be found more often. Nowadays Persian is the most popular. They are not very different from each other in the care, but the features of each must still be taken into account.
In nature, of course, there are considerably more of them, not to mention hybrids bred by breeders. Cyclamen home was previously considered a winter-flowering flower., because it blooms all winter until spring. Hybrids marked the appearance of all-season, the ability to bloom despite the season. It is these flowers that we acquire under the name "Cyclamen Persian".
It is difficult to say whether their hybridity has affected the healing properties of the unknown, but the fact that the tuber remained the same poisonous is for sure. Therefore it is necessary to be careful. Cyclamen tuber is large, even its miniature specimens have a diameter of 8 cm, while giants can differ by 30 centimeters.
If you decide to buy not a ready-made plant in a pot, but only its tuber, then ask the seller about its appearance and age, carefully inspect it. is he must have a weighty massbe firm and resilient. See if a tuber has buds that are located in its upper part.
- When buying a whole plant, also carefully inspect it from all sides. The leaves should not sluggish to hang, it is necessary that they were fresh.
- Persian cyclamen tuber is on the surfaceit feels smooth without wrinkles.
- The plant is bought in October or November - at the beginning of flowering. Most buds must be undiscovered, in which case the flowers will last longer.
Selection and lighting
Remember that homemade cyclamen does not take out drafts, but stagnant air is harmful to it. The plant needs good lighting, so the location on the windowsill is exactly what it needs, however, put it better in a non-opening window, but in a regularly ventilated room. It is worth noting that he needs good lighting only during the period of budding and flowering, in the period of rest it is absolutely unnecessary for him.
This is especially true of the Persian cyclamen, in which this period is pronounced. He just drops the foliage at this time and goes into a state of sleep. European views also need rest. Both species are placed in a cool place without bright light.
Many would-be gardeners advise beginners to put the tubers in the fridge, after separating them from the pot. Of this you can not do, because after such an execution the plant will not wake up. On this your care will end. So leave it in the pot.
Soil moisture, air, fertilizer
Cyclamen does not like overwetting or drying of the earthy coma. The best solution will be watering through the pan. Since the upper watering water can get to the point of growth of the tuber, which will lead to decay and death of the plant.
If you have recently acquired this spectacular crop, you need to forget about fertilizers for 2–4 months, because the substrate is more than required. After this time, fertilizer is applied twice a month, excluding the period of rest. Prefer liquid fertilizers for flowering plants. Do not use complex mineral fertilizer, because it contains a lot of mineral salts, which is bad for the flower.
Many professional growers advise to replant cyclamen after a period of rest, but it is better to leave the flower in a pot for 2 years when the need arises. She comes when tuber does not fit in the pot, and it happens, as a rule, exactly once every 2 years. After this time, and transplant.
When planting should be considered grade cyclamen. Thus, the European species is completely immersed in the ground, while its Persian counterpart is only half. For the Persian cyclamen you need a pot, even a little cramped, the distance to the wall does not exceed 2-3 cm. European species plant in a more spacious. This is caused by the growth of the roots. In the Persian form, they are directed downwards, and the European one fills them with capacity throughout the volume. Some growers prefer part of the roots of European-grade tubers also leave outside.
The land is purchased in the store, where you can buy ready-made for cyclamen, but you can cook yourself. For this is taken:
- substrate for cacti.
- leaf humus and peat are added to the tank in equal proportions.
Drainage is also required. После посадки цветка цикломен обильный полив воспрещается. Нужно лишь слегка увлажнить почву. Полив увеличивают постепенно после появления первых ростков.
В комнатных условиях культивация цикламена может длиться до 7 лет. After this period, it is no longer suitable for reproduction, so you need to buy new. The reproduction of cyclamen is troublesome. For industrial purposes, it is propagated with the help of seeds. You can do it yourself by dividing the tuber.
Depending on the variety, the length of the period from sowing to flowering may vary. As a rule, it takes 7-11 months. It is advisable to carry out seed sowing at the end of March. Thus, during the growth period, cyclamen can do without additional illumination, and it will begin to bloom in mid-autumn.
For seed germination is necessary to create appropriate conditions. The air temperature should be around 18 degrees. High humidity and lack of light is welcomed. For the crops to be in the dark, they are covered for three weeks with a black film. At lower temperatures, cyclamens will germinate a little later. If they are above 20 degrees, germination will be slow. You can begin to dive seedlings after the appearance of 3-4 full leaves. During a dive, a young tuber is completely covered with earth.
Pest and disease control
Like any other plants living in the home, cyclomenia will not hurt and not attacked by pestsif the care is done correctly and thoroughly. However, the following troubles can be expected:
- Of the pests, the most terrible insect is the cyclamen mite. When the enemy is attacked, the leaves of cyclamen become stiff, the edges are rolled up, on the back side there is a gray bloom, resembling dust. Leaves begin to fall off or become sluggish and lifeless. Buds are also affected. Cyclamen mite is very small, imperceptible. Agravertine or another anti-parasite drug - Fitoverm will help the plant. Processing is carried out twice in 10 days. The experience of flower growers shows that it can only be dealt with effectively at the initial stages of a lesion, but if you miss the time, the plant cannot be saved.
- Unwanted guests may be other pests. So, like cyclamen thrips, aphid, spider mite, but they are not as scary as the previous striker. Trouble with them is not so fatal.
- Among the diseases there is a black fungus that occurs after the invasion of aphids. The plant can get late blight, anthracnose.
Delicate, unusual and showy flowers of cyclamen grown at home with careful care and care, able to create a joyful atmosphere in the house. We especially need positive emotions in the winter, when there are so few sunny days. At this time, most species of cyclamen are in bloom, and we learned how to care for them today.
Cyclamen home care
Cyclamen requires bright light, but not direct rays, the light must be scattered, a long stay in direct sunlight damages buds and leaves, the northern window or the loggia that faces the north side is perfect for the plant.
In most cases, cyclamen is grown at home, which means that you need to carefully consider watering. Cyclamen likes abundant watering, and during the flowering period, watering should be even more abundant, but this does not apply to cyclamens that bloom all year round, their watering is usually the same throughout all seasons.
Cyclamen prefers soft, settled, prepared water.
- Watering should be uniform. It must be remembered that this plant does not like water on the leaves, and especially on the petals.
- Watering should be done either with a watering can, but be careful not to let water fall on the leaves, or water it by immersion.
- Watering by immersion is not complicated; you draw water in a basin (or similar capacity), defend it, submerge the pot in the water, immerse it almost completely, then wait, the ground should gleam, then remove the pot from the water, let the excess water out drainage holes.
Humidity should be great for all kind of cyclamen. Care at home is to regularly spray the air around the cyclamen, before spraying cover the cyclamen from the drops. Also, to increase the humidity, it is desirable to place the pot on a tray with wet peat, pebbles or moss.
Cyclamen likes cool rooms. The air temperature should not be high, but it cannot be lowered to low temperatures either. So, the ideal temperature for cyclamen will be 12-16 degrees, not lower not higher. Temperature of 21 degrees and more destructive for cyclamen!
Top dressing of an adult plant
Plants should be fed constantly, with the exception of the rest period. You begin fertilizing 3 weeks after the plant has been purchased; if you have grown cyclamen yourself, you should begin fertilizing a week after the sprouts appear.
Top dressing is carried out only if the earth ball is thoroughly saturated with water. Complex mineral fertilizers are well suited for top dressing.
Cyclamen. How to care after flowering.
After flowering, cyclamen begins a period of rest. Often, without knowing the characteristics of care after flowering, cyclamen is thrown out.
- So, after the flowering stops, the flower should be cut, the buds are completely cut, and the yellowed leaves are cut.
- Watering should be reduced. By the spring, there will be little left of cyclamen, but this is normal.
- In the spring, cyclamen is not watered, and cleaned in a cooler room, many also lay cyclamen on its side.
In this state, the cyclamen will arrive until mid-summer. By the middle of summer it is worth transplanting cyclamen in a separate pot and resume watering.
With cyclamen transplants, the soil is completely replaced. When transplants remove rotted and damaged roots. The dimensions of the pot for cyclamen are not standard, it is not suitable for a very small, not too large pot, choose a pot with a diameter of about 14-15 centimeters. The soil should be prepared and when transplanting, do not heavily tamp the asthenia.
Enemies of cyclamen.
If you follow the rules of cyclamen care, neither insects, nor viral or bacterial diseases threaten your flower, but improper care of cyclamen at home can lead to rotting of the bulb during chronic overmoistening of the soil or to the appearance of spider mites with insufficient watering.
Correct your mistakes as quickly as possible and do not allow them again, and then neither cyclamen nor you will have problems with it.
Cyclamen turns yellow.
If you follow the rules of watering the plant, and the cyclamen flower still turns yellow, it means it can be just hot. Spray it as often as possible and, if possible, find a cooler place for it, otherwise the cyclamen from the heat may begin to dry and the flowers. If the leaves began to turn yellow after the cyclamen has faded, it means that it is simply preparing for a period of rest, and your anxiety is in vain.
Cyclamen does not bloom.
If cyclamen gets a little moisture when watering or if you do not care about the required level of humidity in the room, you are unlikely to see the flowering of cyclamen. Cyclamen does not bloom in a too warm room, especially if it is not used to such a temperature. Sometimes, over time, the plant becomes accustomed to the heat in the dwelling and, if all other conditions you observe, the cyclamen eventually begins to bloom.
Cyclamen after flowering
When flowering is completed, the leaves of cyclamen gradually turn yellow, which indicates that it is preparing for a dormant period. Yellow leaves are best removed, but not pruned, and unscrew until they are separated from the bulb. Watering is gradually reduced and the tuber resting in the ground is watered only occasionally, moving the plant to a shaded place until the cyclamen again shows signs of life.
European cyclamen, or alpine violet
- a tuberous plant with medium-sized leaves and fragrant pink-lilac flowers, but has variety forms of white, carmine and other flowers. In culture since 1607. European cyclamen is much more tolerant to ordinary household temperature than other species, but also prefers cool air to stuffiness.
This species does not have a pronounced period of rest, in addition, at its tubers daughter bulbs sometimes grow, which can be used for reproduction. European cyclamen blooms from late spring and almost to winter, feels great in the summer on the balcony or in the garden, but under mandatory protection from the sun's rays and from penetration of slugs and earthworms into the pot, for which the pot is covered with a regular nylon stocking.
Persian Cyclamen, or Dryakva
most popular in culture than all other species, because of the incredible beauty of its flowers, which, having blossomed, as if turned inside out and grow petals down, until the plant drops them without any signs of wilting.
The color of the flowers is pink, dark purple, lilac, white, bright pink, and in most cases the flower's pharynx has a different shade.
- The leaves of the Persian cyclamen are larger and more beautiful than the European, they are not inferior in decoration to flowers.
- Recently, dwarf Persian cyclamen varieties have become very popular, which tolerate room temperature much better than specimens of large varieties.
- The Persian cyclamen blooms from late autumn to early spring, and then comes 9 months of the dormant period. In culture since 1731.
In addition to these two most popular species in indoor floriculture, there are also African Cyclamen, Kosam Cyclamen, Cyclamen Cyclamen, Greek Cyclamen, Amazing Cyclamen, Small Flower Cyclamen, Cyclamen Cyclamen, and other species that are mainly found in the wild.
- If the leaves of cyclamen are yellowed, but the flowers remain healthy, you need to control the temperature in the room. If it is above 18 degrees, you need to lower it. At low temperatures, it is necessary to check whether the soil has not dried out.
- The reason for the yellow leaves may be untimely watering of the plant.
- Gray rot appears at high humidity in a room with low temperature. To solve the problem will help frequent airing.
- Peduncles and leaves may begin to rot due to wet soil. Abundant and frequent watering can lead to the fact that the roots of cyclamen begin to rot.