Rosyanka - what is it? Beautiful flowering plant. It feeds on insects, can grow on scanty marshy soils.
It hibernates in the forest moss, annually sheds shoots that perefabatyvayutsya in peat. Propagated by seeds and rosettes.
Description of a predatory plant
Plant shoots one-year. They grow from the forest moss itself. In shape they are elongated, thin, elegant. On the moss is leaflet outlet. They are tightly pressed to the ground.
One sundew contains 10-12 leaves. The leaves are miniature. In diameter reach no more than 1 cm. They are located on elongated petioles. The length of the stem is 4-7 cm.
Depending on the subspecies, the leaves may be emerald or burgundy. On the leaves grow thin hair burgundy shade. At the edges of the hairs are small droplets of liquid. Due to enzymes dew attracts a large number of insects.
Sundew is an insectivorous perennial. Latin name: Drosera. Informal titles: God's dewdrop, the eyes of the princess, sunny dewdrop, Rosychka. The plant contains a sticky substance that leaves produce.
Thanks to the drooping droplets of this liquid, similar to dew, it received such a name. The substance contains konyin alkaloid and various digestive enzymes. Thanks to him, insects falling into the trap instantly paralyzed. This is a predatory plant with external digestion.
After ant, fly or other insect was caught by the plant, the edges of the leaves are instantly closed. If the insect is small, it can crawl out of the gap. Large insects are covered entirely.
Flower habitat on the marshland. The number of plants is significantly reduced, due to human intervention in the wild.
In the gallery you can see how it looks in the photo:
In the cold season on the plant appear wintering buds. As they grow, they go deep into the forest moss. If you come to the marshland, where the sundew grows after frost, it will be impossible to see this plant. Rosyanka will completely hidden under the forest moss.
Due to this mode of growth, the moss protects the flower from frost, and the sundew successfully survives the cold.
In spring, when the temperature becomes stable and the first sun appears, the first shoots grow from the wintering buds of this representative flora.
Bloom later - in the middle of summer. Pollinating plants occurs insects. But they risk falling into the trap of a flower. Therefore, flowering shoots, on which flowers are located, reach a maximum length of 25-30 cm.
On each peduncle above bloom miniature flowers. They have a white or pale pink color. Inflorescences are collected in tassels or beautiful curls. Each flower contains 5 petals.
Against the backdrop of a gloomy swamp, they look like beautiful "clouds". Endowed sweet nectaries.
Growing from seed
In place of flowers in late summer - early autumn grow fruit. They are self-opening. Open with three doors. Inside the fruit are miniature seeds.
Seed form: spindle-shaped. Seeds can be seen in the photo in the article. In early autumn, they spill onto the surface of forest moss. After that, they are buried in the soil surface. Growth occurs in the spring to next year.
When growing in gardens, the plant must be provided lots of moss. Otherwise, the procedure for growing the sundew from seeds will be meaningless.
What eats a plant?
Leaflets emerald hue. They contain a large amount of pigmented chlorophyll. Thanks to this substance, photosynthesis occurs.
In the video, a sundew caught a spider:
Therefore, the plant can provide itself with nutrients. But since the plant grows in swampy areas, the soil in this environment is very scarce and not rich in minerals. To get the required amount of nutrients, the plant has become catch insects.
Vitamins found in ants and flies help sundew survive in such a swampy area. The sundew feeds on small bugs, spiders, ants, flies, mosquitoes and even dragonflies.
Can grow on any kind of soil. With artificial growth requires coverage of forest moss. The height of the moss should be more than 3 cm.
As shoots die off every yearthey turn into recycled peat material. Due to their large number, as well as forest sphagnum, oxygen does not flow to the root system.
Due to this fact, the sundew annually raises its roots to the surface of the soil. At home, the sundew is planted in poor substrateconsisting of coarse sea sand and peat.
Water the plant with a special bottom or bottom irrigation. To do this, a container with a flower put on a bowl with water.
On the leaves of the flower are small villi. If they are constantly in a moist state, then they will be washed off the sticky liquid, which is so necessary for the plant.
In this case, the sundew will not be able to get food and may die.
The plant is low in soil. Rosyanka can grow in any land. Transplantation is carried out only if the soil is very swampy.
Summer temperature should be within 19-21 ° C. Can endure cold in winter 5-12 ° C. Since in winter the plant hides under the moss, warm winters can be detrimental to it.
For tropical subspecies, the summer temperature should be between 24-32 ° C. Winter 16-19 ° С.
At the moment, we know a little more 150 subspecies of this predatory flower. The most famous subspecies:
- Round leaf - grows in the swamps of the temperate zone. Latin name: Drosera rotundifolia. The leaves are oval, grow on elongated petioles. In diameter reach no more than 2 cm. Looks like miniature plates. The upper part of the leaves has villi.
- Cape - the most beautiful of all subspecies. Latin name: Drosera capensis. Endowed with very short branches. The leaves are graceful, thin. Grow on elongated petioles. Coloring leaves of emerald-amber or maroon-brown. Cilia maroon plants. After the insect is trapped, the leaves of the plant curl into a small roll. The plant is endowed with beautiful flowers.
- Intermediate - the rarest subspecies.
- Long leaf - has narrow, elongated leaves. It grows in swamps and overgrown rivers. Sometimes it is called "English."
Benefit and harm
Processed leaves of sundew are used in folk techniques. With the help of them get rid from warts, papillomas, small scars.
Infused flower juice is consumed as diuretic and diaphoretic. Many extreme bury infusion of sundews in the eyes and drink with fevers. Is an antibacterial agent.
The composition includes malic, benzoic and citric acid. The plant is rich in vitamin C.
The flower contains calcium, tannins and potassium salts. It also contains droserone and plumbagin. Also Italian Rosiere liqueur is made from sundew.
Diseases and pests of a predator
Plant not affected by pests. The sundew can only be sick if the root system is overwetted. Must not be allowed in the tank water insisted.
Sundew - a predatory plant. It grows in a warm climate, can tolerate Russian cold. It grows well near the forest moss. Pests are not affected. Recommended for amateur growers.
How can a plant hunt
Hunting is the most important aspect of proper nutrition. To grow quickly, you need to know how it hunts.
- It has special glands.
- Thanks to them, produced small drops of a substance that attracts insects.
- Petals are completely covered with sticky hairs.
- Sowing on such a petal, the insect sticks to it.
- The plant feels it and collapses.
- The victim falls into a kind of trap.
An insect may be in a similar trap for more than a week, slowly killing its prey. After that, the petal opens and releases the sticky substance again. Most often, the predator can be seen in the marshland. It is here that the flower feels a lack of nitrogen, and having caught the victim, the sundew receives the necessary amount of the substance it lacks. The hunting process is quite fascinating, but rarely occurs.
Sundew - home care
Although the plant is quite picky, there are a few rules that should certainly be followed. This applies to lighting, a certain temperature, soil, humidity and frequency of irrigation.
It is best to plant in the shade, or a slightly shaded place. If it speaks of the natural environment, then the plant usually grows among trees and bushes, in their shadows, and only sometimes the sun shines on the sundew. The ideal option is to place it on the windowsill on the west or east side.
It should be noted that it is not necessary to put a drow of dew on the window sill, it is more important to provide it with diffused light. In the summer, it is about 12 hours, and in the winter - 8–10. If the sundew is on the north side, you need to think about additional lighting, it must be artificial. The fact is that with a long stay in direct sunlight, the plant can get burned.
Soil and moisture
It is important to take into account the fact that the soil should be as swampy as possible (natural habitat). The basis must necessarily include quartz sand and peat. It is advisable to add a small amount of moss and perlite to try to imitate the natural conditions as much as possible.
Since the flower grows in the marshland, respectively, it needs constant humiditywhich can reach 90%. Observing such conditions, the plant can be grown in open areas, but subject to regular darkening. If there is a low level of humidity in the room, this is easily remedied using artificial air humidifiers.
You can act without them, you need to systematically spray water near the plant, or put a flowerpot on the base with wet pebbles. But to spray water on the plant itself is strictly prohibited. And also do not need to put it in the aquarium. The fact is that after passing through the glass, the sun's rays will burn the sundew leaves. To keep moisture in the soil for a certain time, it is covered with special moss on top.
Watering and feeding
Rosinka just loves water. It is very important that watering is regular and always abundant. In winter, the flower is watered more often.. Growing up in nature, the sundew is constantly about humidity among moss.
You can put the moss on a small tray, when watering it will retain moisture. Unlike other colors, after watering, water from the base is not poured, but topped up. It is best to choose a high pallet. It is necessary to constantly check the soil to prevent it from drying out. For watering should choose water that does not contain impurities, various salts and minerals. The ideal option is boiled, purified or rainwater.
One of the advantages of avoiding sundew - the flower does not need fertilizing. On a hot summer day, the pot is placed in an open, dark area. Soon the sundew itself will find a victim. If the flower is indoors, you can bring insects yourself, but you should make sure that the leaves have a sticky liquid. The plant can exist without hunting, but it will grow much more slowly. It is enough to buy 2-3 flies at a pet store for one week. If the sundew is on the balcony, it will provide itself with food.
The main problem that may arise is the rotting of the root system. This can occur when excessively active irrigation and low air temperature. The plant will begin to change - growth will begin to slow, and the color will begin to fade gradually.
Despite the fact that the plant leads a rather aggressive lifestyleoutwardly it is very attractive. In addition, it has some medicinal qualities. The juice of the leaves helps to get rid of warts, is an excellent diuretic. On the basis of sundews produce drugs that are able to get rid of fever, relieve eye inflammation. Despite some difficulties, this plant is truly unique, and deserves an honorable place in the house.
The culture has a thin or thickened grass stem with leaf plates collected in the rosette. On the surface and the edges of the leaves are glandular hairs, emitting a sticky substance resembling dew. It is thanks to this feature that the plant was called the dewand.
In botany, more than a hundred varieties of this plant predator are known, but at home only a Cape sundew can be grown. It is found in home collections of florists, because of its simplicity, ease of care and exotic appearance.
Types and varieties of sundew
Sundew - in height the plant reaches from 10 to 15 centimeters. It has light green leafy plates with a rounded shape and reddish tentacles. Peduncle in culture grows up to 20 centimeters. Flowering time is in the middle of summer. Inflorescences are small, white or pink.
Rosyanka Kapskaya - This is the most beautiful and popular type of culture. In height, the plant reaches up to 12 centimeters. The sundew has thin, small hairs of white shade, with which it catches prey. Blooms culture in the middle of summer. Inflorescences have a spike shape. They have small white flowers with a light, pleasant aroma.
Rosyanka English - The plant grows to 15 centimeters, and the height of the peduncle reaches 25 centimeters. Leaf culture plates are long, upward, lanceolate. Flowering time is in the middle of summer. Inflorescence spiciform with small, white flowers. The plant has healing properties and is used in herbal medicine.
Rosyanka Alicia - In the wild, the plant grows in South Africa. The culture has oblong, seated, multi-layered leaf plates that grow from a rounded rosette. The leaves are yellow-green with red fibers. Inflorescences are small, pink.
Translated into Russian, this kind of sundew sounds like a "spoon". This name was given to her because of the shape of bright green leaf plates with reddish hairs in the shape of a spoon. The height of the culture reaches from 10 to 15 centimeters. The diameter of an adult sundew is 6 centimeters. In the wild, it grows in Africa, Zeeland and Australia.
Rosyanka Intermediate - is one of the most unpretentious varieties of dews. The leaf plates are lanceolate in shape and have a light green tint with numerous red hairs. They are small and slightly curved. Plant height is not more than 8 centimeters. The culture in the summer blossoms, white inflorescences.
Rosyanka Bolotnaya - in nature, the plant grows mainly in marshland, as it loves moisture and marshy ground. The height of the culture reaches 15 centimeters, and the peduncle grows to 20 centimeters. The leaf plates are long, lanceolate, yellow-green with red fibers. The flowering of sundew falls in the middle of summer. The inflorescence has a spike shape with small, white flowers.
Rosyanka Ordinary - The Far East is considered the birthplace of the plant. This variety is notable for its short stature, although some specimens of sundew grow to 25 centimeters in length. The leaf plates are rounded, grow from the rosette and have an olive tinge with red fibers. Culture blooms in summer, small flowers in white.
Plant height is from 10 to 20 centimeters. The leaf plates are round, bright green with long, reddish fibers. Culture blooms from June to July with white, spike-shaped inflorescences.
Rosyanka Nidiformis - is endemic to South Africa. This type of sundew is short, reaching a diameter of up to 8 centimeters. Plant height is 10 centimeters. It has narrow leaves with an extended, rounded edge. Red hairs cover only the upper part of the leaf and give the culture a ruby tint in the sun. The flowering of sundew falls in the middle of summer.
Rosyanka Alba - one of the most unpretentious and exotic species. In height culture reaches up to 20 centimeters. Possesses a short stalk with a bundle of thin, linear leaf plates with a thin petiole. The color of the leaves is light green with green villus. When a plant catches an insect, the leaves roll up into a roll.
Sundew Threaded - the largest representative of its subspecies, reaching a height of 50 centimeters. The culture has linear, erect, shimmering light green leaves with white fibers. Grows culture in the United States and Canada. The flowering time of the plant falls in the middle of summer. Flowers are small, white shade.
Sundew home care
In order for this exotic and predatory culture to feel well as a potted plant, the florist must create for it a microclimate in which it grows in a wild natural environment.
For sundews need to pick up a place that will be well lit and constantly aired. It is best to place a pot of culture next to the southern window. The window must not be placed on the window, otherwise under the influence of direct sunlight there will be burns on it, which will lead to the falling off of the leaf plates.
In the shade, the plant will also feel bad and may die over time. The best option for growing it will be a place where direct sunlight falls only in the evening.
In order to create additional illumination, you can use phytolamp, but you do not need to turn it towards the light source, the lamp should be a little distance away. If the florist uses artificial lighting, he should adhere to the same security measures as with the sun.
Since the sundew is endemic to the tropics, the temperature regime for its normal growth should not fall below 18 degrees. For the winter period, this rule also applies.
Those cultures that grow in the northern regions can grow at temperatures from 5 degrees Celsius. When growing plants in a pot, he needs to create a temperature of 13 to 20 degrees. In winter, the temperature should be from 7 to 10 degrees. For each of the varieties of the plant the temperature will be different, so when you purchase it, you should ask about it from the seller.
Air humidity necessary plants should not be less than 60%. Sundew loves high humidity because it grows in the tropics or wetlands. To provide her with the necessary microclimate, you need to put next to her pan with water or a humidifier. You can also put a flower in a shallow aquarium, sent by wet moss, which as it dries will need to be moistened.
If the florist has decided to grow a sundew in the aquarium, then the plant must necessarily protrude beyond its edges. It can not be placed next to the glass, as refracted sunlight will cause severe burns on the leaves. And one more thing that should be taken into account is that the sundew must not be sprayed.
The plant needs the soil to be wet all the time, but it should not be allowed to overmoisten. Watering should be abundant. Water should be used warm and separated. It is necessary to introduce moisture under the plant once a week, at other times sprinkle the top layer of earth from the spray gun. It is best to water the plant in the pan.
It is impossible to spray it, as its decorative effect will be gone. In the summer to increase the humidity of the air, it can be sprayed around the plant from the spray gun, making sure that the drops do not fall on the foliage. Also on the pallet you can put a wet sphagnum. Water in the culture tray can be left only in the summer.
It should also be noted that the root system should not come into contact with water, therefore, when planting, the plant should provide good drainage from perlite, which is part of the soil. Tap water for watering can not be used, because it has a lot of salt. Suitable rainwater, distilled, filtered or settled water at room temperature. In the winter season, it can be a little warm.
Soil for sundew
This predatory culture needs a special substrate. This fact florist must take into account when transplanting it. As mentioned above, in the wild, the sundew grows in marshland and subtropics, which means that for normal growth and development it should provide suitable soil.
The soil should be sour, light and depleted. The best option for it would be peat mixed with sand or quartz crumb. To prepare this land mixture, you need to take three parts of peat, two honors of sand or part of perlite.
The sand should be quartz, as it does not contain salts that are dangerous for sundew. However, if the florist is unable to find such sand, he can replace it with perlite.
Pot for sundew
Since the plant has a weak surface root system, for its planting it is not necessary to choose a large and deep capacity. It is enough to purchase a shallow pot, whose diameter will be 10 centimeters.
At the bottom there must be holes for drainage. Drainage plant is not needed, its role will carry out perlite, which is part of the soil.
Expanded clay can not be laid on the bottom of the pot, as it will give an alkaline reaction, it also contains many salts that are dangerous to the plant.
The pot should be chosen in a light shade so that the soil does not overheat in the sun, especially in summer.
It is necessary to replant a rosian in the early spring when it leaves the period of rest. The substrate is made from peat, sphagnum and perlite in equal parts. All components of the earth mixture must be mixed in such a way that it turns out to be light and loose.
When carrying out the transplanting soil can not be much touched. Acidity of the soil should be about 4 pH. The pot should be taken not deep and always with drainage holes at the bottom of the tank. The plant must be pulled out of the pot and shake off the old soil from the roots. Damaged and rotten roots must be removed.
Transplantation is carried out annually, since the mixture mixes into the ground and no oxygen is supplied to the root system, with the result that the roots begin to die off. If you do not adhere to these rules and do not transplant the sundew, it will die. With good care, the sundew will please its owner for more than half a century.
After transplantation, the culture may disappear from the dew on the villi - this is quite normal. To facilitate the adaptation of the plant after transplantation, the pot should be covered with a film to maintain moisture. A week later, the dew on the leaves will reappear.
Fertilizers for sundew
The sundew does not need any soil supplements, since its root system cannot receive the substances necessary for growth and development from the soil. For this reason, the grower must ensure that the culture receives the necessary food from insect fishing.
In a week, she should “eat” about two to three flies — that is enough for her. If there are no insects in the apartment, then the plant should be taken out on the street for hunting or independently bring prey to it.
Insects should not be large, as they will damage the leaf plates. It is forbidden to give meat and fish to the culture, only flies, bugs or mosquitoes are suitable for it, which, as a last resort, can be bought at the pet store.
Nepentes is also a predatory plant of the Nepente family. Cultivated with care at home without any special difficulties, if you follow the agronomic plant. All the necessary recommendations for the cultivation and care of this plant can be found in this article.
Sundew blooms in mid-summer, white, small flowers. When the plant blooms, the gardener needs to think about pollination in order to get the seeds of the culture in the future.
Pollination can be done artificially, transferring pollen from a flower to a flower, and naturally, bringing a sundew to the open air and allowing the bees to pollinate the inflorescences themselves. This procedure should be carried out for about a week.
If pollination is successful, fruit will set. A seed pod will appear, which after ripening can be opened, and the seeds inside can be used for propagation of sundew.
Growing sundew from seeds
For reproduction take fresh seeds, place them in a container on a wet sphagnum and cover with a lid. The container is cleaned in a warm and bright place. For the seeds to germinate faster, the temperature should be 25 degrees.
Freshly harvested seeds sprout in a month, and purchased in a store within six months. When young plants will have four own leaf plates, they can be planted in pots.
It should be noted that the first leaf plates of the plant do not have a carnivorous function; they will learn this functionality only after four months.
Propagation of sundew by dividing the bush
If a daughter outlet leaves the mother plant, it means that the dews can be propagated. The outlet should be carefully separated from the adult culture and deposited at a permanent place of growth.
If it was big, it could be divided into parts so that each of them had its own roots. The place of separation should be treated with crushed coal, after which each part should be planted in its own capacity. Rooted young very quickly.
How is the hunting of insects?
Special glands produce droplets that attract small insects. Over the entire surface, sticky hairs are located. Having sat down on a flower, the victim sticks, and the leaves, feeling it, roll up, close the caught victim inside.
The process of overtravel takes place at least a week, then the petals open again, highlighting the deadly dew.
Sundew in natural environment prefers swamplands, where soils are poor in nitrogen, catching and peretraviv insect, the plant receives the necessary substances, including the missing nitrogen. The process of hunting, unlike itself, of such species is rare, but very fascinating.
Sundew - home care
Lighting: A place for a predatory plant is picked up in the shade area. In the natural environment, the sundew through its small growth, dwells between the trees in constant shade and only occasionally, direct sunlight falls. Optimal locations, windows to the east or west. It is not necessary to put a flower on the windowsill, the main thing is to provide diffused light up to 12-14 hours in the summer, and 8-10 hours in the winter.
Location on the north side, most likely, it is necessary to install artificial additional lighting.
Be sure to protect and shade from direct sunlight, otherwise the sundew will get burned.
Temperature: There are two indicators of temperature regime for African, heat-loving species and European.
- For the first, comfortable habitat during the summer period is 24-30 degrees, in winter - 13-16 degrees.
- The latter are less thermophilic and prefer no more than 22 degrees in the hot period, in winter 7-12.
The minimum rates at which the sundew for a short period of time may exist 2-5 degrees.
Before you buy, be sure to check the appearance of whether the predator is suitable for your climatic conditions.
Soil: Substrate components should be as close as possible to marshy, that is, to natural habitats. The main component of the peat with the addition of quartz sand, a little moss, sod, or perlite. (pH = 5.5)
For example: peat (2 h), sand (2 h) moss (1 h), perlite (1 h).
Humidity: A marshy plant, needs a constant high humidity of 70-90%.
Under such conditions, the sundew can be grown in open areas with constant shading. In a room with low humidity, artificial humidifiers are used.
Spray the room near or put on a tray with wet pebbles, or expanded clay. It is impossible to place in terrariums, sun (thermal) rays, having passed through glass, will burn leaves. It is prohibited to spray directly on the sundew itself. In a room with low humidity, the pot (ground) is lined with sphagnum moss on top, to keep the substrate moist for some time.
Watering: a predatory plant loves water. Watering should be abundant and intense, especially in winter. In nature, the sundew is used to being constantly in a wet environment among the swamp and moss.
The pot can be put on a tray with moss, which, when watered, will always be wet. After watering, water from under the pot is not drained, but, on the contrary, if necessary, topped up. Pot trays are high. Do not allow the soil to dry out.
Water should not contain minerals and salts. Use soft, rainy, or distilled water.
Transplanting: Transplantation is not carried out every year, as a rule, once every 2-3 years, as the soil is depleted. Due to shallow roots, it is not necessary to transplant at all.
Reproduction: The sundew multiplies in several ways: cuttings, dividing the bush, seeds.
Seeds. This is the most popular way. Tiny black seeds are planted in the substrate with peat and sand (1: 1). From above I cover with a glass flask, and plentifully water. After a certain time, the first shoots will appear. Seedlings dive into separate pots, maintaining a temperature of 22-25 degrees.
The division of the bush. During the transplant. Usually in early spring, the daughter outlet is separated from the main bush and rooted in separate containers. Also carry out reproduction by dividing the main bush into parts.
Cuttings. Cut a flower shoot before the flowers are formed and rooted in the ground, you can at some time before rooting put in a mini greenhouse. Cut the stalks as close as possible to the base.
In addition to flower shoots, use leafy. A part of the leaf is placed on wet soil, or moss, covered with a glass flask on top and watered abundantly. The main requirement is a large amount of diffused light. Sometimes the leaves are placed on a layer of water (1-2 cm), with a piece of iron up, covered with a film, or a jar. After 2 months, the first shoots will begin to appear, then transplanted into the ground.
Top dressing: The sundew needs no additional top dressing. In the hot period, put the pot in the open area in the shade and the plant itself will find a sacrifice in the form of insects.
Indoors, live or dry flies or other insects are brought, but make sure that a sticky liquid appears at this time. Sundew can exist without insects, but growth will slow down considerably.
During the week, 1-3 flies purchased from zoological stores are enough. On the balconies, or verandas, the flower itself must provide for its own food.
Pests: The plant is resistant to attack by pests, sometimes with low humidity and dry earthy coma, aphid, or botrytis appears. To eliminate, use purchased means for spraying until extinction.
Difficulties in care: The main problem, rotting of the root system at low temperatures and abundant watering. The color becomes dull, slows growth.
Flowering: The period of active growth begins in spring. Flowering takes place from March - April and can last until mid-summer. Small flowers up to 1 cm in diameter, pink, or lilac are placed on a long peduncle slightly above the leaves, so that the bee does not accidentally fall into the trap when dusting.
The flower consists of 5 petals. Indoors, flowers are pollinated artificially, rubbing one against the other. After a month and a half, the boxes can be cut. Extract the seeds and plant in the ground to obtain a new plant. In a month sprouts will appear, and after 5-6 months, a beautiful bush will form.
Wintering: Beginning in mid-autumn, all predatory plants enter a state of rest, which ends at the end of February. Part of the leaves die off, the plant stops growing. Fly traps are less active and sticky. Watering during this period significantly reduced, but the soil should not be dry. Humidity still hold 70-90%. Feed consumption is reduced several times.
Useful properties: Despite the aggressive way of life as a carnivorous plant, sundew has healing properties.
- Juice is used as a remedy for warts.
- Serves as one of the components of the diuretic for oral administration.
- On the basis of the plant, preparations for eye inflammation, fever and other diseases are made.
This type is practically the only one adapted to domestic conditions. Homeland is considered the southern part of America.
A feature of Capel sundew lies in its small size, simple maintenance, and a large number of seeds, thanks to which the species quickly multiplies, often even independently. Small leaves narrow form up to 4 cm in length and 0.5 cm in width.
The leaves are collected in the rosette with red fibers. At contact from them sticky paralytic substance is emitted. As soon as the insect is stuck, the edges of the leaf are folded, covering the victim in itself, overgrowing for several days.
It is noticed that the leaf reacts to organic matter and the ingress of foreign objects does not provoke folding.
Plant sundew: species, varieties and description
Sundew is a carnivorous, carnivorous plant that belongs to the vast genus Rosyankov (Droseraceae). This perennial herb has healing properties and is harvested during flowering to treat cough, fever and eye diseases. It is found on all continents except Antarctica, and a total of 187 plant species are known.
Here are some of them:
- The sundew is round-leaved - its rounded leaves with a diameter of about 2 cm grow on long petioles. Above and around the edges they are covered with red glandular hairs that secrete a sticky liquid. Leaves spread over the soil surface. It blooms in summer with small white flowers that grow on long peduncles.
- English sundew has a height of not more than 25 cm. Its linear-oblong leaves on the petioles are collected in the rosette.
- The sundew intermediate is a small plant, up to 8 cm high. The leaves are arcuate, curved, have a lanceolate form and glandular hairs.
- Росянка нитевидная – вырастает до полуметра, ее красивые тонкие листья, переливающиеся в лучах солнца.
- Росянка Адел – неприхотливое крупное растение с ланцетовидными листьями. Не переносит морозов, но любит прохладу.
В комнатных условиях чаще всего выращивается росянка капская (Drosera capensis), которая неприхотлива в уходе и является долгожителем.
Свое название растение получило благодаря капелькам липкой жидкости, которыми всегда покрыты его листья. In appearance, they resemble dew, but in fact, it is something similar to gastric juice. In this sticky liquid, there are special enzymes that attract the gullible insects that paralyze them and then digest them.
An insect adhering to the leaf, trying to free itself, breaks free. In response, the sheet is folded, covering the victim from all sides. A medium-sized insect is digested by the plant for several days, while its chitinous shell, legs and antennae remain intact. Then the sheet turns around again and waits for a new victim.
Where does sundew grow?
The habitats of predatory plants are wetlands, sandstones or mountains. They prefer poor soil, as all nutrients are obtained from caught insects. Many species are listed in the red books of the states in which they grow.
- There are only four species of sundews in Russia: round-leaved, English, obovoid and intermediate.
- Known Australian sundews that live in the tropical forests of Queensland, among them there are interesting dwarf species.
- The representative of the forests of South Africa is royal sundew. Of all the species it has the largest leaves, which sometimes reach more than half a meter in length.
- In the USA, sundew is growing threadlike.
Features of growing predator plants
Growing dews has nothing to do with caring for other plants. Special requirements are imposed on soil, watering, lighting and even a flower pot.
The important point is the lack of dressings. Only on very poor soil will the sundew have its own natural look of a predator plant. An ordinary weed will grow on fertile soil.
The plant extracts all the substances necessary for growth independently from the caught insects, but it can safely exist for several months and without any food at all. Favorite food is flies, but other insects will do. They must be alive, just caught, so that the green predator agrees to eat them.
Caring for sundew at home
If the plant is properly cared for, it can live for more than 10 years indoors. Features care associated with the natural habitat of dews.
- If a species comes from the tropics, then it does not have a dormant period and in winter it needs to be light up and high humidity.
- With the onset of summer, the tuberous dews begin a period of rest. They shed their leaves, and only with a decrease in air temperature in the autumn period they grow again. Frosts do not tolerate plants, but for normal growth, the air in the room where they grow should be cool. During sleep, it is forbidden to water such sundews, otherwise the tuber will rot and the plant will not survive.
- Some species, on the contrary, sleep in winter. These are mainly representatives of a temperate climate, which are adapted to changing seasons. In winter, they can lose all or some of the leaves, leaving a hibernating kidney on the soil surface. Watering such dews is reduced to a minimum in cold weather. In the spring will begin to grow fresh, young leaves.
Lighting and temperature
Sundews need for bright light normal development. The requirements for the amount of sun rays consumed depend on the type of plant. For most members of the genus, it takes about five hours to be in direct sunlight, and the rest of the time - under bright diffused lighting.
In the hot summer period, direct rays are needed only in the morning and in the evening, in the daytime stray light is preferable. The recommended total length of daylight hours is from 12 to 16 hours. In winter, you can use the fluorescent lights.
Sundews prefers poor soil. For growing use a mixture of peat and perlite in equal parts. Instead of perlite, you can take sand. Before adding to peat, perlite should be soaked in distilled water for several days. After that, prepare the soil for planting. Ready substrate or its components are bought in flower shops.
Watering and moisture
It is necessary to water a plant predator only with distilled or rain water. It should not contain any mineral salts. If you do not comply with this condition, the sticky liquid that attracts insects, will cease to be produced.
For the formation of droplets of liquid, sundews need increased air humidity, which is quite difficult to create, because it is impossible to spray leaves with water.
Watering the soil from above is impossible, it is done through the pan. In winter, when the soil dries slowly, the plant is watered 1 time in a half or 2 weeks, in the summer - almost every day.
How to transplant sundew
For the cultivation of sundews prepare a mixture of peat and sand in equal proportions (need sour soil). Transplanted in the spring, when the old pot becomes too small or immediately after purchase in the store. The plant does not need frequent transplants.
The flower pot must be plastic. Ceramic container can interact with acidic peat and release salts, which are very harmful for the plant.
Plant the plant in a wet ground to reduce stress for it and prevent sticking of dry soil particles on the leaves.
Plant sundew: reproduction
The plant propagates by seeds and root processes. Old leaves can also take root.
- For seeds make greenhouse with high humidity.
- To sow the seeds you need in a nutrient-poor substrate so as not to grow an ordinary weed.
- After sowing on the surface of the soil, the seed is covered with glass until germination. Maintain high humidity and good lighting.
But the easiest way to propagate the sundew is to set off siblings. Sundew sundew forms new plants on the peduncle at the point of contact with the ground.
Diseases, pests and control methods
Sundews are sick most often due to errors in care. Insufficient humidity can lead to drying of the leaves, they do not form "dew".
Sick plant from a lack of lighting, too high air temperature and improper watering. The lighting should be bright, watering - only distilled water in the pan. It is necessary to take into account the periods of dormancy of the plant and reduce watering when it leaves the leaves so that the root does not rot.
Sundew - Predator Plant
Rosyanka flycatcher plant predator photo
This is a carnivorous predator plant. This group of the kingdom of flora not only enthralls researchers, but also served as a source for creating chilling nonsense, because the flight of turbulent fantasy does not rely on facts.
Most plants get nutrients from the soil, but some are forced to look for other ways to survive. Plants that live in marshy depleted soils suffer from a lack of nutrients. In order to “satisfy hunger” in the course of evolution, they acquired devices for catching and digesting insects.
It has been experimentally proven that such plants (carnivorous) grow and develop better than their counterparts living through root nutrition. This group is not a small one: 6 families with 500 species. All of them are united by a common goal - hunting. Suppose that by human standards the prey is insignificant, and the process itself is silent, but the splendor of the struggle between the plant and the insect in the struggle for survival does not leave indifferent.
Among insectivorous plants, sundews are the most common. The people she received nicknames: flycatcher, charming killer, sunny dew (the poetic name given by the British).
Sundew and insects
How to catch the victim predator rosyanka plant
Modified leaves are supplied with glands that secrete organic acids and digestive enzymes. They are extremely sensitive to contact: all the hairs quickly set in motion, “generously” stick the prey with adhesive matter, bend in the central part, pushing the prey to the digestive fibers.
The leaf gradually closes, forming a semblance of the stomach. It is worth noting that sundews react only to organic matter (if water droplets, sand, fallen leaves, etc. get in, the coagulation mechanism does not work). After insect digestion, only the chitinous envelope remains, which is carried away by the wind or washed away by rain. Then the sheet turns around again waiting for the next victim. Charles Darwin experimentally established that the sundew type is capable of digesting pieces of cartilage and bones.
When the sundew blooms
How does sundew flower photo
The flowering period occurs in the spring and summer months. A long flowering stem appears from the center of the leaf outlet. Spike inflorescence consists of flowers of cream, white or bright pink color. each individual flower is supplied with a double perianth, the corolla consists of 4-8 petals.
Sundew breeding leaf cuttings
To propagate the sundew using a cutting, choose a suitable leaf plate and place it in a glass with water, adding to it a preparation for accelerated root formation, you can also root it in the ground mixture of peat moss, peat and sand.
Glass with water or a container with the earth mixture should be covered with polyethylene. It is necessary to ensure that the cutting has enough heat, light and moisture. In this case, rooting will be successful.
The most popular breeding method is grafting and seed method.
Sundew is a rather exotic indoor plant. Caring for him is not difficult, but at the same time it is necessary for the gardener to monitor not only the maintenance of the microclimate, but also the diet of his green pet.
Very interesting is not only its appearance, but also a way of life. What is it worth watching his hunt and meal? Having replenished your collection with such a culture, you can be sure that it will become not only a source of pride, but also a pearl of the green collection.
Sundew round leaf (Drosera rotundifolia)
It is found in the northern hemisphere in temperate zones. Prefers to grow in the swamps. Its rounded, small (1–2 centimeters) leaves are placed on long petioles. In shape, they are very similar to a plate, covered with a large number of hairs from above.
Smoke-hole sundew (Drosera spatulata)
It is very similar to the diameter of the flower, which is 4 centimeters. It has green or red spoon-like leaves, the surface of which is covered with small cilia. In a sunny place the sundew leaves are colored reddish, and in shady - in green. This plant is extremely hardy and is undemanding in the care. His flowers are painted in pink or white.
Cape sundew (Drosera capensis)
This is one of the most beautiful views. It has a short stalk, to which is attached a multitude of linear thin leaves, located on a narrow petiole. The foliage is colored brown-red or yellow-green, and the cilia are red. When an insect hits a piece of paper, it quickly rolls up into a roll. The flowers of this plant are pretty beautiful.
How to water and humidity
It is necessary to ensure that the earth is always wet. Australian tuber species calmly tolerate the complete drying of the earthy coma. If there is little water, then the production of droplets located at the tips of cilia will stop and, as a result, the plant will not be able to obtain the necessary nutrients, since it will not be able to catch insects.
Water the sundew is recommended periodic immersion of a flower pot in a container of water.
Feeding is not necessary.
There are a large number of self-pollinated species of deerwort. Often, their flowers self-pollinated during closure. Black tiny seeds ripen very much. You can buy seeds through the Internet, and grow a plant out of them is not difficult. Seeding is done in a moist substrate, and the seeds should be right on the surface (or on it). Capacity with seeds must be covered with glass or film. Put it in a well-lit place. Watering is recommended by immersing the container in a bowl of water. The first shoots may appear 2–5 weeks after sowing.
You can also propagate the sundew kiddies that grow from the roots. And it is also possible to root old leaves of an adult plant.
Growing sundew in room conditions - a lesson for enthusiasts. On sale plants are often, but to admire their mysterious magnificence will require the creation of certain conditions. Most dews are evergreens, some retire (in summer or winter). Best of all, a charming killer will feel in a plastic or glass terrarium. Depth is required so that the plant protrudes beyond the edges.
How to transplant sundew
No need to replant the plant immediately after purchase. First, the plant must adapt a couple of weeks to new conditions.
Repot the plant 1 time in 2 years. The most favorable period is spring, when the sundew awakens after resting, its growth is activated. For planting, choose a low (about 10 cm high) light (to prevent overheating of the soil) tank with good drainage holes.
In one pot planted one plant. Carefully remove from the old soil, holding the leaves. Spray new soil with distilled water, make a well and plant. A few days after the transplant "dew" on the leaves will be absent, which is normal. Provide shading, you can cover with a cap to maintain a high level of humidity. For adaptation, 7 days is enough.
The transplant procedure can be combined with the division of the bush. The parent plant is divided into a couple of parts, and the daughter outlets (if any) are also separated. Seat on individual containers.
Reproduction is possible by leaf cuttings. Cut the leaf, divide it into segments, root in moist sphagnum moss. Cover with film or glass on top. Provide the same conditions as for seed germination. Sprouts will seem in a couple of months - transplant in a separate pot.
You can root flower shoots. They will have to cut before the flower. Cut closer to the base, rooting to ensure greenhouse conditions.
Useful properties of the plant
The sap of the plant is used topically to treat warts. Inside take as a diuretic and diaphoretic with fever. Broth is used in the treatment of whooping cough, cough.
On the basis of the juice, preparations are made for the treatment of eye inflammation.
The plant is an ingredient of the Italian Rosolio liqueur.
All-round sundew or sundew Drosera rotundifolia
All-round sundew or sundew Drosera rotundifolia photo
It has round-shaped basal leaves, covered with tentacles of a reddish hue. Flowering stem reaches a height of 20 cm. It blooms in mid-summer. Flowers are white or pinkish. Folk names of this species are: Tsar's eyes, Rosica, Rosyka, solar dew, God's dew.
Rosyanka English Drosera anglica
Rosyanka English Drosera anglica photo
The leaf plates of the lanceolate form are about 10 cm long, looking upwards. The height of the flowering stem is 10-25 cm. It typically blooms in the middle of summer, the flowers are whitish. It has healing properties. In medicine, use the entire ground part. When a plant acquires a dark brown, almost blackened shade, it cannot be used due to its high toxicity.
Sundew Sunflower Drosera prolifera
Sunfly Sunfly Drosera prolifera photo
The diameter of the leaf rosette is about 6 cm, heart-shaped leaves attached on long petioles. The leaves have a deep green color, yellow when exposed to light, and in the cold they turn a shade from orange to purple. It grows quickly and easily: new plants appear at the points of contact between the flowering stem and the soil. It has a unique (for sundews) method of reproduction - antennae, like strawberries.
Rosyanka limonnikovaya Drosera schizandra
Limyonica sundew Drosera schizandra photo
Sheet-like plates are similar to blades with an oval top, along the sheet passes a notch. When growing, keep in mind that the leaves are thin, fragile, they are easy to damage. Provide shading, good aeration of the soil and high humidity.
Sundew intermediate Drosera intermedia
Sundew intermediate Drosera intermedia photo
It is considered the most unpretentious of an alluvial plant in the cultivation and care, does not need a period of rest. The leaves are lanceolate, curved, due to the thick glandular coating, the color appears red. Height is no more than 8 cm. Flowering occurs in the summer, the flowers are white.
Rosyanka Alicia Drosera aliciae
Rosyanka Alicia Drosera aliciae photo
Originally from the subtropics of South Africa. Oblong leaves sessile, arranged in several tiers, forming a round outlet. Leaf color is green-yellow with red tentacles. Flowers pinkish shade.
Rosyanka Burmana Drosera burmannii
Rosyanka Burmana Drosera burmannii photo
The leaves are wedge-shaped, reach a length of 10 cm, collected in the rosette. Clustery inflorescences consist of 1-3 rims of white. Perfectly propagated by seeds.
Sundew hairy Drosera capillaris
Sundew hairy Drosera capillaris photo
Листья в форме ложечки образуют густую прикорневую розетку, высота растения составляет 2-4 см, при идеальных условиях достигает высоты 7 см. Цветение наступает в апреле, цветочки нежно-розового оттенка.
Росянка Гландулигера Drosera glanduligera
Росянка Гландулигера Drosera glanduligera фото
Листья-лопатки прикреплены на продолговатых черешках, образуют шарообразную прикорневую розетку. Интересен механизм ловли насекомых: при помощи движения отростков растение молниеносно «катапультирует» жертву в центр листа.
Росянка черешковая фото
Radical rosette formed by numerous leaf plates. They are oblong, light green, the top is in the shape of a coin, covered with tentacles. The diameter of the outlet is 5-30 cm, the height of the plant is up to 15 cm. It feels great at temperature conditions of + 30-40 ° C.
Rosyanka frankincense Drosera cistiflora
The name is obtained due to the similarity of the inflorescence with representatives of the Ladannikovy family. It is a snow-white flower with a greenish core. There can also be bright colors: pink, crimson, red, orange. The height of the stem is about 40 cm. It is covered with narrow oblong leaves (2-5 cm long).
Rosyanka Horde Drosera ordensis
Rosyanka Horde Drosera ordensis photo
Basal rosette is thick, with a diameter of 8-30 cm. Petioles are long, wide, of a juicy-green shade, ending with a rounded leaf plate with tentacles. Blossoms in the period December-April.
Sundew Bulb Drosera bulbosa
Sundew Bulb Drosera bulbosa photo
Oblong leaves with a rounded tip are spread out in a single-tier rosette with a diameter of up to 6 cm, the leaves tightly adjoin the soil surface. Flowering occurs in April-June.
In Siberia, the European part of Russia, in the Far East you can find three types of plants: sundew intermediate, sundew round-headed, English sundew. They form tightly folded buds - they can be stored in an air-permeable bag with a small amount of sphagnum moss for 4-5 months.