Orchids have long been considered one of the most exquisite, beautiful, sophisticated flowers. Among all the diversity of the world of orchids, Queen is considered Cattleus. Any florist, seeing her once, will fall in love once and for all. The variety of shades, forms Cattleya strikes the imagination. But not so easy to admire all of this. To grow such an orchid at home, you need to carefully try.
Cattleya was bred artificially. It was created by W. Catley, after whom the flower got its name. What does this orchid look like? How is it different? The main difference Cattleya - a very unusual shape of the lip. Orchid also has an interesting color with contrasting tones. For the flower is characterized by oblong pseudobulbs. In the middle they have a thickening.
During the flowering period, Cattleya knocks out up to 10 incredible beauty of flowers that surround thick leathery leaves. Shades of flowers can be varied - from dark purple to snow-white. Another feature of this type is aroma. When flowering, Cattleus is surrounded by a beautiful smell, sometimes resembling a lily or lily of the valley, and sometimes unique, incomparable to anything.
This is a fairly large representative. Its leaves are oblong in shape and grow to 20 cm. The short peduncle can hold up to 2 dozen flowers, reaching 10 cm in diameter. The shades are dominated by pink with purple, there are dark streaks. The lip has a light shade with dark violet and red veins inside, in the middle it is dark mauve, and its front surface is velvety and has a bright crimson color.
Peduncle of this species grows up to 15 cm and brings some flowers. But each reaches 15 cm in diameter. The color of this variety is pink or purple, and a rather large lip has a large crimson spot in the front and a pale yellow in the throat. The edges of the lips are curly, light pink shade.
There are many more varieties that are popular among gardeners: Cattleya triana and two-color, giant, etc. It is not worth describing each, and it is so clear that they all have their own unique features, beautiful shades, shape and aromas. But to learn how to care for varieties of Cattleya, so that they bloom and delight the eyes, it is simply necessary.
Features of growing
They include many secrets by which you can grow a beautiful flower without much effort. The main problem with growing a flower is the lack of flowering. Even experienced gardeners are not always able to please Cattleya so that she will be pleased with her incomparable flowers and scent. The thing is that only adult plants are blooming that have enough strength. How to understand if your flower is ready for this? Very simple. It is important to learn two things:
- Has the orchid bloomed before? For example, if you bought a flowering plant and you have it completely alive, including the roots.
- In what condition are the roots of Cattleya. They must be alive and have at least 4 bulbs, as well as traces of old flower stalks.
Cattleya needs the attention of her master. It is demanding of lighting and air temperature, humidity and watering, and soil condition. In addition, during the rest period, the orchid should not be forgotten, it also needs proper care.
Lighting and temperature
This is one of the vital factors for Cattleya. The flower is constantly in need of bright light. In the summer, do not be afraid to leave the orchid in the south or south-west windows. Even in direct sunlight, the plant can spend several hours a day, but it must be before noon or after dinner so that the sun still shines softer.
If you doubt whether your Cattleya has enough light, this can be easily verified. Pay attention to the leaves. They should be bright saturated green, shiny and healthy.
When the leaves turn yellow, we can talk about overheating of the orchid, and when tarnishing and darkening, the brightness of the light should be increased.
In winter at Cattleya comes a time of rest. But this does not mean that you can reduce the amount of light. On the contrary, sometimes it is necessary to additionally illuminate the space with the help of artificial sources. Fluorescent lamps will help to ensure a normal light day, which will last from 8 am to 20 pm.
The second guarantee of health and flowering of Cattleya is warm. When the plant is actively developing or blooming, the space should be warmed up to 20-25 ° C in the daytime and at least to 17 ° at night. In winter, that is, during the rest period of Cattleya, it is necessary to maintain a constant temperature regime on a par with 16-18 0 C during the day and approximately 15 0 C during the dark time of day.
It cannot be said that the need for moisture in modern hybrids is too big. Additional moisturizing is used only during warm periods of the year. Best of all are suitable for this purpose pallets with water in which the pot is put. As for direct irrigation, the most correct way to determine its frequency is to check the substrate.
Usually, Cattleya are watered no more than once every 1–1.5 weeks. Some experts recommend not to pour water on the plant, but for a couple of hours to keep the root system directly in the water tank. In winter, watering is reduced, in the summer, if necessary, we increase. In the hot period, the orchid will not give up spraying, but only with high-quality water - rain or thawed snow.
Home care for orchids provides for regular feeding, fertilizing the soil. It is best to make special substances in the period of active development of the plant. According to the recommendations of experts, mineral fertilizers are used in minimal quantities, according to the dosage from manufacturers.
Nitrogen fertilizers are suitable for the initial growth period. And during the formation of pseudobulb substances are introduced with a high content of potassium and phosphorus.
It is very important to remember that the periods of fertilizing last with the active growth of the plant and the peduncle, they must be stopped when active growth is stopped and flowering begins.
This event should be held for several reasons:
- The bush has grown too much
- The roots do not fit, they are closely in the pot,
- Substrate deteriorated, requires replacement.
The pot during transplantation is chosen only transparent, it should be a lot of holes. At the bottom is required drainage. In a pot, Cattleus is placed a little to the side; on the contrary, there should be enough space to form a frontal pseudobulb. Then put support for good direct growth of the flower. The soil should include the following components:
- Sphagnum moss,
- Small pieces of pine bark,
You can and buy ready-made substrate, designed for epiphytic orchid varieties.
Damaged leaves or roots are removed from all flowers the same, but the peduncle must be cut correctly. And here for each variety has its own rules. In order to properly cut Cattleya, you must wait until the flowers wither completely, and the peduncle itself begins to change color to yellow. After that, you need to carefully consider the plant and find on it a non-flowering old bud. It grows vertically from the widest point of the orchid, it is an arrow.
It may be green or brown, its purpose is to protect the young plant during the flowering period. Make sure that this arrow is old enough, you can open it. Inside should not be healthy, young kidneys. In the place where the arrow and the stem converge, you need to cut off the plant, trying to do it near the very base. At the same time it is impossible to touch with a sharp object leaves or pseudobulb
To carry out it is not difficult, as a rule, this procedure is combined with a transplant of a plant. Cattleya reproduces by division, approximately every 3-4 years. The lump with orchid must be removed from the pot with care. For half an hour, the lower part of the plant is lowered into a container with water. This will soften the substrate. Only then can the roots be carefully separated by fingers. To facilitate this process, you can make it just in the water.
Clean roots should be well inspected, removing rotten, dry or damaged parts. By the way, by their presence it is possible to determine whether watering is done correctly: rot speaks of excess moisture. All cuts are processed with cinnamon or crushed coal, but not with substances containing alcohol.
Shrubs are divided in such a way that each part has at least 3 pseudobulbs and 1 live kidney. The roots should be as large as possible. Only disinfected instruments are used, all cuts are also processed. Next is landing, according to the same scheme as the transplant.
How to grow baby Cattleya
Orchids tend to form babies on peduncles, stems. If these have appeared, you need to especially care for the "pregnant" Katleya, ensuring the most comfortable conditions of existence.
For reproduction in this way, the sprout is separated with a knife and placed in a growth stimulator solution for a couple of hours. The roots should be no shorter than 5 cm. Then the plant is planted in the substrate and looked after, providing the necessary lighting, temperature, humidity.
Diseases and pests
Among the pests for an orchid, an elongated pillow, scale insects, orchid aphid are dangerous. Diseases also affect Cattleus, most often anthracnose, as well as black rot.
All damaged parts are cut out right up to the green part, dried, and then treated with coal and antifungal substances. The substrate must be replaced. It is important to find out the cause of the disease and eliminate it. Most often it lies in the wrong watering.
Leaves turn black
The presence of dark spots on the sheets indicates that the plant is infected with fungi. It must be removed from the substrate, remove the rotten parts of the calcined tool to healthy tissue. Sections are treated with coal, from above you can pour them with paraffin or special glue.
Grow cattleya with pleasure, let it please you with its exquisite fragrant flowers!
The genus Cattleya belongs to the orchid family. According to various sources, it has from 40 to 100 varieties. Among them are epiphytes (grow on trees) and lithophytes (settle on stones), but they all grow in tropical rain forests.
Cattleya grow on sympodial type. From the base of the previous stem grow new shoots, and the old ones gradually die off - they are replaced. The growth point starts from the rhizome - a modified, thickened stem. Cattleya's aerial roots are rather thick, but fragile. They are covered with light spongy fabric - velomenom. Bulba cylindrical or spindle-shaped, elongated.
Cattleya is divided into single leaf and double leaf. In rare cases, there are three-leaved bulbs. Leaves are dense, fleshy, without petioles. The shape is elongated, oval, color - light green. A slight fold along the main vein is characteristic.
The Cattleya orchid begins to bloom only at a certain age. Each individual instance readiness for flowering occurs at different times. The main feature of a plant ripened to form a peduncle is the appearance of a small leathery, flat cover on top of the bulb. After a while, a tall, bare flower with one or three flowers grows from it. Flowering lasts almost a month. It is for the amazing beauty of flowers that Cattleus was named the queen of orchids.
Cattleya has zygomorphic flowers (they have only one plane of symmetry). The corolla consists of three narrow sepals, a pair of wide petals, lips and a column. In turn, the column is formed by a pestle and a column fused with stamens. The lip is three-lobed, the column is long, slightly curved.
In addition to natural species, breeders bred more than 1000 hybrid varieties. Of these, the four most popular cattleya species can be distinguished.
- Two-color. The height of the adult plant does not exceed 60 cm. The flowers are of an interesting, reddish-brown color, with a clearly pronounced purple lip. On the edge of the lips is a light edging. The diameter of the flowers is about 10 cm.
- Bowringa A higher variety - up to 70 cm. Flowers are not large - no more than 7 cm in diameter. The color is purple – pink. Lip similar shade with a bright yellow spot.
- Triana. The plant is about half a meter tall. Flowers are large - up to 20 cm in diameter. Coloring - white and pink. On the main background the crimson lip with a white border stands out brightly. It blooms in winter or early spring.
- Forbeza. One of the most miniature orchids. The height of an adult plant does not exceed 20 cm. The flowers are quite large - about 10 cm in diameter. The coloring is delicate - olive, shaded by a white-pink lip. Flowering occurs in summer or autumn.
Cattleya care and favorable microclimate
Cattleya is considered quite difficult to grow in culture. When organizing the care of a Cattleya orchid at home, they take into account the usual climatic features, try to recreate them in an apartment.
- Lighting Any variety of orchid needs a diffused, but bright light. The optimal location in the apartment - east or west side. Sometimes they put cattleyas on the south window, but provide for shading in the summer. In the summer it feels good on a glazed loggia or balcony. During the day, the windows are opened, but they try to protect the cattleya from unnecessary drafts. The orchid bloom directly depends on the intensity of illumination and the length of daylight. In winter, the use of additional lighting is welcome.
- Temperature . During active growth and flowering, Cattleya is kept at a moderate temperature: about 22–25 ° C during the day, 18 ° C at night. During the rest period, Cattleya is kept in a cool room with a temperature not higher than 18 ˚С.
- Watering Experienced growers recommend plenty of water Cattleya. During intensive growth, it consumes a lot of moisture. The surface of the substrate before drying should dry by 2–3 cm. The best method of irrigation is immersion. Orchid pot is immersed in a large-sized container filled with warm water, hold for about ten minutes. When grown in a bark substrate, this procedure should be done every two to three days. The frequency of irrigation depends on the temperature in the room and the time of year. The colder, the less moisture is required by the plant.
- Humidity Orchid loves high humidity. Need daily spraying without moisture on the flowers. Cattleya shoots are covered with wet sphagnum. Additionally use special devices for air humidification, set the pot on the tray with a wet filler.
- Top dressing. Fertilization during active growth increases the likelihood of flowering. Feed at intervals of one to two weeks, use special fertilizer for orchids. You can feed cattleya complex means with a high content of potassium and phosphorus. When the cover appears at the base of the sheet, the dressing is temporarily stopped. Resume fertilization after the formation of buds.
- The soil . Ready soil for orchids is sold in most specialized flower shops. At home it is made from crushed pine bark, sphagnum and foam chips. This soil is well breathable, retains a sufficient amount of moisture.
- Transplant It is enough to transplant cattleya once every two years. The optimal time is the end of the rest period. The pot is used small, slightly cramped. Immediately establish support. Dry, damaged, rotten roots pruned. Sections are treated with coal powder, dried slightly. Large, overgrown plants are divided into several parts. Kattleya does not like transplantation, she is ill for a long time after it. Therefore, if the roots are placed in a pot, the condition of the soil remains satisfactory, it is better not to disturb the flower - the transplant is postponed for the next year.
Creating conditions for flowering
It is not difficult to make a flower to bloom - it is enough to follow the recommendations of experienced flower growers, to take into account the natural features of the plant. Only adult orchids bloom. To stimulate the formation of peduncle, you need to follow five rules.
- Bright light . In the shade orchids do not bloom. To form a peduncle, the plant must receive a sufficient amount of diffused sunlight.
- Proper watering. Irregular watering adversely affect the condition of the orchid as a whole, prevent flowering.
- Feeding. Due to the lack of nutrients, Cattleya does not have enough strength to form a peduncle.
- Temperature differential. In nature, Cattleya grows in a climate with pronounced daily temperature differences. The same conditions should be created at home. The difference between day and night temperatures should be about 5 ˚C.
- Period of rest. Keep the cattleya in a cool room, minimize watering, stop feeding. After returning to the usual conditions of the content of Cattleya blooms.
Plant resuscitation: how to grow roots
Sometimes flower growers have to reanimate cattley without roots. It dies as a result of improper care, bacterial, fungal diseases. The essence of resuscitation - the creation of certain conditions conducive to recovery. To increase the roots of Cattleya, adhere to the following sequence of actions.
- Soak. Ежедневно, на два часа, погружают орхидею в емкость с теплой водой. Желательно проводить процедуру утром, в одно и то же время.
- Внесение удобрений . Раз в две недели в воду для замачивания добавляют комплексное удобрение с высоким содержанием азота.
- Доращивание корней . Когда появляются молодые корни, внесение удобрений прекращают. About ten days continue daily soaking.
- Landing. When the roots reach a length of 5–7 cm, they are planted in a narrow pot with a bark-based substrate.
The first month of reanimated orchid needs intensive care. It is regularly sprayed and watered, waiting for the drying of 2-3 cm of soil. In the water for spraying periodically add a microscopic dose of growth stimulator "Epin".
An adult, well-shaped Cattleya bush can be divided and planted in different pots. The procedure is combined with a transplant. Carry it out in the following sequence.
- Soak. Orchid plentifully watered, leave for a couple of hours. When the soil is completely wet, gently remove the plant from the pot.
- Washing the roots. Roots thoroughly washed in water at room temperature, removing residual substrate.
- Division Use a sharp sterile tool to cut the bush into several pieces. Each delenka should have at least three bulbs and live roots. All sections are treated with coal powder, dried.
- Landing. Delenki planted in separate pots with a substrate of crushed pine bark.
Cattleya is characterized by the formation of children. Flower growers use them for breeding. If the children do not form, use cytokinin paste - a hormonal agent to stimulate flowering or the formation of daughter processes. The separation and disembarkation of the children is carried out in the following sequence.
- Branch kids. The child process must be sufficiently developed, have its own roots and several sheets. It is carefully separated from the parent plant.
- Preparing for landing. Babe for several hours soaked in a solution of growth stimulant.
- Landing. The prepared shoot is planted in a light substrate from the crushed pine bark. After planting, maintain a stable temperature, keep on diffused light, regularly watered.
Planting and care for Cattleya (in brief)
- Bloom: flowering plant.
- Lighting: bright sunlight before noon and after 16.00 (from August to May - east or southwest window, from May to August - south window with shading from noon).
- Temperature: usual for living quarters. During preparation for flowering a difference of 5-7 degrees between day and night temperatures is necessary.
- Watering: during the growing season - as the soil dries. Water should not fall on the plant. During the rest period, watering is reduced and transferred to spraying the substrate. Renew watering with the appearance of the flower spike.
- Air humidity: The plant requires spraying and shower procedures.
- Top dressing: Fertilizers are necessary during the period of growth of the pseudobulb, but then the feeding is stopped and renewed with the appearance of the peduncle. Used complex mineral fertilizer for orchids.
- Rest period: usually in autumn or winter, after flowering. Feeding at this time is stopped, watering is replaced by spraying, but the light should be bright and the daylight should be long, for which additional artificial lighting is used.
- Transfer: the need arises mainly due to the souring and caking of the substrate. The plant does not tolerate transplant.
- Reproduction: vegetative (by dividing the bush and shoots).
- Pests: aphid, spider mites, scale insects, mealybugs, whiteflies.
- Diseases: gray rot, bacterial spotting, black rot, powdery mildew.
Cattleya Orchid - growing features
Unfortunately, not only beginners, but also experienced flower growers often complain that their cattley flowers do not bloom, and this is very disappointing because caring for cattleas takes time and labor. And the trick is that only an adult Cattleya plant, which has enough strength to bloom, can bloom. Therefore, we offer you several ways to check how your orchid is ready to bloom. You can expect flowering this year if:
- - you bought a blooming cattleya, the whole bush, with live roots,
- - the plant or delenka has live roots and no less than 4 bulbs, and there must be some trace of the fact that the bush already had flowers.
In all other cases, the flowering of cattleya this year is questionable. In general, for the successful growth and flowering of cattleya four conditions must be met:
- - for flowering Cattley requires direct sunlight,
- - strict observance of the rules of feeding and watering orchids,
- - obligatory five-seven-degree difference of day and night temperatures during the preparation of cattleya for flowering,
- - the correct maintenance of a plant in a dormant period.
Agrotechnics rules for Cattleya.
Growing Cattley requires strict adherence to the rules of agrotechnology, so the orchid should grow in a very well-lit place (south-west, east window-sills or southern with shading in the very heat), and if there is enough light for it, you can see by the color of the leaves: if they are pale yellow it means that there is too much light, and if it is dark green, then it is not enough light. The leaves should be just green. Regarding the temperature, the usual room is very comfortable for the orchid, and during the preparation of the cattleya for flowering, the fluctuations of the daytime warm and nocturnal temperate temperatures should be five to seven degrees, which happens in nature in this time of year.
Modern types of orchids to the air humidity are undemanding, but in the warm season they like to stand in a pan with water, in which they will lower their aerial roots. There is no particular difficulty in how to water the cattleya: watering is carried out as the substrate dries out, and in such a way that water does not fall on the plant itself. During the rest period, watering is reduced, then replaced with watering by spraying the substrate. When the spike begins growing, watering of the substrate is resumed. In the heat, if the water is of high quality (rainwater settled or distilled), the substrate and the plant itself can be sprayed, lowering the temperature and increasing the humidity. Once a month you can arrange a warm shower for a plant, and spill a substrate for cleaning with water from the tap. If water gets into the aboveground parts of the plant during the cold season, it is necessary to blot them dry, otherwise dark spots may appear on the cattley, and if the water gets into the growth center, then the orchid will rot the roots and your cattleya will not have a future.
The question of how to transplant cattley, will be in front of you sooner or later, but you should know that this orchid tolerates transplant very badly. Even if you just pass it from an old pot to a new one, it will be naughty for a long time and recover. Cattley transplantation becomes necessary because of the state of the substrate: with time it becomes dense and oxidized. Therefore, as soon as new sprouts reach 2-3 cm in length, the plant should be transplanted. And, by the way, before transplanting decide whether you will divide the plant.
A pot for cattley is suitable for everyone, especially since very convenient and beautiful translucent plastic containers have appeared that do not absorb light, which is very suitable for orchids. But the best is a simple earthen pot, without glaze. Cattleya substrate consists of medium and small fraction bark, as well as sphagnum moss. Before planting the bark should be soaked for a couple of days, then the water should be drained and the bark should be washed in clean water. A two-centimeter drainage layer of gravel or expanded clay is laid in the pot, then large pieces of bark and foam plastic, then cattleya is placed into the pot and sprinkled on its roots with smaller bark. If the air in your room is too dry, add a little perlite to the pot - it will keep moisture in the substrate.
Cattley fertilizer should be during the growth of pseudobulb, but as soon as the growth stops, stop feeding. Feeding is resumed when the spike begins to grow, but when the cattlea blooms, fertilizer is no longer needed. The composition of the fertilizer must include phosphorus and potassium, and the concentration of fertilizer should be the minimum specified on the package.
Cattleya is an incredibly beautiful flower, and the natural species and varieties derived from them by breeders are equally beautiful. There are over a thousand varieties of Cattleus, and we will introduce you to some of them:
– Cattleya bicolor (Cattleya bicolor): reaches a height of 30 cm to 60 cm, flowers with a diameter of 10 cm, reddish-brown with a purple lip with bright edges, blooms in autumn and winter,
– Cattleya bowringiana: reaches a height of 70 cm, the diameter of the flower is about 7 cm, the color is pink-purple, the lip is purple with a yellow spot, autumn-winter blooms,
– Cattleya Triana (Cattleya Trianaei): in height - up to half a meter, the diameter of flowers reaches 20 cm, the color is white-pink, the lip is bright crimson in color with a white border, flowering occurs in winter or spring,
– Cattleya Forbeza (Cattleya forbesii): miniature orchid 10-20 cm tall with flowers with a diameter of 10 cm, olive-colored flowers with a white lip with a pink bloom, blooms in summer and autumn.
Whatever cattleya you buy, you really want it to bloom again, because flowering cattleya is magic, magic, the triumph of beauty and harmony.
Description, features, bloom
A perennial herb of the orchid family. It grows mainly in the tropics of America. The genus is considered one of the most famous and popular among a huge number of varieties of orchids.
In their natural habitat, epiphytes or lithophytes - settle on trees, their branches, or rocky surfaces. The creeping root system is located above the ground, partially goes deep into the ground. Receives food, moisture from soil and air. Aerial roots have a special structure. They are covered with a velenome - a cloth with hygroscopic properties, capable of absorbing moisture.
Flowers characteristic of the family structure - 3 bright sepals and 3 large petals. The middle lobe is transformed into a lip of a brighter color, tubular or funnel-shaped. Coloring is very different. By the way, among the Cattley there are rare flowers for blue orchids. In the cutting stand for a long time, do not wilt even without water. Many varieties exude a very pleasant aroma. Some compare it with the smell of lily of the valley.
Important! Features of the rest period! It comes after flowering. Kattley need to rest, recuperate. The wrong organization of this period will result in the absence of flowering next season. Most often, Cattleya rests in the winter, with the exception of some varieties. After the flowers fade, limit any growth opportunity. Cattleya placed in the cool, protected from the sun. Feeding is stopped, watering extremely rarely - 1-2 times a month. The duration of the period is a few weeks.
Resuscitation of cattleya without roots
If you get cattleya without roots in the store or the flower has lost them as a result of improper care, you can reanimate the root system. To do this, there is a fairly simple, but time consuming method.
Orchid daily soaked in water. In an empty pot with no drainage holes or a glass container, water is poured at room temperature. Put on a well-lit place. Dip an orchid in the water so that only rhizomes are in the water. The temperature is maintained not lower than 20 ° C, the procedure is carried out in the first half of the day. Soaking time - 1-2 hours.
As long as the buds are in a dormant state, it is possible to use not water, but a growth stimulant solution - 1 drop each of “Epin” or “Zircon” per liter of water. The duration of soaking - no more than two hours. It is not recommended to get involved in stimulants - the intervals between their use are at least 3 weeks. Once every 10 days, fertilizer with a high nitrogen content is added to the water.
It takes from one month to a year to restore the root system. In spring and summer, the likelihood of root growth is higher than in winter. As soon as the roots appear, the feeding is stopped, the soaking time is increased by another hour. Cattleyu is transplanted into the substrate when the length of young roots reaches 5-7 cm. They take a small, narrow pot. Fill it with sphagnum or pure bark of coniferous trees. Orchid tie to the support, to eliminate the likelihood of damage to the roots.
Subtleties of care
Cattleya - a naughty flower. It requires constant attention to itself, sharply responding to the slightest changes in conditions of detention. Missed watering, a sharp temperature drop, lack or excess of light, high temperature - all this leads to a lack of flowering, weakening of the plant, diseases. Therefore, proper care for cattleya at home is very important.
Cattleya orchid care at home
Compared with Phalaenopsis, Cattleya is more demanding and capricious in its care. They also differ in seasonality. However, despite all these shortcomings, this flower can be grown in indoor conditions, if you strictly follow all the rules for the care of orchids.
It should not be forgotten that various cattleya hybrids can differ greatly in their conditions of maintenance, as well as flowering. Therefore, buying this flower, be sure to find out what sort it belongs to.
Illumination and location
Such a plant simply needs a bright light, but it must also be diffused. If the flower is located on the window sill of the south window, then in the summer period it is imperative to prune it from the direct rays of the sun. Otherwise, it may overheat. It is recommended to place a cattleya near window openings located in the western or eastern part of the room. In the warm season it is best to transfer this flower to the glazed loggia. At the same time, many growers recommend opening all windows on the loggia in order to have excellent air circulation. However, it is worth considering that the plant itself should not be placed in a constant draft.
The flowering of a large number of species of these flowers is directly related to the length of daylight. So, the flowering of most single-leaved orchids begins after several weeks have passed with short light days. Such plants are also called autumn orchids. And there are species that need a large amount of light and with its lack may not bloom at all, and most often these include double-leaved orchids.
At the time when Cattleya is actively growing and blooming, it must be placed in heat. So, in the daytime, the temperature should not be less than 22-25 degrees, and at night - not less than 18 degrees.
A greater number of cottles in the wild prefer to grow in the foothills and mountains (at an altitude of 2000 meters above sea level), where the difference between day and night temperatures is quite significant and is 5 degrees, and in some cases more. Therefore, in order for plants to grow and develop normally, it is necessary to ensure a temperature differential during the day and at night. So, at night the temperature should be from 15 to 18 degrees, and in the daytime - from 21 to 27 degrees. During the rest period, the plant should be placed in a cool room, where at night will be about 15 degrees, and in the daytime - from 16 to 18 degrees.
These plants need high humidity. They need to be sprayed as often as possible, but at the same time not allow ingress of moisture to the inflorescences. Experts recommend that shoots of Cattleya should be covered with sphagnum moistened moss.
In summer, when placing an orchid on a loggia, the humidity of the air is several times higher than in an apartment during the winter time during the heating period. Some growers advise, in order to increase the humidity, put a flower pot on a tray, in which you first need to fill in small pebbles and pour in a small amount of water.
How to water
During intensive growth, the flower requires abundant watering. But it should be borne in mind that between watering the top layer of soil must necessarily dry out. In the summertime, water is often watered, it is even recommended to immerse a flower pot in cold water, and it should be kept in it for 10 minutes. In that case, if the orchid grows in the earth mixture consisting of bark, then watering is carried out every two or three days.
It should be remembered that if the room is cool enough, then Cattleya absorbs water much worse, so in this case it needs poor watering. So, if the plant is in the fresh air and at night the temperature is kept at 10 degrees, then it does not need to be watered at all. This orchid calmly refers to drying out the soil, as its tubers have a supply of water. The volume of water used for irrigation for each plant is individual.
During intensive growth, cattleya must be fed, as this will prepare it for the upcoming flowering. Feed the plant, usually through watering. Top dressing is carried out in the spring-summer period 1 time in 1–2 weeks. And use for this a solution of complex fertilizer for orchids (the concentration should not be very large).
Experts advise at the beginning of an intensive period of growth to apply complex fertilizer. And then a fertilizer with a high content of potassium and phosphorus to stimulate flowering. And it is recommended not to make fertilizer when the cover appears at the base of the leaf. And again to start feeding the plant is necessary after the bud is formed.
The dormant period of this plant begins after it stops flowering. В том случае, когда данный период будет недостаточно длинным, орхидея может не зацвести. Время, когда начинается данный период, зависит от сорта. Однако в большинстве случаев этот период приходится на зимнее время.
По окончанию цветения каттлею помещают в прохладную комнату. В это время ей необходим рассеянный свет, так как прямые лучи солнца могут спровоцировать рост цветка. The plant is not fed and watered extremely rarely (2 times per month or less). However, make sure that the bulbs are not wrinkled and do not start to dry. In the case when flowering occurs in the last winter weeks or in the spring, then the rest period of such a cottley will be in the autumn time.
How to transplant
Transplantation is carried out 1 time in 2 years before the plant begins to grow intensively. Flowerpot pick close. It is recommended to use supports to keep the flower straight.
To create a suitable earth mixture, it is necessary to combine small pieces of fir or pine bark, charcoal and sphagnum moss. You can also buy a ready mix for epiphytic orchids.
- Only an adult plant blooms, and it is impossible to say exactly what size it should have a bulb, since it directly depends on the variety. It can be 9 centimeters and 18 centimeters. Buying a blooming cattleya there is no doubt that she is an adult. In the case when the plant has several bulbs with live roots and one with a cover, the orchid may bloom. And if there are no roots on the bulbs, then it may not bloom. As a rule, in this case another bulba with roots grows.
- For the plant to bloom, it needs sunlight. Therefore, it is not recommended to place it on the north window. Also should pritenyat flower from the scorching rays of the sun. And the morning sunlight of Cattleya is a must.
- In the summer, it is necessary to water and feed the flower in time, otherwise flowering may not occur.
- The success of flowering depends on the temperature drop during the day and at night (not less than 5 degrees). Providing it in the warmer months is easiest on the balcony.
- The correct rest period. Water the plant should be very little, to protect from the direct rays of the sun and should not be observed flower growth.
You can multiply by division. Do this at the beginning of the period of intensive growth in the presence of 5 or 6 pseudobulb. In addition, each Bulba sits separately.
Spider mites, scale insects, aphids, as well as thrips can live. For the fight used aktellika solution (15–20 droplets per liter of water).
The lip-lip of the Cattleya orchid stands out noticeably against the general color of the flower.
The distinctive features of the flower include the variety of its color, starting from snow-white to almost black.
For Cattleya Orchid, a sympodial growth pattern is typical when a new sprout emerges from the base of the old one, which subsequently dies off. The roots of the plant are thick but fragile. The leaves are large and leathery. By the number of leaves Cattleya are divided into two types: single-leaved and double-leaved (this separation is not strict. In nature, there are also three-leaved species).
Cattleya orchid structure
The oval-shaped Cattleya leaf, hard and fleshy, grows from the very top of the pseudobulb - a thickening located above the ground where nutrients are collected.
The leaf wraps around the pseudobulb, forming a ring with a small tip, where the peduncle will appear over time. Sometimes a dozen flowers are blooming on the orchid at the same time - this event is for an amateur grower a real holiday.
When caring for an orchid, pay attention to the following growing features:
- Lighting. Cattleyas love southern windows, where there is a lot of light, but direct sunlight is detrimental to the plant, so it is desirable to close part of the window with matt tracing paper. On short light days (less than 10 hours), artificial lighting is required.
Watering. The best irrigation method for Cattleya is when a flower pot sinks into a basin of boiled or melted water, but only for a short time, until the soil is slightly moistened. This is done several times a week during the day. In watering orchids there is no strict systematic approach, since at each time of the year, there is a watering rate of its own. On hot days, it is recommended to water the flower every other day (at this time the orchid is especially actively growing), and during the “hibernation” no more than once every two weeks.
Temperature content Temperature drops have a positive effect on orchid blooming. But the changes should be minor, in the summer no more than 5-7, in the winter 10-12 degrees Celsius. In the summer, Cattley can be brought to the balcony, to the fresh air.
It looks like sphagnum moss
Cattleya Substrate - Pine Bark
Growing orchids, experienced flower growers nourish with complex fertilizers for orchids. Orchid flowering at home is stimulated by special formulations with a high content of potassium and fluorine (for example, “Mr. color”). In winter, in the dormant period, fertilizing is not needed.
On the care and reproduction of orchids Wanda in the conditions of the house will tell our next article.
Cattley's orchid is propagated no more than once every four years when the plant is transplanted. A convenient moment of division - before the beginning of the growth of new roots.
Carefully remove the plant from the pot and drop the underground part into the water for half an hour to soften the soil. Then, right in the water, the roots are well cleaned from the ground, and dried and rotten ones are removed.
Cut off areas must be powdered with crushed coal. Peeled roots are dried in a warm place. Only then can the division begin.
The basic rules for breeding Cattleya orchids:
- each part (delenka) must have at least three pseudobulbs with one living kidney and good roots,
- dividing tools must be sterile to prevent contamination of the plant,
- root slices should be sprinkled with cinnamon powder or charcoal.
It is best to plant the plant in transparent pots with good drainage, as shown in the picture below.
Landing young Cattleya
How to deal with pests and diseases
It looks like an orchid leaf, damaged by infection
The cause of bactericidal infections and rot is the wrong watering of orchids. The only way to fight is to clean the plant from diseased roots and treat them with a special antifungal drug.
Cattleya affected by the following pests:
- schitovka. Manifested in the form of dark spots. To destroy it is difficult, but possible. The infected surface of the plant is cleaned with insecticides (chemicals),
- spider mite and aphid. How shitovki appear on the orchid because of the dry air in the room. For the prevention of disease indoors, the necessary moisture is maintained. Destroy insect pests (insect control agents),
- whitefly. Appears on the dying parts of Cattleya. You can get rid of it by wiping the leaves with laundry soap or sprinkling aktellik (a pest-fighting drug),
- mealybug Also affects orchids with dry air. You can get rid of it by spraying the plant with a soap-alkaline solution.
Opinions gardeners who grow orchids, diverge. Some say that the varieties Cattleya unpretentious and take root even in open ground. Others claim that they are capricious. An orchid, like any other flower, requires attention and care from a gardener. Observing all the rules of agricultural technology, even a beginner can decorate his house with this beautiful flower.
Watch video about caring for Cattleya orchid at home: