Garden flowers, plants and shrubs

Levkoy or Mattiola - Mediterranean violet: planting and care


The hot summer day gives way to cool twilight, in which gently, and then the wonderful gentle smell of the night, or white, violet more and more spreads. This plant has many names. Most often used such as left and mattiola.

These gentle night beauties have always been an indispensable decoration of both park ensembles and modest flower gardens. With proper care, they bloom from late spring until autumn.

The painstaking cultivation of Levkoy brings a wonderful result. The small stars of the night violet bloom in the evening twilight and into the morning. exude a sweet spicy aroma.

Levkoy (Matthiola) belongs to the perennial and annual plants of the cruciferous family, which are mainly distributed in Africa, in southern parts of Europe and Asia.

Plant description

Flowers leftistbeautiful honey plant and at the same time an indispensable decoration of any flower garden, it is not without reason that it belongs to park-style plants, although recently Mattiola has also become a regular guest of those who enjoy themselves with flowers grown on balconies and loggias.

Levka is a herbaceous plant, sometimes a half-shrub with straight smooth stems, the height of which can reach about 15 - 75 cm.

In some varieties, the stem is covered with a small nap. The leaves are oblong, lanceolate, usually serrated on the edges.

Flowers of the flowers are both simple and terry brushes and inflorescences. Shades of colors range from white, cream and pink to purple.

Levkoy bloom continues from early summer to mid-autumn.

The fruit of the night violet is a pod with flat seeds.

In total, there are more than 500 varieties of this wonderful flower, but the greatest demand from gardeners for growing in gardens and flower beds is left-handed with double flowers. It should be noted that this type of plant, unlike other varieties, does not form pods with seeds and reproduces exclusively by grafting.

Levkoy: planting and care in the open field

White violet - low maintenance plant, which will please you if you follow some rules when planting and caring for him.

  1. Plants can be cultivated by planting both seedlings and seeds in open ground. It all depends on what period of summer you plan to bloom mattiola: if at the beginning and middle of summer, the seedlings are planted in open ground in May, and if in August and the beginning of autumn - in April, seeds are sown immediately into the soil of the flower garden.
  2. Seeds before planting should be soaked for 20 hours, then taken out in the cold or placed on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. It is necessary for hardening the seed.
  3. For seedlings, the seeds of leukowa are sown at the end of March.
  4. The soil prepared for seedlings is laid out in special boxes: sand and soil in the ratio of 1: 3. The mixture is preliminarily decontaminated with a weak solution of manganese.
  5. The depth of the seed furrows is no more than 5 mm.
  6. Watering should be in such a way as to prevent excess water, which can cause rotting of the seeds, and then sprouts.
  7. Water for irrigation should be around 18-22 ºC.
  8. In some cases it will be advisable to provide drainage holes on the bottoms of the boxes and containers for seedlings.
  9. On top of the tank tighten the greenhouse film or cover with glass.
  10. Install boxes in a room with a temperature of 20-21 ºC.
  11. The first shoots may appear after 5 or 14 days. Watering the soil before germination is not recommended.
  12. After the sprouts appear, the temperature in the room is reduced to 10-11 ºC.
  13. After 10 days after emergence, the plants dive and transplant into suitable small containers or pots in order to transplant the grown seedlings into the open ground with a clod of earth. This is necessary because the leftists are sensitive to rough transplants.
  14. Seedlings are kept in a bright cool room until 3-4 true leaves appear on the seedlings.

Choosing a place for landing

Levkos grow well in sunny and bright windless places - this is due to the fact that their homeland is the southern European region.

When planting, it is necessary to take into account the moisture content of the soil - it should not be over-humidified, therefore, good drainage should be provided.

Growing mattiola involves pre-fertilizer only in cases of special depletion of the soil. These flowers do not tolerate an excess of organic fertilizers, so the soil should be fertilized with manure and ash in the fall, for a certain time before planting.

Diseases and pests

Growing Night Violets complicated by plant susceptibility bacterial and fungal diseases. The causative agents of fungal infection are resistant to external factors and persist in the soil for a long time. Do not plant mattiola in the vicinity of other cruciferous, the same cabbage.

Black leg, white and gray rot affect left-wing areas in conditions of high humidity. A precautionary measure is moderate regular watering.

The keel is more common in flowers growing on acid soils. Mosaic - defeat and sclerotization of leaves - is tolerated by aphids. At the first manifestations of the disease, destroy diseased plants, treat the soil and the plants themselves with ashes.

Pests for white violets are butterfly caterpillars, cruciferous fleas. Avoid the appearance of pests when growing left will help timely processing of fungicides.

Growing Levkoy will bring real joy to an experienced florist and lover with proper patience and careful attention to these beautiful night beauties.

Features of the left

Levka is a herbaceous plant or a half-shrub that can be a perennial, biennial or annual. The height of erect branched shoots can vary from 0.2 to 0.8 meters, they are pubescent with felted pile or bare. Leaf plates of lanceolate or oblong shape can have a dentate or solid edge. The inflorescence of a racemose or spike shape consists of double flowers or simple flowers, which can be painted pink, purple, white and dirty yellow. Flowering is observed in June-November. The fruit is a pod within which there are flat narrow-winged seeds. The aroma emanating from the flowers of left-wing, it is impossible to confuse with any other. Varieties with simple flowers are considered excellent honey plants, while terry - are the perfect decoration of any garden. Anyone can grow such a flower, even those who are far from gardening.

Growing leukova from seeds

Before you start sowing, you need to prepare the seeds. To do this, they are soaked for 24 hours in water, and then put in a moist gauze and cleaned on the shelf of the refrigerator for several days for stratification. Sowing seeds for seedlings produced in the last days of March or the first - in April in boxes or containers that should be filled with a moistened soil mixture, which consists of turf ground and sand (3: 1). Seeding should be done sparsely, with the deepening of the seeds should be only half a centimeter. Then the container should be covered with film or glass and rearranged to a warm (20 to 22 degrees) and dark place. In some cases, the first seedlings can be seen in just 4–5 days, but they may appear in a fortnight.

After the first seedlings appear, the shelter should be removed, and the capacity should be moved to a well-lit place with diffused light, this will not allow the seedlings to stretch. The required temperature for growing seedlings is from 10 to 12 degrees, so it is recommended to transfer containers to an unheated veranda or a protected balcony. Two days later, after the first seedlings appear, they will need to be watered for the first time. After 10–12 days, seedlings should be dived into individual pots with drainage holes. They should be filled with a mixture consisting of sod and leaf earth and sand, which must be taken in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. It should be borne in mind that by this time not a single true leaf plate will appear at the plants. During a dive of seedlings, it is recommended to pour a small amount of hydrogel into the substrate, which will strengthen the system of roots of the plants. Later, as well as medium-flowering varieties, if desired, you can dive directly into open soil. The first feeding should be done when the plants begin to develop the second true leaf plate. For fertilizing microfertilizers should be used. For this, 0.3 gram of boric acid and copper sulfate and 0.1 gram of manganese sulphate and zinc sulphate are taken for 1 liter of water. Seedlings of this plant must be hardened. To do this, first open the window on the balcony for a short time, while the procedure time is gradually increased. At the end of the flowers should be kept with a fully open window. Seedlings should begin to harden 1–1.5 weeks prior to planting in open ground.

What time to land

It is necessary to start planting seedlings on the last May days. To do this, choose a cloudy day or make a landing in the evening, because the scorching sunlight can destroy the newly planted seedlings. The plot where plants belonging to the cruciferous family have previously grown has not been suitable for planting mattiols, otherwise flowers can destroy the cruciferous flea. It should also be noted that the soil from such a site is also not suitable for filling containers for growing seedlings of the leftist, because there is a high probability that the seedlings will become ill with a black leg or a keel.

When choosing a site for planting, it should be taken into account that such plants need a lot of sunlight and well-drained soil, because if the soil stays liquid, then it can greatly damage left-handedness. The soil should be neutral or slightly alkaline, saturated with nutrients and better if it is sod-loamy or sod-sandy. Fertilizer should be applied to the soil before planting only when it is excessively depleted.

How to land

First you need to prepare the holes, and then pour them with water. Planting should be carried out directly into the earthen mud, this will allow the plants to quickly adapt to new conditions. When the wells are filled with soil, it must be properly compacted. The distance between stunted and single-stem varieties should be about 15-20 centimeters, and between branchy and tall - from 25 to 30 centimeters.

Garden gardening

The most important thing in growing mattioli should be remembered that it reacts extremely negatively both to prolonged drought and to too abundant watering. In this regard, watering should be moderate and necessarily systematic. Also during the care of such a plant it is necessary to weed it in time and systematically loosen the surface of the soil on the site, and this should be done every time after the plant is watered. From organic matter for top dressing, only wood ash should be used, but it is preferable to use complex mineral fertilizer. So, in spring, full mineral fertilizer should be applied to the soil in the area where mattiol grows, and phosphate-potassium fertilizer is used for fertilizing during flowering. If you plant a mattiol for many years, then remember that in the year when it is planted, it should not be mulched.

Breeding left

You can grow mattiola from seeds, and if you want such plants to bloom throughout your season, you need to sow them every 1.5–2 weeks. Terry mattiola is sterile, however, it was noticed that terry flowers grow from those seeds that were collected from underdeveloped shrubs with simple flowers, and they must have short pods pressed to escape, with a blunt end. From seeds collected from such bushes, plants can grow with both simple and double flowers in a 1: 1 ratio. During the cultivation of seedlings, you can try to select a plant with double flowers, if necessary. To do this, shoots should be maintained at air temperature from 12 to 15 degrees. After that, they are moved for a few days to a room where the air temperature is 6–8 degrees, at this stage you can see the differences. In plants with double flowers, cotyledon leaves will be larger and not so bright. If necessary, it will be possible to select the bushes with double flowers, while removing the remaining seedlings.

Diseases and pests

Cruciferous flea can inflict the greatest damage to such a plant. To get rid of a small number of insects, you should use a solution of ash. It is necessary to carry out treatment of the affected bushes 1 time in 4–5 days; at the same time, it should be repeated 3 times. During processing, it is very important that the solution falls both on the front and on the wrong side of the leaflets. In the event that there are a lot of fleas, for their destruction it will be necessary to use insecticidal agents, for example: Decis, Aktara, Aktellik, Bankol and Intavir.

Mattiola most often falls ill with a black leg. In an infected bush, the lower part of the shoot turns brown at first, and after a while it turns black. It is impossible to cure such specimens, but infection can be prevented. To do this, before planting seedlings, it is necessary to tillage the soil with Hom. In this case, even if the earth was infected by a carrier of the black leg, the plants still would not get sick with this disease.

Seed collection

Seeds become mature in September or October. Wait until the pods change their color to brown, and then pull out the bush along with the root, and put it in a well-ventilated room. Wait until it is completely dry. Dry pods need to tear off and pour the seeds out of them.

Preparing for the winter

If the left is grown in a region with cold winters, then they are cultivated as annual plants. In this regard, in the autumn time, the plants should be pulled out of the soil before they are completely wilted. Plant residues will need to be disposed of, and the area on which it grew left, you need to dig. If in the region the winters are relatively mild, then after the frosts begin, the bushes will have to be cut to the level of the ground surface. If you wish, you can decorate your house with a bayonet in winter, for this you need to dig up a bush and transplant it into a flower pot.

Types and varieties levkoy with photos

Gray-haired (Matthiola incana) - this species is most popular in culture. Its homeland is the Canary Islands and the Mediterranean. The height of this cold-resistant annual plant can vary from 0.3 to 0.7 m. Branched bush often with woody shoots, flowers are very fragrant. Larger alternate leaf plates may have a diamond shape or be narrow. Their color is dark or pale green, while the surface of the leaves may be pubescent or bare. Loose or lush racemes consist of 10–60 flowers. The flowering is lush and is observed in June – November, while in the southern regions it is possible to meet mattiolu covered with flowers in winter. Seeds of this type of levkoy remain viable for 4–6 years. It has been cultivated since 1570. At the moment, about 600 varieties of this species are known. Varieties are divided by the timing of flowering in the summer, autumn and winter. The most common varieties of summer flowering. The varieties are also divided by height: high (0.5–0.7 m), medium (0.3–0.5 m) and low (0.15–0.3 m).

Mattioli are also divided into 8 groups in the form of inflorescences:

  1. Bouquet (Victoria). Branchy compact bushes in height can reach from 25 to 35 centimeters. The main and lateral inflorescences are located on the same level. Gustomarovye flowers are part of the dense and medium-dense racemose, whose diameter can reach from 3 to 3.5 centimeters. Duration of flowering - from 50 to 75 days. The varieties included in this group are medium-early. They are most often grown in rabatkah, in flowerbeds, pots and used for cutting.
  2. Giant bombs. Bushes have dense foliage and wide pyramidal shape. Their height can vary from 45 to 60 centimeters. The main inflorescence is large (diameter, from 15 to 25 centimeters) and loose, it blooms faster than the lateral ones, and it has dense-colored flowers. Duration of flowering - from 45 to 50 days. Almost all varieties of late flowering and often grown for cutting.
  3. Quedlinburg. On such a terry plant, there are simple flowers. The varieties included in this group are divided into subgroups:

a) Late tall bushy. Shirokopyramidalny bushes in height can reach from 0.5 to 0.6 m. Green leaf plates are elongated, blunt or lanceolate, have a solid or unequal-toothed edge. Диаметр густомахровых цветочков может достигать от 4 до 5 сантиметров, они входят в состав соцветий, длина которых варьируется от 20 до 50 сантиметров. Начинает цвести в июле.

б) Ранние высокие кусты. Раскидистые кустики в высоту могут достигать от 45 до 60 сантиметров. Сизо-зеленые листовые пластины могут быть обратнояйцевидные, узкие, тупые либо ланцетные, кромка у них гладкая или волнистая. Длина соцветий от 13 до 20 сантиметров, в их состав входят насыщенного окраса большие цветки, диаметр которых от 4 до 5 сантиметров. Flowering begins in June and lasts from 55 to 60 days.

c) Early low bushy plants. Their height can vary from 25 to 40 centimeters. Strongly branchy compact or semi-sprawling bushes with a spherical shape. Slate-green leafy plates can be lanceolate or oval. The diameter of double flowers reaches from 4 to 4.5 centimeters, they are part of the inflorescences, whose length is from 12 to 20 centimeters. Flowering begins in June and lasts from 40 to 65 days.

d) Sixth. Pyramidal single-stem or low-branched bushes in height can reach from 0.5 to 0.8 m. The leaf plates are obovate or oblong obtuse. The length of loose inflorescences varies from 0.2 to 0.6 m, they consist of flowers, 4–6 cm in diameter. Begins to bloom in June and lasts 1–2 months.

  1. Short branching (Erfurt). Compact weakly branched leafy bushes of wide-pyramidal shape in height can reach from 0.3 to 0.4 meters. Large light gray gray sheet plates have a solid edge and an oval elongated shape. A distinctive feature of this group is that the laying of lateral shoots is higher compared to plants of other groups. In this case, the central inflorescence is located above the side. The diameter of the convex flowers from 3 to 4 centimeters. Flowering begins in June and lasts from 4 to 8 weeks. Grow such flowers in pots, as well as for cutting.
  2. Large-flowered giant treelike. The bush branches at the top and has a height of about 100 centimeters. Large elongated oval sheet plates have a wavy edge. The diameter of the dense flowers is 4-6 cm, they are part of large compact inflorescences. Flowering begins in June and lasts about 8 weeks. Cultivate such flowers in rabatkah, group plantings and for cutting.
  3. Single stem The height of the bush can reach from 0.5 to 0.8 m. The diameter of the large dense-flower flowers is about 5–6 centimeters, they are part of strong dense inflorescences. Large diamond-shaped sheet plates have a twisted or wavy edge. Flowering begins in June and lasts about 4 weeks. Most often grow for cutting.
  4. Pyramid. Varieties of this group are divided into subgroups by size:

a) Gigantic large-flowered. Mid-early varieties that can be high (up to 0.8 m in height and above) and half-high (up to 0.5 m). The diameter of the large gustomahrovyh flowers from 4 to 5 centimeters. Flowering occurs in June – September.

b) Dwarf. Early flowering plants have pyramidal shrubs, reaching a height of 20-25 centimeters and possess branchy shoots. Compact inflorescences. It starts blooming in June and finishes only after 40–50 days.

c) Half high. Pyramid-shaped bushes of such a mid-early plant reach from 30 to 45 centimeters in height. It has strongly developed lateral shoots. The length of compact inflorescences from 13 to 18 centimeters, and they include flowers with a diameter of from 3 to 4.5 centimeters. Flowering begins in June and lasts from 1.5 to 2 months.

  1. Spreading. The varieties included in this group are divided into:

a) Repair (Dresden). Strongly branched bushes in height reach from 0.5 to 0.6 m. Loose inflorescences consist of flowers with a diameter of about 3.5 centimeters. Flowering occurs in June – November.

b) Large-flowered late (Bismarck). Bush height from 0.45 to 0.7 m, it has strong branchy shoots. Loose inflorescences consist of dense flowers with a diameter of 4.5 to 5.5 centimeters. Flowering begins in July and ends after frost.

The varieties included in these groups differ from each other in the size of flowers and inflorescences, and also their color:

  1. Victoria is purple. Bush height reaches 0.3 m. Flowers terry have a dark purple color.
  2. Rosette Bush in height reaches from 0.55 to 0.6 m. Terry flowers are painted pink.
  3. Rhineweis. Bush in height reaches about 0.7 m. There are white dense flowers.
  4. Tsartroza. The height of the bush is about 0.7 m. The flowers are light pink with dark pink overflow.
  5. Rubinrot. Strongly branchy bushes in height can reach from 0.5 to 0.6 m. The color of flowers is red-garnet.
  6. Diana. Bush height is about 0.7 m. Large double flowers with a stroke.
  7. Sensation The bush reaches a height of 0.7 m. The color of double flowers is dark red.
  8. Erfurt. Bush strongly branched and has a height of 0.3 to 0.4 m. The color of the flowers is dark blue with a purple tint.
  9. Bouquet. Bush height is about 0.35 m. The color of double flowers is dark red.
  10. Bouquet white. This form of the Bouquet variety has white flowers, which reaches a height of 0.3 m.
Levkov the two-horned (Matthiola bicornis)

The left-horned Levka (Matthiola bicornis) is another type of mattiola that was completely unpopular until recently. Hailing such a view from Greece and Asia Minor. Strong branching or upright shrub of such an annual plant in height can reach from 0.4 to 0.5 m. Linear leaf plates have a large-toothed edge. This mattiola is simple - its unsightly little flowers are part of a loose racemose inflorescences. Stained greenish-purple flowers can be closed during the daytime. Flowering occurs in June – August. The fruit is a pod, in the upper part of which there are 2 horns. Brownish gray small seeds remain viable for about 3 years. Cultivated from the 16th century.

Levkoi - annual varieties for the garden

Gray-haired Levka (Matthiola incana) in nature grows in the south of Europe, in the Mediterranean, in Asia Minor and in the Caucasus. In other areas, this beautiful flower in the wild form is not found.

Levkoi - annual and perennial flowers of the Cruciferous family. Mainly annual varieties of mattiola are cultivated, the agricultural technology of which will be discussed in this article.

Plants reach a height of 60 cm, tall varieties for cutting can grow up to 1 m.

For the Cruciferous family, simple, four-petal flowers in the form of a cross, pink, white, lilac, red, with a strong aroma are characteristic. Straight stems of the plant bear alternate leaves with pubescence. Rod roots mattiola very strong, do not differ in large size.

Currently, the breeders derived a huge number of varieties of terry levkoev. However, there is a certain regularity: for propagation, seeds are harvested from non-double flowers. Terry flowers mattiola sterile, the seeds are not formed in them. After flowering in the pod, about 8 seeds ripen, which remain viable for several years.

Levkoi can be subdivided into groups (totaling 10), in which plants are combined according to the timing of flowering, size, cultivation agrotechnology. You can get acquainted with various types of levkoev in the photo. Among them are remontant varieties that bloom twice a year.

Flowers look spectacular in bouquet compositions (varieties Brilliant, Golden bouquet, Quedlinburg levkoy and Ektselsior).

Fascinating photos of bouquets of mattiola flowers, which give the composition an inexpressible grace and airiness.

Mattiola: planting and care in the open field

Levkos grow and develop very well on loose fertile soils with sufficient moisture and a neutral reaction. The plant does not tolerate waterlogging and high acidity of the soil. For the normal development of mattioli, it is required to take light, sunny places under the planting of a culture.

It does not tolerate excessive planting, it is especially terrible to over-feed the levokas with fresh organic fertilizers.

Tip! Watering requires moderate but systematic. It is especially important to monitor the timely watering of flower beds in the summer heat.

In the fall, plants bloom to the very cold, easily tolerating morning frosts.

Planted levkoy directly into the soil by seed or rassadnym way. In some regions of Russia, when sowing seeds in the ground, the flowers do not have time to bloom.

Plant care includes the timely removal of weeds and loosening the soil. Timely dressing - the key to abundant flowering. Leftists bloom for a long time and abundantly. To the plant is not depleted, it is useful to carry out regular dressing with mineral fertilizers. When planting in the garden you can make granular phosphate fertilizer of prolonged action.

Reproduction Mattiola: methods and techniques

Annual lees will breed exclusively by seeds, while practicing sowing in open ground or on seedlings in the greenhouse. From the time of sowing depends on the flowering time of plants. There are spring, summer and autumn blooms.

Sowing seeds in open ground is carried out in the spring, when the earth is already warm enough. Seeds are laid out in the furrows, powdered with earth. Three months will need to grow a seedling before flowering. When too thick shoots, some plants need to be removed, using them for transplanting into a free bed.

Sowing later varieties makes sense to carry out in the greenhouse for seedlings.

Levkoy - tenderness in combination with other plants

Curly flowers annuals Levkoev perfectly harmonize in flower beds and rabatki with other pilots. Particularly interesting is the combination of multi-colored flowers with lavender, rosemary, decorative wormwood, resedy.

Good combinations are obtained when planting mattiola next to perennial phloxes, feverfew, and nivyanik. Interesting compositions are obtained when planting plants near decorative leafy plants and spicy herbs (thyme, thyme).

Mattiola in landscape design

Flowers have a strong pleasant aroma, which is enhanced at night. Levka decided to plant in special compositions with fragrant flower cultures.

The plant is suitable for cultivation in pot culture and vases. Low-growing varieties mattioly used in landscape design for the design of rock gardens, pools and ponds.


  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Growing from seed
    • 3.1. Sowing
    • 3.2. Seedling care
  • 4. Landing
    • 4.1. When to plant
    • 4.2. How to plant
  • 5. Care
    • 5.1. How to grow
    • 5.2. Breeding
    • 5.3. Pests and diseases
  • 6. Levka after flowering
    • 6.1. How and when to collect seeds
    • 6.2. Preparing for the winter
  • 7. Types and varieties

Planting and care of bayonets (in brief)

  • Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - at the end of March or at the beginning of April; transplanting seedlings into a flower garden - on an overcast day or evening at the end of May.
  • Lighting: bright sunny color.
  • The soil: fertile, drained, sod-sandy or sod-loamy, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction.
  • Watering: regular, moderate and balanced.
  • Top dressing: spring - full mineral fertilizer, in the period of flowering - potash-phosphoric. From organic fertilizers to the plant only ash is beneficial.
  • Reproduction: seed. Terry varieties levokoy fruitless.
  • Pests: cruciferous flea.
  • Diseases: blackleg.

Levkoy flower - description

Levkoi - one-, two-and perennial herbaceous plants or shrubs with erect, bare or pubescent felt fleece branched stems from 20 to 80 cm in height with one-piece or serrated on the edges of lanceolate or oblong leaves. White, pink, dirty yellow or purple, simple or double flowers are collected in the spike or racemes. Flowers flow from June to November. The fruit is a pod in which there are narrow-winged and flat seeds of levkoy. A special sign of the plant is the smell of a left, which you cannot confuse with anything. Non-terry varieties of levkoy are excellent honey plants, and terry ones are the most exquisite and unassuming decoration of a flower bed, because planting and caring for bay cattle in the open ground is possible even for a child.

Sowing levkoy.

Before planting, seed for a day is soaked in water for swelling, and then, wrapped in wet gauze, put in a refrigerator for stratification for several days. At the end of March or at the beginning of April, the seeds of the left-wing planting are sown in containers or boxes with a wet substrate consisting of sand and sod land in a ratio of 1: 3. Lay out the seeds on the substrate is not thick, at intervals, close up to a depth of 0.5 cm, cover the seedling container with polyethylene and place it in a dark, warm (20-22 ºC) place. Shoots may appear after 4-5 days, but it is quite possible that you will have to wait two weeks.

Care of seedlings of levkoy.

As soon as the leftists climb, the cover is removed from them, the container is exposed to bright ambient light so that the seedlings do not stretch out, the temperature in the room is lowered to 10-12 ºC, and it is even better to set the capacity with the seedlings on the wired balcony or unheated veranda. A couple of days after germination, they are watered for the first time since sowing. And 10-12 days after seed germination, the seedlings dive into separate pots with drainage holes and a ground consisting of sand (one part), leaf and sod land (two parts each). Do not be confused by the fact that by this time the seedlings have not developed a single real leaf. When picking, add a little hydrogel to the ground to strengthen the root system of the seedlings. Mid-flowering and late varieties of levkoev can dive right into open ground. In the development phase of the seedlings of two true leaves, they are fed with a solution of micronutrients: 0.1 g of zinc sulfate and manganese sulfate and 0.3 g of copper sulfate and boric acid are dissolved in a liter of water. Growing on the seedling stage involves hardening the seedlings before planting in open ground, for which, first, the window vent opens briefly on the balcony or veranda, then the duration of the hardening session is gradually increased and finally the seedlings are kept with the window fully open. Hardening procedures begin two weeks or ten days before planting seedlings into open ground.

When to put Levkoy in the ground.

The planting of the Levkoy flower takes place at the end of May, on an overcast day or in the late afternoon - a bright sun can ruin young plants that have just been planted. Do not plant levkoy in the area where Cruciferous flowers grew before - flowers can destroy the cruciferous flea. It is also impossible to take the soil for seedlings from such a site, since the probability of seedlings' infection with the keel or black leg is too high.

The site for levkoev should be well lit and drained, because stagnant water in the roots of the left is harmful. The soil needs a weak alkaline or neutral reaction, fertile, the best is sod-sandy or sod-loamy. Fertilize before planting the site is necessary only if the soil in the area is heavily depleted.

How to plant Levkoy.

Planting of levkoy is made in the holes filled with water, right in the earthen slush - this is how seedlings take root. After filling the holes with earth, it is well compacted. Single and undersized varieties are planted at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other, and between 25 and 30 cm between seedlings of high and branchy varieties.

How to grow Levkoy.

Growing and caring for levkoy in the first place requires a balanced hydration, since the plant does not tolerate both excess moisture and long-term dryness, therefore it is necessary to water the plant moderately, but regularly. Levka flower care also implies timely weeding and loosening of the plot, and do it better after watering. Organic fertilizers can be left-fed only with ashes, but preference is better to give to complex mineral fertilizers - in the spring, full mineral fertilizer is applied to the site, and potash-phosphoric fertilizer is added to the site during flowering. By the way, the long-term left-wing in the year of planting does not require mulching the site.

Pests and diseases of levkova.

The main enemy of levkoev is cruciferous flea. If there are few insects, the plant can be protected from them by three sessions of treatment with ash solution with a break of 4-5 days, and it is important that the composition gets on both the top and bottom side of the leaves. If the occupation of the flea plot with left-wing has a total character, it is necessary to resort to the help of insecticides, and the best drugs in this regard are Actellic, Decis, Bankol, Aktara and Intavir.

Of the diseases most likely infection of the left leg with the black leg: from it the lower part of the stem becomes brown and then black. It is impossible to save such a plant, but if, for the purpose of prophylaxis, before planting the planting site is treated with the drug Hom, then the disease most likely will not manifest itself, even if the soil was infected with its carriers.

How and when to collect levkoev seeds.

The seeds of the left-wing plant ripen in September or October: wait until the pods turn brown, pluck up the bushes and place them in a ventilated room to dry. As soon as the pods dry, they are broken off and the seeds are shaken out of them.

Preparation left for the winter.

In areas with harsh winters, leftovers are grown as annuals, so in the fall the bushes are pulled out of the ground before they completely wither and are disposed of, and the site is dug up. In warmer areas, crop residues are pruned to the surface with the onset of cold weather. You can transplant the plant into a pot, bring it into the house, and the fragrant on the left will bloom and smell sweet for you even in winter.

Gray-headed (Matthiola incana).

In culture, the species prevailing is mostly gray-haired, originally from the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands. Это холодостойкий однолетник высотой 30-70 см с сильным ароматом, ветвистыми, часто одревесневающими стеблями, крупными очередными ромбовидными или узкими светло- или темно-зелеными листьями, которые могут быть как голыми, так и опушенными. Цветки собраны по 10-60 штук в густые или рыхлые кистевидные соцветия. Обильное цветение начинается с июня и длится по ноябрь, а в южных районах цветущие левкои можно увидеть даже зимой. Семена растений этого вида сохраняют всхожесть от 4 до 6 лет. В культуре левкой седой с 1570 года. Сейчас насчитывается около 600 сортов левкоя седого.In terms of flowering plants of this species are divided into autumn, winter and summer, with the latter being more widespread in culture than other forms. Altitude lewkoy are low (stems 15-30 cm tall), medium (plant height 30-50 cm) and high (height from 50 to 70 cm).

According to the shape of inflorescences, the left branches are divided into 8 groups:

Bouquet (or Victoria) - compact branched on the left height of 25-35 cm, lateral and main inflorescences which are located almost on the same level. Gustomahrovye flowers collected in medium-dense or dense brush and reaching a diameter of 3-3.5 cm, bloom 50-75 days. Varieties of this group are medium early, suitable for growing in rabatkah, pots, flower beds and for cutting,

gigantic bombs - densely leafy bushes of wide-pyramidal shape, 45-60 cm high. The main inflorescence, large (15-25 cm long) and loose, blooming earlier than the lateral ones, consists of dense double flowers. Flowering lasts 45-50 days. These are usually late-flowering varieties suitable for cutting,

Quedlinburg - are terry plants with simple flowers. The varieties of this group in terms of flowering are divided into subgroups:

  • - late high bushy - the height of the bushes of these varieties of wide-pyramidal shape is 50-60 cm, the leaves are green, elongated, lanceolate or blunt, unequal-toothed along the edge or entire. Gustomahrovye flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm, collected in inflorescences with a length of 20-50 cm. Flowering begins in July,
  • - early tall bushy ones - height of spreading plants is 45-60 cm, leaves are greenish-gray, narrow, obovate, lanceolate or blunt, with a wavy or smooth edge, inflorescences 13-20 cm long consist of large, bright flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm, which open from June and bloom 55-60 days,
  • - early low bushy varieties of levkoev reach a height of 25 to 40 cm. These are semi-sprawling or compact strongly branchy bushes having a spherical shape with bluish-green, oval or lancet leaves and terry flowers 4-4.5 cm in diameter, constituting 12-length inflorescences 20 cm, which bloom from June for 40-65 days,
  • - pole-shaped - weakly branched or single-stem pyramidal bushes 50-80 cm tall with oblong, obtuse or obovate leaves and loose inflorescences from 20 to 60 cm long from flowers with a diameter of 4 to 6 cm, which bloom begins in June and lasts from one to two months ,

short-haired (erfurt) - varieties with a height of 30-40 cm with weakly branching leafy compact bushes of broad-pyramidal shape and large bluish, full-edged leaves of elongated-oval shape. A feature of plants of this group is that the lateral shoots are laid higher than those of plants of other groups, and the central inflorescence rises above the lateral ones. Convex flowers 3-4 cm in diameter bloom from June for a month or two. These varieties are grown as a pot culture and for cutting,

large-flowered giant trees - plants reaching a height of one meter and branching in the upper part. The leaves are wavy on the edge, oblong-oval, large. Gustomahrovye flowers with a diameter of 4 to 6 cm are compact large inflorescences. Varieties of this group bloom in June, bloom lasts up to two months. Plants of this group are grown for cutting, in group plantings or rabatkah,

single stem - stems 50-80 cm high with large dense-double flowers with a diameter of 5-6 cm, gathered in powerful dense inflorescences. The leaves are also large, diamond-shaped, with wavy or twisted edges. The plants of this group bloom from June for a month. Recommended cultivation for cutting,

pyramid - varieties of this group are divided into subgroups by size:

  • - giant large-flowered - mid-early half-high varieties up to 50 cm high and up to 80 cm tall with large dense-colored flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm. They bloom from June to September,
  • - dwarf - the height of early-flowering plants of this subgroup is 20-25 cm, pyramidal bushes, branchy stems, compact inflorescences, flowering lasts from June 40-50 days,
  • - poluvysokie - height of pyramidal shrubs 30-45 cm, lateral shoots are highly developed, compact inflorescences 13-18 cm long are composed of flowers with a diameter of 3-4.5 cm. The varieties are medium-early, bloom from June for 45-60 days,

sprawling - varieties of this group are divided into:

  • - remontantny (Dresden) - the height of strongly branched bushes 50-60 cm, inflorescences loose, flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter bloom from July to November,
  • - large-flowered late (Bismarck) - powerful, branchy stems form a shrub 45-70 cm tall. Inflorescences are friable, densely double flowers with a diameter of 4.5-5.5 cm bloom from July to frost.

The varieties of each group differ in the size of inflorescences and flowers, as well as their color:

  • Victoria Purple - height of a bush is 30 cm, terry flowers of dark-violet color,
  • Rosette - height of a bush is 55-60 cm, flowers terry, pink,
  • Raineweis - the height of the bush is about 70 cm, double-colored flowers are white,
  • Tsartroza - soft pink flowers with dark pink overflow on a bush about 70 cm high,
  • Rubinrot - very branched variety, bush height 50-60 cm, garnet-red flowers,
  • Diana - stems reach a height of 70 cm, flowers are dense, large, pink with a stroke,
  • Sensation - tall bush - up to 70 cm, with dark red double flowers,
  • Erfurt - strongly branched variety 30-40 cm tall with dark blue flowers with a purple tint,
  • Bouquet - double dark red flowers on a bush up to 35 cm high,
  • Bouquet white - white flowered form of the Bouquet variety up to 30 cm high.

Levkov the two-horned (Matthiola bicornis).

Another species, known for a long time, but gaining popularity in the culture only recently, is the left-winged two-horned, whose birthplace is Asia Minor and Greece. It is a spreading or erect densely branched annual plant 40-50 cm high with linear leaves, large-toothed along the edge. This is a simple left-handed one - its inconspicuous, small purple flowers with prozeleness, gathered into loose racemose blossoms, which tend to close during the day, bloom from June to August. The fruit is a pod, on top of which are two horns. Seeds are gray-brown, small, germinating up to three years. In culture, the view from the XVI century.

Levkoy: planting and care in the open field, diseases and prevention

The hot summer day gives way to cool twilight, in which gently, and then the wonderful gentle smell of the night, or white, violet more and more spreads. This plant has many names. Most often used such as left and mattiola.

These gentle night beauties have always been an indispensable decoration of both park ensembles and modest flower gardens. With proper care, they bloom from late spring until autumn.

The painstaking cultivation of Levkoy brings a wonderful result. The small stars of the night violet bloom in the evening twilight and into the morning. exude a sweet spicy aroma.

Levkoy (Matthiola) belongs to the perennial and annual plants of the cruciferous family, which are mainly distributed in Africa, in southern parts of Europe and Asia.

Levka, planting and care in the open field

One can guess that the flowers grow in the garden with their eyes closed - the flowers smell deliciously, and it is impossible to forget this charming scent.

A large family of levkoev is represented by herbaceous perennial and annual plants, growing mainly in the countries of Africa, Southern Europe and selectively in Asia.

Beautiful flowers are an integral part of the classic park style: it is the Levkoy plant that sets the tone for the general mood of the garden. If you get acquainted with this flower, then by all means invite him to your garden. Read in the article about the features of growing and grooming.

Advanced gardeners know that the left has another name. The plant is also known as mattiola, so it was named after the Italian botanist Pietro Mattioli. In the 16th century The scientist has done a great deal of work in the field of studying the Cruciferous family (Cabbage), to which the leftists belong. There is a third name - in the literal translation from the Greek "Levkoy" means "white violet".

Levko description

Levka is a herbaceous plant or half-cocoa with straight, strong, branched stems. Its height ranges from 20 to 80 cm.

Completely smooth or fuzzy stems are framed by foliage of lanceolate or elongated shape with an uneven or solid edge.

Simple and double flowers of the left, painted in white, pink, purple, dirty yellow color, combined with spiciform or racemose inflorescences.

There are annual and biennial plants in the family, as well as left-handed perennials. Flowering begins in June, and ends in November. Fruits the plant with pods filled with narrow-winged and flat seeds.

A distinctive feature of left-wing is its pleasant aroma, all the notes of which unfold in full after 8 pm. Non-terry plant varieties have won fame for remarkable honey plants, and the left terry flower makes even the most modest flower beds incredibly elegant.

To decorate the garden with a fragrant flower, you do not need to be an expert - Levkoy is distinguished by an easygoing and unassuming character.

Landing in the open ground

In the open area of ​​the garden, grubs are planted in the last days of May. It is best to plant in cloudy weather or shortly before sunset, otherwise the sun will destroy the still not strong young flowers.

Note! Plots where other members of the Cruciferous family used to grow were categorically inappropriate for planting of the left-wing plant. There, plants, most likely, are already waiting for the pest - cruciferous flea. Digging up land from this place for sowing seedlings is also not worth it, since there is a high probability of infection of the seedlings with the disease of blackleg.

In the garden Levkoy planted in a well-drained area with ambient lighting. The plant will feel great in the fertile sod-sandy or sod-loamy soil with a weak alkaline or neutral reaction.

Planting and care for bayone begins with the preparation of holes. Small pits dug at intervals of 15–20 cm (25–30 cm, if the variety is tall and spreading), are poured with water and seedlings are planted in this slush. Then all the holes are covered with earth and compacted well.

Care for outdoor exercise

Care of the left in the first place provides for moderation in everything. The plant accepts an exceptionally balanced, regular watering, since too diligent moistening or prolonged deadwood will adversely affect it to the same extent. After watering the flower Levkoy desirable to loosen and weed the soil around it. In the year of planting perennial grubs do not need mulching.

Let us also recall the dressings: the left-handed animals prefer organic matter in the form of ashes, complex mineral compositions in the spring and potash-phosphate fertilizers when they bloom.

Peculiarities of breeding

The number of garden levkoevs in a short time is increased thanks to the method of reproduction with seeds: you can sow a plant at least once every two weeks, and as a result the site will be filled with exquisite flowers for the whole summer.

It is important for novice gardeners to know that the left-hand terry is not propagated by seeds, because it is sterile, but it has been noticed that double flowers give the seeds of poorly developed copies of left-wing flowers with simple flowers. The fruits of these plants are represented by short, blunt-pointed pods, closely pressed to the stem. From such seeds, simple and double flowers appear in approximately the same amount.

If you want to know in advance which shoots to expect a gift in the form of beautiful double flowers, seedlings are placed first in a place where the temperature stays at around 12 - 150С, and after a while they move the planting container to where the temperature is significantly lower - about 6 - 80С. As a result of such manipulations, an interesting difference appears: seedlings that in the future will give double flowers, overgrow with large and not very bright cotyledon leaves. Thus, the desired planting material can be sorted already at the stage of growing seedlings.

Diseases and insects, dangerous to the left

The cruciferous flea insect does the greatest harm to garden leftovers.

If a small amount of pests are detected from potential damage, the plant is saved with ash solution, treating the outer surface and the inner part of the leaves. For effectiveness, 3 treatments are performed with an interval of 4 to 5 days.

In case a large number of flea attacks attacked the left wing, you cannot do without insecticidal preparations. Detsis, Aktellik, Bankol, Intavir have perfectly proved themselves.

In addition to the harmful effects of insects, levkos suffer from black leg. The disease is expressed by a change in the color of the basal part of the stem: first, it becomes brown, and then it turns black. An infected plant is no longer cured.

In order to protect young seedlings from the disease in the future, the plant is treated with a special preparation Hom before planting.

The tool has a remarkable effect: the disease, as a rule, no longer develops, even if its pathogens were present on this site before.


In the conditions of a harsh winter, heat-loving levoky do not survive, therefore, on the eve of cold weather, flowers are torn out of the ground, not waiting for their final wilting, are utilized, and the soil at the site of the former flower bed is carefully dug up.

In areas with a warm and mild climate, left-handed bushes are simply cut at the root. You can also transplant your favorite flower in a separate container or pot and put it in the house so that you can enjoy the pleasant fragrance of the cattle the whole winter.

Varieties of left

The most popular member of the family is recognized as a species called left gray. Homeland beautiful plants - the Mediterranean countries and the Canary Islands. Strong annuals are not afraid of the cold.

In this high (up to 60 - 70 cm) plants are very branched, very often lignified stems and large alternate rhomboid or narrowed leaves of different shades of green.

Lush flowers together "sit" by 10 - 60 pieces in loose inflorescences.

The magnificent gray-haired left bloom begins in June, and you can admire this spectacle until November. In the conditions of the southern climate, such leftists get flowers even in the winter season! Seeds do not lose their germination until 4 - 6 years. Today, there are about 600 varieties of gray-haired levkoy, which are distinguished by the type of flowers. In the photo - a riot of colors of gray-haired left:

In addition to the left-handed gray-haired, there are many other equally beautiful plant species. We list the main ones:

  • bouquets leftism. These are srednerannye plants up to 30 cm in height, which pamper gardeners with abundant blooms all summer. They have large and very beautiful flowers of various shades. The bush itself looks slim due to the equal length of the central and lateral stems,
  • gigantic leftists. Give terry flowers that hold up until the arrival of the first cold weather. The plant reaches a height of 60 cm. A specific feature of the species is that the flowers on the central stems bloom earlier than on the side,
  • quadlinburg levkoy. The plant has two kinds of flowers of large size - terry and non-double. The species is divided into subgroups consisting of the hexahedral and cluster left-wing. Those in turn are late high, early low and high,
  • erfurt levkoy. These women can attract the attention of others - they have large and very fragrant flowers. The plant itself reaches 40 cm in height,
  • Large-flowered treeline levkoy. They resemble a small tree, because they rise above the ground at a distance of 1 m, with flowers decorated with only the upper part of the stem. The flowers are large and incredibly fragrant,
  • single stem left. Quite high - up to 80 cm in height - plants, during flowering give large double flowers of various shades,
  • pyramidal levkoy. By name, you can guess what kind of geometric shape the plant bushes look like. The height of the floral "pyramids" varies. One of the most beautiful representatives of the species - Ruby and Sapphire,
  • sprawling left. They are divided into two subgroups, represented by remontant and large-flowered plants.

As you can see, Levkoy is very graceful and beautiful, so landscape art specialists often pay attention to this culture. Mostly flowers are used for the construction of picturesque flowerbeds in the garden. A variety of shades of weightless colors will transform even the most dull corner on the garden.

Levka: photos of flowers, growing from seed, planting, care

Matthióla, or Mattiola, is valued for bright, juicy, truly summer flowers. Although, oddly enough, this plant belongs to the prosaic Cabbage family. These flowers are unpretentious, cold-resistant, and the flowerbed of some of the Levkos not only looks elegant, but also exudes a delightful, intoxicating, sweet aroma.

Now the plant is somewhat out of fashion, a free, natural, slightly wildish style is popular, in which the leftist with its graceful and lush look does not fit. Levkoi is a sign of a garden in a regular classical style, a little old-fashioned, but respectable, with neat flower beds, lawns and trees, subject to strict discipline.

We are often asked, Levkoy and snapdragon - is it the same thing? No, these are completely different plants from different families (you can read about the lion's throat here). Хотя эти растения, особенно на расстоянии, действительно имеют сходство в расцветках и общем впечатлении.

Бывают многолетними и однолетними. Стебли прямые, одиночные или ветвистые. Высота растений сильно варьируется – от миниатюрных (20 см) до довольно рослых (80 см). Корень стержневой, не длинный.

Листья овальные, удлиненные, зеленые с сизым оттенком, гладкие. Flowers of different colors, rich, gathered in lush racemes, are simple and terry, the color range is almost unlimited, except that there are no blue levkoev.

Fruits - pods, seeds can survive for a long time - up to 6 years.

In the west, the plant is called stock. Other names: Garden Stock, Gillyflower, Hoary Stock, Tenweek Stock.

There are more than 50 species in the genus. The habitat of most of them - Central Europe, the Mediterranean coast. In gardening common:

Matthiola gray (Matthiola incana) - perhaps the most popular. The height is different, from the minimum to the maximum.

Flowers of the correct beautiful form, simple or terry, are collected in dense inflorescences. Inflorescences can be very long, bouquets, can be short - such plants look great in pots and borders.

It blooms all summer and most of the autumn. Ancestor of a huge number of varieties.

Matthiola bicorn (Matthiola bicornis) - annual plant of medium height (40-50 cm), branchy bush, spreading, flowers in varieties of varieties are beautiful, very fragrant, closed during the day. Bloom from June to August.

About the appearance of terry

It was bred by the Dutch in the 16th century. Then the selection of terry varieties took up in Germany, in the cities of Erfurt and Quedlinburg, the French also contributed.

Despite the fact that today terry forms have become very popular, and almost every domestic agrofirm offers such varieties (Gavrish, Aelita, Russkiy Ogrod), their breeding remains a rather difficult task, simply because terry flowers do not give seeds.

There are quite complex classifications of various types of mattiols: by the length of the development cycle and by the shape of the plant and flower.

For the duration of the cycle in our latitudes, gardeners in the open field is available summer uniform only (Autumn blooms only in autumn, even when sown in March, and winter will bloom only next year when sown in early summer - these forms are suitable only for forcing).

Groups of varieties

In form, there are 8 garden groups of levkoev, in some groups several more varieties. These types of plants differ in:

  1. Height.
  2. Shape of the bush.
  3. The size, shape, shade of the leaves.
  4. The length, number, shape of inflorescences.
  5. The shape of the flowers (simple, terry, gustomahrovye).
  6. The size of the flowers.
  7. The timing of flowering (early, medium, late).

We briefly describe these garden groups:

Reproduction and growing seedlings

To receive flowering plants in June, seeds are sown on seedlings no later than mid-March. Soil mixture for planting:

  1. Sodland - 3 parts.
  2. Sand - 1 part.

Seeds are spread over the surface at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other, deepening by 0.5-1 cm, although the data is different, some sources recommend dredging by 1-2 cm, add another layer of sand from above, which justifies such a recommendation - not very clear. Shoots - after 6-10 days, some varieties sprout for 10-15 days.

As soon as shoots appear, the boxes are moved to a bright and cool place (8-12 ° C). Lowering the temperature is necessary so that the seedlings do not stretch out. Perhaps another scheme, with hardening: seedlings are obtained at a temperature of 12-15 ° C, then placed for several days in a place with a temperature of 6-8 ° C until the cotyledon leaves appear.

After a week and a half, without waiting for the appearance of true leaves, young plants dive separate containers filled with nutritious and light mixture:

  • Sodland - 2 parts.
  • Leafy ground - 2 parts.
  • Sand - 1 part.

Some growers grow seedlings in a mixture of ordinary garden soil and sawdust, or a mixture of earth and perlite.

About picking levkoev see the video:

Planting dates

If you need to get blooming levkoi in the country, seedlings are better to grow in waves, in several batches, sowing seeds in 10-15 days. Also, for example, the scheme may be as follows:

  1. For seedlings in March.
  2. In open ground - at the end of April.
  3. In the open ground - in early May.

Levkos can also be sown in open ground, 3-4 seeds are put in one hole, deepening by 4-5 cm. The distance between future crops depends on the variety - from 25 to 40 cm. 1 cm of sand is also sprinkled on top.

The dates of sowing seeds in open ground - the beginning of April, the seedlings are able to tolerate a drop in temperature to -7 C., therefore early sowing is possible.

About breeding terry varieties

Seed at terry varieties never happens - how do they get them then? They are obtained from plants with simple flowers, which will give the plants of two types - with simple flowers and terry, in the best varieties, the percentage of terry plants reaches 90. Seeds, which end up with terry levkoy, are collected in a rather tricky way, therefore, as a rule, at home seed collection, if there is a desire to get terry left-handed, do not engage, planting material just buy.

For those who want to breed terry levkoy house

Seed plants (with simple four-petal flowers) differ. It is necessary to choose plants from them:

  1. More underdeveloped.
  2. With short pods pressed to the stem, with a blunt end.

From seeds obtained from similar plants, there will grow a generation of flowers of two kinds: with double and non-double flowers.

To find out how many those and those will be, it is not necessary to wait for the flowers to appear, you can safely select 100% plants with terry flowers at the stage of growing seedlings.

In future terry plants after aging at a temperature of 6-8 ° C, the cotyledon leaves will be more pale and larger than those of the simple ones. Feel free to discard all the shoots with small bright green leaves - they will give simple flowers.

Attention: this technique allows you to select 100% terry seedlings in almost all modern varieties. But not absolutely everyone.

Terry domestic varieties.

This culture requires certain skills, beginning flower growers often encounter a black leg. The reasons:

  1. Too thick crops.
  2. Abundant watering with cold water.
  3. Air ventilation is poor.
  4. Excess heat.

Growing seedlings with dosvetkoy

Participant of the forum shares such method of growing seedlings:

  1. Sowing in late January-early February.
  2. Additional lighting from the moment of planting, with the appearance of shoots for 3 days, the lighting is constant.
  3. Then the lighting is only during the day - 14 hours, at night in a cold place, for example, in the refrigerator.
  4. As soon as the temperature on the balcony rises above 0, the seedlings are evicted there for permanent residence.
  5. Flowering - in the middle of May, on the balcony.
  6. Transplant to the ground at the end of May.

Planting seedlings in open ground and transplanting plants

It is carried out when young plants have 4-5 leaves, and they have undergone a hardening procedure. Usually, the first batch is planted in time from the beginning of April to the beginning of May. The plant has taproot, so it does not like transplants, it is desirable to grow seedlings in separate cups.

Adult plants, according to reviews, are well tolerated transplanting, that is, if the Levkoy did not have time to bloom, it can be transplanted into a tub or into a bucket and put into a room, he will give flowers at home.

Landing and site selection

It is universal, it grows well almost everywhere, provided it has abundant watering, but it is most decorative in open sunny areas. The soil is fertile, with neutral ph, sod-loamy or sod-sandy, with good drainage.

Levkoi should not be planted after plants from the same family (alissum, cabbage, rapeseed, camelina, radish, mustard, katran, lunik, shiver and many others - the cruciferous family is extensive).

Drought and stagnation of water - this is what is strictly contraindicated left.

As mentioned above, leftists need to ensure stable watering during dry periods. It will also require:

  • Pruning wilted flowers in terry varieties.
  • Top dressing: at the first appearance of buds, in the period of wild flowering, at the end of August.

Plants can pinch if it is bush forms to stimulate the development of lateral shoots. If the stem is single, it is he who will give flowers, nipping does not make sense. After flowering, pruning can be carried out to achieve the reappearance of flowers.

How to pin Levkoy? See - on video

Application in landscape design

As mentioned above, Levkoy, with its slightly old-fashioned pomp, is beautiful in park-style gardens. In addition, it is planted:

  1. Near places of rest, because of the amazing, thick, very pleasant aroma. It can be gazebos, terraces, garden benches, recreation areas.
  2. In mixed flower beds. Levka combines well with many flyers. It is undesirable to combine with plants from the same family.
  3. On Moorish lawns as an accent - although this is a rather difficult task, because Moorish lawns are usually made up of perennial plants that do not require annual planting.
  4. In pots and containers, alone or in combination with other plants.
  5. In rabatki, levkoy well supports geometrically precise lines.
  6. It is used for cutting, it looks levkoy in bouquets not worse than in a flower bed, it costs 10 days in a cut.

For bouquets, it is advisable not to cut the plants, but to pull them out by the roots, the roots are washed, the lower leaves are removed, put in water, the last one is changed daily - such a bouquet will keep freshness for more than a week.

In the foreground a flower bed, next to the alliums (a good partner).

Matthiola incana Phantom Lavender

Matthiola Incana Figaro Lavender

Recommendations for planting and care for flowers left in the open field

The charming aroma of mattiola (Levkoy), planting and care in the open field and in the garden bring a real pleasure to the gardener. This beautiful plant is non-capricious, and it is easy to cultivate even a beginner florist.

In its wild form it is found only on the southern slopes of Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, and also in the Caucasus.

In other parts of the globe, mattiol can be found only at the dacha plots and in the gardens of connoisseurs of its unforgettable aroma, noticeably gaining strength in the evening.

Mattiol characteristics

In total, more than 50 Matthiol species are known, and all of them are from the cruciferous family. In the conditions of central Russia, an annual flower is predominantly cultivated, while the perennial in these climatic latitudes is not used, as the plant dies due to cold winters and low temperatures. In home gardening, most often you can find only two types:

  1. 1 Mattiola is a two-horned, or “night violet,” which has nondescript small flowers, creeping stems and curly leaves. It is quite cold-resistant, therefore it is capable of sprouting through direct sowing into the soil. Most often, matriole is sown in two-horned pavilions near arbors, along paths, in order to enjoy the aroma of expensive perfumes, which it exudes in cloudy weather and at night.
  2. 2 Mattiol gray, or left-handed, which, unlike the “night violet”, has mostly one branching stem up to 80 cm high, picturesque large double flowers of various shades. She has a bright, but not so strong aroma. The people still called "fragrant leftist." This beautiful plant boasts a huge number of species - more than 600. Left gray flowers bloom 75-105 days after germination and has different timing and duration of flowering. Due to the decorativeness, the flower of the left does not leave anyone indifferent, therefore it is widely used in landscape gardening of areas in the composition of rabatok and in bowls, and also goes for cutting into bouquets. Seeds of terry levkovev sterile, so try not to pick them. Their offspring can be obtained only by breeding through the crossing of non-terry forms of mattiol or by cuttings of terry. Therefore, they need to be purchased only in specialized departments of stores.

Landing technique

Mattiolu Seda is most often grown through seedlings purchased with seeds. It should be borne in mind that the timing of flowering this type mattiol divided into:

This factor is important to consider when choosing the time of sowing and the type of mattiol to ensure flowering until late autumn. So, summer Levkoy, sown for seedlings from mid-March to the end of April, will bloom all summer months.

Winter forms can be grown only through seedlings in the form of pot culture, as they relate to biennials and will only bloom next year. Autumn is the hybrids of these two.

Sown together with summer species, they bloom only by August.

Soil and Seed Preparation

Matthiols have certain requirements for growing methods and conditions. And above all, it is the soil. Mattiola has the same requirements for razadny boxes and in the open field. The soil acidity is neutral, the kidney is friable, preferably sandy, sandy.

The approximate ratio of the ingredients of the soil is:

  • leaf earth (2 parts),
  • turf ground (part 1),
  • sand (1 part).

At the same time the site itself is better to cook in the fall. Under the digging to make phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, rotted manure. When choosing a landing site, it is important to remember about the predecessor. In no case can Mattiol be planted after its related crops: cabbage, radish, turnip. They have the same pests and diseases. And the most dangerous of them is the keel, which strikes the roots of cabbage and mattiola.

Gray-headed Levka feels fine on sunny, protected from drafts sites, he also tolerates light penumbra too. Under opposite conditions, the stems become thinner, strongly drawn out, the flowers become smaller.

So, in order to get early flowering, it is better to use a rassadny method of growing mattioli. Boxes need to prepare in advance:

  • disinfect with a solution of potassium permanganate,
  • lay on the bottom of the drainage of expanded clay or stones
  • fill with soil, which should be pre-disinfected with a hot solution of potassium permanganate,
  • let the soil cool.

Further, it is important to properly prepare the seeds of levkoy. To do this, they need to soak for a day in boiled water at room temperature. Then put in a damp cloth, put in a plastic bag and put in the refrigerator for another 24 hours.

Sowing and diving seedlings

Only after careful preparation of all the necessary components, you can proceed to sowing itself. Sweet Levkoy, growing from seeds of which is no different from that for other flower crops, does not impose special requirements. The procedure is simple and consists of several steps:

  • make shallow grooves on the surface of the soil in the transfer boxes,
  • spread out the seeds of mattiola with respect to the distance between them at 2.5-3 cm,
  • Do not bury much - no more than 0.5 cm, or simply evenly sprinkle with a thin layer of soil,
  • cover with cellophane or glass
  • put in a warm dark place until the first shoots (for 5-7 days),
  • put the seedlings on the window sill, after the loops appear,
  • reduce the ambient temperature to 10-11 ° C (this is an important point, since its higher values ​​delay the formation of buds and the onset of flowering up to 15-30 days).

When the seedlings reach the phase, 2-3 pairs of true leaves of the left gray need a picking, for which it is necessary to use separate containers, preferably peat ones, to minimize injury to the plant root system upon further planting in open ground. When diving it is important:

  • before transplanting it is good to water the seedlings,
  • with the preservation of coma earth plants moved into cups,
  • sprouts deepen under cotyledon leaves,
  • condense
  • well pour the nutrient mixture with Appin.

Subsequent watering should be moderate, otherwise the root system mattioli quickly rot.

Landing in open ground

In open ground, hardened 2 weeks before planting, the seedlings are transferred after the threat of the last spring frosts (mid-end of May) has passed. A gray-haired woman is seated carefully so as not to damage his tender root system. At the same time strictly observe one of the landing patterns:

  • square nesting 30x30 cm
  • with respect to the distance between plants of 30 cm, and between the rows - 15 cm.

Thickening of crops when planting seedlings is not worth it, since it will inevitably lead to the creation of an optimal environment for the development of diseases and pests, which noticeably spoil the decorative appearance of plants or completely destroy them.

After planting in the first few days, mattiol is best applied, especially in hot weather, and watered regularly until it takes root. At the same time planted seedlings better in the evening. After the adaptation process is completed, the leftists are able to tolerate short-term lowering of ambient air temperatures to -3 ° C.

In addition to the seedling method, the cultivation of mattioli can be carried out by direct sowing into the ground. Sow seeds no later than the end of April. But at the same time, the period of appearance of the first buds and their flowering will be 4-6 weeks apart. In the case of summer varieties of levkoy, flowers can still be seen on their beds and even enjoy them, with autumn ones - it’s not a fact if the autumn turns out to be early, cold and rainy.


Further care for unpretentious mattioli simple and consists of the following points:

  1. 1Plant prefers moderate watering. This is important to remember, since an excess of moisture leads to the death of plants, and the lack of - to the formation of rare, small and rapidly fading peduncles. On average, you need to water 2-3 times a week in the evenings and not very plentiful. In hot weather, you may have more.
  2. 2 After the rains and irrigations, the soil needs to be loosened in order to close the moisture and not allow it to evaporate. You can sprinkle with sawdust or other type of mulch.
  3. 3 Regularly weed and pull weeds.
  4. 4 Remove the flowered stalks and drooping leaves.
  5. 5Проводить систематические подкормки минеральными удобрениями: в среднем не чаще 1 раза в 20 дней. Для этого хорошо подходят нитроаммофосфат, аммофоска, микроудобрения. К последним относятся сернокислый цинк и марганец, медный купорос, борная кислота. They are in microdoses, according to the instructions for use, dissolved in water and watered under the root or irrigate the leaves. Particular attention should be paid to the introduction of tukov during the formation of new buds and after the cessation of flowering of previous peduncles. Mattiola does not tolerate fresh organic matter and responds to it with fusarium of the roots and leaves, therefore it is not necessary to feed it with Levka manure even in very small concentrations.
  6. 6Do not forget about disease prevention and control measures:
  • before planting into the ground, the soil surface should be sprayed with the fungicide Hom or Fitosporin, and after 2-3 weeks, repeat the treatment with mattiola leaves,
  • periodically water the soil with a weak solution of potassium permanganate,
  • after heavy rains, the soil around the bushes of the left wing should be sprinkled with wood ash at the rate of 1 cup per 1 m² to protect them from the cruciferous flea,
  • prophylactic treatments with valerian solution help protect mattiola gray from butterfly moths,
  • remove already damaged or damaged parts of plants that are best burned in the backyard.

Now the mattiols are undeservedly forgotten and are found on sites much less often than other well-known species of flowering plants, such as petunias, viols, lobelia, etc. But in terms of decorativeness and beauty of the left-handed gray, they are not inferior, maybe even superior.

For example, unpretentious and wonderful aroma. Mattiola looks harmoniously in a flowerbed in the neighborhood of other annuals, especially lavender, rezedoy, decorative wormwood, rosemary.

Original combinations are obtained with perennials: phloxes, Nivyanik, pyrethrum, thyme, thyme.

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Autumn Levkoy

It has a longer cycle of development and growth. It is used for open ground in the formation of flower beds with various garden ornamental plants, as well as for forcing in greenhouses. Sowing is carried out in March-April, the first flowers bloom in the second half of summer - early autumn. The flowering species is preserved until frost, the pods with seeds ripen next year.

Winter Levkoy

It is a perennial, more precisely two-year-old herbaceous plant. When planting in the middle - end of summer, the first buds will bloom only in the coming spring. Varieties of winter leftovers have been used in pot culture indoors, in floristics. For open ground use seedlings.

Autumn and winter forms of levkoy are rarely used for gardening garden plots of central Russia, since the flowering of representatives of these forms begins in late summer - early autumn. Because of the early onset of frosts, flowers do not have time to reach their full potential, they are mainly used for forcing.

Annual or Summer Levkoy

It has a short active growth phase. When sowing seeds in the beginning - middle of spring, the bushes bloom in summer, the seeds ripen in autumn. Used for open ground and for forcing. This cultural form is most common and has more than 500 varieties and hybrids, differing in the period and duration of flowering, the variety of colors, size and shape of the plant. Among them, those that give a large percentage of plants with double flowers are especially appreciated.

If you correctly evaluate and select the seeds of the desired flower forms, then when grown, you can expect the appearance of plants with double flowers in 75-90% of cases. Terryiness is determined by the appearance of fruit-pods: on bushes with a more frail, depressed appearance, in small, short fruits with a blunt end, with a two-row arrangement of seeds, terry flower seeds are formed.

Pods, with a single-row arrangement of seeds, on the top of which protrusions are formed, carry seeds with simple flowers.

Depending on the size of the bush, the annual form is subdivided into low - no more than 30 cm, medium - from 30-50 cm, high - 50-70 cm.

The shape of the inflorescences and the appearance of the summer levokoy plant is divided into eight groups:

Compact branched bushes 20-35 cm high, with large lanceolate-oval leaf plates of gray-green color, and smooth, solid edges. The main feature of the group is the location on one level of the central and lateral inflorescences, formed by densely double flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter. The beginning of flowering occurs in June, lasts on average up to 70 days. The group has a wide use in the design of gardens, indoor areas, floristics.


The bush is voluminous, wide, resembling a pyramid. It grows to 40-60 cm. Green mass is abundant, large, dense, leaves are gray-green, elongated-rhombic shape. In July, the central main inflorescence blooms first, up to 15-25 cm in length, formed by densely double flowers up to 4.5 cm in diameter. Flowering lasts for 1-1.5 months. The main application - the design of the garden and floristics.


Combine all varieties of terry flower forms, a distinctive feature of which is the color shade of the leaves of germinated seeds. In terry varieties it is light green, and in ordinary ones it is more gray. Depending on the length of flowering and the appearance of the bush, the Quedlinburg group is divided into:

  • tall bushy late-flowering - sprawling, wide, strongly branched bushes up to 50-60 cm in height with green, oval-elongated leaves with a smooth or torn-toothed edge. For 1-1.5 months, starting in July, flowers bloom up to 5 cm in diameter,
  • tall bushy early flowering - bushes up to 65 cm high, spreading, branchy, with large leaves of obovate shape, gray-green, with a smooth or wavy edge. Racemes up to 20 cm long, starting in June and for two months, covered with numerous large flowers up to 5 cm in diameter,
  • low bushy early - spherical, branched, bushes up to 40 cm tall. Leaves are gray-green, elongated, lanceolate, oval. For more than two months, starting in June, inflorescences up to 20 cm long are formed, with flowers up to 4.5 cm in diameter,
  • pole-shaped - large-flowered and most demanded subgroup of leftism. Plants with one erect, slightly branchy stem up to 50-80 cm in height. Leaf blades are oval, elongated, obovate. Large, about 20-60 cm, loose panicles of inflorescences, starting in June, become covered with flowers up to 6 cm in diameter, while the central inflorescence rises above the lateral ones, flowering lasts about a month. In the subgroup there are more than 70 varieties. Ideal for cutting.

Short Branched (Erfurt)

Densely leafy, strongly branchy in the upper part of the plant, the stems are drawn up to 40 cm. The leaves are gray-green, with a smooth edge, large, elongated, oval. Hemispherical numerous flowers up to 4 cm in diameter, bloom in July, bloom up to 2 months. Lateral inflorescences below the center. Grown in flower beds, containers, ideal for cutting.

Large-flowered giant treelike

The branching of the stem does not begin at the base, but from the middle of the stem, the bushes are tall, almost up to 1 m in height. The sheet plates are elongated, oblong with a wavy edge. Flowering large up to 6 cm in diameter with dense terry flowers, lasts up to two months, starting in mid-summer. A good option for garden flower arrangements, rabatok, cut.


Combine varieties that resemble a pyramid in appearance. Depending on the size of the bush pyramidal group is divided into:

  • giant large-flowered - sub-group includes half-high 40-50 cm, high 60-80 cm, bushy branched plants with elongated, oval leaves. From July to September, the plant is covered with dense flowers up to 5 cm in diameter,
  • dwarf - neat miniature branched bushes up to 25 cm, with wide, large, elongated, oblong, smooth, gray-green or dark green leaves. From the middle of summer, within two months, fragrant, bright, numerous flowers bloom,
  • semi-high - broad, branchy, neat bushes up to 45 cm high, with well-developed lateral shoots and oblong, narrow, elongated leaves. Starting in June, for 1.5-2 months, flowers up to 4.5 cm in diameter bloom on long (up to 18 cm) inflorescences.


The group includes two categories:

  • remontant - from mid-summer, in July, large groups, up to 5 cm in diameter, bloom on long inflorescences, flowers on a branchy, bushy plant 50-60 cm high. Leaves are gray-green, elongated, oval, with a smooth or wavy edge. Blooms in November with the first frost,
  • late-flowered large-flowered bushes with strong branchy stems 50-70 cm high, with oblong large leaves elongated. In July the big ones start to bloom.
  • dense fragrant flowers up to 5.5 cm in diameter. Flowering lasts almost until frost.

Regardless of the species, matthiols are light-loving, cold-resistant plants.

A fine representative of a flowering ornamental garden plant with a height of not more than 35 cm. On a straight stem, racemes form with flowers up to 4 cm in diameter. Levkova Temptation has a delicate fragrant aroma. Numerous flowers have a wide range of colors.

Annual herbaceous plant. The homeland of the gray-haired man in the left is the Mediterranean and the Canary Islands. Another name - left gray or mattiola gray. It is a type species of the genus Levkoy. Plant height varies from 20 to 80 cm, the stems are simple or branched, in most cases by the end of the season stiff. Root one, strong, grows shallowly into the ground, lateral roots are poorly developed. The leaves are alternate, 5-18 cm long, up to 1-5 cm wide, gray-green or dark green, elongated, lanceolate or narrow, obovate, narrowed to the petiole, smooth or pubescent, entire.

Numerous bright flowers, from 15 to 70 pieces, are formed densely or sparsely on racemose inflorescences. The size of simple or double flowers varies from modest to large. The color spectrum of flower buds is very wide.

The first flowers left gray shows in June and continues to bloom until November. In warmer regions, flowers last much longer. The fruit is a flat, wavy pod 6-8 cm long. The seeds are flat, round, about 2.5-3 mm in diameter, yellow, brown or light green.

It is one of the representatives of the tall one-year varieties of levkoy. Herbaceous, hard, almost stiffened stems stretched to 60-70 cm in height. The first terry large, up to 5 cm in diameter, fragrant flowers of rich dark red color left Stepis dissolves in the middle of summer. Brush blossoms delight in lush bloom until September. Step variety is in demand when decorating garden plots in classic and park style, flower duet with various ornamental garden plants, fits perfectly into almost any landscape design.

Florists often use a variety when making bouquets, while using inflorescences that unfold to ⅔, as they are able to stand in water for almost half a month, filling the room with a subtle pleasant aroma.

Royal mixture

Neat dense bushes no more than 40 cm tall. Numerous flowers of surprisingly bright and saturated shades, both simple, and terry forms, are formed on spike-shaped inflorescences. Flowering is observed for almost 1.5 months. Levka Royal mixture is used to make bouquets, because the flowers after cutting, for two weeks, do not lose their pristine freshness and beauty. At registration of garden sites well approaches for the first rows of beds, decoration of terraces and balconies.

Perennial species growing in rocky plain, rocky terrain and chalk sediments. A rare fragrant herbaceous plant is listed in the Red Book, as the population of the species suffers because of the reduction of suitable growing areas.

The stem is simple or branched, pubescent, 20-50 cm tall. The leaves are oblong, pubescent, sessile, mostly collected in the rosette outlet. Petals 2-2.5 cm long, twice as many sepals, yellow-brown. The stigma is elongated, conical. Levka fragrant begins to bloom in May-June, by the end of the summer, fruit-pods are formed and mature.


Compact one-year miniature variety not more than 35 cm in height. The left-handed dwarf Thumbelina is ideal for container culture, flower beds, rock gardens, borders. Spike dense inflorescences of dwarf Thumbelina are formed by large, fragrant, densely double flowers of various colors. The flowering period is June-August.

Get terry representatives of the kind of grubs and quite difficult. Knowing the criteria for the selection of fruits with seeds of terry flower-shaped, you can most likely grow plants with terry and densely double flowers. The left-handed terry does not form fruit with seeds, only plants with simple flower forms give seeds. In specialized stores sell seeds of levkoy, where the package indicates the probability (coefficient) of obtaining terry forms. The higher this figure, the higher the chance to get in the flower garden lush, fragrant double flowers.

In order for a plant with simple flowers to give a greater percentage of seeds of terry plants, it is planted on poor soil and in every way impedes its development. Provide poor watering, partial shade, drafts. Surprisingly, only the depressed, underdeveloped plants produce seeds with double flowers.

This representative of the low-growing varietal variety does not grow more than 20-30 cm. The green mass is gray-green, the shape of the leaf plate is lanceolate. Elegant spike-shaped inflorescences are formed by semi-double, double flowers. Flowering is observed during June-August. Use low-growing Levkoy Caprice for growing indoors, design the foreground of flowerbeds, borders.

Flowers left unpretentious pretty. Care is periodic periodic watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds. It is extremely important to keep feeding in the maintenance of annual and perennial left-wing peasants, to carry out disease prevention, to destroy insect pests.

How to prepare the soil

For the cultivation of seedlings using sod land and sand (in the ratio 2: 1). Before the procedure of sowing seeds, for preventive purposes, the land in the planting tanks is disinfected with a solution of manganese (2 gr. Per one bucket of water). At the end of autumn, the future place for a flower bed with mattiola is determined and prepared; wood ash is introduced into the beds for sowing.

The first moistening of the soil is made on the 3-4 day after the seedlings emerge. Water moderately and not often, due to excess water, the plant may rot.

With a lack of moisture in the ground or during a long drought, the flowers of the plant become small, begin to fall off, the flowering period is shortened, the leaves turn and wither.

It should be watered in the morning at the very root, so that during the day the water has had time to dry and air out, and on hot, hot days, mattiol needs additional watering.

The plant responds with gratitude to the application once a month of complex mineral fertilizers, humus, mullein. Overfeeding mattiola should not be, otherwise the plant will begin to actively gain green mass to the detriment of flowering.

It is not recommended to use manure as a top dressing, since there is a great chance of infecting the plant with the fungal disease Fusarium. The land plot for future sowing of seeds of the left-wing in the fall is fertilized with wood ash.

Cut mattiola before preparing the garden plot for the winter. The shrubs of the plant are completely cut, dug or pulled out of the ground before full wilting, they dig up the landing site. In regions with a warmer climate, with the onset of winter, the bushes are pruned quite low to the surface of the earth, if desired, they are dug out and transplanted into containers. In this form, fragrant in the room will grow and bloom throughout the winter.

After sprouting of the seeds, when two real cotyledons are formed, sprouts need to be planted, while pinching the root. A pick of the left is done in a tank, where the bottom is taken out, the plant reacts sharply to any kind of transplant.


The emerged shoots are thinned so that there is a distance of about 20-30 cm between the individual shoots. Remote shoots are planted on other parts of the garden. During thinning, only the seedlings of terry flowers are left, as they appear first, in the next three days sprouts with simple flowers appear. Another selection criterion is the color of the cotyledons, the light ones from terry representatives, the dark ones from simple flowers.

Махровые цветы левкои имеют достаточно долгий срок цветения, практически все лето и до самой осени. В более тёплых регионах цветение может продолжаться намного дольше. У сортов с простыми цветками цветение короче.

Посадка и размножение

Левкой неприхотлив к механическому составу почвы, однако лучше растёт и развивается на плодородной, супесчаной, суглинистой, влажной, некислой земле. Dislikes drought and strong long-term stagnation of water, prefers a sufficient level of humidity, bright open spaces.

To obtain a flowering, fragrant flower, they resort to the seed method of reproduction; other methods of obtaining new plants are not used with respect to light plants.

Seeds are sown in open ground and seedlings. The time when planting Levkoy depends on the variety and type of plant. Seeds for seedlings are sown earlier than in open ground. Care and cultivation of levkoy will not bring special difficulties, the rules of maintenance and cultivation are quite simple and do not require special skills and knowledge.

Improper growing seedlings

Sufficiently moist and not suitable ground in transplanting containers, too low room temperature can provoke the death of young shoots.

If the soil for the seedlings of Levkoy was affected by a fungal infection, it is likely that infection will occur in young plants. It is impossible to plan the planting of saplings on the land in the garden, where representatives of the cruciferous family grew up to them, otherwise the plant can destroy the cruciferous flea. Land from such a site for the cultivation of left-wing seedlings is also not suitable.

Planting in open ground

Seedlings of middle and late-flowering varieties dive directly into open ground. Planting of levkoy and care in the open field consists in loosening after watering and rains, removing weeds, feeding young seedlings, starting from the stage of two permanent leaves, with a solution of micronutrients.

In late May, seedlings are planted in open ground. The weather must wait for overcast. Seedlings are planted in the evening, as the bright day sun can ruin young seedlings.

The site should be bright, with well-fertilized loose soil. To plant the seedlings, prepare the beds, make holes in them at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other in the case of short-growing varieties and 25-30 cm for tall branchy varieties. The wells are poured with water, the seedlings are transferred into the pits by means of transshipment, and compacted with earth.

Seed growing

For seedlings prepare containers and soil substrate of turf land and sand. Ground for 3-4 days before sowing is disinfected with a solution of manganese.

Levka is sown to a depth of 0.5 cm in a moist soil, covered with a transparent material (glass, polyethylene), boxes with earth are put into a dark warm room with a temperature not lower than + 20 ... + 22 °. The first shoots grown from the seeds of left-wing, will seem by the end of the first week or even earlier. Sometimes waiting can be delayed up to 14 days.

As soon as sprouts grown from the seeds of levoka appear, the transparent “lid” is removed, the box with the seedlings is moved to a cooler room with a temperature of + 10 ... + 12 °, with bright, diffused light. The best option for growing seedlings will be a closed balcony, terrace or veranda. 3-4 days after the shoot, the young sprouts are watered. By the end of the second week after seed germination, the seedlings dive into separate containers. 10-14 days before transplantation into the open ground, the procedure of hardening seedlings is carried out, for which, starting from ten minutes, a window is opened on the balcony. Gradually, the duration of the hardening procedure is increased, as a result, after 10-14 days the seedlings arrive on the balcony with the window open all the time.

Seeds of summer and autumn species of levkoi are sown in open ground in spring. Late flowering grown by sowing in open ground in April and May. Planting left and care in the open field depends on the purpose of growing plants: in flower beds sown in March-April, for forcing summer levkoev - in January, autumn - in July, August.

To obtain a plant that constantly blooms throughout the summer, seeds are sown in open ground from the end of February every 15-20 days.

Determine the time when planting levkoy seed method for the onset of warm weather. When the ground is warm enough, the seeds are planted, but rarely enough that the grown seedlings do not interfere with each other's growth. In case of planting thickening, young shoots are thinned. When returning the morning spring frosts, you can not worry about the condition of young shoots, they are cold-resistant and quite easily tolerate a temporary drop in temperature.

Levkoy extremely hard transfers any kind of transplant. Planting seedlings on a permanent place in the garden produced by transshipment, with the preservation of earthen coma. Any movement, movement of the earth together with a plant can lead to a deterioration of the state of the plant until the death of the flower.

Cultivation of the left

Growing mattiola is quite a simple process. Gray-headed gray is so varied in the form of the bush, the height of the stem, the coloring of the buds, that using it in the design of the site, you can achieve a long guaranteed lush flowering throughout the season.

Use in landscape design

At present, the use of cluster left-handedness is not as widespread as before, since left-handed gray-haired is considered an old-fashioned, obsolete classical representative of park culture. It is in vain that this amazingly beautiful flower has lost its former popularity. Lovers of spicy, strong, fragrant flavor prefer perennial flowers, varieties of which differ so greatly in height and shape.

By combining various varieties of levkoy, you can create a garden in the classic nostalgic style. The intoxicating aroma is so strong that it is not just felt, but completely envelops the garden.

Mattioli are planted not far from the places of movement in the garden or garden furniture, in this case the plant fully reveals its advantages, the aroma of flowers is felt much sharper. Levka perfectly fits into garden mixed flower beds, rabatki, mono planting, borders, paths. It is used in pot culture for decoration of balconies and terraces.

Low-growing varieties are planted in the flower beds in the foreground, tall - in the background. Mattiola looks great in small groups on the Moorish lawn. Herbaceous spicy plants such as thyme, lemon balm, mint, sage, and balsam will be good “neighbors” for your left-wing. In a combination of mattiola with rose bushes, you can get a really intoxicating, fragrant corner of the garden.