In creating landscape compositions, the thuja acts as a soloist. Making alleys, alpine slides can not do without this beautiful tree. In addition, there are many varieties of it. Thuis are columnar and spherical in shape, the color of the needles is dark green, light green, brown, pink, golden. Combining various types of composition, you can create a truly landscaped masterpiece. Many people plant this tree in front of the house, because it is unpretentious in growing and is really an ornament to even the most boring hedge.
How to plant thuja
It should be immediately noted that the thuja absolutely will not cause any trouble when planting and growing. But in order for a tree to grow truly beautiful, it is still worth adhering to some simple rules. A person who first decided to decorate his plot with this plant may be asked: "And how to plant a thuja?". In this article you will find answers to all your questions. So, let's begin.
Before planting Tui seedlings, you should understand the territory in which they will grow. The plot should be sunny, then the tree will delight you with lush greenery, but at the same time not quite open, in order to avoid freezing in winter. Thuja grows well on any soil. The only condition is that the ground must have good permeability. If the soil is clay, drain. Pits for seedlings should be about 60 - 80 cm deep, but if you plant tall varieties, then dig holes deep. When planting alleys between saplings, leave at least 2 meters, for tall varieties - at least 5 m. Do not forget that the tree grows not only in height, but also in breadth. You can plant it on a permanent place at any time of the year, but if you do it in the spring, then the tree will get stronger and better prepared for winter.
In order for a young plant to easily endure the stress of transplantation, it should be fed at first. If you have made complex fertilizers right in the hole when planting, then the first feeding will be needed only after five years. The first time after planting, the thuja should be watered every week, and the water consumption should be about 10 liters at the root. In hot weather, the volume of water increases. Between irrigation recommend sprinkling. Due to the fact that the plant's root system is practically on the surface, after watering, be sure to loosen the soil: this way the roots will get more oxygen and the thuja will grow better.
Another question that may arise: “How to plant a thuja correctly and save it in winter?” It should be noted that the thuja tolerates winter frosts quite easily. But if there is an opportunity to wrap a tree, do it. Wrapping should be carried out at least in the first years of the tree’s life. And again: during heavy snowfall, snow clogs up between the branches of the crown, which can lead to tree damage and loss of shape. So that the thuja does not break under the weight of snow and does not acquire a sloppy look, tie its branches with a string.
Pruning and shaping thuja tolerates fine. But branches should be cut no more than a third. Pruning is carried out as needed, giving the plant the desired shape. For this manipulation, use the garden shears, which are sold in any gardening shop.
Thuja "Smaragd": landing and care
As mentioned above, there are a large number of varieties of Tui, differing in shape and color of the crown. One of the popular varieties is thuja "smaragd" or, as it is also called, western thuja. This plant has a cone-shaped shape, the tree grows in height up to 5 m. The needles are light green in color. Planting thuja "smaragd", as well as care for her, do not differ anything special. This variety has gained popularity due to shade tolerance and frost resistance.
Beauty and benefits
From this article, you learned how to properly plant thuyu. Grow on your plots this wonderful tree, it is not only beautiful, but also has healing properties. The aroma distributed by needles of thuja, is able to clear the air from pathogenic bacteria. And all thanks to the essential oils contained in the foliage and wood of the plant.
Plot for thuja
It is possible to plant tui correctly if the plot provides favorable conditions for its growth. Below we briefly describe what requirements it must meet in order to reduce the dangerous influence of the external environment:
- this shrub does not like direct sunlight, with proper planting of the thuja in the spring, its better to place on the site in places with light shading. Otherwise, under the action of solar radiation in the spring, the seedlings may turn yellow and dry, and in a weakened state - it is difficult to winter,
- strong shading which prevents normal photosynthesis of plants cannot be considered a safe option when choosing a site. It slows down the biological development of the thuja, their needle-scaly leaves become pale, the crown is thinning, splendor is lost and decorativeness of the plantations deteriorates,
- protection of landings from the wind also plays an important role: strong gusts in the spring, winter drafts damage the branches of the bush. Proper planting thuja spring, not considering this when choosing a site, experts are not recommended,
- groundwater at a shallow location from the surface of the earth due to capillary moisture during dry periods provide plants with soil moisture. Having such places on the site, it is advisable to use them first for landing tui,
- There are no special requirements for the type of soil in the thuja; grows well on sandy and loamy, clay and peat soilswhere sufficient soil moisture content allows the shrub to successfully form high-grade needles. But with a large amount of precipitation, waterlogging occurs. Excessive moisture penetrates into the pore space and displaces the soil air, worsening aerobic processes and slowing down the development of plants. To level the water-air regime of the soil, drainage measures are performed depending on their type,
- if the soil at the site is clayey and moist, then with proper planting, the thuja at the bottom of the planting hole is satisfied drainage layer (up to 0.2 m) of crushed stone or coarse-grained stones for removal of excess water from the root part. On peat soils, for dumping a large amount of excess moisture, trenches with a depth of up to 1.0 m are excavated with a slope, to the bottom of which trough drainage pipes with a diameter of 0.05 m are laid,
- the most colorful decorative forms of the shrub are formed if it was created loose fertile soil layer from a mixture of sod-podzolic, peat and sandy parts. Compared with it, loamy or sandy soils have insufficient nutrients: only by adding supplements for the missing nutrients can an adult of excellent type be grown.
Requirements for seedlings
A diverse selection of shrub seedlings (variety, age, size) can be found in nurseries, in specialized stores. In order to properly plant thuja in the spring and carry out the registration of a suburban area in a short time, it is better to do this with the help of large and mature trees. Taken on growing saplings or young copies are not suitable.
For properly selected planting seedlings, thuja should be observed:
- sufficiently moist soil (clod of earth) in a store container,
- good and durable fastening on the branches of the shoots of the scaly coating,
- elastic and flexible branches, from which the needles are not showered, there are no spots or lesions of the plant by diseases or harmful insects.
It is better to plant thuja in the spring in the spring, but autumn planting is also allowed. For some fans, puzzled by when and how to plant thuja in the spring, there is a definite answer - in April-May. These days there is a high survival rate of seedlings, the best adaptation in the new conditions associated with the beginning of sap flow in plants. It is possible to plant Tui in the autumn, but there is little confidence that the saplings will be able to successfully settle down before the onset of frost.
With the proper planting of the tui, one should adhere to the technology described below:
- planting pits for seedlings should be almost one meter deep, and the width is determined depending on the volume of the root part. It should be freely placed in the pit, keeping the store clod of earth. For this, the width of the landing pit is increased by 0.4, and the depth by 0.3 m,
- the bottom of the landing hole is sprinkled with loose soil mixed with wood ash, humus, compost mass. This supply of nutrients will allow you to make the following feeding after 2-3 seasons after planting thujs. If the roots of seedlings dry up during planting, you need to refresh them in a container with water, dropping for 10-15 seconds,
- for the final powder placed in a pit of plants, use a mixture, which includes equal parts of peat with sand and soil. In the case of open roots in a tree, they should be evenly distributed over the powder, previously made at the bottom of the hole,
- in order to properly plant thuja, in which the root system is protected by a store container, preparatory work is not required. Carefully removing and preserving the substrate as much as possible, the sapling of the thuja should be installed in the hole, gradually filling it with soil from the site. Lightly tamping it down, spill it with water (up to two buckets), observing the condition of proper planting of the thuja - plant the plant in such a way that the position of the plant's root neck is not higher and not lower than the ground surface. Finally, a layer of mulch is applied to the near-stem circle of seedlings, which is prepared from compost mass, crushed pine bark. Only the near-barreled surface is covered: the mulch mixture does not hit the lower branches of the thuja or the stem, since the latter can dry out,
- the layout, which is selected depending on its selected varieties and varieties, allows you to properly plant the Tui. For tall trees, the interval between each specimen should not exceed five meters. How to plant Tui, if they are low? Low-growing seedlings in a row is enough to have one meter. The same meter interval remains, if thuy is planted for a hedge.
Irrigation and fertilizing
After planting, simple but timely care of the seedlings is necessary. Watering, feeding, processing (loosening) of the soil and pruning trees will allow you to constantly maintain the elegant and unique look of this ornamental shrub.
- watering, given the moisture-loving properties of the thuja, will be necessary depending on the weather: in spring, when drying the soil, one watering per week at a rate of 10 liters for each young tree will be enough. The visual signal for this is the yellowing of the top. When rainy cloudy weather, when precipitation falls continuously for several days, the need for watering disappears. With the onset of summer temperatures, total evaporation increases (transpiration from plants plus evaporation of moisture from the soil) and irrigation of thuj planted in open ground is performed at intervals of 3–4 days. In especially hot weather, over 30 degrees of heat, it is necessary to water more often - at least 2-3 days, and the irrigation rate is almost doubled,
- if you alternate watering thuy with irrigation crowns, the elasticity of the branches increases, coloring of a scaly covering improves, attracting with bright and juicy tones. Regular morning and evening "bathing", washing away the ubiquitous dust, refresh the trees, providing a noble decorative look,
- fertilizing tui using growth stimulants is carried out as soon as the seedlings are planted. The components contained in the solution contribute to rooting, enhance the development of the root system, increase plant immunity. For adult trees in the spring, potash and phosphate supplements are necessary. With an interval of two or three five-day days they are brought in landing tui,
- to maintain the nutritional balance of developing young and adult trees is recommended using organic fertilizers (the drug "Fertika", etc.) or conventional compost mixture: for the first time in spring, from late April to May, the second time in autumn - in July-August. Loosening the soil for embedding in the near-stemming zone of trees increases the effectiveness of fertilizers, in a liquid solution they can be applied during the summer months - from June to August.
Observing the recommendations and helpful tips, finding the answer to the question of how to plant a thuja, you will for a long time provide your country house or cottage with a beautiful and attractive decoration from a beautiful evergreen shrub.
How to plant thuja spring?
Decorative thujas love the light, but, permanent exposure to the sun is depressing. Such a shrub turns yellow, dries out and hibernates poorly. To avoid this, choose a bright place for the Tui, protected from the midday sun and drafts.
Thuja, unpretentious and easily growing on soils of different composition, like moisture more than other conifers, but at the same time they are afraid of stagnation of water, therefore, before planting the thuja in spring, they prepare the well, loose aerated substrate, and also prepare the seedling.
Ground for thuja mixed on the base:
Mineral fertilizers for hvoynik are mixed into the substrate, according to the recommendations of the dressing manufacturer. If the soil at the cottage is sandy, no additional sand is added.
Plants with an open root system often dry out on the way to their permanent place of residence. To replenish strength and revive thuyu, immersion of roots in settled water at room temperature will help, to which it is useful to add a root formation stimulator.
Plants with a closed root system, especially from foreign nurseries, can be infected with harmful fungi, scutes, spider mites, the pathogen of rust and other diseases.
So that when planting thuja in Siberia, as in the photo, the care did not begin with the struggle for the life of the shrub, the plant must be inspected in advance and treated from root to crown with systemic insecticides and fungicides.
Spring planting technology of thuja: step by step description
The dimensions of the planting pit depend on the dimensions of the earthen coma and the root system of the seedling. For thuja seedlings at 3–4 years of age, a pit is required from 50 to 100 cm wide and 60–70 cm deep.
A landing pit is made at a distance of 1-3 meters from other garden crops. The distance depends on the selected variety. The higher the shrub, the more space and power required for its shallow root system.
What to do next? To summer residents who do not have experience in growing conifers, a step-by-step description of the planting technology of thuja in spring will be useful.
- If the site is dense, heavy soil, at the bottom must make drainage of sand, brick chips or expanded clay with a layer of 15 to 20 cm.
- Then part of the prepared soil is poured on the bottom with a cone for a seedling with an open root system and an even layer for the plant in the container.
- A shrub with a closed root system is removed from the container and placed in the center of the pit. The roots of the shrub without a container straighten and evenly laid out on the earthen cone.
- It is important that the thuja root neck is not below the level of the soil.
- When the pit is filled with soil, it is slightly compacted.
- The soil under the planted thuja is watered abundantly so that the soil is wet throughout the depth of the pit. It takes from 10 to 20 liters.
- At the end, the near-stem circle is mulched with chopped grass or peat.
Loose protective layer of mulch will save moisture, protect the root system from being shed when planting thuja and leaving in the Leningrad region, as well as from freezing during the returning cold in Siberia or the Urals.
Care for thuja after landing in open ground
Toui respond well to water. With its lack of a shrub loses brightness and tone, the needles gradually turn yellow, and the crown thins.
Focusing on the weather, air humidity and soil, the plants in the garden are watered regularly. In dry times, this should be done every 3–4 days. Irrigation of the crown in the morning or evening will help:
- keep the green alive and beautiful
- activate respiration shoots.
Care for thuja in the open field after planting involves the removal of weeds and the careful loosening of the soil under a bush. Since the thuja roots are superficial, you should not disturb the soil deeper than 8–10 cm. Laying peat or sawdust mulch will help simplify the task, as well as update its layer as needed.
The springtime feeding of the thuja gives the plant the strength to recover quickly after hibernation and activates the growth of young shoots. As a fertilizer, you should use complex compositions for coniferous crops with a predominance of nitrogen. Liquid feeding is made in the morning or evening hours on wet soil.
If fertilizers were added when planting in the ground, the first feeding of the thuja is carried out only two years after planting, when the soil is completely thawed. This is especially important when planting and caring for thuja in the Urals, in Siberia and other regions with a harsh climate.
Корни в теплой почве сразу усвоят полезные вещества и подтолкнут рост побегов. Если удобрения попадут в мерзлый грунт, они могут вызвать загнивание корневой системы.
Обрезка туи весной
Вечнозеленые кустарники за зиму практически не меняются. During the cold season, some varieties of thuja acquire a brown shade, their development is slowed down and resumed only with the arrival of heat.
Thuja care in the spring necessarily includes sanitary pruning, allowing the crown to be freed from dry and badly damaged branches. While the shoots did not go to the growth of the spring hold the crown. This should be done carefully, cutting no more than a third of the length of the shoot. In the future, pruning helps to maintain the shape of the shrub, and also stimulates branching, making the plant more dense, vibrant, green.
Hot summers can lead to the loss or weakening of part of the branches. In this case, do not wait for autumn. Sanitary pruning thuya spend as needed. If the escape is not dead, but only weakened, a haircut can push its recovery.
The re-shaping time of the bush in the middle lane begins in August and lasts until the end of September. In Siberia, in the Urals and areas where the first frosts come earlier, the haircut will have to be done earlier.
By autumn, the thuja's growth stops, the plant is preparing for winter. If the soil is dry, the plants in October, before the snow falls, watered abundantly.
Preparing for the cold and caring for thuja after winter
Most species of thuja without any losses endure frosts, however, young shrubs are better protected from low temperatures with the help of a spruce branches or other suitable materials. In the future, growing shrubs may not suffer from cold, but from crown fractures and burns of needles that occur in February or March, when the snow melts and can no longer protect the branches.
In Siberia, the ephedra lose their decorative effect from both the early spring burn and the desiccation as a result of the freezing of the soil. These hazards often pursue large tall forms. Strelani and squat plants tolerate even the most severe winters better, but can spring up in spring with a dense crown and long-term thawing of the soil.
Before the onset of winter when caring for thuja:
- carry out sanitary pruning crown,
- shrubs are watered and spud high
- near-trunk circles abundantly mulch with a layer up to 15 cm.
Pyramidal and spherical shrubs for the prevention of snow breaks are tied, fastening the form with a string, but not pulling together to prevent the appearance of the prelig.
Not bad proved covers for evergreen wintering plants. Snow helps to preserve the decorativeness of the thuja; both high and low plants plentifully sprinkle them.
Before you care for the thuja in the country, you need to know the features of the various forms of this culture.
Garden thuja are divided into vigorous, medium-growing specimens and ground cover forms. Among tall plants it winters best, retains a bright color of needles and forms a thuja Braband up to 20 meters high. Shrubs with a narrower pyramidal shape can fade, but the columnar plants, even in Siberian conditions, retain decorativeness well. Thuja Smaragd height of about 2 meters with an average growth rate and in winter and summer happy with bright green needles, but fade without sufficient care.
The most unpretentious and easy to clean are small plants that are easy to cover under the snow and cover in the spring to save from burns. They are good for planting and care in the Urals, in Siberia and in the Leningrad region, where large shrubs are not always able to grow.
Thuja care after the winter begins in February. The bright sun not only awakens everything to life, but also turns the snow into a hard crust, spoiling the bark, and burns scaly needles. Therefore, before taking shelter from a thuja after winter, they destroy the ice crust, and also carry out a number of activities to accelerate the thawing of the soil:
- old mulch is cleaned,
- the shrub is watered with hot water
- The trunk circle is covered with a film or black non-woven material.
The bright spring sun is detrimental to the needles, which turn yellow and often fall. From March to May, especially if thuja grows in an open, sunny place, the shrub is covered with breathable material.
When the needles on the shoots are still damaged and have lost their former splendor, the heavily dried, yellowed parts of the branches are cut off, and the crown is treated daily with irrigation of a growth stimulator solution.
Ice crust can damage the bark. After the shelter was removed for the winter, they are inspected, and the lesions revealed are covered with garden pitch.
Problems when caring for thuja in the open field
Problems with growing Tui is most often associated with:
- with lack of attention,
- with the wrong landing or choosing a place for a bush,
- weakening wintering field,
- attack by pests or pathogens.
Thuis are affected by pathogens of fungal and bacterial infections, manifested in the form of wilting needles, the appearance of yellowness or brown spots on it. Without proper attention and complex treatment with a fungicide, the disease grows and can cause the death of a garden thuja. After primary irrigation, the procedure is repeated after 2 weeks.
Among the pests dangerous to Tui:
- warblers and false shields,
- spider mites,
- tuevaya mole,
- leaf wrappers,
- luboyedy damaging the bark.
As a preventive measure, the plants are sprayed with an insecticide solution in early spring, repeating the treatment after 14 days.
If the thuja is planted correctly, and caring for the plant fully covers its needs, the shrub grows well and adorns the dacha for a long time.
How to plant Tui: features and secrets
How to plant thuyu at their summer cottage
Thuja is a coniferous, evergreen tree. And by the needles, you can determine its age. So, if the leaves have a needle shape, then the tree is still young, if it is scale-like, then it is an adult.
With all the apparent complexity, growing a thuja is a pleasure. After all, this plant is unpretentious. It can grow in different soils: from clay to peat. The lighting is not important for him either: in the penumbra and in the moderate sun it will grow equally well.
But nevertheless, there are several secrets, the fulfillment of which will answer the question of how to plant a thuja so that it really pleases the eye. Among them:
- the soil must be well permeable,
- when transplanting should keep a clod of earth around the roots,
- root neck should be at ground level.
Should follow the rules relating to the depth of planting and the distance between plants. After all, how can you put thuyu without knowledge about the depth of fit and distribution of the root? Therefore, it is better to prepare in advance and do everything in the best way.
Before planting Tui as an ornamental plant, one should dig a hole, the depth of which directly depends on how big the tree and the earth are near the root. The average depth is about 50 - 80 cm. A plant is placed in it and sprinkled with a layer of sand, peat and turf (leafy) soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 2. It will take a fertilizer complex. For the planting stage, nitroammophoska is well suited, which will be enough for 50 g per plant.
You should consider how to plant a thuja group. After all, this is not only a way to decorate the yard with the help of greenery, the general well-being of each tree separately depends on it. Optimally - a distance of 3 - 5 m, a guide for accurate footage should be the estimated size of the tree.
How to care for planted thujas
The main components of a competent care are watering and fertilizing the soil. In the case of water balance, the main thing is to find a middle ground. After all, if excessively irrigate thuyu, then its root system will simply die. If the moisture is not enough - the crown of the tree will lose its decorative appearance, will become yellowed and thinned. Periodic watering (10 l per plant / once a week) will become a guarantee of good growth, and during drought it will be somewhat more abundant. Moreover, not only the landing site is watered, but also the crown itself. So she will exude a pleasant coniferous scent, will look young and fresh.
Tui fertilizer stimulates its growth, so this procedure should not be carried out before winter, so that the plant does not die.
Thuja tree - the choice of seedlings
If you do not plan independent breeding of a thuja, then you can get already ready, podroschenny saplings. They can be bought in nurseries engaged in breeding conifers, or in a specialized store. There, among the stated range, you choose the desired variety, buy a healthy tree, adapted to the local climate.
Small tui from nurseries vary in size, age. If you have a small sapling, it will not be difficult to “grow” it yourself before planting at a permanent place of growth. You can also purchase a large copy that is already ready for registration of a plot or a local area.
When choosing, always pay attention to the conditions of the plants, the degree of soil moisture in the tanks, the strength of coniferous scales on the branch. The branches of the seedlings must be resilient, the needles do not crumble, there are no spots or signs of disease on it. On arrival home, hurry to transplant them in a shady place, pour.
Planting thuya in open ground
Thuja will perfectly take root on your site at any time of the year, except for late autumn or winter. Gardeners with experience advise precisely the spring period - April, May. Planted in the spring, it will be less sick, grow faster, adapts better to the environment.
But here in Kuban, I would still advise landing the Tui to be moved to autumn. Our summer is hot, an immature tree will be difficult to tolerate the heat. And, planted in the fall, she will meet the summer stronger, well-established.
The site for planting should be slightly shaded, consider this factor when planning the landscape design of the site. In direct sunlight, the tree will wither and later endure the winter cold. In a very dark place, the thuja will slowly develop, the branches will lose their pomp and brightness. The ideal area for it will be a windless segment of the site, with light shading, close to the groundwater.
Tui - landing and care, the phased action:
- First, we dig a fairly deep hole - 80-100 cm deep, with the same diameter dimensions (if you have, of course, a large seedling, and not the same as in the photo above). Deepening should be such that there freely included a tree with an earthen clod. At the bottom we pour a little earth mixed with wood ash or other organic fertilizer.
- Put thuya in the hole, while its root neck should be located on the same level with the soil surface.
- We mix the dug earth with sand, peat (1: 1), fill with this mixture a recess with a seedling, and then slightly tread.
The distance between the trees should be determined according to the characteristics of the variety, as the thujas are quite small and, conversely, very tall. Small trees can be planted a meter apart, large ones can be about 4-5 m. Some varieties of thuja reach 15-20 meters in height, and their crown grows in width to 3-4 m (for example, thuja western Brabant). For a full-fledged development, such a tree needs space, but when making alleys, green corridors, fences, thuja are planted at a distance of 1 meter, regardless of the variety and type.
How to care for thuja
Competent care of this conifer implies watering, the introduction of dressings, loosening of the trunk circle, the formation of the crown. After the tree has been planted in its permanent place of residence, primary feeding is done. For these purposes, growth stimulants of natural origin are often used (the majority of gardeners choose Epin). Components of such dressings contribute to better rooting of the tree, improve disease resistance. In spring thuja can be fed with potash-phosphorus additives, it is better to do it twice, the interval between fertilizers should be 10-15 days.
In spring, the frequency of irrigation is affected by the amount of rain, with the onset of summer, 2 times a week is enough, in spring - once. If the rains are frequent, then it is not necessary to water, rain will be enough. Thuja requires high-quality watering at all stages of life (sapling, adult tree), while the crown also loves irrigation. In order for the branches to be elastic, shiny, they will delight you with the brightness of green shades, the minimum amount of water for the basal area should be 10 liters per watering (once a week, if the summer is very dry, then up to 3 times). Determine the lack of moisture can be at the top of the thuja - it begins to turn yellow. Watering trees is better early in the morning or in the evening.
Thuja loves crown irrigation, for these procedures the purchase of a special nozzle becomes relevant. Dust is washed off from such sprinkling, a more fresh appearance of the tree is provided, a pleasant pine aroma begins to stand out. Do not be afraid to overdo it with irrigation, 1-2 times a day will bring a thuja only benefit.
Returning to the fertilizer, it is worth noting that too frequent application of fertilizing for tui is not required. Special mineral compounds for conifers (for example, “Fertika”) or compost, which has already become a classic additive, are sufficient to be used twice per season - in spring and summer. Fertilizers are applied during loosening: they are laid out in a pristvolnom circle, and during tilling they are mixed with the top layer of soil. In summer, the additive can be diluted with water, used for watering.
Pristvolnuyu area must be periodically cleaned of weeds, loosen, mulch sawdust or compost. Decorative sawdust (painted with natural ingredients) or a nutshell look very attractive. Mulching creates a barrier for weeds, retains moisture, improves the condition of the tree as a whole.
As for the haircut or artistic trimming, the first two years of the tree’s life should not be touched, it should take root in its place. You can start caring for the crown from the third year after landing. Initially, dried, weak branches are removed, determine the degree of density. Excessive thinning affects the decorative qualities of the tree, everything should be in moderation.
The main pruning is carried out in April, and then only correct the shape. For high-quality air circulation, maintaining a “vigorous” type of thuja, gardeners recommend removing all branches of the one-year growth.
If the artistic design requires the expansion of the tree in breadth, then only the upper part of the crown should be trimmed. You can create various geometric shapes, columns, animal figures, or fairy-tale characters from the tui. Novice gardeners can quite easily give the crown of a tree the shape of a ball, a cascade, a curb. Trimming or trimming is best done in dry weather.
Thuja - preparing for winter
For the colder regions of the country, frost-resistant varieties of tui (western) should be chosen. Despite their simplicity, they also require preparation for the cold season. In autumn, it is necessary to provide trees with abundant watering, since even in winter the thuja continues to develop, albeit slowly.
In the first years of life, young representatives must be warmed. With the help of a dense polyethylene film, non-woven spunbond or other suitable covering material, a kind of cocoon is formed that will retain heat, let the sun's rays through. You can even purchase special covers designed specifically for these purposes, they are sold by garden departments of supermarkets or in online stores.
The roots for the winter are covered with fallen leaves, which are removed with the onset of spring, as soon as the top layer of earth thaws. The overgrown crowns of adult tui are neatly tied with a wide ribbon to prevent the accumulation of snow on the branches.
To please the eye, there was a healthy thuja, planting and care in the open field should be carried out competently, in a timely manner. This tree is quite unpretentious, but the result of simple care is expressed not only by its external beauty, decorating the area. A green hedge from tui will absorb noise from the street, neighboring territories, as well as protect your site from prying eyes.
Thuja: cultivation. Selection of planting material
It is recommended to acquire thuyu taking into account the following criteria:
1. The appearance of the plant - the twigs must be resilient, and the needles are bright, shiny, lively. If it is dull and showered when touched, the plant has died,
2. The earthy lump must be preserved - the bare roots of the plant are unacceptable
3. If possible, examine the root system. It should be healthy and not dried: the ends of the roots are white or yellowish in color, elastic (if they are scratched, juice is released),
4. It is also necessary to take into account indicators of the variety of thuja: color of needles, splendor of crown, frost resistance.
Types and varieties of Tui
Under natural conditions, there are 5 main types of thuja: Japanese, Korean, folded, eastern, western. The most popular of them is western thuja. This is a pyramidal tree, reaching a height of 15-20 m, with a crown of 3-5 m in diameter. Due to its frost resistance, it is suitable for cultivation in all regions of our country. Many varieties of this species have been developed, having various shapes, color of needles, height. The most famous are:
• Brabant - frost-resistant fast-growing variety. The diameter of the crown is 1.5 m. The color of the needles is green in summer, brown in winter.
• Emerald - is a tree, reaching a height of 4-4.5 meters. The shape of the crown is conical. Grows slowly, dark green needles in winter almost does not fade. Хорошо переносит стрижку.
• Колумна – быстрорастущий сорт в виде дерева с плотной узкой кроной. Обладает высокой зимостойкостью, предпочитает полутенистые участки.
• Вагнери – сорт с сизой хвоей, приобретающей зимой медный оттенок. Предпочитает плодородные почвы на открытых участках. Обладает повышенной морозостойкостью.
• Глобоза - Slow-growing variety with spherical crown (height of 1 m reaches 10 year of growing season), winter-hardy and drought-resistant.
• Danica - low-growing shrub with a rounded dense crown height of up to 0.6 m. It grows slowly (growth reaches only 5 cm per year). The needles have a light green color. The variety is shade tolerant, drought resistant and frost resistant. Propagated by cuttings only. Ideal for landscaping small areas.
• Golden glob - the variety has golden-green needles, grows slowly, is used in single compositions, rockeries, rock gardens and low curbs.
Thuja: cultivation. Sowing and planting (timing, shelter, temperature, soil, etc.)
For the cultivation of Tui is suitable as a sunny place, and partial shade. If you plant this coniferous plant in the shade, then its crown will thin and lose its decorative effect. Although thuja moisture-loving, but does not tolerate waterlogging. Therefore, if the groundwater is located close to the surface, then drainage should be carried out on it before planting.
Thuja can grow on different soils, but still it is better to plant it on moisture-permeable fertile lands. On heavy clay soils, it is prone to root rot. Therefore, such areas must first be enriched with humus or compost, add sand and peat to improve aeration. Acidic soils are alkalized by adding wood ash or lime.
• Dig a hole 70-80 cm deep and 90-100 cm in diameter,
• Drainage from crushed stone, expanded clay, is poured at the bottom of the pit
• Pour prepared soil on the drainage, add complex fertilizers and 2 cups of ash,
• The seedling is placed in the pit so that the root neck is at the level of the ground,
• The distance between plants depends on the size of the variety. If thuis are planted by a group, then the interval between them ranges from 1 to 5 m, and when creating a single-row fence, it is one meter.
Growing thuja from seeds
The process of growing thuja from seeds is quite long in time: from sowing to planting seedlings to a permanent place, 3-5 years will pass. In addition, plants from seeds do not retain varietal characteristics. However, if you need at minimum cost to get a lot of strong seedlings adapted to the climatic conditions of your region, then this method fits perfectly.
Like all conifers, thuja seeds differ in their unpredictability in their germination. They can lie in the ground for more than six months before shoots appear.
Seed cones are harvested in the year of fruiting. They are laid out in a warm room in a single layer, in a couple of days they will unfold and then small reddish seeds easily spill out of them. Suitable for planting healthy seeds that have undergone natural or artificial stratification (exposure to cold).
In the first case, they are sown in the open ground after harvesting in late autumn. In spring there will be shoots similar to dill shoots. The first branches of seedlings will grow only after 6 months. To seedlings are not lost among the weeds, they can be sown in boxes, dug into the ground. In the third year, the plants dive. Young thuis can be planted at a permanent place for the fifth year of the growing season.
In the second case, the seeds are sown in a bowl with wet sand, covered with glass or film, put in a cool room or refrigerator on a shelf with a temperature of + 5ºС for 2-3 months. Periodically crops need to be aired and remove condensate. After stratification, seeds are sown in February in boxes. Substrate made from turf land, peat, sand, taken in equal proportions. For disinfection it is shed with a solution of potassium permanganate. After sowing, moisten the soil. Seeds germinate at a temperature of + 20ºС and higher. As soon as the sprouts appear, the boxes with the seedlings are transferred to a cooler place with good lighting. Twice a month, the plants are fed with complex mineral fertilizers for conifers. Saplings dive in the second year in the spring. In the summer, pots with them are brought to the garden in partial shade. In the winter they are brought in a greenhouse or in the house. On the third spring, grown-up tui roll over into larger pots. When the plants reach 50 cm in length (4-5 year of growing season), they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Sowing thuja seeds
Growing Tui from cuttings
With this method of reproduction, plants retain their varietal characteristics. Some varieties of thuja can be grown only by cuttings (for example, Danica variety).
Tui cuttings are carried out in April. For cuttings choose healthy strong branches of a young plant (2-3 years). If there are no such specimens, then half-woody branches of the adult thuja are used. Cuttings should be torn off with a “heel” - a piece of bark.
Thuja cuttings with "heel"
The lower end of the cutting is 1/3 clean of needles, soaked for a day in a root formation stimulator and planted on a garden bed in a hothouse, deepening by 2-3 cm. must first shed solution of potassium permanganate. Saplings need diffused light and high humidity (about 70%). Therefore, cuttings planted in pots, it is necessary to cover the banks. After planting, the plants must be sprayed and ventilated to prevent decay. The emergence of new shoots means that rooting was successful. In the fall (September), young plants are planted in a permanent place. For the winter they need shelter. For this use fir spruce branches, sawdust, dry leaves.
Thuja: cultivation. Care, feeding
Care in growing thuja is watering, feeding, cutting and preparing for the winter period.
Thuja irrigation mode depends on weather conditions. Thuja is very sensitive to the soil moisture content. With a deficit of moisture, its needles grow dull and become yellow-brown in color. This is especially true after the summer pruning. The minimum amount of irrigation per plant is 10 liters. In hot weather, watered every 3-4 days. It is better to do it in the morning or in the evening. Good effect on the appearance of the plant sprinkling. Daily spraying washes away dust from the needles, which begins to emit its phytoncid odor.
In the spring make compost or mineral fertilizers for coniferous plants. If fertilizing was made during planting, then the next time fertilized in 2 years.
The pristvolny circles of a thuja mulch by sawdust, compost, the crushed bark or a nutshell. Mulch retains moisture in the summer, protects the roots from overheating and freezing in the winter.
By pruning proceed to the third year of the growing season of thuja. The main pruning is carried out starting from April. At the same time, dry and diseased branches are removed, forming the selected crown shape. When trimming a hedge, shoots cut at most one third of the length.
Preparing thuja for winter. In central and northern Russia, young thujas (even frost-resistant varieties) need shelter for the first few years. The pristvolnye circles are covered with dry foliage, and the plants themselves are covered with a spanbond or thick greenhouse film. On adult plants, branches are bound with a string to the trunk in order to avoid breaking them when snow accumulates on them.
Shelter Tui for the winter
The main pests and ways to combat them
Tuevaya aphid - insects living in colonies and sap-eating plants. Damaged needles turn yellow and crumble. For the destruction of aphids using insecticides (for example, Fufanon).
Spider mite spreads quickly in dry warm weather. You can notice it on the branches covered with cobwebs. The needles are covered with yellow spots and showered. In case of severe injury, acaricides are used. The mite does not like increased humidity, therefore, for the prevention of tui, it is necessary to spray water more often.
Moth motley - a small butterfly, the larvae of which gnaws the moves in the needles. The shoots first turn brown and then die. For pest control, affected tui are treated twice with pyrethroids with an interval of 8 days.
Thuye pseudo shield - small light yellow insects. The affected plants wither, the needles partially dry out. In the period from May (before the dissolution of the kidneys) to mid-June, the thuja are sprayed with Carbofos, aktellik or aktar.
Click beetles (wireworms) - polyphagous pests. The larvae feed on small roots and humus, and as they grow they pass to thick roots. As a result, the thuja stops in development, the needles dry and crumble. Most often, the nutcrackers settle in wet areas with acidic soils. To prevent the spread of these beetles in the fall, it is necessary to dig up the soil, because adults (adult insects) winter shallowly in the ground. Low areas should be drained and alkalized. In case of mass lesions with wireworms, thuja and the surrounding vegetation are sprayed with such preparations as Fufanon, Actellik, Decis. To destroy the larvae, chemical agents with diazonin are added to the soil (Trap, Basudin).
Bark beetles - small beetles, gnawing passages and laying eggs in the bark of a tree. The affected tree quickly dies. There is no universal remedy for bark beetle. It is recommended to spray plants with insecticides at intervals of two weeks. Damaged branches are cut and burned.
Shyutte and rust - caused by various pathogenic fungi diseases in which the needles darken and fall off. Mainly young Tui are ill. The affected branches should be cut and burned to prevent the spread of mushroom spores. For prophylaxis, all conifers at the site are sprayed with Khoma (40 g per bucket of water), Topsin-M (15 g per bucket of water) or Bordeaux mixture. Pristvolny circles 2 times per season shed with a solution of foundationol.
Root rot - one of the most dangerous fungal diseases of the thuja. As a result of the destruction of young roots, the shoots become pale yellow, eventually turning brown, the plant dies. Sick specimens must be destroyed, and the ground under neighboring plants should be shed with a fungicide solution (for example, Fitosporin).