The flower with the beautiful name Mirabilis belongs to the genus of herbaceous perennials of the Niktagin family. The genus includes about 50 species, initially growing only in North and South America. Thanks to the efforts of man, the plant became widespread almost throughout the European continent and in Asian countries. Unpretentiousness in care, undemanding to climatic conditions, attractiveness and amazing aroma - all this made the flower popular in garden culture.
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Night beauty has deserved the greatest love among domestic flower growers - this is exactly the name of Mirabilis Yalapa, one of the varieties of a numerous genus. Translated from the Latin Mirabilis means "amazing" that best characterizes the flower. He opens his funnel-shaped corollas near the end of the day and closes them with the rising sun. And on one bush can simultaneously bloom petals of different colors, and on individual instances, you can watch combinations that include up to 5 different colors. All the time, while the petals are opened, next to the bush you can enjoy a pleasant aroma. This feature - to please with bright buds and delicate smell at night - formed the basis of the second name of the flower.
In the temperate climate of Russia, perennial Mirabilis is often grown as an annual crop. Tubers resembling carrots are formed on its rod thin roots. They contain a supply of moisture and nutrients that helps to survive the drought or cold season. From the same tubers, the nightly beauty resumes its growth in spring.
Upright densely branched stems of Mirabilis have a reddish tint and form neat elongated-rounded shrubs with a height of 30-80 cm. In the lower part of the bush, the shoots become brittle, and in the middle and upper - remain quite fragile and can break from a sharp gust of wind. Small leaves with solid edge located opposite to the entire length of the stems.
Of particular decorative plants give, of course, flowers. Their shape is reminiscent of small gramophone up to 2.5 cm in diameter, and their coloring can surprise the most experienced grower: delicate petals can be white, pink, crimson, yellow, orange, red, purple or violet. Two- or even three-colored petals look very impressive - these can be multi-colored spots and strokes, completely covering full-blown halos. The flowering of Mirabilis begins in May and ends with the onset of autumnal cold, which makes the plant indispensable for decorating a city flowerbed or a summer cottage.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing on seedlings
- 3.2. Growing up in an apartment
- 4. Sowing in the ground
- 5. Landing
- 5.1. When to plant
- 5.2. How to plant
- 6. Care
- 6.1. Growing in the garden
- 6.2. Pests and diseases
- 6.3. Mirabilis after flowering
- 7. Types and varieties
Planting and caring for Mirabilis (in brief)
- Bloom: from July to autumn frosts. Flowers open in the evening and close in the morning.
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in early or mid-April, planting seedlings in open ground - in the second half of May. Sowing seeds directly into the ground - in early May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: fertile clay or loamy soils of slightly alkaline reaction.
- Watering: periodic but abundant. In extreme heat and drought - from 1 to 3 times a week, but in a season with the usual amount of precipitation, you can not water the plot at all.
- Top dressing: 2-3 times per season with complex mineral fertilizers: before the beginning of bud formation, in the middle of summer and in the end of August. Of organic fertilizers, humus and compost are used, and mineral compounds applied in the second and third terms must contain the minimum amount of nitrogen.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: not affected.
- Diseases: root rot, rust, spotting.
Mirabilis (night beauty) - description
Mirabilis Jalapa is from Mexico. This is a perennial plant with bloated tuberous roots grown in annual crops. Its elongated rounded bushes reach a height of from 30 to 80 cm. On erect reddish densely branched stems, woody in the lower part, elongate-ovate, bare whole-edged green leaves are located on the petioles. Yalap flowers, funnel-shaped, up to 25 mm in diameter, white, crimson, purple, orange, yellow, purple, bright red or two-trichromatic, opening after 16 hours and closing at dawn are gathered in apical fragrant corymbose inflorescences. In cloudy weather, flowers can be open all day. The night beauty plant has the ability to form flowers of different colors on one bush. For example, on one plant there may be flowers of all shades of pink from salmon to raspberry, and sometimes the petals of a plant are decorated with colorful stripes. The fruit of Mirabilis is large, single-seeded, dark brown in color, with sharp edges. Night beauty seeds remain viable for up to 3 years.
Sowing Mirabilis on seedlings.
The nightly beauty flower is propagated by seeds that need to be scarified before sowing, that is, slightly damaging their hard shell with a needle file or sandpaper. Then the seeds of the night beauty for a day are placed in a thermos with warm water. When to sow Mirabilis? Mirabilis seeds are sown in early or mid-April in cups filled with light neutral or slightly alkaline soil: you can buy ready-made soil in the store, or you can make the substrate yourself by mixing two parts of turf and peat, one part of humus or compost, partially washed sand and adding for every 5 liters of the resulting soil mixture half a glass of wood ash or 2 tablespoons of dolomite flour. The cups are filled to ¾ volume, compacted mixture and plentifully watered with a solution of fungicide. Two seeds are placed in each cup, sprinkled with a layer of loose soil 1-1.5 cm thick and sprayed with water from a fine sprayer.
Crops are placed in a greenhouse and kept at a temperature of 18-20 ºC.
Growing mirabilis at home.
Shoots will begin to appear after 5-6 days, and as soon as this happens, remove the coating from Mirabilis and move the crops as close as possible to the light. When the seedlings develop the first true leaf, cut a weaker seedling in each pot at ground level so that it does not interfere with the development of a strong one. Around the same time, you need to make the first feeding, for example, Mortar, Fertika or Fortress.
Mirabilis at home needs watering only after the earthen clod is completely dry, since it does not tolerate overwetting. When the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are transplanted into large pots by their method of transshipment and a second time fed with complex mineral fertilizer. As soon as the Mirabilis seedlings recover from the picking, proceed to the tempering procedures: within two weeks, you need to accustom the plants to the external environment. To do this, seedlings are carried out daily on the balcony or in the courtyard, gradually increasing the time the seedlings stay in the open air until the night beauty can stay there all day.
Planting Mirabilis seeds in open ground
Planting mirabilis seeds can be carried out directly in open ground. Seeds are prepared for sowing in the manner already described by us, and sown in late April or early May. Try to distribute the seeds in the furrow with a step of 7-8 cm. After embedding the seeds into the soil to a depth of 3 cm, pour the area with warm water and cover with a non-woven material or film until germination. As soon as the threat of frost has passed, the shelter is removed. Subsequently, the seedlings of Mirabilis will have to be thinned out.
When to plant Mirabilis in the ground.
Mirabilis seedlings are planted in the open ground in late spring, when the soil warms up and passes the chance of frost. The area under Mirabilis should be well heated and illuminated by the sun, since the plant is very thermophilic. Do not feel sorry for the place for Mirabilis, otherwise it will take it away from other plants: Mirabilis is quite aggressive. Mirabilis grows best in fertile clayey or loamy soil containing lime, so sour soils need to be limed before planting. Mirabilis does not like excess moisture, so do not plant it in lowlands or on wet soils.
How to plant Mirabilis in the garden.
Planting Mirabilis made at a distance of 40-50 cm in a row. The depth of each hole must be such that the root system of the seedling with an earthen clod, that is, the entire contents of the pot, fits into it. An hour or two before planting, the seedlings in the pots are watered so that they are easier to remove and reload into the hole. After planting Mirabilis and patching the wells, do not forget to water the area.
Growing mirabilis in the garden.
Care for the beauty of the night is quite simple, because Mirabilis in the open field is surprisingly undemanding. In order for flowering to start in a timely manner, Mirabilis needs to be watered from time to time. In a strong sushi watering is carried out 1-3 times a week, but if the summer will be with rains, then it may well be that you do not have to water the beauty of the night. After watering or raining, loosen the soil around the bushes and remove the weeds.
Growing mirabilis involves fertilizing the soil two or three times over the summer. The first feeding is carried out at the beginning of the growing season, before the formation of buds, the second - in the middle of summer, and the third - at the end. It is undesirable to use fresh organic matter as a fertilizer, only humus and compost. Mirabilis responds well to complex mineral fertilizers, with the second and third dressings containing at least nitrogen.
Pests and diseases of Mirabilis.
The night beauty is very resistant to harmful insects and diseases, but it can get root rot from regular waterlogging. The affected plant will have to be removed and the soil in which it grows must be shed with a solution of a fungicide, for example, Fundazole. And so that history does not repeat, adjust the mode of wetting the area.
Sometimes mirabilis can be affected by rust or some kind of spotting - fungal diseases, which can be treated with a solution of fungicidal drugs, but first cut off the affected leaves and flowers on the bushes.
Mirabilis after flowering.
If it is difficult for you to part with the plant in the fall, dig up its tubers that look like carrots in black, cut the stems at a height of 10 cm: after drying, they will disappear by themselves. Wrap the tubers with thick paper, or rather fill them with sand and store at a temperature of 3-7 ºC. With the onset of spring, the tuber is planted in the heated soil or germinated in a pot on the windowsill, and when it is warm, transplanted into the open ground.
As you can see, planting Mirabilis and caring for them are simple and not time consuming.
Types and varieties of Mirabilis
As we already wrote, most often in culture mirabilis jalapa, or mirabilis laxative, or night beauty are grown. We gave a description of this species at the beginning of the article. The most famous varieties of Mirabilis Yalap are:
- – Iolanthe - a rounded bush up to 50 cm high with thick and strong knotted stems that strongly branch in the upper part. Medium-sized, funnel-shaped flowers of bright color with streaking stripes all over the rim bloom from late June to frost,
- – Red candy - a large plant up to 90 cm high with thick and smooth light green stems branched at the top. The leaves of the plant are oblong-oval, simple, wavy at the edges. Voronkovidny flowers up to 6 cm in diameter painted in bright red color,
- – Elvira - medium-sized dense bush with strong and smooth branched stems, dark green oblong leaves with a pointed tip and bright flowers with a diameter of up to 35 mm,
- – T Time Red - medium-sized bushes with smooth, knotty, very branchy stems at the top, oval-oblong dark green leaves and medium-sized flowers of a rich pink color,
- – Ty Time Fomula Myxhe - a spherical bush 70-90 cm high with simple oblong leaves with pointed tips on branchy, smooth and bare stems in the lower part. The flowers in plants of this variety are funnel-shaped, smooth, with wavy edges, variegated colors, with a diameter of 25 mm.
Cultivated in culture also mirabilis many-flowered - herbaceous perennial about 80 cm tall with upright bare stems covered with elongated ovoid smooth leaves. In May, axillary inflorescences are formed on mirabilis multicolored, consisting of 2-6 flowers of tubular purple flowers with a diameter of 4 to 6 cm in one bell-shaped cover.
Known to gardeners and round-leaved mirabilis - a compact plant up to 30 cm high, covered with oval sticky leaves 5-7 cm long. In apical inflorescences in a common veil up to three purple-pink flowers with a diameter of 1 cm are formed. Like all Mirabilis, flowers of this species open in the late afternoon and close with the first rays of the sun.
Shrub perennial, with thick roots in the form of tubers. In our climate, it does not tolerate the winter cold, so the Beauty of the Night is grown annually from seeds. In nature, there are about 60 species of shrubs, Mirabilis Jalapa and Mirabilis Himalayan - the most common and loved by gardeners. Plants do not require special care and are not susceptible to pest attacks.
The shape of the shrub is elongated and round, reaching a height of 30 to 80 cm. The stems are erect, densely covered with branches, in the lower part they are concentrated. The shade of the bark is reddish, the leaves are located opposite, on the petioles, they are elongated, smooth, green.
Flowers in the form of a funnel, with a large cup (up to 2.5 cm in diameter) and a long tube (see photo). The color can be two-color or single-colored, always bright - crimson, purple, orange, white, red, yellow. Thyroid inflorescences are collected at the top.
Mirabilis is from North America. Flowers open in the evening, and fade very quickly, after a few hours. Pollinated by hawk moths - butterflies that fly at night. The faded flowers are replaced by new ones, this continues throughout the season, until autumn. The aroma is rich, very pleasant, tropical.
The fruits of the plant are dense boxes with one seed. Dark brown, ribbed fruits can be stored for up to 3-5 years, while maintaining their germination.
Landscape designers use Mirabilis as a low decorative hedge, framed by walkways and avenues. High varieties are well suited as a background placeholder in mixborders.
The plant is used to decorate terraces, balconies, planted in deep large pots. The bushes look equally good in single and group plantings next to marigolds, zinnias, and daisies.
The flower growers willingly grow Mirabilis multifloral - its inflorescences are formed by the axils of the leaves, in each bell-shaped coverlet there are 5-6 large purple flowers. The round-shaped view of the Night Beauty is compact, only up to 30 cm tall and interesting in the oval shape of the leaves. The most famous plant species:
- Red lollipop - different large (diameter 6 cm) bright red flowers, the height of the bush about 1 m,
- TI Time Red - bushes for balconies of average height with rich pink flowers,
- Iolanta - branched bushes up to 0.5 m, flowers of unusual color - with strokes,
- Tiom Fomula Mix - variegated inflorescences are very attractive, bushes neat spherical shape, 70-90 cm.
Lighting and location
For planting choose well-lit places, warmed up, warm, possibly with light penumbra. Lowlands do not fit, as well as constantly wet areas with heavy poor soils. The plant needs a lot of free space, because the root system is superficial. The nightly beauty reclaims the earth, taking it away from neighboring plants, if the planting is too close.
Mirabilis loves heat and grows poorly if the temperature drops below + 15 ° C. The optimal mode is +22, + 28 ° С. In the southern regions the shrub hibernates well, when the minimum value does not fall below + 5 ° С. In areas with a harsh climate, the tubers are dug in the fall and stored until spring, like dahlias.
Night beauty blooms around the clock on cloudy days, not afraid of rain and drafts. Enclosed space must be ventilated, on the verandas and glazed balconies to prevent air stagnation. On hot days, spraying the leaves will help the bush to fully bloom.
Dense soils with no drainage are not suitable for the full growth and development of Mirabilis. Strong acidity will also negatively affect the plant. Choose fertile areas with deep, clayey lime soil.
Shrub is easiest to propagate by seed. In the harsh climate of overwintered tubers, only experienced gardeners grow new plants, and cuttings require special conditions - heating from below for rooting.
The seed shell is scarified, that is, they do a little damage with sandpaper, a nail file - this will facilitate the appearance of the germ.Seeds are pre-soaked, although they already have a high percentage of germination. They are placed on the day in a warm place, wrapped with multi-layer wet gauze. Good stuff after a day has been hatching.
Stepwise landing process
Mirabilis is sown in early April in a greenhouse, and in open ground in May. The main condition is the ground warmed up to + 15 ° С. At home, seedlings receive, planting seeds of 2 pieces in a cup, which is closed with a film. The temperature is maintained at +18, + 20 ° C, so that the shoots are not drawn out.
- Seeds are buried 1.5-3 cm deep.
- The soil is watered with warm water and covered.
- When germs appear (5-6 days), remove the protective film.
- With the advent of the first true leaf, thinning is carried out, removing weak shoots.
- In open ground, seedlings are rolled over as soon as the soil warms up and the threat of frost disappears.
- Planted rows watered.
- The distance between the plants is at least 40 cm.
The depth of the pits for seedlings is made so that the earthy lump, extracted from the cup, fits completely. Before planting, the seedlings are watered carefully so that the transshipment passes without damaging the root system.
Rules of care and cultivation in the garden
The night is an absolutely unpretentious shrub; on a plot it is easy to care for it. The main thing - to comply with the measure in watering and prevent drying.
The plant does not tolerate overmoistening of the soil, may die on soil with poor drainage, it will bloom badly and stop development. Therefore, during the rainy season of vegetation, watering may not be required at all. During the rest period - from November to March, the bushes in pots are watered every 2 months.
Mirabilis will easily survive a small drought. In hot weather, watering is carried out the next day after the earthen coma dries, 1-3 times a week. Blooming is a sure sign of the need to moisten the soil well. Water is defended in summer in large tanks in the sun.
During intensive growth of the night beauty and flowering, 2-3 supplements are carried out. At the beginning of summer, in the middle and at the end of the season, fertilizer is applied to the root zone. They avoid fresh organic matter, only rotten compost, and mineral fertilizers select different ones.
In the spring, the focus is on nitrogen components, for example, ammonium nitrate 10-20 g per 1 sq. Km. m. In the midst of flowering using superphosphate 40 g per 1 square. m, urea 10 g per 1 square. m. Closer to the fall, saltpeter is applied to 30 g, potash fertilizers - 10 g per 1 square meter. m
After irrigation, the aisles are loosened to a shallow depth, since the roots of the bushes are located close to the surface. At the same time clean the weeds around. Pristvolnye circles can be mulched so that the moisture does not evaporate in the heat.
Pruning bushes is not required. At will, the crown of Mirabilis is formed by pinching off the tops of weak or too tall shoots in the spring. After that, a lot of new side branches covered with flowers are formed.
In hot climates, the Night Beauty lives for about five years, then the rejuvenation of the bush is required, it is possible to transfer to a new place. In colder European countries, the shrub does not tolerate winter temperature drops and is cultivated as an annual.
Mirabilis is practically not exposed to insect attacks. Watering should be monitored to prevent permanent stagnation of water in the soil, waterlogging causes fungal infections - rust or spotting.
It is necessary to fight these infections by regulating irrigation, drying the site. At the same time, the affected flowers and leaves are collected and the soil is treated with a solution of fungicides, for example, Fundazol (10 g per 10 l of water).
The night is an attractive ornamental shrub with an unusual wonderful-tropical scent of flowers. Infrequently, the plant is found in home gardens, but it is surely gaining popularity due to its unpretentiousness and unusual decorative appearance.
Mirabilis: varieties and varieties of "Night Beauty"
Mirabilis is an infrequent visitor to garden plots in Russia. However, in the world there are about 60 species of this flowering plant. And only one species has taken root in the middle latitudes of our country - Mirabilis Jalapa.
Mirabilis Jalapa (he is Mirabilis laxative) - a plant originally from Mexico, is considered to be perennial, although it is cultivated as an annual. This is due to the fact that the roots of the plant are not ready for wintering in harsh conditions. The peculiarity of "Night Beauty" is that sometimes buds of various shades can bloom on one stalk. It grows to a height of 70–80 cm. The stems are straight, the leaves are elongated, egg-shaped. The seeds of the plant have good germination, they retain their quality for 3 years.
Among the varieties of mirabilis jalapa, “Tea Time Formula Mixture” and “Tea Time Red” are particularly distinguished. One of them has flowers of various shades, and the second, respectively, is pink-red.
Mirabilis: planting and plant care
Mirabilis is a light and heat-loving plant, therefore, when choosing a place for planting, one should give preference to the lightest and the warmest part of the garden.
Council "Night Beauty" prefers fertile loamy soil, this should be taken into account when planting.
Watering the plant should be moderate, no more than once every three days (preferably in the evening), after the soil dries out. But the drought is perennial also poorly tolerated. In the absence of watering, the flower stops growing.
In the southern latitudes of Russia, planting Mirabilis in open ground is already in April.
Features and stages of perennial sowing:
- planting plant seeds in peat pots at home,
- choose deep pots for sowing, since the root system of Mirabilis grows deep into,
- preliminary soaking of seeds is not required, the main thing is to carefully shed the soil in the pot,
- after 7–10 days, the first shoots appear, and with good watering they turn into bushes,
- planting Mirabilis in open ground.
In the care of "Beauty Night" unpretentious. The presence of good light, fertile soil and periodic moderate watering - the main conditions for the cultivation of exotic perennial.
Draft plant is not afraid, even strong gusts of wind can not damage its thick and durable stem.
In southern America, Mirabilis grows like a wild plant, it does not require planting and self-care.
Fertilizer and perennial feeding
Before planting Mirabilis in open ground, the soil must be lime. This is done by adding wood ash and mineral fertilizer.
During the summer period, an additional perennial is fed about 3 times with mineral fertilizers about 3 times.
The result is not long in coming. The plant gives more buds, it becomes more magnificent and, as a result, more beautiful.
Plant reproduction occurs in two known ways.
- With the help of sowing seeds. Seeds of Mirabilis have good germination. Therefore, sowing is the main method of reproduction of this plant.
- Grafting is a less popular way of reproduction of Mirabilis. Nevertheless, it is also sometimes used. This option requires more effort and does not guarantee a positive result.
Instruction reproduction of Mirabilis by grafting:
- cut dry branches from the plant,
- the place where the cut was dried,
- leave cuttings in a growth stimulator,
- after a few weeks to plant the cuttings in the prepared substrate.
If you follow the instructions step by step, rooting will occur within 2 weeks.
Compositions with other plants
Mirabilis looks great in group compositions. As a combination with this exotic plant, chamomiles, marigolds, bells and anemones are suitable. Mirabilis is also wonderfully combined with fragrant tobacco, lavender and lobularia.
Depending on a grade of a mirabilis it is used in landscaping. Tall perennials are suitable as hedges. The lower ones are seated in groups, they are decorated with borders, they draw out mixborders and lawns.
Mirabilis is also suitable for decorating terraces and balconies, and lower specimens are planted in pots. Incredibly beautiful perennial in a single landing. It grows, occupying a large space.
Mirabilis - unpretentious plant, perennial. Some of its varieties are used in food or made from them paint. It is used in cosmetology and perfumery. Widely used in landscape design, it looks great as a separate planting, as well as in combination with other plants. The simplicity of growing and caring for them attracts many gardeners. A captivating and intoxicating aroma that envelops everything in the night, will not leave anyone indifferent.
Mirabilis is a herbaceous member of the family of nytagine or night-flowered. The homeland of a tropical flower is Mexico and the whole of mainland South America. It can also be found in Florida, where it grows like a wild plant.
Mirabilis loves sunshine and warm weather, but is not considered a capricious flower. Therefore, it will be an excellent option for growing novice gardeners or those who do not like to spend time on the care of decorative plantings.
The second name of the plant is night beauty, so it was christened because of an unusual feature. In the daytime, Mirabilis looks like a small green bush, but in the afternoon it is covered with bright flowers that delight the eye throughout the evening and night. By morning, all the flowers wither.
Most often, the night beauty is chosen to decorate gardens and suburban areas in warm regions and southern countries with a tropical climate. The weather conditions of the middle zone also make it possible to grow Mirabilis, but in such areas it is used as an annual: the delicate root system of the flower is not able to survive the harsh winter and simply freezes.
Despite the fact that the nightly beauty is an exotic plant, gardeners note that it is pleasant to keep it on the plots: the flower does not have a capricious disposition and does not require special care.
Mirabilis is a compact, but strong grassy bush up to 80 centimeters in height. Sometimes you can see plantings consisting of meter-long bushes. Its straight stems are densely branched and have a reddish color. As the flower grows, its lower shoots gradually become woody.
Smooth green leaves are located on the stems opposite each other, they are attached to the shoots with short petioles and have an ovate, elongated shape. The root system is tuber-like, its shape can resemble a turnip or carrot.
At the tops of the stems are located funnel flowers with various colors. In the wild, it can be crimson, lilac, white, mauve, bright orange, yellow, and even spotty or striped. Some varieties can boast a colorful color, that is, in one bush bloom inflorescences of different shades.
The flowers of Mirabilis exude a pleasant aroma with tropical notes. With it, the plant attracts nocturnal pollinating insects - hawk moths. The flowering period of the night beauty begins in mid-May and lasts until the first strong frosts. After this, the place of buds is occupied by fruit boxes, painted in dark brown color. Each of them contains one large seed, similar to an oval nut. Seeds of Mirabilis are able to remain viable for three years.
Jalapa or laxative
Mirabilis Jalapa - planting and caring for such a flower is not particularly burdensome to a florist in Russia. In countries with a less warm climate, it is also successfully grown, but only as an annual crop. The roots of the plant are not suitable for wintering in frozen soil.
This species has become widespread among flower growers around the world. He deserved his popularity by unpretentiousness and remarkable decorative properties. Branched and sprawling bush grows up to 80−100 centimeters in height, its small oblong leaves have a dark green color.
The flowers of the plant are distinguished by a bright and juicy color: yellow, purple, snow-white, pink. There are also varieties with motley petals, and bushes with buds of various colors can strike even the experienced grower.
Among all the varieties of this species is to provide:
- Tea Time Red - a gentle bush with inflorescences of red and pink tones.
- Tea Time Formula Mixture - covered with flowers of different shades.
Mirabilis laxative is characterized by long flowering, it lasts almost the entire summer season, until the autumn frosts. Seeds have excellent germination, they can be stored for about 3-4 years.
Long-flowered (Mirabilis longiflora)
Long-flowered mirabilis - herbaceous perennial, whose height primarily depends on the conditions of detention and can be 50-150 centimeters.
On its thin, erect stems, petioled leaves of bright green color are attached. Their length can reach 12 centimeters, and the egg-shaped sheet plate has a sharp tip and a prominent central vein of a light shade. The lateral veins are not so bright on the surface of the leaf.
At the tips of the stems and in the axils of the foliage, compact buds are formed, from which tubular flowers with five petals and a pale corolate bloom. Flower bases protect green cups. Stamens look like curly light purple threads, and their length often exceeds the length of the bud itself.
Flowers open at dusk and fill the garden with a delicate scent. Sunrise provokes the folding of petals, which are most often painted white.
The homeland of this species is the southwestern states of the United States, so the plant belongs to the heat-loving crops. But many experienced growers have become accustomed to growing such flowers in climatic zones, where the temperature often drops to 29 degrees below zero.
Planting Mirabilis in open ground is necessary only when the probability of the return of night frosts is zero. In the middle lane and the suburbs to sow plants for seedlings begin in April, then the grown sprouts can be planted in a flower bed already in mid-May. At the same time, they are engaged in planting rhizome-tubers.
Growing from seed
Mirabilis should be grown from seedlings to start admiring its flowering as soon as possible. Seed material is first soaked and germinated so that the flowers go faster in growth:
- Wet sponge, cotton, napkins or cosmetic discs are placed in the container.
- Spread the seed material on the sponge and cover it with a damp cloth.
- The container is placed in a plastic bag or covered with a piece of film, and then moved to a warm place.
- Periodically, the seeds are ventilated until the roots are opened.
Sprouted seeds are planted in individual pots or plastic cups. Any soil will do, the main thing is that it should be light and loose. For planting it is recommended to use the following instructions:
- Fill the container with soil half.
- Deepen the seeds in the ground for 5−10 millimeters.
- Abundantly watered landing.
- Place containers in plastic bags, you can also cover them with a piece of glass or film.
- Remove the container in a warm place, after the appearance of the first shoots rearranged to a well-lit window sill.
After planting, the seeds can be poured not with plain water, but with a solution of phytosporin. It will accelerate germination and increase immunity.
Transplantation in open ground
Pre-germinated seeds sprout very quickly. After the appearance of small sprouts immediately go into growth and will actively develop. Caring for seedlings is regular watering as the land dries.
Night beauty will take root well even on loamy and clay soils - the main thing is that they are not too sour.
For transplantation into the open ground is to pick a sunny place, otherwise the plants will not bloom, and their shoots will begin to stretch. This will adversely affect the appearance of Mirabilis and deprive it of its decorative qualities.
It is also worth considering that this flower is quite aggressive. He is prone to rapid growth and is able to push out and crush the neighbors in the flower bed. Night beauty is better to plant on the hills, where it will not be able to flood the water after the rains.
Landing is made according to the standard plan:
- Seedlings plentifully watered with settled water to make plants easier to extract from old tanks.
- While they are soaked, a flowerbed is being prepared. For this, they dig it up and make small planting holes.
- Seedlings are placed in the pits along with the old earthen clod, sprinkled with soil and lightly tamped down to the stability of flowers, watered with a small amount of water.
- If the air is still not quite warm, you can cover the seedlings with cut plastic bottles.
It is recommended to land in cloudy weather. Experienced growers say that in such conditions, plants take root much faster.
New plants can be obtained using vegetative propagation methods, but their growers are rarely used, since Mirabilis is excellently grown from seed. Tubers for planting can be dug from your site or purchased in a store for gardeners.
Store the roots in dry sawdust or river sand in a room with an air temperature of 5-7 degrees. In spring, the tubers are allowed to germinate a little and are planted in a flower bed. It should be borne in mind that this method of reproduction is not very reliable, since during the winter the planting material may dry out and die.
Если семян и корней мирабилиса нет, но очень хочется получить новые растения, со старых с помощью острого ножа срезают полуодревесневшие стебли и используют для посадки. The cuttings are dried during the day, after which they are placed in a solution of a growth stimulator, for example, Kornevin.
Shoots are planted in the nutrient soil, where they take root in 14−20 days, if you follow all the recommendations for their content:
- The soil should be regularly moistened.
- Keep seedlings at an air temperature of 20−24 degrees heat.
- To accelerate the growth of the root system, you can lay a thick towel on the battery and put a container with cuttings on it.
This method is effective, it stimulates the growth and development of roots. They are often used by experienced gardeners.
Upon the occurrence of favorable weather conditions, rooted stems are planted on the garden bed.
Care for adult mirabilis
Night beauty - undemanding plant, it is a completely independent flower. It is enough to provide it with regular watering, dressing and timely loosen the bed for weeding from weeds.
The lack of moisture leads to the fact that the flower stops the formation of buds and refuses to bloom. In order for the bush to please others with its bright and luxurious inflorescences, it is necessary to regularly moisten the ground after the top layer dries.
For the entire summer season, it is enough to fertilize the night beauty 3-4 times. As feedings should be used ready-made mineral complexes for flowering plants. Organic fertilizers will not suit her, as they significantly acidify the soil.
This flower has an enviable immunity to various diseases and almost no interest in pests. In rare cases, it can "pick up" rust, which appears on the foliage in the form of red and brown spots. When this disease is detected, all infected leaves should be cut off, and the plants treated with fungicides.
Too wet soil can lead to rotting of the root system. Then the affected roots will have to be removed, and the number of waterings reduced. With proper care, Mirabilis will always delight gardeners with its unusual and beautiful flowering.
Mirabilis flower - description
Night beauty is a perennial plantwhich is grown in the garden as an annual.
Bushes rounded in height grow from thirty to eighty centimeters. They have tuberous, swollen roots, reddish, densely branched, upright stems and green, entire, elongate-ovate, located on the leaf stalks.
Voronkovidnye flowers purple, yellow, orange, purple, crimson, white or bright red in diameter reach twenty-five millimeters. But the flowers of the Night Beauty can be not only monotonous, there are varieties with two or even tricolor buds. On one bush can form and bloom flowers of different colors. After flowering on bushes, dark brown single-seeded large fruits with sharp ribs ripen. If they are collected and dried, the seeds will retain their germination for three years.
The plant is between thirty and eighty centimeters tall and is distinguished by strongly branched, upright shoots that are covered with bright green large leaves. At the beginning of summer, on the stems, scaly inflorescences are formed, consisting of funnel-shaped flowers of red, yellow, white or pink color. Popular varieties:
- T Time Red - variety with flowers of rich pink color, dark green oval-oblong leaves and very branchy stems.
- Elvira - a medium-sized bush with bright, rather large flowers, oblong, dark green leaves and branchy smooth stems.
- Red candy - The plant up to eighty centimeters has branchy light green stems, wavy oval leaves and bright red funnel-shaped flowers at the edges.
- Iolanthe - small shrub up to fifty centimeters in height from late June to the very frost blooms with bright flowers, the rim of which is decorated with stripes.
Growing mirabilis from seed
Night beauty can be grown seedling and seedless, but in any case, you must first prepare the planting material.
To do this, the hard shell of the seeds should be rubbed with an emery paper or a needle file, after which they should be held for 24 hours in a thermos with warm water.
Planting in open ground
In late April or early May, seeds are sown in beds with fertile or loamy soil. If the soil is sour, then before planting the plant is lime. It is not recommended to grow Mirabilis on wet soils and in lowlands, because it does not like excess moisture.
Before sowing on a dug-up bed, grooves are made with a distance of seven to eight centimeters from each other. Seeds are buried to a depth of three centimeters, sprinkled with earth and sprinkled with warm water from a watering can with a shower head. From above the crops are covered with a film or non-woven material. When the seedlings appear and the threat of frost is over, the shelter is removed and the seedlings are thinned.
For the cultivation of mirabilis from seeds at home, the seeds are sown in early or mid-April. It is necessary to prepare weakly alkaline or neutral light soil, mixing for this:
- compost or humus - 1 part,
- peat - 2 parts,
- sod land - 2 parts
- washed sand - ½ parts.
To every five liters of the resulting soil mixture, add two tablespoons of dolomite flour or half a glass of ash.
Prepared for planting seed cups семян volume filled with a substrate that must be watered with a solution of any fungicidal drug. In a moist soil is placed two seeds and sprinkled them with a soil mixture of one and a half centimeters. Landings from above are sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle and covered with film or glass. Seed tanks are placed in a warm place with air temperature from +18 to +20 degrees.
Care of crops consists in moistening the soil if necessary. Every day for a few minutes you need to raise the glass to ventilate the ground.
In about five days, shoots will begin to appear. Shelter should be immediately removed and put the seedlings in a bright place where direct sunlight does not fall.
After appearing on young plants of the first true leaf, the seedlings need to be thinned out. For this, a weak seedling is removed. But in order not to damage the root system of the remaining plant, the seedling is not pulled, but pinched off or cut off near the ground itself. After thinning the seedlings are fed with fertilizer Fortress, Fertika, Mortar. You can use any other fertilizer intended for seedlings.
In the future, care for the plant at home is only to moisten the soil. Since Mirabilis does not tolerate overwetting, the bushes should be watered only after the ground is completely dry.
Grown up to ten to fifteen centimeters of plants transplanted into large pots. In order not to damage the delicate roots of the flower, transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment. To make plants easier to survive stress, they are immediately fed with complex mineral fertilizers.
When the seedlings recover from the transplant and go back to growth, they begin to harden, gradually accustoming them to the open air. To do this in the afternoon in warm weather you need to make the plants in the garden or on the balcony. On the first day on the air, you need to hold the flowers for about an hour, and then every day the time spent on the air increases. For planting in open ground plants in the garden or on the balcony should be already within a day.
Planting seedlings in open ground
When the threat of frost has passed and the soil warms up, the nightly beauty is planted in flower beds in the garden. The plant is thermophilic, so the soil should warm up well.
As mirabilis grow rapidly, they need to prepare enough space for them, otherwise they will “crush” nearby growing cultures. Between the rows of plants should be from forty to fifty centimeters.
A few hours before planting, the soil in the pots is well watered. The wells for Mirabilis do a little more in volume than the roots of a plant along with an earthy clod. The bushes are carefully removed from the peas along with the soil and placed in prepared holes. Roots sprinkled with soil mixture and watered.
Reproduction by cuttings
The cuttings are carried out in July or August, when the tops of shoots about ten centimeters long are cut from the bushes. Inflorescences are removed from the stems and cuttings are planted before planting with Kornevine or another root formation stimulator. Planted cuttings in containers filled a mixture of sand and peat (1: 1). Until spring, they must be kept in a bright, cool room, where the positive temperature is maintained. At the end of May or in June, when the soil in the garden warms up, the rooted cuttings are planted on the flowerbed. In the soil they need to be buried to the first two leaves.
This method of reproduction is rarely used, since plants grown from parts of a tuber may lose their decorative effect. Tubers are divided in April or May. Use for this should be a sterile sharp knife. Each delenka should have at least two to three buds. Before planting, be sure to sprinkle the sections with a mixture of sulfur and crushed coal (1: 1).
In the prepared bed, the tubers are planted so that the root collar is three to five centimeters deep in the soil. Watering should be done only after the soil dries out, otherwise in too wet soil the tubers will start to rot.
An unpretentious flower of care Mirabilis or Night Beauty in the evening and at night decorates the garden with its bright, colorful, fragrant flowers, and during the day - bright green shoots that can be an excellent background on a flower bed for other flowering plants.