For those who do not know how to grow asparagus from seed, the article will help to understand the intricacies of this business and the peculiarities of vegetable culture care. To begin with, asparagus is incredibly popular in Europe, America, and southeast Asia. The piquant taste of dishes prepared by chefs from long, tender stalks has been there. Now, in our country, many fans of appetizing dietary vegetables have appeared, and, therefore, those who would like to grow them on their own in the garden. By the way, asparagus quickly adapted to our climate, and breeders can boast excellent domestic varieties.
They use young, slightly underdeveloped stems-pods, which are tasty not only boiled and baked, but even fresh-cut, when they are juicy and crispy. It seems strange that once in our country asparagus was used only as an element in the design of floral bouquets. Only occasionally in pre-revolutionary Russia exotic dishes from it were served on the bar table.
Vegetable is famous not only for its taste and dietary qualities. It contains a whole list of vitamins, including group B, as well as a variety of useful trace elements and the amino acid asparagine. The use of asparagus expands peripheral blood vessels, normalizes blood pressure and cardiac muscle, and has a positive effect on liver tissue. In addition, long succulent stalks in any form shown in diabetes, gout and kidney disease. That is why many are wondering: how to grow asparagus from seed at home?
And the demand for green vegetables is largely determined by the fact that it germinates in early spring, when the body is deficient in vitamins, and fresh greens have not yet gone.
Certain difficulties of self-cultivation are suggestive of whether it is possible and how to grow asparagus from seeds. Tips gardeners are primarily that it is necessary to collect the vegetable daily, not allowing perestaivaniya young shoots. Further, the whole season will require a large amount of special feeding and organic fertilizers.
The third tip: you should stock in advance first-class seeds. The fact is that asparagus is not divided from the roots, and mature specimens do not survive after transplantation. The only option left is growing a seed culture. Interestingly, this perennial plant is considered a seedling for a very long time - two or three years. In order to learn how to grow asparagus from seeds in a country house or garden, according to all the rules and with a good result, it is necessary to separate the weed and organic fertilized bed for planting crops.
Planting of prepared seeds is carried out in June, and throughout the summer the bed is loosened and watered. When shoots seem, ammonium nitrate is fertilized at the rate of 10 grams of solution per square meter of soil. Re-feeding is carried out after 3 weeks. The next year after wintering the plant blooms.
Perennial and resistant plant
Before answering the question of how to grow asparagus from seed, you need to at least learn a little about the culture itself. Asparagus is a large enough perennial plant that can reach a height of about two meters. Although it does not have leaves, the long shoots are very branched, and the fibrous roots are huge.
The vegetable blooms with inconspicuous flowers and has beautiful red fruits. Since asparagus is a dioecious plant, male and female flowers are present on various bushes. If you properly care for it, then the harvest from one specimen can be obtained within 15-20 and even more years; therefore, it can rightly be considered as green as a long-lived asparagus.
And even if you wondered about how to grow asparagus from seeds in the garden, it would be useful to know that this is a very resistant and hardy plant. Even with our frosts, you can not cover it for the winter and do not do pruning, if you do not have time to date. Subject to the other rules, the harvest will be provided.
Asparagus growing conditions
If you decide to plant asparagus for decorative purposes, then it’s enough just to plant it, and it grows by itself. But the cultivation of tender shoots for eating is different, so it is necessary to create special conditions for the plant. Namely:
- Loose, fertilized soil is needed. Well, if on your site it is sandy. With a lack of nutrients, the asparagus stalks will grow thin and coarse-fibered.
- In no case should the soil be acidic, otherwise the plant will not take root.
- The pledge of a good and tasty harvest is abundant watering, with a lack of moisture, asparagus will be hard and bitter to the taste. But the proximity of groundwater she does not like.
- Planting beds should be located in a sunny place, although a small shade does not hurt the plants too much.
- Annual mulching will ensure active growth of succulent shoots.
To learn how to grow asparagus from seeds, it is necessary to take into account that the roots of this vegetable grow greatly and lie almost at the surface of the soil. Every year they grow from above, and the lower parts die off, so gradually the bush along with the root system rises above, to the surface. That is why there is a need for annual mulching, that is, covering the soil at the roots, which prevents drying, overheating and overcooling of plants.
Growing asparagus: how to grow asparagus from seed, planting and care
The easiest way to plant Asparagus - landing seeds. Such seeds can be purchased at any specialty store. Asparagus seeds are large enough, and their seeding will not cause any difficulties.
Asparagus is planted in early spring. Seeds are sown in light moist soil. The substrate should consist of equal parts of fertile land and sand. Seeds sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. Then the container is covered on top with glass or transparent film. Capacity with seeded Asparagus is removed in a room with room temperature and sufficient light. If excess condensation appears on the glass, the glass must be removed for a short time. The first shoots of Asparagus will be visible in a month.
Location and lighting at home
Asparagus - very photophilous plant, so he prefers a rather lighted place. However, it is necessary to avoid direct sunlight on the plant. In particular, this applies to the summer period, when the day is especially long.
A pot with Asparagus will feel good on the east and west side. If the plant is placed on the south side, then is necessary Apply and create diffused lighting to avoid direct sunlight. In summer, Asparagus can be taken out into the open air, also placing in partial shade.
Pot size for Asparagus directly depends on the type of plant. If the plant was purchased in a store, then it is better to immediately transplant it into a new pot. But so that it differs slightly in size from the previous one, so you should not pick up a pot for Asparagus with a reserve.
Otherwise, it can lead to acidification of the soil and the death of the plant. The shape of the pot also does not play any role. This most often depends on where Asparagus will be located or on decorative preferences. Some types of Asparagus look very attractive in:
- hanging pots,
- miniature pots on window sills,
- large pots standing on the floor.
Asparagus is very unpretentious in terms of soil. Part of the land can be taken from the garden or garden, add a part of deciduous soil, which can be taken in the forest or park. In the mixture, you can add a little coarse sand, which will betray the fragmentation of the substrate.
This mixture of soil provides Asparagus with all necessary nutrients, and also promotes moisture and air to circulate freely. It would be nice if you put a thin layer of pieces on the bottom of the pot charcoal. This will prevent rotting in the soil and the development of fungal diseases. Thus, compliance with the composition of the soil will significantly affect the health of the plant.
Transplant and care after her
Before proceeding with the transplant, is necessary Prepare a new pot and soil in advance. Then Asparagus is carefully removed from the container without damaging the root system. You can knock on the walls of the pot, turn it over and carefully remove the earthen room.
If after such a procedure, the plant is still difficult to remove, then it is necessary to water the soil so that it becomes soaked. A small stone or claydite as a drainage is poured at the bottom of the new pot, which will allow the water to flow freely in the water and not stagnate in the pot.
Next, a layer of substrate is poured into the pot. At Asparagus carefully looking at the root system, removing damaged roots. From the roots shake off the old soil. Then the plant is placed in a new pot, gently straightening the root system. The soil is gradually sprinkled on top. It is impossible to accept the soil, but it is not worth leaving air voids. The final stage of transplantation will be watering Asparagus. warm water infused After transplantation, the plant must be placed in a shaded place for a couple of days.
Fertilizers and fertilizing - the key to successful cultivation
Care and cultivation of asparagus also requires regular feeding. During the intensive growth of Asparagus during irrigation in water it is necessary to add concentrated fertilizers. The frequency with which the plant should be fed depends on the time of year and the state of Asparagus itself.
Normally plants start feed up in early spring, and finish dressing in late autumn. In winter, when there is a period of rest for Asparagus, it is not recommended to feed the plant, and watering itself should be reduced. In the summer, when Asparagus is on the street, it can be fed with organic fertilizers. Good chicken droppings.
It is also worth remembering that the first two months after transplanting Asparagus should not be fed. During feeding it is necessary strictly observe the concentration, following the instructions on the package, otherwise you can burn the root system of the plant.
The main pest of Asparagus, like most houseplants, is a spider mite. If time does not begin to fight the parasite, then it can destroy the plant. This pest multiplies pretty quickly. For this he needs a high temperature. Spider mite feeds on plant juice. It basically hides on the back of the leaves.
First sign of presence spider mite will change the color of the leaves of Asparagus. They will turn yellow and begin to dry out a bit. Between the leaves you can see a small cobweb. On the leaves of the plant also appear small white cotton spots.
When attacking a pest, Asparagus leaves must be wiped. soap solution. If this method does not help, you can ask for help from insecticides. But it is worth remembering that Asparagus does not tolerate treatment with chemicals, so it is best to avoid plant infection with spider mites, observing the conditions of temperature.
Cultivation of asparagus in open ground
But how to plant and grow asparagus in the open field?
- When to plant in open ground? Asparagus should be planted in open ground in early June. In open ground, the plant will feel great in well-lit and windless places, it is desirable to plant it near the walls or the fence.
- Since asparagus does not like overmoistening the soil, it should not be planted in places where high groundwater lies. The choice of asparagus planting in the open ground must be approached as responsibly as possible, since this crop can grow in one place for up to 25 years.
- How to pick up the primer? The best soil for asparagus will be a mixture of rich and fertile sandy loam soil. The land for planting asparagus in the open field must be started in autumn. First of all, the site must be cleared of weeds and dig up to a depth of 50 cm with the introduction of compost, superphosphate and potassium sulfate. In the spring, when the snow melts, this area must be harrowed with simultaneous addition of ammonium nitrate and wood ash to each square meter.
- How to plant asparagus in open ground? Before planting asparagus in an open field on a prepared plot, it is necessary to make holes 30 cm deep and 40 cm wide on it. The holes must be 1 m apart from each other. The soil in the groove is loosened to a depth of 20 cm.
- After that, at the bottom of the hole, you can pour a hill of loose soil of such a height that it reaches the edges of the hole. An asparagus seedling is planted on the obtained mound, but it is necessary to shorten its root to 3 cm, then fill the hole with soil, compact it well, then pour it. When water is absorbed into the soil, the well must be mulched with dry earth.
Whatever the care and maintenance, at home is very difficult achieve flowering of Asparagus, even if all necessary conditions are met. But if you manage to achieve flowering plants, the flowers look pretty nondescript.
Outwardly, it is very small white flowersthat are formed on the upper segment of the shoots. After some time, after artificial pollination, the flowers are formed into small red fruits that resemble an orange in flavor. Avoid getting these berries in the hands of small children, because Asparagus fruits are poisonous.
There are three main breeding methods for asparagus:
- The division of the bush. This method is best used in the spring during plant transplantation. Depending on the size of Asparagus, it can be divided into several parts, each of which must be planted in a separate pot. The division of the bush is less traumatic for the whole plant.
- Cuttings. Propagation by cuttings must be made in early spring. The cutting stalk must be not less than 10 cm in length. River sand is used to root the shoot. The container in which the cutting is planted must be covered with plastic wrap in order to preserve as much moisture as possible. Then the plant is placed in a room with a temperature not lower than 20 degrees. Asparagus takes root with this method in a month, after which it is transplanted into a separate pot.
- Asparagus fruits produce seeds. Seed collection must be carried out from January to March. Sow seeds immediately after harvest. Seeds are sown in the soil of peat and river sand. The container with the seeds sown covered with a transparent film and placed in a room with a temperature not lower than 22 degrees. A month later, new shoots appear, which need to be transplanted in a separate pot in June.
Plant toxicity / beneficial properties
Asparagus berries are poisonous, so the plant should be placed away or higher so that its fruits are not accessible to young children.
Growing Asparagus Seeds
Asparagus is one of the most useful, tasty and expensive crops. Asparagus also belongs to the early vegetables and harvest begins in April, like rhubarb. Collected young shoots can be eaten raw or steamed, as well as on the grill or in the oven.
Consider how to grow asparagus in the garden, and what conditions and rules must be observed.
What you need to grow
When choosing a place for planting, it is necessary to give preference to a place that is sunny and protected from the wind; you can even arrange a garden bed at the back of the garden.
Note: Culture can be considered a long-liver in the garden, since it can live for 20-25 years in one area without a transplant.
For planting seeds, it is necessary to prepare pits with a size of 30 * 30 cm, in which a mixture of rotted manure, soil and garden compost should be added (Figure 1).
Sowing seeds can be done in early spring, but the fastest harvest can be obtained from a young plant or its root, which can always be purchased at a gardening shop. Planting plants carried out at a distance of 40-45cm from each other.
During the growing season for asparagus care is very simple:
- Hand weeding,
- Fertilizer plants before and after fruiting (rotted manure or chicken droppings),
- Autumn mulching, which will consist of a thick layer of natural materials (leaf humus, sawdust, shredded bark, etc.),
- Before mulching, yellowed greens should be cut off at the root.
Harvesting the first harvest can begin with plants that have reached the age of three. Cut off the shoots with a length of 15-20 cm from the ground level and for 4-6 weeks since the beginning of fruiting. Однако побеги более взрослых растений можно собирать на протяжении 8-10 недель. Для сбора урожая необходимо использовать специальный нож, которым можно с легкостью срезать побеги на глубине до 2 см под почвой или отламывать их на уровне земли.
Спаржу в грунт ранней весной следует высаживать до образования на ней почек. During planting, soil is fertilized with ordinary humus (consumption per square meter of soil is about 10 kg of humus). The rhizomes are neatly placed in a pre-prepared trench about 30 cm deep and then filled with earth (Figure 2).
Note: Backfilling should be carried out so that the plant is planted in the recess. Such planting rhizomes significantly simplify watering the beds.
After planting, the asparagus should be watered abundantly. The optimum distance between the trenches is considered to be a gap of at least 60 cm, since the bushes will grow with age. Plants in a row are recommended to plant at intervals of 30 cm for normal growth and development in the future.
It is necessary to dig up the soil for the autumn planting and fertilize it well, and add the following elements to 1 sq. M of soil area:
- Superphosphate (60 grams),
- Potassium sulfate (about 30 grams),
- Ammonium sulphate (20 grams).
When planting asparagus for the winter, it is not necessary to deepen it, but on the contrary, a low mound should be formed above it, which will be able to protect the root system from the winter cold. The distance between the plants can be left as during the spring planting. In order to obtain seeds, it is necessary to plant at least 2 plants, but better still more so that they can pollinate among themselves. The number of planted plants is due to the fact that only male or female flowers can grow in a single instance.
Asparagus is not an exception among other crops that are grown in the garden or in greenhouses, and also needs care, consisting of fertilizers and soil loosening, as well as timely watering (Figure 3).
Watering should be carried out systematically and in small portions. One of the key points is the fact that it is absolutely impossible to prevent stagnation of water, as this can destroy the plant. However, the drying of the soil also does not benefit the culture, so the soil should be moderately wet all the time.
Loosening the soil should be carried out immediately after watering and weeding (at least 7-8 times per season). The amount of the harvested crop depends significantly on the fertilizer applied and therefore feeding must be carried out before planting, as well as continued throughout the growing season.
Figure 3. Features of planting care
In the autumn, before the onset of stable frosts, all old stalks (young and old bushes) should be removed from the beds, and the bottom of the plants should be tucked up and covered with peat (1.5 square meters per bucket) or compost. When sheltering the lower part of the plant, a mound should be made up to 5 cm high around the horse system, which will help protect the plant from frost.
In the second and third year of life, it is necessary to feed the plant with complex mineral fertilizer (nitrogen, potash and phosphate), consuming up to 30 grams of the drug per square meter of soil.
With the onset of the spring period, you can proceed to the preparation of planting material. At the beginning of April, it is worthwhile to start soaking the seeds, while they are placed in warm water containing a growth stimulator and left in it for two days.
Prepared seeds should be sown in light soil, which will consist of two parts of garden soil and one part of sand, manure and peat. Upon completion of planting, the soil is moistened with a spray gun, since the ground should not be allowed to dry out. You can also cover the container with glass, which also prevents the soil from drying out (Figure 4).
For good seed growth requires a stable temperature (+ 25-27 degrees) and daily ventilation of the tank. During seed ventilation, wipe the glass from the container and turn it over each time.
Seeds give the first shoots after 6 weeks after sowing, and it is worth to be patient in anticipation of the appearance of young bushes. It is possible to transplant plants to a permanent place not earlier than mid-June.
Asparagus should be planted in early spring before her kidneys start to grow. The soil at spring planting is fertilized with humus (10 kg per 1 m²). The distance between the rows is not less than 60 cm (as the bushes will grow over time), in the row - at least 30 cm, that is, try to place no more than 3-4 plants per 1 m².
The rhizomes are neatly placed in a trench about 30 cm deep and fall asleep in such a way that they appear to be in a recess: watering is greatly simplified. Immediately after planting, the asparagus must be watered abundantly.
The plot for the autumn planting should be thoroughly dug and fertilized, adding 1 m² of soil:
- 60 g of superphosphate,
- about 30 grams of potassium sulfate,
- 20 g of ammonium sulphate.
Planting asparagus before winter, it is not buried, but rather forms a low mound above it to protect the roots from the winter cold. The distance between the plants - as in the spring planting.
In this video, the process of planting asparagus is shown in detail:
Consider: if you want to get asparagus seeds, it is advisable to plant at least 2 (or more) plants.
Asparagus in winter
This universal vegetable crop is successfully cultivated not only in summer, but also in winter (in greenhouses) and in spring (in greenhouses). So let's talk about growing asparagus in the winter-spring period in more detail.
You can get asparagus in winter and early spring by forcing shoots from the rhizomes of adult 5-6-year-old plants:
- in October, the rhizomes of plants must be dug out and removed to the basement until December, the temperature in which is maintained at 0 to + 2 ° C
- around the beginning of December, asparagus rhizomes need to be planted in a greenhouse, in small containers, tightly pressed against each other, trying to place at least 18-20 pcs per 1 m². From above they are filled with overflow (about 20 cm), the containers are additionally covered with black film,
- The first week in the greenhouse is kept at about + 10 ° C, but as soon as the roots start to grow, it is raised to + 18 ° C. It is necessary to maintain the temperature regime for about 2 months - all the time while the harvest lasts.
And in the comments to this question an interesting old way of growing asparagus is described - steam.
It consists in timely watering, fertilizer and loosening the soil.
It is necessary to water in small portions, systematically. The main thing - to prevent the stagnation of water, asparagus can not stand it. However, the slightest drying of the soil also does not benefit her. Loosening is desirable to carry out after each irrigation, but not less than 7-8 times per season.
Water asparagus is necessary in small portions, systematically
The yield of asparagus is directly dependent on nutrition, so fertilizing begins before planting and continues throughout the life of the plant:
- humus (10 kg per 1 m²) is introduced into the soil during spring planting,
- 60 g of superphosphate, about 30 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of ammonium sulphate are in the autumn for 1 m²,
- a month after planting, the soil is spilled with a mullein diluted with water (in a ratio of 1: 5),
- Every year after harvesting (around the end of June), plants must be fed (30 g of superphosphate, potash salt and urea) per square meter (30 m²) and broken up (leveling the ridges). Thanks to such measures, we will give asparagus the opportunity to develop the stems and build up weight, so that enough nutrients accumulate in the rhizomes by winter,
- At the time of flowering, periodic preventive spraying with a systemic insecticide is necessary. This simple procedure will help deter pests,
- By July, when the asparagus begins to grow again, it must be fed again with mineral or organic fertilizers. For example, bird droppings bred in water (1:10),
- the fourth (last) seasonal dressing should be carried out with a special complex fertilizer around the end of October (before the first frost). So, in order to stop the growth of asparagus, superphosphate and potassium salt can be applied to the soil (30 g per 1 m²).
In the autumn, before the arrival of frosts, all the stems need to be removed (this also applies to young and old bushes), spud the lower part of the plants and cover with peat or compost about 5 cm in height (1.5 buckets per 1 m²) - this way you will save the asparagus from freezing.
The first food shoots appear on asparagus only in the fourth year of life. And they need to be broken out only when they begin to lift the crust of the soil. As a rule, the harvest begins in May, and if the spring was early, then from the first decade of April.
The first food shoots appear on asparagus only in the fourth year of life.
Carefully rake the ground where the cracks have appeared, and, upon finding the seedling, cut it off at the base, trying not to damage the young shoots and rhizomes. It is necessary to cut off all the seedlings: this will only contribute to enhancing the growth of new ones. Formed after cutting the hole must be covered with earth again.
In the first year of fruiting, cleaning should not be stretched for more than a month, so as not to weaken the young rhizomes once again. The collection of seedlings from old plants must be completed by the end of June. The warmer it gets outside, the faster asparagus starts to grow. But as soon as its shoots appear on the surface of the earth, they lose their taste, being painted in dark pink or purple. To prevent this, harvest twice a day: early in the morning and late in the evening. At a temperature of about + 15 ° C, you need to collect asparagus every 2-3 days.
In the first year of fruiting, do not stretch the cleaning more than a month, so as not to weaken the young rhizomes
If you use beautiful green asparagus to arrange bouquets, do not cut all the branches from one shrub: this can be detrimental to the plant. And collect the seeds only when the berries become rich red color.
About asparagus seeds and proper planting
Asparagus seeds are large, black, in a protective sheath. Before using them (usually for planting in the garden this is the beginning of June) they are soaked for three days in a solution of manganese, changing it several times, or in ordinary water, also periodically replacing it with fresh water. This procedure will accelerate the emergence of seedlings. After that, the seeds spread on a wet cloth until germination. It takes about one week.
So, how to grow asparagus from seed? The photo shows a variant of early seed germination at home, when each seed is planted in a separate pot. This is best done in April-May. If you sow directly on the beds, then to get a good harvest, germinated seeds are laid to a depth of 3 cm in the ground, placing them 5 cm apart from each other in a row.
The distance between the rows is kept at least 20 centimeters, otherwise it will be inconvenient to thin out the stretched saplings. And it is necessary to do this immediately after the appearance of the first shoots, since the roots of asparagus grow quickly, and it is impossible to pull them out of the soil without damaging the neighbors.
Care for asparagus sprouts
Caring for the young shoots of asparagus is traditional for most vegetable crops - this is top dressing, weeding, watering and loosening the land. At the time of emergence, they are fed with ammonium nitrate, and 3 weeks after that - they are fertilized with liquid manure.
Already in September, in the first year of life, seedlings have 2-3 stems. Peat and compost will be an excellent mulch for the plant for the winter. And gardeners have enough time to prepare permanent beds for asparagus transplants.
Preparation of a constant bed
Preparation of a permanent bed for asparagus is carried out in several stages. Autumn digging should be deep enough - 35 centimeters, and spring digging is accompanied by manure (10 square meters of fertilizer per 1 square meter). Mineral formulations can be applied in the fall, or just before planting the seeds. In this case, 1 square meter of soil will require: 3 g of potassium salt, 2 g of ammonium sulfate, 5 g of superphosphate. You can use ready-made complex fertilizers.
Planting seedlings on a permanent bed
How to grow asparagus from seed, you already know. And how are they planted seedlings on permanent beds? To do this, in the soil make furrows about 40 centimeters in width and depth, keeping the distance between them a meter and a half. At the bottom lay a layer of rotted manure and a roller of humus 5-7 centimeters thick, on which the seedlings are placed. It is important to straighten the branched roots so that they do not bully upwards.
The distance between individual seedlings should be at least 40 centimeters. In the process of growth of asparagus, the furrow will level off due to the ground spilling. In addition to summer feedings in September, when the growing season ends, the plants will need potassium and phosphorus. Every 5 years the soil is fertilized with organic matter, for example, rotted manure. Mulching is carried out in the winter, after cutting the stems.
When to plant asparagus and its care methods.
Seedlings are grown from seeds planted in seedlings or sown in open ground. Care for future seedlings is based on timely watering, removal of weeds and loosening the soil.
Note: Proper care of the seedlings makes it possible to get fully formed plants by autumn that will have strong rhizomes and several shoots (3-5) with a height of about 25-40 cm.
Before the onset of frost, it is necessary to cut above-ground shoots to a level of 10 cm from the surface of the soil and in this form leave the plants for the winter. With the onset of spring, seedlings need to dig and plant in a permanent place. When selecting a suitable place, the area near the wall or along the fence is best suited, due to the longevity of the plant.
Figure 4. Planting and growing technology
The allotted area in the autumn is cleared of weeds and evenly distribute organic fertilizers (15-20 kg per sq. M.) On the surface of the soil, after which the soil is dug deep. In spring, seedlings are planted in the beds, where rows are placed at a distance of 70 cm from each other. Seedlings are placed in dug holes 30 cm deep and 40 cm in diameter, at the bottom of which a mound of humus is made. Seedlings are planted in it, and the height of the mound should be equal to the edges of the hole.
Note: If during the autumn period a sufficient amount of organic fertilizer was applied to the soil, then you can not pour the humus into the wells and replace it with loose soil.
Before planting, the seedlings are shortened and the roots are made 3-4 cm long. In the hole, the roots are evenly distributed over the mound and sprinkled with a layer of soil 5-7 cm thick, then compacted and watered. Upon completion of water absorption should be done mulching the soil. During the summer, you can make a few fertilizers nitrogen fertilizer (25 g / sq.m.). With the onset of the autumn period of aisle, it is necessary to dig up and cut off dried stems 10 cm above ground level. Caring for biennial plants is the same as in the first. Aisle can be sown with watercress, radish or vegetable beans.
From the video you will learn how to plant asparagus in the fall.
What should be
The optimal soil for growing asparagus should be fertile, enriched and sandy. Preparatory work with the site begins in the autumn period and carry out a number of such actions:
- Cleared of weeds,
- Dig up to a depth of 50 cm,
- Fertilizers are applied with the calculation of 1 square meter. - compost (15-20 kg), superphosphate (70g), potassium sulfate (40g).
With the onset of spring heat, the plot is harrowed and at the same time ammonium nitrate, 20 g each, and 60 grams of wood ash are applied to each square meter.
Before direct landing on the site make the hole with a depth of 30 cm and a width of 40 cm, which must be located at a distance of 60-70 cm from each other. The bottom of the furrow must be loosened to a depth of 20 cm and then pour a hill of loose soil, which should reach the edges of the hole.
A sapling is placed on a rolled up hill, but its roots are first shortened to 3-4 cm and then covered with a hole in the soil. Land compulsory compaction and watering. When water is absorbed, the area is mulched.
Asparagus is not whimsical culture and care for it consists of the usual procedures for any gardener: irrigation, loosening, weeding and fertilizing with fertilizer. Loosening the soil around the plants is carried out to a depth of 6-8 cm, while trying not to damage the root system.
For the first two years, it is recommended to grow various green crops in between rows.
In the summer, spend a few dressings planted culture. To do this, you can alternate mineral and organic fertilizers (solution of mullein or poultry manure).
Good seedling development is confirmed by the presence of 2-4 stems on the plant by early August. With the first frost approaching, it is necessary to cut off all the shoots and cover the roots with a layer of humus (5-8 cm) or leaf ground, which will prevent their freezing.
To accelerate the growth of shoots, it is necessary to add a slurry solution (in the ratio of 1 part of the slurry and 6 parts of water) to the soil after the first weeding. After a period of three weeks, the bed is fed with a solution of bird droppings (1 part litter per 10 parts water).
The final dressing is applied before the start of frosts, using complex mineral fertilizers. It is also worth remembering that if you have fertilized the soil before planting, then you need to apply top dressing only in the second year.
How to grow asparagus at home on the windowsill
Аспарагусы, растущие на подоконниках, являются представителями рода овощной спаржи, но относятся к другим видам. Домашняя спаржа является ближайшим родственником овощей.
На фотографиях со спаржей в открытом грунте можно увидеть, что они растут в садах с теплым климатом и наши суровые зимы они не выдержат. To grow a full-fledged crop on a windowsill, you need a lot of space for their roots, and such an undertaking may be unsuccessful.
How to grow asparagus in the garden
Before starting the planting work, it is necessary to determine the area for this perennial plant. For him are suitable bulk fertile soil. The soil must be prepared in the autumn.
With the onset of autumn, the selected area is dug up and phosphate fertilizers are worn. In the spring, the soil is re-dig and nitrogen fertilizers are applied. Such preparation of the plot for planting is explained by the fact that asparagus can grow on one plot for up to 20 years. During the entire period of cultivation with the onset of autumn, all the shoots are cut and the beds are filled with a new layer of humus or compost.
Seeds germinate in open ground for a very long time, and for this reason, a seedling planting method is preferable:
- Seeds are soaked in warm water for a week,
- Hacked seeds are planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm,
- The readiness of seedlings can be established by the formation of a developed and healthy root system,
- Ready seedlings are planted in the grooves at a distance of one meter, and the soil at the bottom of the grooves loosened.
Seedlings are placed at a distance of half a meter from each other, after which they carry out abundant watering and mulching of the bed.
The video shows how to grow asparagus in the garden or in the garden.
How to grow asparagus in the country - the choice of the place and variety
Whatever the usefulness of asparagus, cultivation of this delicacy at home seems to many not a very tempting idea. The culture is considered quite capricious, it requires attentive care, the first harvest can be collected only in the third year. Is it worth wasting time and effort for green stalks?
The choice of a place for a bed deserves special attention because it is a perennial plant. For 10 or even 20 years, you can count on a stable annual yield if you land asparagus on a well-lit place, if possible, from the windless south side.Asparagus growing videos
It is also useful to know where asparagus grows in the wild. Usually its strong green stems can be seen along the shores of lakes or rivers: this culture loves light, sandy-loamy soils rich in humus. Try to prepare just such a ground, and even better - plant asparagus where there was a hotbed or greenhouse.
Preparation of beds begins in the fall: the selected area is deeply dug up, added to 1 sq.m. 50 g of superphosphate and rotted manure, or peat compost. Immediately after the spring snow melting, the earth is harrowed, ammonium nitrate, wood ash and potassium chloride are added (1 square meter ratio - 20g / 60g / 30g).
Make the beds high so that water does not stagnate on them, since asparagus does not tolerate the overmoistened soil at all.
Keep in mind that varieties that require bleaching will need to be more carefully mined or covered with drawers for the winter.
For the cultivation of asparagus at the dacha should choose the following varieties:
- Arzhantelskaya. A fruitful grade, thickened, large shoots with heads of a light lilac shade and gentle pulp. You can collect the stems in May.
- Snow head. The flesh is more delicate than that of the Arzhantelskiy variety, with a taste of green peas. Long shoots with a cream-green shade head are ready to be harvested already in the first half of May.
- Glory to Braunschweig. Long stems with white heads and light juicy pulp are best suited for canning.
- Dutch green. The variety is specially bred for green shoots that do not need bleaching.
Keep in mind that varieties that require bleaching will need to be more carefully spud or covered with drawers for the winter.
Sowing seeds and growing asparagus seedlings
Seed propagation is not the most convenient way. Firstly, there is no guarantee that the seed will have good germination. Secondly, the care of tender seedlings brings a lot of trouble and takes extra time.
If you nevertheless decided to experiment with seed reproduction, all that remains is to decide whether to plant asparagus directly on the garden immediately after the snow melted or to plant seedlings in an apartment at the end of March, followed by transplanting to the site. In Russian climatic conditions, it is better to stay on the second version, so that fragile plants will have a better chance of getting stronger.
Seed propagation is not the most convenient way.
The technology of growing asparagus from seeds is in many ways similar to growing celery seedlings:
- Asparagus seeds germinate for a very long time, so before sowing they are soaked in warm water for up to four days, changing the water twice a day. Moreover, the container with the seedlings should be kept warm so that the water temperature does not drop.
- After soaking, the swollen seeds are laid out on wet burlap or other material and left for about a week until the sprouts hatch (periodically, the seed should be moistened).
- Young sprouts are seated on plastic cups or in a box filled with storey loose soil mixture. Between plants it is desirable to maintain a distance of 6 cm on each side. Seeds are enough to dig a centimeter into the ground for two, not more.
- Capacities with seedlings should be placed in a well-lit place, do not interfere, and an additional source of light to the plants quickly gained strength.
- The emerged shoots slightly powdered with peat.
- After 10-15 days, complex mineral fertilizer is applied to the ground.
- Within a month, the asparagus is watered, carefully loosening the soil and turning the seedlings on different sides to the light for uniform growth.
- When the stalks extend up to 15 cm in height, plantings should be thinned out, leaving the most healthy specimens at a distance of 10 cm from each other.
Within a month, the asparagus is watered, carefully loosening the soil and turning the seedlings on different sides to the light for uniform growth.
In the last days of May, the seedlings need to be hardened: on a daily basis, if the weather is good, put containers with plants outside. Begin hardening from one hour and gradually increase to 12 hours. By early June, seedlings will be fully prepared to transplant to their permanent place in the garden.
For young plants, a bed of 100 cm in width will be sufficient, 30 cm in height. A distance of 40 cm should be left between seedlings, between rows - up to 60 cm.
How does the asparagus grow from rhizomes?
Reproduction of asparagus is more popular with live rhizome segments with live buds. Plant survival rate in this case is almost 100%. Planting rhizomes carried out in the spring and the winter. Let us consider the technology of asparagus planting in May.
Having chosen the strongest, fleshy rhizomes on the market, divide them into several parts. Carefully place each piece in a previously dug hole 50 cm deep, at the bottom of which is a mound of earth mixed with humus. Thus, the sapling should be recessed by 25 cm. The optimal distance between the bushes is 15 cm, the gaps between the rows are 50 cm.
Having chosen the strongest, fleshy rhizomes on the market, divide them into several parts
When planting, try to straighten the root system well, top it with rhizomes with a mixture of soil and humus and press it firmly. Then pour the garden with a small amount of water.
Further growing and caring for asparagus
Regardless of whether rhizomes or seeds are planted with asparagus, the subsequent care will be the same. Immediately after planting on the site of the plant, it will be necessary to water it abundantly for the first one and a half to two weeks, after which it will be sprinkled with peat and the watering reduced.
During the summer, it is necessary to regularly remove weeds, loosen the soil between the rows and water from time to time so that the earth does not dry out, but it is also impossible to re-moisten it. To accelerate the growth of shoots, after the first weeding, you can add fertilizer to the flower bed from slurry diluted with water (6 parts of water per 1 part of slurry). After three weeks it is recommended to feed the plants with bird droppings diluted 10 times with water. And already before the first frosts, the last additional fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizer is carried out.
During the summer, it is necessary to regularly remove weeds, loosen the soil between the rows and water from time to time.
In winter, the upper part of the asparagus is cut, leaving only 2.5 cm "peplechka", which spud earth, cover the top with humus and dry leaves. Rows are covered with manure.
Caring for asparagus in the second year looks exactly like the first. And as much as you would like to try juicy shoots, be patient until next year, so that they fill with strength and accumulate more vitamins. Premature cutting of the stems simply negate all your labors.
In Europe, it is customary to cut asparagus shoots only when the height is at least 22 cm and the diameter is at least 1.6 cm.
In the third year, with the arrival of spring planting, it will be necessary to pile up so that the asparagus grows long, straight, and its heads do not open ahead of time. Around the end of April, it is time to harvest the first harvest. Try not to miss the moment when the heads have not yet had time to appear above the surface, otherwise the shoots will lose their presentation, change their color and plunge.Video about growing asparagus in your plot
Determine readiness by cracking the ground over each plant. As soon as you notice that the soil has risen, and cracks have appeared, it means that it is time to dig up the stems, cutting them to the very root. In warm weather, you can collect asparagus every day or every other day. Just do not immediately remove all the shoots, otherwise the plant may die.
After cutting the crop, line the bed, sprinkle it with humus on top and slightly compact it. In the future, care for asparagus is repeated, as in the first two years.
There is not just a large, but a huge number of types of asparagus (over 300), among which there are vegetable, medicinal and decorative.
In this article we will talk about vegetable asparagus and its most common varieties. And what is the difference between green, white and purple asparagus, we have already discussed.
Asparagus diseases and pests
Despite the fact that asparagus is an extremely disease-resistant plant, it can be affected by the dangerous fungus Helicobasidium purpureum, which can destroy it in a couple of days. The first sign of defeat - shedding branches. To get rid of the disease, you can use the drug "Fundazol."
The most dangerous enemies of asparagus are the asparagus leaf beetles: their larvae destroy the foliage, as a result of which the plants quickly die. For effective control use insecticides "Fitoverm", "Fufanon" and others.
In the spring, the plant is attacked by asparagus flies, the larvae of which gnaw through the small holes in the shoots, due to which their growth stops and as food, unfortunately, they are no longer suitable. In the fight against asparagus flies perfectly helps ordinary chlorophos. Remove all damaged shoots, and young plants handle the drug.
As you can see, growing asparagus is not that difficult.
And how do you feel about asparagus? Share your secrets of growing, caring and storing this wonderful plant!
The necessary conditions
The pot should be placed in the penumbra, as direct sunlight can cause burns to the plant.
In summer, asparagus should be maintained at a temperature of between twenty and twenty-four degrees Celsius, and in winter between fifteen and eighteen degrees.
In the summer they require abundant watering, but it should not be allowed to stagnate water so that the plant does not start to rot. In winter, watering should be reduced, but do not forget about regular spraying of asparagus.
In addition to ensuring an optimal temperature and humidity regime, one should not neglect regular plant fertilizing, containing nitrogen and iron.
If you decide to grow asparagus in your summer cottage, you can sow the seeds immediately after the snow melts.
It is also possible to start sowing them in the apartment, and then plant them on the garden bed. When sowing seeds directly on a bed, it is recommended to germinate previously.
To do this, you will need a damp cloth, on one piece of which you need to spread the seeds, and with another piece cover them from above.
If you constantly maintain the moisture content of the tissue, the seeds will germinate in a week.
Sprouted seeds in late May must be planted in a hotbed, where they will be until next spring. It is necessary to deepen the seeds into the ground by two centimeters, and the distance between them should be at least ten centimeters.
Do not forget to water the seedlings regularly and loosen the soil in the hotbed.
Twenty days after the emergence of sprouts, it is recommended to feed the fermented extract of mullein, which must be diluted in water in a ratio of 1: 6-8.
After another twenty days, fertilizing is usually carried out with complex fertilizer.
Before the onset of winter, it is recommended that the earth be ground with rotted manure, peat or compost. This will save the plants from death.
Landing in the ground
Planted asparagus on the bed can be in one or two rows. For planting in one row, it is necessary to allocate a plot one meter wide, and the width of the plot for planting asparagus in two rows must be at least one hundred seventy centimeters.
The length of the plot will depend on the amount of asparagus that you plan to plant. Plants should be located at a distance of forty centimeters from each other, and the distance between the rows should be about seventy centimeters.
Preparing the soil for planting asparagus should be done in the fall.
Enrich the land with phosphate-potassium fertilizers, add manure to it and dig it.
If the soil is characterized by increased acidity, add lime or chalk.
Landing on a bed begins with digging one or two trenches forty inches deep and thirty-five centimeters wide.
Fill the trench with a layer of compost twenty-five centimeters thick. Make a few earthen mounds on which you will have a root system.
Immediately after planting, pour asparagus. Do not forget to regularly weed the soil on the garden bed, feed it with fertilizer, water it and loosen it. With proper care, asparagus will delight you with a harvest in the third year after planting.
Planting Asparagus Seeds
Asparagus seeds are planted in two ways:
- immersion of seeds in open ground,
- pre-planting seeds in a container, suggesting a seedling method of growing a plant.
Asparagus grown by seedlings has a better chance of taking root in the garden
Since the seed germination takes a lot of time, the seedling method is considered safer and more efficient, because it allows the plant to have time to form before winter and cope with frost. Both methods of seed preparation for planting suggest their preliminary germination, which allows to accelerate the further development of the plant.
When should plant asparagus?
It is possible to plant asparagus seeds both in the spring and in the autumn season. As a rule, spring planting is more common and is carried out in late March - early April. Before planting, the soil is fertilized with humus, so that the seeds settle down better in the ground.
It is recommended to place asparagus seeds in the open ground in the spring season.
Autumn planting is carried out at the end of September and involves the advance digging of the garden, as well as its enrichment with superphosphate, potassium sulfate and ammonium sulphate.
Sprouting seeds for planting in open ground
Asparagus seeds, as well as all other seeds, need plenty of moisture and high air temperature to germinate. Sprouting is carried out in early April and involves several simple steps:
- Immerse the planting material in warm water (about 38 ° C) and hold it in liquid for several days, placing the container in a heated room,
The higher the temperature in the room, the sooner the seeds begin to peck
With proper observance of all these stages, the first signs of germination will appear only a week later.
By planting asparagus seeds in the spring, you give them more time to prepare for winter.
If you intend to place the planting material immediately in the open ground, then the awakened seeds are immersed in holes specially dug for them or rows at the end of spring. The immersion depth of planting material is about two centimeters. Between adjacent seeds, a distance of ten centimeters must be maintained so that the plants do not interfere with each other in the future. Under favorable conditions, the seeds will begin to germinate in ten days, and in two months they will stretch to a height of ten centimeters.
Agrospan helps protect fragile seeds from a sudden drop in temperature
Important! If in your area in May there are sharp drops in temperature at night, late afternoon cover the hotbed to avoid freezing. Agrospan is well suited as a shelter material.
Growing seeds with seedlings
The seedling method allows the seedlings to get stronger in benign conditions, so that by the time of planting in the open ground to acquire a certain immunity. Перед тем, как погрузить проклюнувшиеся семена в контейнеры, следует подобрать соответствующую почвенную семь. Для спаржи подходят следующие компоненты:
- Почва с огорода,
- Перепревший навоз,
Используя землю с огорода в качестве почвы для контейнера, вы заранее приучаете растение к его будущему постоянному месту
If you don’t want to do the cooking yourself, you can always buy the finished product in a specialized store. There are both universal and soil-oriented soil mixtures, which already include a number of fertilizers.
The main disadvantage of such mixtures is that, while in them, the seedling does not get used to the garden soil and meets it first only when it is planted in the ground, which provokes stress in asparagus. If the plant learns about the soil from your site in advance, its subsequent adaptation will be easier and faster.
Asparagus seedlings in plastic containers
The rest - care for the seeds in containers consists of stages that are familiar to any gardener who has dealt with seedlings at least once. Seeds immersed in separate pots are filled with a centimeter layer of earth. This layer is periodically sprayed. To create greenhouse conditions, the containers are closed with a transparent lid until the first shoots. A few days before planting in open ground should pay attention to fertilizing, enriched with potassium.
By the way! For asparagus well suitable pots, a volume of 100-150 milliliters or plastic cassettes.
Landing in open ground
When the plant is stronger, it should be planted in the garden. How to prepare the ground for planting asparagus will be discussed in the following chapters. And now we note that under the cultivation of asparagus should be selected the most fertile areas, because the plant is very sensitive to the soil.
For all his time in the garden, asparagus is going through several transplants as it develops.
As long as the plant does not have time to grow, it can be placed in the wells, located fifteen centimeters from each other. As asparagus develops, the distance between the rows and between the holes should be increased, replanting young plants. When the seedlings are placed in a permanent place, the distance between them should be at least forty centimeters.
Preparing for the winter
Since the first winter is the most difficult for asparagus, you should prepare well for it:
- In the fall, fertilize the soil with humus or manure,
- Due to the fact that by the fall asparagus grows up to forty centimeters, your task will include shortening its ground part by a quarter so that the plant can survive the winter,
In order for the asparagus to cope with the winter cold, it should be shortened in advance
Important! Despite the fact that asparagus copes well with frost, during the first wintering it is desirable to cover it with a layer of peat to avoid the risk of hypothermia asparagus.
Soil for asparagus
Every gardener knows how great the quality of the soil affects the subsequent yields. In addition to quality, one should also take into account the compatibility of the cultivated crop with a specific type of soil. If asparagus grown for beautiful bouquets blooms on almost any soil, asparagus grown for culinary purposes requires special attention to the place of planting.
Asparagus needs sunlight and frequent watering.
The land in which asparagus seeds are planted must satisfy the following criteria:
- Laxity and nutrition. Best of all these qualities combines sandy sand. With a lack of recharge, shoots become thinner and lose their succulence,
- Neutral acidity index. Even slightly acidic soil is desirable to lime before sowing asparagus seeds, to provide the best yields,
- Location on the sunny side. Asparagus belongs to the light-loving plants and the amount of lighting directly affects the quality of the shoots.
Preparing the soil for planting asparagus
Despite the fact that asparagus is considered quite an exotic plant, preparation for planting it does not differ from any other preparation and includes standard procedures.
Step 1. Clearing the seat of all rhizomes of old weeds.
Removing weeds will allow asparagus to get more resources from the soil.
Step 2. Loosening of the earth to a depth of forty centimeters.
Loosening the soil will improve its air-wet mode
Step 3. Soil deacidification using fluff lime or any other suitable materials (chalk, dolomite flour, wood ash).
Asparagus will not be able to settle well on highly acidic untreated soils.
Step 4. Footprint processing. The soil is fertilized by applying rotted manure or compost. Product buckets are enough for a square meter garden. After applying organic fertilizer, mineral should be applied.
Please note that after liming manure application is undesirable.
Step 5. Organization of space. Organization implies the choice of a method of planting seeds, which is based on the number of planted plants. If you have big plans for asparagus, plant the seeds in specially dug ditches to get structured rows of plants. With a limited number of seeds, it would be more expedient to dig a hole of 30 x 30 centimeters for each specimen and fill it with already used rotted manure, compost and soil.
Asparagus planting scheme