It’s impossible to feel that spring has finally come after a long winter, and the long-awaited summer is approaching more inexorably, until a radish appears on the table. Tasty and very useful, on a table in a salad bowl or even just scattering on a dish, it seems to be saying with all its appearance - I have come, and wait for the summer with it. But how to plant radishes?
A little bit about radish
Crispy, slightly sharp and bright radish tubers are a real repository of many mineral salts - magnesium, potassium, calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamins - C, B5, AT2, AT1, enzymes and organic acids. And isn't it because a person is so positive about the first spring radish that appears on the table at the moment when the body is all very necessary for them? This article will tell you how to plant radish seeds.
There are two types of this plant - annual and biennial. The first consists of European varieties and brings seeds with roots for one year, the second is made up of Asian winter varieties, which produce seeds only in the second year. This material discusses the rules for planting radish seeds of European varieties.
Radish - a ripening, cold-resistant, loving light and moisture plant belonging to the class of cruciferous or cabbage. Depending on the region of cultivation, it can bear fruit from 2 to 5 times a year. To get a good and multiple harvest you need to know how and when to plant radishes.
Soil preparation before planting radishes
Many people really want to know how to plant radishes in the spring. It all starts in the fall, when the beds are prepared (raised by 15 cm) and the necessary organic fertilizers are added - but neatly, without excessive fanaticism - because large “tops” and tiny “roots” can grow from an oversupply, for example, humus.
Then, in the spring, after the main snow had fallen into the beds under the radish, mineral fertilizers could be scattered. The snow left on them, when thawing, will enrich the soil with necessary macro- and microelements. But not potash - an excess of potassium will make the roots weak and take the radish to the arrow.
The beds are made in a sunny and warm place, and for the most rapid heating of the soil, it is desirable to cover the beds with black polyethylene for 9–10 days. Before planting the seed, it remains to remove the film and make the digging of the beds into the depth of the spade bayonet. All - you can plant radish seeds.
Some features of plant compatibility
When planting radish seeds, it is important to remember that all garden plants obey a certain law of compatibility, breaking which can be left without a crop. How to plant radishes, considering all this?
In this regard, a crop such as radish should be planted next to the lettuce, which will not allow the earthy fleas to harm the plant. And if the radish is surrounded by beans, then its tubers grow larger and have a more delicate flavor. In general, radishes are friendly with potatoes and spinach, as well as onions, garlic, beets and cabbage. But it’s not recommended to plant radishes with cucumbers.
Radish on open ground under the film
How to plant a radish under the film? When planting seeds in the ground must comply with the "rule of three matches." The seeds are planted at a depth corresponding to the length of the match, the bed from the bed is at the distance of the match, and the seed from the seed is planted in a row for the length of the match.
Land for radish is desirable loose, and after planting radish it is recommended to mulch it - sprinkled with river sand, sawdust or peat on top. Considering the fact that there is still snow when planting a radish, it is possible to plant more rows on the rows of planted seeds, but not too much. The next step will be the installation of shelter material over the beds of the spandbod.
The first shoots appear at the time of thawing of the last snow. At this point, it is important to pay attention to the density of seedlings and, if necessary, thin out the rows or sow the seeds. With a warm spring, be sure to do airing, raising the spandbod for a while. The first radish on the table can be collected in three weeks, if a good spring allows.
Radishes in greenhouses
How to plant radish in a greenhouse? Getting earlier fromgiving birth to radish is possible when planting it in the greenhouse. Soil in greenhouses is prepared a little differently, because in them radish is not a leading crop. He, so to speak, sits down to what is already planned to be planted in the greenhouse. Therefore, the seeds are planted not in the beds of the greenhouse, but between them, and a week or two earlier than the main crop.
How to plant radish seeds in greenhouses can be read on many sites. Basically, the seeds are planted to a depth of half a centimeter and sprinkled with earth. Gusting seeds should not be, and when a very elongated seedlings appear, it is advisable to sprinkle them with earth, otherwise you can be left without root crops. Fertilizers should be applied twice - at the very beginning, after planting of seeds, and a week later.
Radish in greenhouses
Radish is also planted in greenhouses according to slightly different rules. Since here it is the leading crop - all the others land after it - the earth is prepared a little differently, and the landing dates are determined by the weather and the construction of the greenhouses. Since radishes love heat and sunlight, suitable conditions can be achieved in greenhouses sometime after the first decade of April.
Greenhouse soil should be carefully leveled. If it is too dry, it should be watered just before sowing, and when the ground is excessively wet, dig the ground to the depth of the bayonet and ventilate the greenhouse by opening a little frame.
How best to plant radishes? To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, seeds intended for sowing in a greenhouse, it is desirable to germinate. They are soaked for two hours, and then poured evenly on gauze in plates, covered with coarse calico and kept warm. Barely sprouts begin to spit - it's time to plant them into the ground. The optimum temperature in a greenhouse when sowing radish is from 15 to 20 degrees.
Radish on the windowsill
If you really want radishes, but there is no country house or garden, then those who are interested can try to grow this plant on their windowsill. And it can be done without waiting for spring - albeit in December. It is enough to have a soil mix, a box where radishes are planted, and knowledge - how to plant radish seeds when growing it at home. Requires excellent light and cool place. It may well be a window sill. It is worth noting - despite the fact that radish is a short day plant, the winter day is still too short, so additional lighting does not hurt the radish.
Radish seeds are planted in boxes to a depth of 1 centimeter, at a distance of 5–7 centimeters from each other, and necessarily rolled. The main feature of the cultivation of radish on the windowsill is the temperature regime that must be observed.
After the first sprouts appear at room temperature, the plant should be cooled, keeping it at a temperature of about 7 ° C for about 4 days, and then set the mode to 17 ° C for good sunny weather and 15 ° C for cloudy. At night, keep the temperature around 13⁰С. This can be achieved by adjusting the flow of cold air with the help of the vents.
Of the fertilizers, cow manure is used in an aqueous solution with the addition of 10 g of potassium salt and 15 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water. The growth of radish root crops occurs within one and a half to three months, so the harvest is selectively removed.
Features care and pest control
Watering for radish is a necessary thing, so it should be carried out two or three times a day. But if the radish in the open ground gets a lot of moisture - in the rainy spring, it can over-ripen - glaze, crack and rot.
The main pest for radish is the cruciferous flea, which is controlled by “clean” solutions that do not have chemistry. This is done because the radish quickly ripens, and the roots do not have time to get rid of it.
These can be tobacco dust or ash. This tool not only has a protective effect, but also is an additional feeding for radish.
The best time to plant radish is springThis is due to the biological characteristics of this plant. The landing should be carried out not earlier than the end of March.
The peculiarity of spring planting radish is that after harvesting, you can plant other vegetables in the same area. (potatoes, cabbage, eggplants). Moreover, the radish is considered a good predecessor for many crops of vegetables. Radish has a short growing season. And the time of its collection coincides with the beginning of the planting of other crops. This makes it possible to reuse the same land plot 2 times.
What is different from other seasons?
Radish is very picky about temperature values. The optimum temperature for growth is 15-18 degrees. If the temperature is higher, then the foliage begins to grow vigorously in this plant, and the root crop grows poorly. Therefore, it is better to land in early spring. When planting in late spring, radish is adversely affected by long daylight hours and high temperatures. This is reflected in the size of the roots.
For the cultivation of radish need a short day light. With a long light day, the radish grows strongly, and the root, on the contrary, develops worse.
Types of planting radish:
- spring planting
- summer (fruits will be collected in the fall),
- landing in winter (harvest will be in the spring).
Why choose spring planting radish?
- In the spring there is a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil, necessary for the full growth of plants.
- Short daylight hours (which leads to the development of the root, and not the tops).
- Moderate air temperatures, which also determine the development of the root, not the leaves.
- The possibility of using the site after harvesting radish again, for planting other crops.
- Profitability - the demand for radishes is especially high in spring, so it is more profitable to grow it in spring time.
When to grow?
- In Siberia. In Siberia, the spring planting of crops begins later, around the end of April. The main condition for planting radishes is that the soil warms up, the snow cover has descended, after which the land thawed out and became suitable for processing. At this time, you can begin planting this vegetable.
- In the Urals. In the Urals, planting is carried out from mid-April, in the absence of snow cover, when the soil finally thawed out, and there is no likelihood of new frosts.
- In central Russia (Moscow region). When can I plant radishes in the Moscow region? In central Russia, for example, in the Moscow region, these vegetables can be sown in early spring, at the end of March (not earlier). The main criterion for planting - the lack of frost and snow on the soil.
What is the temperature withstand and can survive the frost?
Is the plant afraid of spring frosts? Radish can bear frost without loss to minus five degrees. It is quite frost-resistant and hardy to frost, which is especially important in the regions of Siberia and the Urals.
This culture is cold-resistant, the minimum temperature at which seeds begin to germinate + 5 degrees. The shoots of radish stand frost minus five degrees.
Frost below minus eight degrees can hit the leaves, with prolonged frosts may damage the root. The lack of heat inhibits the development of plants.
Early and high-yielding variety. Fruits are dark red in color, with delicate pulp. The grade practically does not shoot.
Very early variety, fruits ripen in sixteen days, have a pink color. Radish has a slightly tart taste and white color of flesh. Fruits practically do not crack.
The early grade, ripens in 20 days. The color of the fruit - crimson, pinkish flesh. The taste is a little spicy.
This variety matures in 23 days., fruit shape - elongated. The flesh is white, has a delicate flavor.
For growing in the conditions of Siberia and the Urals, early-maturing varieties are most adapted:
They are characterized by increased resistance to low temperatures. Without prejudice, they endure short-term frosts and can grow in adverse climatic conditions.
How to prepare the soil in the garden?
For planting radish you need to plow the soil and harrowing. For small areas, digging and tillage with a rake, for crushing large lumps of earth.
The introduction of manure into the soil is permissible only for 1 year before planting a radish, but not before. This is because radishes do not respond well to fresh manure.
It is recommended autumn dressing of the soil with potash and phosphate fertilizers (superphosphate and potassium nitrate). Feeding should be carried out strictly according to the instructions for the use of this product.
How to plant and choose the depth?
- On the landing area furrows are created with a depth of 2 centimeters.
- It is desirable to pour a small layer of sand and ash on the bottom of the furrows. The distance in the row between the seeds should be 5 cm. Row spacing - 15 cm.
- After planting, the seeds are covered with earth in a layer of 1 centimeter.
Radish too deep-set gives root crops with a fibrous structure. Landing is carried out, as a rule, manually. From the inventory are needed: rake, chopper. After planting, the beds need to be watered and mulched to preserve moisture in the soil.
Conduct a moderate watering of crops once every two days. It is important to prevent the presence of weeds in the garden and on time to remove them. When thickened plantings need thinning crops. If the daylight is too long, it is advisable to reduce the lighting time. - After 18 hours, cover the beds.
In the case of the occurrence of diseases and pests, it is necessary to immediately treat the plantations with insecticides and fungicides. Radish is prone to accumulation of nitrates in fruits. Therefore, it is undesirable to carry out its fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers. Fertilizers are preferably applied to the soil in the fall before spring planting using potash nitrate and superphosphate.
Harvesting and Storage
Harvesting is carried out as the enlargement of the roots. Early varieties begin to harvest after 18 days, mid-season after 25 days, late-ripening after a month. Collected fruits are stored in plastic bags in the refrigerator or cellar. Shelf life can be up to 1 month or more. You first need to shorten the spine and cut the tops.
You can not keep the radishes in the soil - the fruits will become hollow.
- Frosts - prolonged frosts can reduce crop yields.
- Pests and diseases can affect radishes, but controlling them with insecticides and fungicides will minimize damage.
With the observance of agrotechnical cultivation and favorable conditions, you will surely get a rich harvest and you will not have any problems.
Growing radish in the spring will allow you to have on your table a delicious and crisp vegetablewhich will emphasize the spring atmosphere. Radish has a pleasant taste and is rich in vitamins, as well as easy to grow.
How to grow radishes at their summer cottage?
Radish contains vitamin C, PP, group B vitamins, microelements, essential oils, as well as important enzymes that help the body to properly digest proteins.
It strengthens the immune system, stimulates fat burning, improves skin and hair.
Popular varieties and hybrids of radish
We are accustomed to the fact that the fruits of radish, as a rule, are white inside and red outside.
But radish is not only like that.
Today you can grow white, yellow, and even purple radishes!
The weight of the largest radish can reach 80.0!
- Red radish varieties
These are the most recognizable varieties of radish.
They are classic rounded and elongated.
Classic rounded: Riesenbutter, Hybrid Torero, Heat, Karund, Ruby, Snegirek
Elongated: Red Giant and Luck
- Red radish varieties with white tip
Classic rounded: Lighthouse, Pink-red with white tip, Naughty
Extended: 18 days, French breakfast, Daredevil, Aurora
- Purple radish varieties
For the time being, only classic rounded varieties of purple radish can be found on sale: Violeta, Mulatto, Blue Frost
- Yellow radish varieties
These varieties are very capricious in growing, therefore they are rarely planted: Zlata, Helios, Zolotze
- White radish varieties
This radish is distinguished by its large size and delicate flavor, besides, it is well kept.
Classic rounded: White pearls, White nights, Octave, Raffaello
Elongated: White Fang, Icicle, Firefly
Among Russian gardeners, radish varieties are the most popular: Heat, Lighthouse, Red Giant, Luck White Nights.
Terms of sowing radish - when to plant radishes?
Radishes can be sown in mid-April.
This cold-resistant culture has an optimum temperature of development from +16 ... +20 С
Radish seeds begin to germinate already at +2 .. + 3 С, and sprouts stand frosts down to -3 C.
- When sow radishes in the suburbs and central Russia?
From the third decade of March (in greenhouses) and from April 15 to May 25 in the ground. Radishes can be sown every five days.
- Когда сеют редис на Украине и в южных регионах России?
Первый посев в теплицу уже можно проводить в начале февраля, а с середины марта можно высаживать в открытый грунт.
- Когда сеют редис на Урале, в Сибири и Дальнем Востоке?
Как правило, в этих регионах редис можно высаживать в открытый грунт в середине мая.
Ультраспелые сорта — середина мая
Раннеспелые — третья декада мая
Mid-season - early June
Place for planting - where to plant radishes right?
Radishes should be planted in a sunny place in a moisture-intensive, loose soil with a neutral reaction.
Also undesirable heavy soil, they grow small and tasteless roots.
You should not add to the soil fresh organic fertilizer, otherwise the radish will be empty.
You also do not need to pour sand on top, otherwise the soil will dry out quickly.
When preparing the beds, when digging, it is recommended to bring into the soil on 1 square. m: half a bucket of humus, 1 tsp superphosphate, nitrophosphate and urea.
And before sowing it is necessary to shed the grooves with a warm 40% Energen solution.
How to plant radish seeds?
It is best to plant radish seeds in the grooves, in rows at a depth of 1-2 cm, the optimal distance between rows is 8-10 cm.
Seeds can be sown dry or soaked in warm water, but not more than 12 hours.
In order for the seeds to grow well, sow them in well-spilled soil and try to sow 1 seed each, so that after germination, you do not have to thin out the plantings, as this damages the root of the plant.
You can sow radishes on the tape, sticking seeds through 4 cm apart 1 pc.
If the radish is sown thickly, it will go to the arrow and the root will not grow.
How to facilitate yourself planting radish and other tricks of its cultivation, very well told in this video, be sure to take a look!
How to care for radishes in the garden?
Caring for planting radish will not be difficult, the plants need to be watered, weeded and loosen.
- How often to water the radish?
Radish loves moisture, so it is watered 1 time in 3 days, and in dry weather every day (morning and evening) and abundantly (10 liters per 1 sq. M), it is necessary to water in the evening, so that during the night the moisture soaks the plantings to the desired depth .
It is especially important to water the radish after the appearance of the first true leaf, because it is then that a root crop begins to form (insufficient watering will make the fruit hard and bitter)
It is also worth remembering that if you water the radish in abundance, the fruits are cracked.
- Do I need to feed radishes?
At the beginning of the formation of root crops can be shed planting solution "Agricola 4 for root crops" (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water)
Radish can not be overfed, especially with azto and phosphorus, otherwise it will all go to the tops or color.
But radish loves potassium, at the stage of formation of 2 - 3 leaves you can feed the radish with any potash fertilizer.
What are the diseases and pests of radish?
- Radish pests
Cabbage aphid, Cruciferous flea and slugs most often affect radishes.
Pest control measures are as follows:
- Cabbage aphid - removal of weeds, irrigation of sheets with phosphate-potassium fertilizers.
- Cruciferous aphid (it is she who makes the holes in the leaves and eats them) - spraying a solution of wood ash (0, 5 kg of ash, 50.0 soap and 10 liters of water) or dusting with tobacco dust. You can also spray the sprouts with a solution for washing dogs against fleas (3 tbsp per 10 liters of water)
- Slugs - eat the top of the root, protruding above the ground. Sprinkle with white mustard powder or freshly ground lime soil around the garden bed.
- Radish diseases
The most common disease in radish is the keel in which ugly growths are formed on the fruit.
As a rule, keel occurs only on acidic soils.
Therefore, before planting radish, the soil is too acidic and must be deacidified so that the soil pH is no higher than 6.
What to do to radish did not go to the arrow?
One of the most common causes of poorly harvested radishes is bruising when the plants go to color, instead of tying the fruit.
The reasons for this may be: hot weather, frost, thickened planting.
To avoid this, note these tips:
- Choose varieties resistant to color.
- Use only purchased good seeds.
- Plant radishes only in soil with a neutral reaction, loose and moisture-absorbing.
- Do not plant radishes thickly or thin out crops.
- Do not sow radishes deeper than 2 cm.
- Water moderately and grind the planting with dry peat or humus.
How to collect and store radishes?
In order to keep the radish for 5-6 days, it must be removed from the soil in the evening, shake off the ground and cut the tops at a distance of 3 cm from the fruit, and the roots do not cut.
Then pack the vegetables in a plastic bag and put them in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
To eat radish best fresh, right from the garden, it was then that the enzymes in it are most active, and the fruits themselves have more valuable benefits.
Hopefully now, knowing how to grow radishes correctly, you will always get rich yields of this tasty root!
The best varieties for planting
Radish on the photo
- The Cardinal is a medium early hybrid that forms a rounded red root vegetable in 25 days. Variety resistant to tsvetushnosti.
- Red giant - mid-season variety for long-term storage. Carmine-red root crops are formed up to 3-40 days and reach a mass of up to 150 g. The term of ripening is 30-40 days. White-pink dense pulp pleasant to taste.
All radishes with a white tip, for example, 18 days, French breakfast, you should not overdo it in the ground, in anticipation that the root crop will gain a large mass. The fruits further tend to hollowness.
With the proper cultivation of radish with a cut crunches and sprinkles juice. Pulp without fibers and voids.
- Method number 1
On the photo preparation of a place for planting radish
- Method number 2
Photo of seeder for sowing radish
- Method number 3 (subwinter seeding)
- Method number 4 (winter sowing)
On the photo is winter sowing of radish
Adding an article to a new collection
Radishes can be grown at home on the windowsill, but due to the limited area it is unlikely that an unprecedented harvest will be obtained. Therefore, from late April to September, it is better to sow radishes in open ground and properly care for the crop.
Early varieties of radish (18 days, White Breakfast, Jolie, Heat, Poker, Rhodes, Champion) ripen 20-25 days after emergence, middle-ripening varieties (Ilka, Red with white tip, Icicle, Sachs) - after 26-35 days, and later (Dungan 12/8, Carmina, Red Giant) - after 36 days or more.
At the same time, early and mid-season varieties are more resistant to frost and marksman. And later varieties of vegetables are tastier and healthier, as during the growing season they have time to accumulate more sugars and vitamins, as well as they are more productive and stored longer.
To radish any variety gave the maximum number of fruits in the care of the plant, you must follow important principles.
1. The right soil
When preparing the beds, the ground is loosened to a depth of 20-30 cm and leveled from above. On 1 sq. M bring in half a bucket of sand and humus, 1 tbsp. ammonium nitrate, 1.5 st.l. potassium sulfate and 2 tbsp. superphosphate.
When growing radish in the soil can not make manure. In general, any nitrogen fertilizer can contribute to the formation of voids in the middle of the root.
Dolomite flour (0.5 liters per square meter) is also added to the soil with high acidity. A heavy clay soil mixed with sand (at the rate of 1 bucket of sand per square meter).
4. Competent sowing
On the prepared bed make grooves with a depth of 2-3 cm at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other. In them every 5 cm put the seeds. In a region with an unstable climate, in April-May for the night the bed is covered with spunbond.
Although radishes easily tolerate frosts down to –4 ° C, but with a lack of heat, seeds do not germinate well. The optimum temperature for a friendly emergence of shoots is 15-20 ° C. Under such conditions, the sprouts will hatch within 3 days. And at a lower temperature, shoots will have to wait from 6 to 12 days.
5. Watering radishes
The main condition for a rich harvest is regular watering. The soil in the garden with radish should always be moderately wet. With a lack of moisture, the roots will become bitter and flabby.
In hot weather, crops are watered every day.
Also, after each watering, the ground is loosened to a depth of 3-5 cm. Thanks to this, the roots will be able to "breathe."
On fertile soils, fertilizer can not be applied, and on depleted it is necessary to use a herbal extract, diluted in water. The container is filled with water for, then freshly harvested plants are poured in there (at the rate of 10 kg of grass per 100 liters of water) and 2 kg of dry chicken manure are added. The container is covered with a net, the infusion is stirred daily and used after the liquid has ceased to ferment (gas bubbles will not be emitted). This usually occurs after 1-3 weeks.
The resulting infusion is diluted with water 1: 1 and the plants are watered under the root.
7. Light mode
Ideally, plants should be in the light 10-12 hours. If the light day lasts 13-14 hours, and the air temperature at the same time reaches 25 ° C, then later varieties of radish do not form a root crop, but bloom. Such plants are covered with dark non-woven material so that they are exposed to light no more than 10 hours a day.
If you do not want to mess around with shelter, from the second half of May, sow only varieties resistant to bolting
8. Combating cruciferous flea
This is the most dangerous pest of radish. Chemical insecticides are not recommended to use, so that no harmful substances to human health accumulate in the roots. Therefore, you need to pay attention to preventive measures.
- Since radishes love potash fertilizers, seedlings and soil are treated with fresh ash.
- A flea does not tolerate an acidic environment, therefore it helps to destroy its watering of radish with acidified water. For example, you can use a solution of citric acid (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water).
- Flea prefers to feast on dry leaves of radish, so they are regularly sprayed with water.
Thanks to precocity and unpretentiousness, radishes were successfully grown on the International Space Station.
Radishes can be grown both in individual beds and in mixed plantings next to cabbage, potatoes and cucumbers. With proper care, the plants will thank you for a good harvest.
Rule one: sow radishes are best in late March - early April, or early September - late October. Weather conditions in spring and autumn are more suitable for growing this root: not too hot and dry, the sun only warms the earth slightly. And to get a good harvest of large, tasty fruits at this time is not difficult. This vegetable grows well and develops in short light days, and the air temperature during this period is optimal for it, an average of +20 degrees.
By itself, radishes calmly tolerate lowering the temperature to -5 ... -6 degrees at night and up to -8 degrees in the daytime. The downside is that such temperature jumps strongly affect the size of the roots - they stop growing, lose their juiciness and acquire a bitter aftertaste. And a low temperature will certainly affect the emergence of the first shoots, they will hatch no sooner than in two months, instead of the prescribed three or four weeks.
The summer heat is also detrimental to radish, so it’s generally not worth sowing at this time, the plant does not tolerate the high temperature of the air and dry soil. Planting radishes in areas with hot climates is more problematic for gardeners in the southern regions, but in this case it is recommended to sow the seeds earlier.
What will be your future harvest, depends largely on the condition of the soil, on the site you have chosen for sowing seeds. Radish does not tolerate acidic soils, because the soil on the plot chosen for this vegetable must be neutral in acidity or at least slightly acidic. Young seedlings absorb all the substances necessary for growth from the soil, therefore, approach the issue of site selection very seriously. First, decide where the radish will grow: in a greenhouse, greenhouse, or garden.
In the greenhouse or greenhouse, you yourself create the quality of the soil, add the necessary fertilizers and minerals to it. Planting seeds in the open ground of the garden, make no mistake with the choice of soil to properly seed the seeds. The site for growing radish is better to choose on the sunny side, it should be well sheltered from the sudden gusts of wind, the best option is the southern and southeast side of the garden. Radish has one, very valuable quality - this culture is a good soil compactor, and prepares the soil for other crops better than many. After harvesting the fruits of radish, on the same plot you can safely plant greens, carrots, potatoes, onions, beets and many other vegetables.
The goal of each gardener is to achieve an excellent harvest from his plot, which is why, before sowing, apply fertilizer to the soil. The most famous and effective among the natural "fertilizers" of the soil is compost with humus or manure. After introducing this useful mass into the soil, the plot should be well digged.
As mentioned earlier, the acidity of the soil is extremely important for radish: only neutral, or at least weakly acidic soil is suitable. Optimum acidity can be achieved by adding ammonium nitrate (about 15 g per square meter of land), superphosphate (20 g) and potassium chloride (about 15–20 g) as a fertilizer.
Ways to plant radishes in optimal time
Once your plot is ready for sowing, you can sow radishes. There are many ways of sowing, however, we will consider only some of them:
- Manual setting
- Seed drill
- North, using belt seeding.
Any of them has its undoubted advantages and disadvantages. There are many more difficult and inefficient ways, but we will not mention them.
Manual sowing is not only the most laborious, but also the most profitable. It is suitable for sowing seeds in small beds. Experienced gardeners recommend to moisten the seeds in a wet rag before planting, so they will germinate soon. But this method requires some caution: you need to take the seeds one by one, while trying not to damage the outer cover. The grooves for planting are shallow, the seeds are laid to a depth of about 1–1.5 cm, at a distance of 4–5 cm from each other.
There is a certain pattern between the distance that you leave from one seed to another, and the depth of planting: if you plant deeply, you will get an oblong root crop that has grown almost on the surface. That is, the seeds dry out and give a bad harvest, not juicy, small fruits. Once the seeds are in the soil, sprinkle them on top of the soil and tamp it down a little. After planting radishes, the bed must be watered, but not drown with the seeds.
If you have a large plot of land that you plan to sow radishes, sowing with a seeder is your option.. Your labor costs are minimal., because the mechanism will be planted. The seeders are of different types and types, but the principle of their work is almost the same. The main thing in the case of a seeder - you can only use dry seed! The internal mechanisms of the unit can easily damage the outer shell of the seed. The depth of the grooves and the seeding rate, you must set yourself manually. The main point that needs to be paid attention to when working with a seeder is to set all the necessary sowing parameters correctly; after the mechanism works, it will be impossible to redo anything.
Tape sowing is quite time-consuming and lengthy process, having one undoubted plus - with this method of planting the seeds will not be damaged. Для начала вырезаем несколько полос из бумаги шириной около 0,5 см. Чем длиннее бороздка для посева семян, тем длиннее бумажная лента. Потом, на ленте, на ширину шага 5 см, нужно сделать пометки, а на них приклеить с помощью клейстера семена.
Сеять вы будете, положив ленты семенами вниз в бороздки, после обязательно присыпьте землёй и слегка уплотните. A little later, when you water the beds, the water will dissolve the paste, and the seeds will remain in the soil and begin to germinate. Thus, in a short time you will get a good harvest.
Selection of seeds for germination
The most crucial preparatory stage is the selection of seeds for germination. Of course, you can buy ready-processed seeds in the store and on the market. However, in many gardeners, more trust is caused by the seeds collected after the roots are ripening on their own plot. Firstly, there is an opportunity to select the best plants that will serve as seed plants. Secondly, we can confidently say that in this case the seeds will definitely sprout.
So, the more carefully we approach the choice of radish seeds, the better the future harvest. The test plant must be selected according to the following criteria:
- root vegetable form
- evenness and color saturation,
- size, the bigger it is, the better
- no different cracking of the fetus,
- the smallest number of leaves in the outlet,
- lack of branding.
Preference is given to the plant, which for a long time does not release the arrows and does not form a peduncle. Such plants are perfect for the selection of radish seeds and will become a high-quality sowing material for the next season. The main thing is to properly prepare them for planting.
Not all gardeners before sowing the seeds of radish process them and soak them in special solutions. But, if you want the shoots to appear much earlier and develop more intensively, then this procedure is necessary. Before planting the seeds need to be processed.
What are the same way you can prepare the seeds for planting in open ground:
- sorted seeds are placed on a damp cloth, and during the day we keep in a warm place,
- Seeds before sowing should be sanitized. To do this, they are immersed in hot water for 15-20 minutes, with this we will protect the seed from various diseases. And do not forget to cool the seeds after warming up, enrich them with useful microelements, and dry thoroughly,
- The saturation of grains with microelements is a healing bath of minerals and growth stimulants. The seeds are soaked in this solution for a while, and this procedure strengthens the protective properties of your future crop.
Of course, which of the soaking procedures is right for you, decide for yourself, but remember, after processing the grains, they can be stored for a short time. As a rule, such a procedure is performed immediately before planting seeds in open ground. Immediately after treatment, the seeds are dried and planted radishes.
Care of the first shoots
Among avid gardeners, radishes are considered unpretentious in the care of agricultural crops. By and large, you do not have to make special efforts: daily watering of young shoots of radish and periodic thinning, here are the main works associated with caring for it. True, it is necessary to water almost every day. In the heat, the tops will wither from the strong sun, and the soil under the bush should be loosened, and the plant itself should be spud. Radish feeding is not needed - he will choose the necessary trace elements from the soil. The main thing is to prevent the drying of the top layer of the soil, otherwise immature seedlings will die. And of course, do not forget about the need to pick the seedlings, so you will get beautiful large fruits.
Watering the crop
Radish is 90% water, and therefore, as soon as the first leaves appear, proceed to plenty of sprinkling. But in any case, do not overdo it with watering, otherwise the fruits rot. Watering should be regular, the water for it should not be cold, especially in early spring and late autumn stick to + 20-23 degrees, so you warm the roots in the cool nights.
When all the conditions for proper planting are met, the first crop can be harvested after 25 days. Experimenters have the opportunity to extend the radish season, just sow the seeds with an interval of one week, and 2-3 picks of delicious radishes are waiting for you during the season. Good planting and proper cultivation may seem confusing and difficult for beginners. In fact, radish is a tasty and healthy vegetable, and certainly worth the time and effort it took to plant and leave.
Radishes are an annual crop belonging to the Cabbage family. The plant consists of a leaf outlet and root, which is eaten. Depending on the variety, a root vegetable can have a very different shape, size and color. Most often, radish has a round or oval shape, but there are specimens of conical, spindle-shaped and elliptical. The standard size of root crops is 2–5 cm in diameter, and weight is 15–25 g, but there are varieties with a larger root. The most common for radish is considered to be a red-pink or variegated red-white color, but not so long ago, new varieties with a yellow, white, gray and even purple color appeared.
Culture propagated by seeds that have the ability to quickly germinate. If you soak them before sowing, the first shoots will appear in just 2–3 days. Therefore, radishes are often sown in rows to mark the lines of the beds with other cultures. Radish root is also growing very fast. Early varieties are ready to eat in 3-4 weeks after the seeds have been sown in the ground.
By the time of ripening radish varieties are divided into the following types:
- early ripening - roots are ready for digging 20–30 days after sowing,
- mid-season - the ripening period is 30-40 days,
- Late ripening (45–60 days) - it is possible to dig a crop only in June, or even in July, provided that the seeds were planted in April or May.
When sowing seeds radish grows well in greenhouses and greenhouses. In favorable conditions (good humidity and air temperature + 18 ... + 20 ° C) sprouts appear in 2–4 days, but then it is necessary to lower the temperature to + 15 ... + 18 ° C - this degree contributes to the early formation of root crops. Plants do not need a long light day - with natural light more than 12 hours a day, they switch to flowering. It is also important to dig radishes in time, because 10–14 days after the root crop has grown, the peduncle appears on the plant, and the radish itself loses its taste qualities.
The question of when it is possible to sow radishes in order to get an early harvest and at the same time the crops have not frozen, any gardener cares. As already mentioned, radish is a frost-resistant crop and tolerates wavy spring frosts. In early spring, it can be sown immediately seeds in the ground, without fear that they will freeze. However, planting radishes in March, it is better to put a bed under the film, so that the seeds soon germinate. As an option, you can build a film greenhouse, and with the advent of warm days, remove the film.
The soil temperature of + 12 ... + 15 ° C is considered the most favorable for sowing radish seeds. This degree of earth reaches somewhere in the middle or at the end of April. In the northern regions, radish seeds are usually sown in the ground in May and, accordingly, the crop is harvested a little later - in June or July. You can also sow the culture at the end of August, when the summer heat will go away, and the light days will be shorter. Many gardeners prefer to sow the seeds at the end of the summer, because the soil has cooled down a bit and there is still enough time to form the tubers. Judging by the reviews, autumn radish is sweeter and almost never empty inside.
In principle, vegetable seed can be sown all year round, with the exception of June and July.
This is due to the fact that in June and July the temperature of the air and the soil is too high, and in such conditions, the roots will become bitter or will not form at all, moreover, the plants may release flower stalks. In the winter months, radishes are sown only in greenhouses.
Also, some gardeners practiced planting radishes before winter, that is, the seeds are sown in the soil in late autumn, just before the frosts, and they germinate next spring. This practice allows you to grow very early and high-quality radishes, because over the winter the seeds are hardened, and then good root crops grow from them. Another plus of winter sowing is that the ground is constantly wet under snow, which contributes to the swelling and rapid germination of seeds.
Radish is sown by seeds directly into the ground. The soil for cultivation is prepared in advance: for spring sowing - in the fall, for sowing during the season - for a couple of weeks. Radish grows best in loose and fertile soil enriched with humus. If the soil is acidic, it must be lime to level the acidity. Before digging, humus and compost are introduced into the soil, after which the bed is dug over with a fork. If the soil is not very fertile, you can add mineral fertilizers: potassium chloride, superphosphate, ash.
For beds should be allocated a well-lit area. Radish can grow in partial shade, but in this case, the roots will be small. Pay attention to the predecessors of radish - the culture does not grow well after the cabbage vegetables, lettuce. You can sow the seeds on the spot where you plan to plant tomatoes and peppers later - this technique will save garden space. The bed should be high, at least 15–20 cm.
Before planting, it is recommended to soak and calibrate the seeds of radish (select the largest ones) - this is the only way you can speed up the seedlings and get high-quality root vegetables.
To check the quality of the seeds, you need to fill them with water. Those that sink to the bottom can be used for sowing.
Soak the seeds in plain warm water or in a growth-stimulating solution. Alternatively, planting material can be placed in a damp cloth (gauze) and put for a couple of days in a warm place.
If the seeds are fine, they are calibrated and germinated, you can start planting. Along the length of the whole bed, we make shallow (5 cm) furrows at a distance of 10–15 cm. We water the hole well and stack the seed. Sowing radish with seeds involves placing them in a hole in a staggered manner at a distance of 3–4 cm. Of course, the process is very troublesome, and if you cannot afford it, you can sow more densely and then thin out the rows. Next, the wells are covered with a layer of earth, and if the weather is cold, then the bed is covered with foil.
Video "One of the ways of planting radish"
This video will introduce you to one of the methods of sowing radish seeds in open ground.
The maintenance of the bed consists in timely watering, cleaning of weeds and loosening the soil. For intensive growth of root crops, it is necessary to maintain normal humidity - make sure that the soil does not dry out, but also not be over-wetted. If the summer is hot, you should water it daily, at other times - once every 2-3 days. In the evening you can spend sprinkling. After each watering, it is necessary to slightly loosen the soil between the rows, as well as remove weeds. In the spring, as soon as 1–2 leaves appear on sprouts, the bed should be thinned out - leave only the strongest plants at a distance of 4–5 cm from each other.
The main pests of radish are cabbage flies and cruciferous flea. To protect against these insects, spraying the bed with a solution of ash or tobacco infusion is recommended. If the bed has been prepared correctly, then the radish sown in the spring does not need any additional feeding. When autumn sowing, it is necessary to add potash fertilizer or compost, because the soil has depleted a little over the summer.
Radish is used fresh. Root crops from spring sowing should be dug out in time, because they quickly overripe in warm earth. If the harvest is ripe in the fall, then you can not hurry with the harvest - in the cold ground roots will stay fresh longer. In a cool place (-2 ... 0 ˚C) radishes are stored for a long time. Late varieties, ripening in July, can lie in the refrigerator almost all summer. Autumn harvest is better to keep in the cellar or basement, while the tops should be removed, and the roots to pour sand.