- Proper care of tomatoes
- What to water the tomatoes to get a good harvest
- How to grow tomatoes and care for them
Proper watering is one of the most important rules when growing tomatoes. Water them about once a week. In order for the root system to properly receive moisture, watering must be sufficiently abundant. After watering, the soil must be loosened, so that a dry crust does not form on its surface, and also that air gets better to the plant roots. If tomatoes are not watered enough, especially in drought, the fruits are subject to a dangerous disease - top rot and crack.
In addition to watering, tomatoes need good feed. This process begins 10 days after the seedlings were planted in a permanent place. For these purposes, cow manure is used at a ratio of 1 bucket of mullein per 10 buckets of water. After feeding tomatoes should spud. To do this, undersized varieties spud a continuous comb, and tall - each plant separately. Thanks to hilling on the plants, additional roots appear, the nutrition of the plants is enhanced, which prevents the ovaries from falling off.
Further feeding can be carried out in 10 days with complex mineral fertilizers. While there are no flowers on the tomatoes, 1 l of top dressing is added to each plant, and 2 l after flowering. Feed tomatoes at the same time with watering. Tomatoes respond well to the introduction of wood ashes in the grooves. With nitrogenous fertilizers, it is worth being especially careful, since their overabundance causes an intensive growth of green mass to the detriment of flowers and fruits. In addition, they are able to accumulate nitrates in fruits.
Growing tomatoes is an interesting thing for gardeners to be treated carefully enough.
To properly organize the process of growing tomatoes at home, a novice vegetable grower needs to decide on the variety and its cultivation rules. You can simplify the task of caring for tomatoes, if you plant them in the greenhouse. Today there are many varieties that will give a rich harvest with elastic fruits.
For planting tomatoes in open ground will need to prepare the soil. From the soil it is desirable to remove all weeds and stones. In order to grow tomatoes faster and to reap a large crop, planting of this crop in clay soil should be avoided.
To harvest the first crop, seedlings can be purchased at a specialty store or on the market, and after harvesting, it is better to grow your own. With self-planting seeds for seedlings you need to grow it right:
- The root system must be properly developed before being transferred to open ground.
- Seedlings should receive a sufficient amount of sunlight.
- Each variety must receive a sufficient amount of moisture.
- For seedlings, it is necessary to observe the temperature regime in the room where it is grown.
Rules for watering tomatoes
Caring for tomatoes is not limited to one weeding and dressing at the planting stage. To get a good harvest need to organize the right watering system. With a deficiency, as well as an overabundance of moisture, deformation of the fruit may be observed.
Depending on the variety, tomatoes require a moderate amount of moisture. Some varieties after removal in open ground should be watered daily. Others require watering every four days.
Water should be poured directly into the hole so that the water reaches the root system, rather than spread over the surface. Planting tomato seedlings begin in June. At this time, all the favorable conditions for the growth and development of the plant are already present.
Before planting seedlings of tomato ground moisten in advance. During the planting of the seedlings, an additional amount of water is poured into the hole and covered with earth. Re-watering after planting can be carried out in a week. During this time, the root system is adapted to the new conditions and rooted.
Tomato bushes can be irrigated in several ways:
With a small amount of cultivated tomatoes at the dacha, you can use the familiar hose connected to the water supply system. But this method is not always acceptable for a large area of plantings. Besides the most acceptable option for watering is a watering option under the hole.
With a strong pressure of water from the hose, the earth from the hole will begin to leach out, which will require additional powder of the bushes with earth. With a weak pressure of water, the irrigation process will require more time from the grower. In addition, watering should be carried out so that water does not fall on the leaves of the seedlings.
Automatic watering systems for tomato can be done personally or purchased in specialized stores. For the dacha suitable drip irrigation system. This method allows watering without soil erosion. You can use automatic systems both for growing tomatoes in the open field, and for growing them in a greenhouse.
Intra-soil irrigation system is a more complex device process and can be used on a large area of vegetable farms. According to its design, this method of irrigation is a pipe system, placed underground at a shallow depth. Lay the pipes along the rows with seedlings. Watering is carried out immediately under the root.
The most modern method of irrigation of tomato seedlings on the site is the rain system. It is most popular when growing tomatoes in greenhouses. In this method, pipes with nozzles are installed at a certain height along the entire perimeter of the greenhouse. It is through them that water will be supplied. This method allows you to evenly distribute water over the surface of the soil, preventing its surplus.
Top dressing of tomatoes after landing in soil
Full tomato care is not complete. timely fertilization. In order not to harm the plants, you should approach this issue with due responsibility.
Before planting seedlings in the ground should prepare the soil and fertilize. This is done to enrich the soil with all the necessary trace elements, minerals and organic substances, which will allow in the future to obtain high-quality and abundant crops.
Further, after planting the tomatoes in the ground, they are fed no more than two times:
- After the seedlings take root in the ground and release new leaves.
- After tying the fruit on the bushes.
Vegetable growers use ammonium and calcium nitrate as a fertilizer from the calculation of a half a kilogram of top dressing per hundred. She poured into the wells and poured water. Water helps nutrients to enter the plant root.
If the soil contains a sufficient amount of nutrients, then the first feeding can not be carried out. It is advisable to carry out the necessary soil analysis and monitor the concentration of fertilizer in it.
Tomato care: pruning
Caring for tomatoes is not reduced to one watering and feeding. Another type of plant care considered pruning. In practice, not all growers use it, but for some varieties of tomato, especially with tall stems, this procedure is necessary.
Using the method of pruning, you can save nutrients to fruits, reducing their consumption by removing unnecessary leaves and stems. With the help of pruners in the process of growth of the bushes with them cut off extra branches, but only those on which there will not be formed ovary. The main task is not to damage the stem during pruning.
Caring for tomatoes when grown in a greenhouse
Tomatoes can be grown not only in the open field, but also in the greenhouse. This method allows you to get rich and early harvests. But in this case, the grower should follow the necessary rules for the care of plants.
When growing tomatoes in the greenhouse, a special seed treatment is carried out. For this purpose, potassium permanganate (manganese) is used for this purpose.
Do this as follows:
- Bred one gram of potassium permanganate in a glass of water.
- Seeds poured into a gauze bag and immersed in the solution for 20 minutes.
- Wash under running water.
After that, seeds are impregnated with useful substances for good germination and fruiting.. To this end:
- Prepare a solution of one tablespoon of fertilizer (sodium humate, ash) and one liter of warm water.
- Water in the tank should not be below 25 degrees. A bag of seeds is soaked into it for about 12 hours.
- On the day down bag of seeds in clean water.
All of the above activities are useful for stunted tomato varieties. Hardening can be applied along with these procedures: the seeds are placed on a shelf in a refrigerator at a temperature of at least one degree. A bag of seeds is periodically sprayed with water so that the seeds are not dry. After hardening, the seeds must be planted in the soil. It should be noted that such procedures are not needed by hybrid varieties of plants and tomatoes with tall stems.
As well as in an open ground, cultivation in the greenhouse requires compliance with temperature and watering. In the process of planting seeds must be watered with a 40 degree solution of sodium humate. After planting seeds in the ground, it is necessary to maintain the temperature in the room at least 23 degrees.
During the cultivation of seedlings it is necessary to withstand the daily temperature of about 17 degrees, and the night temperature - about 14 degrees. When the outside air warms up to 12 degrees, the seedlings are put out during the day to harden.
Water the seedlings before planting in the groundin about two hours. Further, watering is carried out after two weeks after transplantation into the ground. Abundant watering is carried out before the beginning of active flowering of plants and after their pollination. On one square meter take about five liters of water.
Watering greenhouse tomatoes in the morning. The plants are watered in the same way as when grown in open ground: they are watered into the hole, avoiding water on the leaves.
Caring for tomatoes when growing them in a greenhouse is not much different from growing in open ground. But greenhouse plants need more nutrients, so they are more likely to feed. Usually, tomatoes are fed at the stage of sowing seeds, Two weeks after picking, two weeks after planting in the ground, after planting the bushes three weeks later, then three, and then two weeks from the previous top dressing.
To get a high yield of quality fruits it is necessary to water, feed and observe the temperature at all stages of tomato cultivation. Seeds are best sown in a plastic box without watering. Place for growing seedlings should be warm enough and well lit.
Temperature conditions should be observed for proper growth: tomato bushes must be strong, and not grow up. Periodically, seedlings need to swoop down and feed. To plant seedlings in a greenhouse should be at a sufficient distance between the bushes for their proper growth and development. After the bushes grow up they must be tied up so that the stem does not break during the fruiting season.
Watering of greenhouse tomatoes should be carried out with a certain sequence. It is best to water the plants every six days with moderate amounts of water. Water should be at room temperature and it is always recommended to pour it under the plant root.
The greenhouse should be periodically ventilated. to avoid the greenhouse effect. During fruiting, plants are watered no more than two or three times a week.
Ten days after the seedlings emerge, they pick the plants, that is, transplant them into separate containers. With proper picking, two hours before transplanting, watering the seedlings.
You can use another method of picking - transshipmentwhen the plant is not watered a few days before transplantation. Bushes easily get out of dry land and the root system is not damaged. When carrying out the transshipment, the plant after transplantation is watered abundantly so that it will begin well.
Where to begin
Growing tomatoes shows the level of a gardener, his ability to work with greenhouses, regulate humidity, choose a top dressing. Below is a general information on how to grow tomatoes properly in greenhouses.
First you need to choose the seeds for sowing. The seed seeds have bright color, they do not need additional processing. Experienced gardeners harvest seeds from particularly successful fruits of the past season. But for beginners suitable purchased material. It is advisable to take it on the market from gardeners, with the purchase inspect for dryness and proper storage.
If the seeds have not been processed, you need to put them in a solution of Fitosportin-M for 20 minutes. A bag with the tool can be easily purchased on the market or even in a supermarket in the relevant departments. Wash the seeds after processing is not necessary. Before sowing, you can keep them in a special solution that stimulates growth. Choosing a date when to sow tomatoes, focus on the end of February.
Sowing is allowed up to the end of March, it depends on a number of factors. It is better to work with tomatoes of late varieties in February, and March is suitable for mid-season ones. Good early varieties are planted in late March.
What you need to know about sowing
Important is the soil for planting, which must be prepared in a special way. The technology of growing tomatoes begins to work from the very beginning. For sowing, you should take shallow plastic or wooden boxes, the height of which should not exceed 10 cm. To prepare the soil, you need to take part of the peat, part of the humus and part of the sod land. The composition should not reach the edge of the box.
To moisten the seed soil, it is advised to add river sand, not more than a kilogram, a spoonful of wood ash and superphosphate, according to the instructions. With proper preparation of soil and seeds, tomatoes will quickly grow, cultivation will go well. If you choose a ready mix for seedlings, you do not need to feed it additionally, it has everything. The prepared soil is suitable if you decide to dilute the room tomatoes, and the mixture needs a little.
Growing tomatoes for seedlings is carried out in February and March. In prepared boxes with fertilized soil, several furrows are made to a depth of no more than 2 cm. Fresh strips are filled with a warm solution of sodium humate, and then seeds are planted immediately. On top of fresh crops, you need to fill the ground with the edges of the box and put it on the sunny side of the window sill so that the crops are heated at a temperature of 20 0 C. Experienced gardeners stimulate the cultivation of tomatoes with a thin food wrap, covering the box from above. This creates a greenhouse effect and should not be kept for more than five days.
Before you grow seedlings, you need to attend to the preparation of another box deeper, where the finished plants will be transferred. This process is called a dive, and it is carried out on day 10 after the seeds have risen.
After the discovery of two or three leaves it is already possible to transplant the shoots. Diving is done in order to give the plants the opportunity to take root and turn around in the ground. In a small box, they quickly fade due to lack of space.
The secrets of growing and diving seedlings are in strict adherence to the timing. One sprout is carefully removed from the box, together with a small piece of land, they are planted in a new place. Properly grow tomatoes in such boxes for no more than 50 days. During this period, they should rise up by 25-30 cm.
To grow tomatoes strong and ready for planting, you need to constantly turn the box to the sun with different sides, so the sprouts will not stretch.
Planting in the greenhouse
The most crucial point is the placement of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Before planting in artificial soil, seedlings need to be hardened, prepared for natural conditions. To do this, at home, you need to air more often with cool air at night and seedlings, as well as bring it to the balcony, teach it to the natural climate.
To get fruitful tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to prepare the room in which they will spend the whole summer.. Since the landing will take place on the May holidays, and the nights are still cold, additional thermal insulation should be organized in the greenhouse. A double layer of film will do. Do not pull the film tightly, then the air circulating between the layers will allow to keep the temperature longer and increase the wear of the entire structure.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse love the air, so you need necessarily vents or vents. Wipe all the elements with a disinfectant solution, it will get rid of last year's mold. It is impossible to use the same soil twice, infections are well going through the winter and they can hit new tomatoes in the greenhouse. Beds need to be prepared in advance, at least one week before planting, dig up the soil, fertilize with humus, add additional dressing if desired. Tomatoes grow best in a greenhouse on loamy and sandy soil.
Young tomatoes in a greenhouse should fall into warm soil; in cold they will spoil and will not grow. In order to achieve warmth, the ground is covered with black durable film.
Октябрина Ганичкина советует в качестве оперативного решения поливать землю перед посадкой горячей водой. Но это требует ювелирности и точного расчета, поэтому лучше все-таки озадачиться пленкой.
Для выращивания помидоров в теплице не нужно слишком усердствовать с удобрениями. Некоторые люди, желая увеличить урожай, насыпают все известные прикормки сразу. В результате трава буйно цветет, но плодов от этого больше не становится. При высадке рассады сразу избавляйтесь от слабых на вид растений, они все равно не выживут, а питательные вещества на себя заберут. Cotyledon leaves need to be torn off.
Do not work on a bright sunny day, so as not to singe the shoots. The technology of growing tomatoes seems difficult, but if you learn simple rules, over time you will be able to work out your secrets of a successful harvest.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
Oktyabrina Ganichkina advises the cultivation of tomatoes in bags. This method allows you to make the plants mobile, and the soil - protected from external influences. Unlike a greenhouse, the upper part of the plant is not protected from the sun and wind. Choosing to grow tomatoes in bags, you need to be a more experienced gardener.
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse begins with a breakdown of the beds, the width of which should be about 70 cm. Leave a good distance between the beds, as the adult plants will be tall and bushy. Leave 30 cm between rows, and 30 cm between shoots. However, varieties play an important role in marking, because they are all different and do not grow the same. There should be experience and flair.
You need to start growing tomatoes in a greenhouse using a special method. First, plant a pot with plants in the hole and sprinkle with earth, so that additional roots begin to appear, and the base for this is for the plant. After 2 weeks, you can transplant tomatoes into another hole, getting rid of the pot. This method is the opposite of the method of deep planting, when growing and care requires more attention.
Oktyabrina Ganichkina advises: do not plant many varieties and a large number of plants at once. From lack of air, nutrients and space, they all give a bad harvest or at worst they will simply die.
How to grow good tomatoes in a greenhouse? When following tips, it is important to look at plant behavior and take action if something is wrong.
Watering in the greenhouse
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse with all the listed rules will be simple. At a stage when plants got accustomed and sprouted, everything will go easier. The first few days after planting the plants do not water so as not to disturb them.
For irrigation, you need to take warm water, about 23 0 C. Until flowering, watering is necessary every five days, in small quantities. During the flowering period, the doses of water are doubled. It is advisable to install a mechanical watering system. Below is a diagram of watering in a greenhouse or greenhouse (photo №1).
For manual watering you need to know the rule: pour water under the root in the morning so that condensate does not fall on the leaves. When we grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, we often forget about airing, and it harms plants. Good tomatoes are not afraid of the wind, so feel free to open the vents or tilt the film. During the flowering period, the plants need to be pollinated, for this fresh air is obligatory.
Keep the temperature in bad weather 20 0 C, and with a hot day not higher than 25 0 C. At night you can not lower the air temperature below 15 0 C.
It is possible to tie up the plants on the third day after planting, and with the growth of growth, tie them up higher. This is done so that the stems do not break under their own weight, and the fruits do not rot. Use soft, non-traumatic material for garters. Cotton strips of fabric are fine.
We grow tomatoes in the greenhouse in order to enjoy juicy healthy fruits at the end of the season. In natural tomatoes a lot of lycopene, which prevents the formation of cancer cells and serves as an antioxidant. Fresh, home-grown tomatoes will be not only tasty, but also a useful achievement of your gardening.
I shoot the most healthy ripe fruit, I crush them. I spread the mass into a glass or jar for three days. Then rinse well through a strainer with water. Next - drying.
In no case should you dry the seeds on the battery, pan, etc.! Evenly lay them on paper or film on the windowsill for three days. After poured into a plastic bag and in a safe place for storage.
Tomato seed preparation
Four days before planting, I soak tomato seeds in ash solution (for 1 l of water - 1 tbsp of wood ash) for 6-8 hours. During this time, they will not only get soaked, but also absorb nutrients from dissolved ash. Then, for disinfection, I drop the seeds in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, rinse it, pour it into a bag and put it in the coldest place in the fridge (but not in the freezer!) For three days to harden.
We choose the soil
It is best to take the soil for sowing from the site where cucumbers or cabbage were grown. Not from under the onion, potato, pepper: the soil can be infected with blast. I mix the earth with the purchased Violet-type primer in equal proportions.
In the bucket mixture is sure to add 0.5 liters of wood ash, 1-2 st.l. superphosphate, mix and fill the prepared boxes. A good seedling (and as a result, it grows strong in me) is half the job. When it comes time to harvest, from each bush I collect up to fifteen kilograms of beautiful fruits!
CROPS OF TOMATOES
Tanks for planting tomato seedlings
For the cultivation of seedlings fit any containers in the bottom of which there are drainage holes. But to get rid of pathogens, containers must be disinfected. Wash old pots, plastic bottles in warm water, remove salt deposits from the walls, then allow 3-4 hours in potassium permanganate solution. Baking clay containers in the oven.
Tempering tomato seedlings
Sergey Shkurko from the village is sharing his experience in growing tomato seedlings. Volokonovka Belgorod region.
Tomato seeds at the end of February are sown dry in boxes in the grooves at a distance of 3 cm from each other. I pour in soil and cover the container with glass. I keep at a temperature of + 22 ... + 24 degrees.
The soil consists of garden land and rotted manure (1: 1).
As soon as the seedlings appear, I rearrange the boxes on a cooler window sill. And when outside temperature rises to + 10 ... + 12 degrees, I begin to harden the seedlings (I stand on the balcony), increasing the time daily by 1 hour. Seedlings twice feed infusion of ash (2 tbsp. Per 10 liters of water).
Sampling of tomato seedlings "For" and "against"
What is the pick of tomatoes necessary for and is it necessary at all? How to dive seedlings and when?
Some gardeners believe that picking is an extra worry of young plants, as the probability of damage to the root system and the death of seedlings increases. Others are of the opinion that the picking "trains" the plants, making them more durable and strong.
I would advise to dive. The seedlings, indeed, become more stocky, the plants develop better, and consequently, the chances of a good harvest increase.
After the emergence of the first pair of true leaves in seedlings of tomatoes, the seedlings dive into separate pots, deepening to the cotyledons. At the same time, the soil is tamped to remove excess air, and watered with warm water (+ 20 ... + 25 degrees).
From the moment of the picking and before landing in the ground I spray the seedlings once a week with the following mixture: for 1 l of water - 1 tbsp. serum and 5 drops of iodine. The seedling grows healthy and does not affect the black leg.
Seedlings of tomatoes at the age of 12 days after germination, dive as follows. The determinant varieties are transplanted into boxes for sowing seeds, but already according to the 10 × 10 cm scheme, deepening to the cotyledon leaves. And the indeterminate dive immediately into separate pots, not filling the soil to the edge of about 10 cm. I water the seedlings moderately. So that it does not stretch, I adjust the lighting in the room (not more than 14 hours a day) and the temperature (not higher than +17 degrees).
After 2 weeks I spend the second picks. Determinant varieties "relocate" in liter pots with drainage. I act differently with the indeterminate ones: the grown stems gently bend and spiral onto the soil surface, then sprinkle it, leaving only the top of the head with 4 leaves. Laying the stems in containers before planting in the greenhouse I spend another 2 times, until the pot to the top is filled with soil. Thanks to all these subtleties, the root system of tall tomatoes is very powerful, which is the key to the proper development of plants, their abundant and long-term fruiting.
Diving seedlings in the greenhouse
Tomato seedlings are grown in an unusual way. Seeds sown in boxes. When the seedlings have 2-4 leaves, I take a dive to the land in small greenhouses, which I cover with a dense spanbond. Then, as the seedlings grow, I periodically open greenhouses and harden the plants in the open air. By the end of May, the seedlings together with a lump of earth are planted in open ground. Planting spend with an interval between plants of 40 cm, and the width between the rows - 70 cm
How much light does a tomato seedling need?
Tomato seedlings have a 14-hour daylight period, but the lighting should be extremely intense. I install fluorescent, mercury and quartz lamps with a total power of at least 5 kW on the window sill of a two-frame window!
TIP: Do not use incandescent bulbs to illuminate seedlings - they lead to overheating of the upper leaves.
The lower part of the stems of tomatoes darkened, became thin and began to rot ...
Most likely, they are affected by the black leg (a common disease of seedlings of seeds and seedlings). It occurs most often due to infection in the soil, thickening of crops, irrigation with cold water, strong waterlogging of the soil, and poor airing of the seedlings. For the prevention of disease, the soil before sowing is shed with a solution of potassium permanganate (1.5 g per 10 l of water).
With a small spread of the disease, you can save the plants by pouring a layer of clean sand and peat 1–1.5 cm thick under the seedlings, which will help to dry the soil near the stem. Diseased plants are sprayed with a slightly colored (0.05%) solution of potassium permanganate. Some also try to save the large seedlings affected by the black leg: they cut the stems above the site of damage and lower the cuttings into the water until new roots are obtained. But it is better to sow a new batch of tomato seeds for seedlings.
Up to 8 kg of tomatoes from the bush
I grow tomatoes through seedlings, soak a coconut substrate briquette in cool water. For a 10-liter bucket of ready-made soil, I take 1 part of river sand, garden soil, coconut substrate, add 1 cup of sifted ash and a little (0.5 tsp) of biofungicide.
After 3 days I put the soil in plastic cups (0.5 l), put a hydrogel on the bottom and made 3 punctures in each. Sowing seeds. As the sprout grows, I fill the ground with seedlings.
I put the cups in containers, I cover with a transparent plastic lid (if there is none, with food cling film). I fix the cover with a soft rubber band. I shoot the film when shoots appear.
From early ripe tomatoes, so I plant Caspar F1, Friend, Pride of Siberia. They give up to 8 kg of fruits from 1 bush. In the open field - grow well. White pouring 241, Shuttle.
Marina TERESHKINA, Kemerovo
As soon as I had the opportunity to organize a garden on the windowsill, I immediately got down to business.
True, I wondered: where to start - with tomatoes or cucumbers? She stopped at tomatoes, because they are more unpretentious.
It is clear that you will not plant garden varieties of tomatoes on a window sill. Found a wonderful dwarf variety.
Seedlings sowed in a plastic jar from under the salted herring.
A week later, she swooped in separate jars of sour cream. After another 3 weeks, landed in 3-liter flower pots. At the bottom of the tank poured claydite for drainage.
Then, up to half poured fertile soil into a pot. She planted tomato seedlings, poured and sprinkled the ground to the level of the lower leaves of the tomato. AT
during the growth of the earth spit.
As soon as the first flowers appeared, the lower leaves were cut off so that they would not take food. I watered only at the root, because the hybrids do not tolerate moisture on the sheet.
One and a half months after transplantation, I have already gathered my first indoor crop - not yet 1.5 kg from a bush, as it was written on a bag of seeds, but I am stubborn, I think these figures are ahead of me!
Irma MOTOSOVA. Perm
LANDING OF TOMATO
With early transplanting to a greenhouse, seedlings will grow strong and healthy. This is due to daily temperature differences: daytime heat and night cold. Tomatoes do not stretch, because the internodes are formed short. The strength of the bush goes on the formation of the stem. The plant is hardened, forming stepchildren, the same in thickness as the stem. The future harvest will be formed on them.
In open ground
I plant seedlings from a greenhouse on the beds as soon as the soil at the depth of the root system warms up to +9 degrees and above. Plants do not harbor, except spunbond, for the first time to shade them from the bright sunlight.
I add peat or humus, superphosphate (1 tbsp), ash (0.5 tbsp.) And magnesium sulfate (1 tsp) to each well.
When planting seedlings in open ground, I will surely deepen the two lower lateral stems. Then, in the course of growth and development, I pour the soil to the third, so that it also takes root. In anticipation of frosts, the lower side shoots are covered with soil. If the upper part of the plants dies, it will give a chance to the tomatoes to grow back due to the strong root system formed.
Each has his own place
Another important point - the area of nutrition of tomatoes. Since the bushes are not the stepson, they significantly grow. Therefore, tall tomatoes are planted in the center of the beds at a distance of 90-100 cm from each other. Stunted - or in the same order (but after 50 cm), or 4 bush per square meter.
Fact: The height of seedlings of tomatoes for planting in open ground at the end of May should not exceed 30 cm.
Prepare for "cheers"!
In May, I'm carrying tomato seedlings to the country. Before this, the plants are treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid. I do not dig up the soil in the greenhouse (I do it in the fall), but I prepare only the holes according to the scheme 50 × 50 cm, in each of which I bring 1 bucket of compost, 1 tbsp. ash, 1 matchbox of superphosphate, then mix, spill water and plant bushes.
TIP: In order to evaporate moisture from the soil more slowly in the greenhouse, you can plant tomatoes in the slots of the spreading agrotextile. This will solve the problem of irregular watering: the roots will not dry out too quickly.
Tomato seedling transplant: how to reduce stress
It is known that during transplantation, plants lose up to 80-85% of all roots and almost all root hairs. In addition, the older the seedlings, the harder for it is this process. How to do it right, says the specialist.
- To keep the soil ball as large as possible, it is necessary to water the seedlings a few hours before transplantation.
- Pulling out of the tank, each plant must be seized with the largest possible clod of earth, for
- giving strength diligently compressing his hand.
- It is better to plant seedlings in open ground in rainy or cloudy weather. On sunny days - in the evening.
TIP: Sprawling tomato seedlings are planted horizontally. Not only the roots are laid in the hole, but also two thirds of the stem, after removing the leaves from this part. They are covered with a loose soil layer up to 10 cm. The plant is laid strictly from north to south, so that as it grows it stretches towards the sun, straightens and grows vertically. On the buried part of the stem roots are quickly formed, which in size and efficiency are significantly superior to the main ones.
Tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse in the first decade of May. In the wells when planting add a handful of wood ash and 1 tsp. superphosphate, plenty of water. After planting, I install an additional arc and cover with non-woven material, which contributes to a better survival of the seedlings, protects from sunburn, and saves from cooling.
I also have my own method of watering tomatoes. To do this, I use plastic bottles of 1.5-2 liters. I cut the bottom and when hilling near each bush with my neck I stick in a bottle. In these containers, then pour water, fertilizing. With this method, the liquid does not spread on the ground, does not over-humidify the air, but goes directly to the roots.
The grown seedlings of tomatoes are usually planted in the ground on April 15-20. The week before, I process the plants with Ekosil (according to the instructions). I make the beds narrow - 1.2-1.5 m. There are copayunks staggered on them. I plant two plants in each of them “a walt” - roots together, the tops apart. I put the arc and harness the bed spunbond until the end of May.
In the new hole!
When planting a new seedling in place of fallen, wilted bushes, do not plant a plant in the same hole. Back down 8-10 cm and make a new one to prevent possible contamination by diseases and pests.
Tomatoes are asked to garden
- In order to keep an earthen clod around the roots, I irrigate the plants 6-8 hours before transplanting seedlings into the soil. For better survival, I soak right with cups in Kornevin's solution.
- I put 200-300 g of humus and 5-6 peas of superphosphate into prepared holes. Pour a liter of water. When it is absorbed, I put the seedlings, straighten the roots and squeeze the soil tightly. Plants dredging up to the first real leaflet. Immediately after transplanting, I water the tomatoes, be sure to mulch with dry soil.
- Low-growing early varieties planted at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other. Varieties with spreading branches require a larger area - between them I leave 40-45 cm.
- For the first 4-5 days I sprinkle the seedlings regularly with water heated by the sun. A week later, I loosen the aisles to a depth of 5-6 cm. I shed it systematically, as well as after the rains.
Чтобы урожай томатов порадовал изобилием, надо соблюдать несложные агротехнические приемы. Наш специалист расскажет, какие именно.
Томаты делят на три категории: детерминантные (в т.ч. штамбовые), полудетерминантные и индетерминантные.
Формируют их по-разному.
Индетерминантные сорта и гибриды чаще всего формируют в один стебель, удаляя все пасынки. К августу на нем вырастает 5-6 кистей томатов. Это наиболее простой способ формировки.
Form semi-determinant varieties in 2-3 stems, leaving the stepson under the first floral brush and, if necessary, another one - a little higher. Evaluate their quality, leave the strongest shoots.
Determinant and standard varieties of tomatoes are usually undersized. After setting a certain number of brushes, their growth stops (they are performed). If you grow such tomatoes in one stem, the harvest will be very low. Determinant varieties form 3-4 stalks.
As the tomatoes grow once a week, break out all the stepchildren. In the second half of August, pinch the tops of the plants and remove all the flowers and fruits smaller than the hazelnut. In case of warm September, leave 2-3 bushes intact, without pinching.
Do not forget to remove the lower leaves. Under the brush with already reached their size, but still green tomatoes they should not be. At a time, remove no more than three leaves, otherwise the plant will experience severe stress. Leaves break out to the side, not down, so as not to damage the skin on the trunk.
Toach the tomatoes and break the leaves best in sunny warm weather in the morning. By evening, the wound will have time to dry out and will not give the opportunity to penetrate the infection.
TIP: To contain the spread of disease, stepchild tomatoes in two doses. First, get engaged in the most valuable and healthy bushes, and the next day - all the rest, including with signs of disease.
Watering - just under the root
In dry weather, tomato plants are watered at the root (in the usual or drip method). Sprinkling negatively affects flowering, causes shedding of flowers, delays the setting of fruits and their ripening. In addition, the air humidity increases, which leads to the appearance and spread of fungal diseases.
How to feed tomatoes?
Mineral fertilizers are applied in liquid form after watering. The composition of the first feeding (carried out two to three weeks after transplanting during the formation of ovaries on the first inflorescence), it is desirable to include superphosphate and potassium sulfate (at the rate of 20-25 g of the first and 15-20 g of the second
on 1 square meter). If the soil is poor, you can add up to 10 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 sq. M. The second, and if necessary (by visual diagnostics) and the third, additional feeding is carried out with the mass growth and ripening of fruits at the rate of 15-20 g of ammonium nitrate and 20-25 g of potassium sulfate per 1 sq.m.
TIP: The optimum temperature for the flowering of tomatoes is not lower than +15 and not higher than +30 degrees.
When the fruits reach a diameter of 1 -2 cm, the water consumption per square meter of the bed is increased to 5-12 liters, watered 1-2 times in 7-10 days. After a strong drying of the soil, it is impossible to carry out abundant watering right away - fruits can fall off, crack, or develop top rot. The irrigation rate in this case is 0.8-1 liters per plant.
To obtain an early harvest, foliar dressings are also used: 16 g of urea and potassium sulfate, 10 g of superphosphate per 10 liters of water. Such supplements are often carried out in conjunction with the treatment of plants against diseases or pests. It is better to do this in the evening, when the nutrient solution applied to the leaves dries out slowly, and the morning dew promotes its better absorption.
In order to prevent the spread of fungal diseases, 2-3 times per season (in the second half of July) plants are treated with copper-containing preparations: Bordeaux liquid, copper chlorine, etc.
4 helpful tips
Brushes with large heavy fruits should be carefully secured with a string (twine) to a support or vertical trellis. Otherwise, under its own weight, the stem may break, and the fruits will stop growing.
In the beginning-middle of July, shorten the brush, remove some of the buds and flowers - the remaining fruits will grow larger. If you notice on the tomatoes grown together in one 2-3 flowers, pinch them off (as they can grow ugly ribbed fruits).
3. Water in moderation. If you rarely visit a dacha and the plants of a tomato have not been watered for a long time, do not arrange too much water at once. Otherwise, the fruit may crack. When the tomatoes begin to ripen, reduce watering to a minimum. Excessive moisture retards fruit ripening.
4. Take the harvest. Take off the fruits as they become red (blanche and pink ripeness). Do not leave ripe tomatoes on the bush for a long time, as this inhibits the growth and ripening of new fruits.
Universal dressing for tomatoes
I prepare for the flowering plants of tomatoes a special solution-feeding. In a 10-liter bucket 2 kg of ash pour 5 liters of boiling water, mix and let cool. Then add water to the edges of the bucket, add a small (pharmacy) vial of iodine and a bag (10 g) of boric acid, insist for 24 hours. I dilute 1 liter of water in a bucket of water, pour 1 liter of the working solution into each plant at the root. This top dressing is rich in trace elements. In addition, tomatoes practically do not get phytophthora.
Doctor of agricultural sciences Valery Matveev ties up tomatoes in a greenhouse in the following way: from the crossbar at the top of the greenhouse, he lowers the rope, ties its lower end to the crooked wire, the second edge of which sticks into the ground. Around the roots, a seedling winds around in a spiral. It corrects it as the plant grows.
Why do tomatoes crack?
The most common cause is a drop in soil moisture during the period of intense fruit growth, i.e. heavy watering or rain after long droughts. According to the observations of some vegetable growers, varieties with large fleshy fruits and tender skin are prone to cracking. Also, damage to the fruit by infectious diseases (for example, Alternaria) and some pests can also be a prerequisite for cracking.
To prevent this from happening with your tomatoes, adjust the soil moisture.
TIP: In tomatoes, nitrogen deficiency produces leaf brightening. Top-dressing with urea solution (10-15 g per 10 l of water) will fix the situation.
Tomatoes are sweet
My mom fed tomatoes tomatoes with fermented infusion of dandelions: filled the bucket 1/3 or half with flowering heads, filled it with water to the brim, added a pinch of sugar, kept it for 3-4 days in the shade. Then watered tomatoes at the root at least once a week.
In recent years, alternating feeding from dandelion and sweetened whey. Tomatoes are growing large and sugary!
For several years of growing tomatoes in greenhouses, I tried and tested a lot. I suggest two ways of plant garters.
The first. I stretch the wire or twine horizontally in several rows along the tomatoes. From the bicycle chamber I cut the narrow rings; from the wire I make S-shaped hooks. Ringlets bend around the stem or brush, connect the ends and grab the hook for them with the lower half, upper - to the wire (twine).
Second. Twine I stretch vertically in a greenhouse, making loops on it. I grab hooks for them, lifting them to the next loops as the tomatoes grow. By the way, rubber rings are very convenient: do not pinch the plants, stretch.
Tomatoes: three buckets from a bush
I do not use mineral fertilizers, I believe that they adversely affect the quality of the fruit.
During abundant flowering under each bush I bring in 3-5 kg of half-ripe 3-month manure. I try to keep it from touching the stem of the bush (to avoid burns), water it with water, the solution of Baikal EM-1 and pile up the earth so that this soil stays on
5-7 cm above soil level. With a solution of Baikal EM-1 (according to the instructions), I water the tomatoes once in two weeks, spray them once a week.
In mid-July I make another liquid feeding. On a barrel of 200 l add 2 buckets of manure, half a grass (nettle, plantain), 5 liters of wood ash.
Pour water, insist before fermentation. I feed the top dressing with water (1:10) and water it on the abundantly moist soil of 3-4 liters under a bush. Then I water the EM-1 Baikal solution (according to the instructions) and spud the tomatoes so that furrows remain between the trenches for further irrigation.
From August 10-15, bushes are covered tightly with a film for the night. This saves tomatoes from strong fogs that can lead to blight, and frost.
For all groups of tomatoes during the season I remove the leaves below the fruit brushes. Srednerosly and tall tomatoes form 1-3 stalks (depends on the variety) and remove young stepchildren. For a better ripening of the fruit set in the middle of August, I pinch the points of growth (the tips of the shoots).
Pollen is most active in the morning - at 9-11 o'clock. At this time we pass along the rows of tomatoes and shake the trellis or the plants themselves for better pollination. Additionally, you can apply drugs Ovary and Bud. These biostimulants improve fruit set, increase yields by 15-30%, resistance to tomato phytophthora 4-6 times, reduce the ripening period by 5-7 days. Spray the plants at the beginning of flowering of the first or second hand.
Why tomatoes ugly, uneven
It seemed that everything was done correctly: the seeds were planted according to the lunar calendar, they were cared for, transported, watered ... And the tomatoes were formed with ugly, unevenly colored. Let's try to understand the reasons.
The optimum temperature for the growth and development of tomatoes in the daytime is + 18 ... + 27 degrees, at night - + 12 ... + 15. If the temperature drops below + 10 degrees, the growth stops. Harm and heat, especially above +28 degrees. It adversely affects the viability of pollen. You should also avoid sudden transitions from night to day temperatures. Otherwise, possible dew on the fruits, the formation of cracks.
Brown-black hard spots that occur not only on the tops of tomatoes are most likely caused by boron deficiency. Feed the tomatoes with a solution of boric acid - 5 g per Yul of water.
If hollow fruits are formed (with internal voids), all the fault is poor pollination. This happens because of high (more than +35 degrees) or low (less than +12 degrees) air temperatures. Affects hollowness and moisture. Therefore, it is necessary several times a week to gently shake the plants in the first half of the day for better pollination of flowers and fruit set, and also to regularly air the greenhouse.
This may be caused by underdevelopment of the flower, poor pollen formation, sterility and low pollen viability due to lack of light, overheating, excessive nitrogen nutrition of plants.
A very bad effect on the formation of fruits is a decrease in the relative humidity of the air less than 50%. In such extreme conditions, small hollow fruits (puffs) are often formed.
The most good and beautiful, smooth fruits in small-chamber (2-4 cameras), relatively small-growing varieties and hybrids. But in multi-chamber large-fruited tomatoes, especially in low light conditions, ugly fruits can form.
Fact: Tomatoes grow bizarre and not very appetizing if you abuse drugs like the ovary or the bud.
Tomatoes - my main hobby, hobby, my "illness".
I think the secret of a good harvest is that the plants liked the home remedy - a simplified analogue of the widely known Baikal EM-1. This half-forgotten old-fashioned recipe has written out from an old newspaper filing.
He is very simple. In a three-liter jar pour 2.6-2.7 liters of water without chlorine (distilled), add
100 g yeast diluted with warm water and 0.5 tbsp. Sahara. Cover with gauze, keep the jar warm, occasionally shaking the contents. The solution (mash) is ready when fermentation is over. I grow one glass in 10 liters of water and water the plants 1 l each for each bush.
Alla Mishneva, Lugansk region
And your seeds are better
Mature fruits of tomatoes of the sort you like (pay attention to the shape and color) cut into halves and squeeze the grains into the bowl along with the juice. Add some water and leave for 3 days at room temperature. At this time, the gelatinous protective shell of each grain is destroyed and some pathogens are destroyed.
Capacity periodically shake, so as not to form mold.
Then rinse the kernels in a sieve and dry on paper until they are completely dry.
It is very convenient to store tomato seeds in coffee filter bags.
Anna GORDEEVA, Cand. agricultural sciences
Recipes fast ripening
To August tomatoes ripened more actively, branches with fruits gently turn to the sun with the help of flyers. In addition, I make longitudinal cuts on the stems with a sharp knife and insert chips into them - the cuts should not close. If there are a lot of fruits on the hand, I pick up brown ones, the largest ones together with the stem, and I put them in boxes in the attic to be ripened by a layer of two or three fruit stalks upward, shifting garlic cloves. The remaining fruits on the bushes fill up faster. You can also feed plants with iodine (30-40 drops per 10 liters of water per 1.5 run meters of beds).
TIP: I collect tomatoes as they ripen - once every 3 days. I shoot not bright green, and whitish. So they ripen well and stored longer. And so that the fruits do not turn black, after harvesting I drop them for 1.5-2 minutes in hot water (up to +60 degrees).
Nikolay MOROZOV, Rusino village, Brest region
PESTS AND TOMATO DISEASES
To protect the tomatoes from Medvedka help drug Goizli (4% G, 20 g per 10 square meters). Bring the granules into the soil to a depth of 2-5 cm before planting seedlings in open ground.
Plants are sprayed from the Colorado potato beetle during the period of mass emergence of larvae 1-2 years of age with Novodor biological preparation (FC, TK, 60-100 ml per 10 l of water) with an interval of 6-10 days.
Tomatoes of protected soil from late blight are treated during the growing season with one of the preparations diluted in the indicated dose in 10 l of water: Azophos (50% CU, 130-200 ml), Ditan (75% VG, 12-16 g), Medex (50% GRP, 100 g) or Kuproksat (34.5% KS, 50 ml). For open ground, solutions (per 10 l of water) of Metaxil (68% SP, 80 g), Ordan (73.1% SP, 50 g), Pennkoceba (Tray-dex, 80% SP, 16 g) or Poliazofos (63 % PS, 50 g, consumption of working fluid - 5 liters per 100 square meters, the first preventive treatment, the next - in 5-7 days).
From late blight and Alternariosis, spraying is effective during the growing season with a 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 g of copper sulphate and lime per 10 liters of water). The last treatment is carried out 8 days before harvest.
From brown spot helps Fundazol (50% SP, 10 g per 10 liters of water). The last time the treatment is carried out 10 days before harvesting.
With the defeat of powdery mildew, the plants are sprayed with Byeleton (25% SP, 10-20 g per 10 l of water).
From bacterioses, gray rot, seedlings are processed after picking or adult plants with Isar (10% of WRC, 10 ml per 10 l of water).
With a complex of diseases, tomatoes in greenhouses and greenhouses are treated with the biological product Bactogen. Seeds are soaked for a day in a solution (according to the instructions), seedlings are watered in the phase of cotyledon leaves and 3 days after picking (diluted with Bactogen with water 1: 1000), adult plants (1: 1000, 4-6 g per hundred) with an interval of 15 days When planting seedlings contribute to the wells of the biological product Trikhodermin (10 g per plant).
Vladimir DUKTOV, Cand. agricultural sciences
TIP: Be sure to timely destroy aphids on tomatoes. In recent years, there has been a significant damage to plants by viral diseases, the carrier of which is precisely this pest.
Prevention of phytophthora
There is no worse enemy for tomatoes than phytophtora. For the prevention of the disease, while the fruits are still green, I treat with drugs Oxyg, Azofos, Acrobat. But as soon as the fruits begin to grow brown, I turn to the Bordeaux mixture. I do the final treatment 20 days before the harvest. It is best, along with prevention, to feed phosphorus-potassium liquid fertilizers.
During flowering spray plants with a solution of boric acid.
Phytophthora: Protecting Tomatoes
Remove and destroy affected brushes and plants. Infected fruits can be saved from spoilage during storage by immediately removing them and warming up for 2 minutes in hot water (exactly +60 degrees).
Ventilate the greenhouses, make sure that the air in them is dry, since the formation of condensate on the film and droplets on the leaves leads to the rapid spread of the disease. Water the bushes of tomatoes only at the root in the morning, and then air the greenhouse.
Accelerate fruit ripening. For example, put plastic bags on the brushes and make holes in the bottom of them for condensate drainage.
From the folk remedies, the infusion of garlic is effective (1 tbsp of crushed cloves and 1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of warm water, process the plants at the rate of 2.5 liters of composition per 1 sq.m).
During the period of fruit ripening, use biological preparations: for example, Fitosporin-M (5 g per 10 l of water) or Ekosil. The researchers found that spraying Ekosil three times (15 drops per 3 liters of water per 100 square meters) significantly reduces late blight.
At the first signs of phytophthora I process tomatoes with a solution of metronidazole tablets and green leaf greens. The first drug allows you to destroy the causative agent of fungal disease, the second - to treat plants. It turns out that this way you can grow environmentally friendly products!
20 minutes before processing, I dissolve 15 tablets of metronidazole in a cup, then pour this concentrate into a 10-liter bucket of water, add a green vial of pharmaceutical bottles. Pour the working solution into the sprayer and spray the leaves from the bottom and top. For the prevention of phytophthora, it is desirable to carry out the first treatment at the beginning of summer - 10 tablets of metronidazole are enough for a bucket of water.
Raisa Goryachenko, Izmail
Copper will help
For the prevention of phytophthora, I pierce the stalks of tomatoes at the base with a piece of thin copper wire and fold them down. Вода, поднимаясь от корней, разносит по растению ионы меди, которые сдерживают развитие заболевания.
Любовь ЗАЙЦЕВА, с. Красногвардейское, Адыгея
Однажды с моими томатами случилась беда. Часть растений начала внезапно увядать и отставать в росте. Изучив подробно все признаки болезни, перелистав нужную литературу, пришел к выводу — это фузариоз.
В следующий раз высадил рассаду помидоров и обработал настоем жгучей крапивы и чистотела. In a keg (50 l) he laid 4-5 kg of herbs and poured 4 buckets of water. The infusion was ready in a day. Once a week, a liter of water diluted with water (1: 5) was consumed per plant.
Do not believe it, but for 4 months of growing tomatoes, no signs of fusarium appeared!
Vladimir Nekrashevich, Gorki.
TIP: With a lack of phosphorus in tomatoes are small leaves with a purple-purple shade. To remedy the situation, feed the plants with superphosphate (8-10 g per 10 liters of water).
Solanaceous crops have a new dangerous pest that is increasingly moving to us from abroad - the tomato miner moth.
This pest can completely destroy the crop in both open and closed ground. The size of an adult insect is about 6 cm. Caterpillars are yellow-green with a pinkish back about 9 cm long. The tomato moth has a high reproductive potential: females lay 250-300 eggs each. Butterflies lead a twilight lifestyle. In favorable conditions, up to 10-12 generations of the pest develop in a year.
Remove weed species of nightshade, observe crop rotation.
Install mosquito nets on windows and greenhouse ventilation openings. In the period of the flight of butterflies hang on beds with solanaceous glue baits.
If you notice a pest, on plants, remove damaged leaves, stems and fruits.
If necessary, use one of the approved drugs: Actellic, CE, Con-fidor Extra, EDC, Fufanon.
Treat the greenhouses and adjacent structures with insecticides at the end of the season.
Alexander AKSENYUK, Cand. s-hnauk
5 GENERAL RULES FOR PREVENTION OF TOMATO DISEASES
1. Compliance with crop rotation and the correct choice of the predecessor.
2. Selection of resistant varieties or hybrids for your site and climatic zone.
3. Regular airing of greenhouses, compliance with temperature and wet conditions.
4. Regular loosening, weed control, competent feeding, depending on the characteristics of the culture.
5. Mandatory destruction of post-harvest plant residues in the autumn digging of the site.
Those who improve their health with Kombucha can also help tomatoes with the same remedy.
I fall asleep in a ten-liter pot of 50 g of black and green tea, half a cup of sugar and boil for 10-15 minutes. I cool it down to + 25 ... +30 degrees, add a mushroom and cover with gauze. After 15-20 days (maybe later), the infusion is filtered and periodically spray them with tomatoes to prevent phytophthora.
TOMATOES - LANDING AND CARE: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
After tying the fruits of tomatoes, the stalks of the plants begin to dry. What is the reason?
Galina Melnikova, Mogilev
The source of infection is soil and plant residues infected with fungal diseases. Control measures The destruction of all plant residues after harvest.
Disinfection of the vacated site from a fungal infection. To do this, the soil is treated with a solution of copper oxychloride or copper sulfate at the rate of respectively 40 and 50-80 g of preparations per 10 liters of water (consumption per hundred).
Compliance with crop rotation - tomatoes can not be planted after the nightshade, they are returned to their former place no earlier than after 3 years.
In mid-August, tomatoes were attacked by some kind of green caterpillars, boring unripe fruits, eating from the inside. What is this pest and how to fight it?
Caterpillars scoops - tomato and garden - can hurt.
Adult caterpillars of tomato scoops reach a length of 27-30 mm, from green to dark brown in color. In the garden shovel, the caterpillars reach a length of 30-32 mm, from light green to pinkish-brown, with white spots. These pests are the most dangerous: first they eat leaves, then they take root into the green fruits of tomatoes and eat them into the pulp of the cavity.
Before the formation of the fruit, tomatoes are treated with chemicals. 100-160 ml of Aktelli-ka or 80-120 ml of Fufa-nona are used in closed ground for 10 l of water, and 10-50 and 20-40 ml, respectively, in the open.
During the formation of fruits, the plants are sprayed with infusion against hatching caterpillars: pour 400 g of crushed mass of celandine, wormwood, tobacco, tobacco and 200 g of pureed garlic 10 l of water (+ 60 ... + 70 degrees), insist for 24 hours, filter, add 40 g laundry soap. During the season you need to spend 1-2 treatments.
Tomatoes with black spots, dry, depressed or shriveled. What is it?
Grigory Nikanorov, Slutsk
- This disease is top rot. Manifested in years of high temperature and low relative humidity with a lack of moisture in the soil. Negative effect and lack of calcium in the tissues.
Secondary microorganisms (fungal diseases) can infiltrate into the places affected by apical rot, which leads to their softening.
Observe the water regime. During the period of intensive growth of the fruit, spray the bushes with a 1% solution of calcium nitrate or calcium chloride (1-2 times a week).
No matter how many tomatoes are ripe, around the stem they remain green and firm. Why it happens?
Most likely, the matter is in the peculiarities of the variety and the cultivation technology (malnutrition, heat and water conditions in the greenhouse, some infectious diseases).
- Choose varieties of tomatoes salad destination.
- Balance nutrition with macro-imikroelements (pay special attention to potassium and phosphorus).
- Do not forget to air the greenhouse and water the plants in a timely manner.
- There is information that the tomato is unevenly ripening when the lighting conditions are disturbed, therefore, take this moment into account (if necessary, light up the greenhouse).
Planted tomatoes in open ground. The leaves are large, with a palm, and the trunk is thick. Shrubs with a height of 1.2 m, and almost no flowers. What is the reason?
Vladimir Gorikov, Krasnodar
It can be assumed that a large amount of organic (manure, bird droppings, etc.) and nitrogen fertilizers were applied for planting tomatoes. A similar situation happens most often if you contributed saltpeter, which stimulated intensive growth of green mass, therefore, such sizes of leaves and stem.
Organic fertilizers must be applied under the previous culture. Of the nitrogen - better urea (carbamide).
It is also necessary to water more bushes and be sure to handle late blight.
Previously, tomatoes were grown from their seedlings, and last year bought it on the market. Tomatoes vymahali under 2.5 m. The leaves began to turn yellow, the spots "sprawled", without affecting the trunks and fruits. The flowers withered and turned black; there were few tomatoes. What is the reason?
Svetlana Mikhailovna, Mozyr
Based on the above symptoms, we can assume several causes of the disease of tomatoes. They may have grown under 2.5 m because you acquired an indeterminate variety or hybrid, i.e. unlimited growth type. If plants of a determinant (limited) type of growth, most likely, an excess nutrition of their nitrogen or organic fertilizers, "fattening" and the wrong formation of the stem.
Tomato leaves could turn yellow due to a lack of mineral nutrients. The fall of flowers could cause a lack of trace elements, in particular, boron. In this case, it is useful to include boric acid in the foliar top dressing.
And, undoubtedly, the whims of nature. Rains in the spring and early summer caused an intensive increase in green mass, and the drought and heat, which came later, slowed down the intake of nutrients from the roots and provoked starvation of plants, yellowing of leaves and the deterioration of fruiting tomatoes that had previously “fattened”.
How to beat a stolbur?
The second year I have problems with tomatoes. The crop is scanty, and the fruits are unenviable: some of the side of the stem remains green and very hard, and the pulp is fibrous, watery. Why it happens?
Nadezhda Ivanchikova, Orsk
According to the described symptoms, it can be assumed that the author was faced with the problem of mycoplasmal disease - stolbur. The first signs of infection appear on young leaves. They shrink, grow coarse, become pinkish, the edges bend upwards. The stem can thicken. Flower buds grow upwards, petals shrink, turn green, the cup grows together and looks like a bell. The flowers are often sterile, and, as a rule, only the very first of them give fruit.
Tomatoes are unevenly colored, tasteless, their flesh is firm and whitish. The vector of the disease is an insect cycadka. Plants with stolbur are practically not treatable. They should be destroyed immediately. For prevention, remove all weeds, even between the rows. Seed plants spray insecticides from cicadas and other insects with sucking mouth apparatus (for example, aphids).
How many years in a row can you plant tomatoes in a greenhouse and planting siderats?
Valentina Lebedeva, Minsk
A maximum of 3 years in a row, after which, in order to reduce the diseases and pests of tomatoes in the soil, their planting should be alternated with other crops.
Tomatoes after raspberries
Is it possible to plant tomatoes on a plot where raspberries were uprooted a year ago (green mans were sown in the fall)? Raspberries did not suffer from a dwarf bushy virus, verticillium wilt, bacterial root cancer, sprouting, curly.
You can, if you destroy the shoots (and with a raspberry is not easy to do) and clean the area from perennial weeds (wheat grass). Considering that raspberries usually grow in one place for 8-10 years and greatly depletes the soil, in the fall, 6-8 kg of organic matter (manure, compost) and 30-50 g of superphosphate per 1 sq. M are brought under digging. And in the spring before planting - IQ-15 g of potash and 20-30 g of nitrogen fertilizer per 1 sq. M.
The raspberry diseases you have listed do not affect tomatoes.
In the greenhouse - hot
Last year, tomatoes in the open field grew better than in the greenhouse, although the variety and care for them were the same. Why?
Stanislav Gates, Grodno region
The main reason for this phenomenon is the high temperature of the air in the greenhouse. On some days of July 2014, the air temperature reached +35 degrees, and in film greenhouses it was much higher. High temperatures along with low humidity prevented normal growth and fruiting. The optimum air temperature for the growth and development of tomatoes in the greenhouse in sunny weather is + 24 ... + 26 degrees, in the daytime and + 16 ... + 18 degrees, at night. Tomatoes stop growing at + 10 ... + 15 degrees, the same happens at temperatures above +35 degrees. With less than + 12 and more than +30 degrees, the flowering stops, the ovary may fall, as at low temperatures the pollen does not mature, and at high temperatures it becomes sterile.
In tomato seedlings small leaves, which also twist down. How to fix the situation?
Ekaterina Petrova, Saransk
A decrease in the leaves, as well as their curling, is observed with a lack of most macro- and microelements: magnesium, iron, boron, manganese, molybdenum, etc. But most likely, this indicates a lack of calcium, which is necessary for the plant for a normal metabolism. Feed the seedlings with complex mineral fertilizer with trace elements.
I heard that before planting, the seeds of tomatoes can be kept in vodka for 10 minutes and then rinsed under running water. What does it give and is it worth doing so?
Anna Koval, Orsha
Indeed, this option of pre-treatment of seeds from diseases exists. However, professional growers and amateurs prefer a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 ml of warm water). Seeds are put in a gauze bag and immersed in the solution for 20-30 minutes. Then washed with water and always soaked for 12 hours in boiled chilled water. For better germination, seeds can be dipped for 12 hours in a solution of microelements, Epin or Ecosila (according to the attached instructions). After that, rinse with water, wrap in a damp cloth and put in a warm place to peck.
Last year, tomato seedlings did not have real leaves, only cotyledons. I had to throw it away. What caused this and what to do to prevent the situation from happening again?
Raisa Kovaleva, city of Mogilev
This usually happens with a small landing. Tomato cotyledons cannot shed the seed coat and open. Moreover, because of the dry air, the shell can be hard. Such shoots lag far behind in growth, and sometimes they die. Spray the seed-seed plants with warm water as soon as possible. When the seed rind softens, strong shoots will throw it off. You can gently release the seedlings with tweezers, trying not to damage the cotyledon leaves. Do not forget also about pre-sowing preparation: pickling and soaking. All this will help grow healthy seedlings.
Tomatoes grew well last year, I thought I would harvest a great crop. I cut one red tomato - white dense flesh. Cut the second - the same. As a result, about half of the harvest had to be thrown away. What could it be?
Inna Yurieva, Togliatti
I got into trouble with tomatoes - for some fruit, the flesh inside for some reason turned out to be not red, but white. He went to all those familiar with a big gardening experience and showed these tomatoes. The findings were not comforting. As experienced gardeners said, I didn’t properly care for tomatoes. I thought, if they grow in a greenhouse, I water them on time - everything will be fine. But it turned out that temperature is important for tomatoes. The summer was hot, but I didn’t always air the greenhouse. They advised me more often to air the greenhouse during the day and feed the tomatoes with potassium before flowering.
Growing tomato seedlings
For planting tomatoes it is necessary to use a special container: plastic containers, transplanting cassettes, and so on, which need to be disinfected before sowing. Any containers should be with special drainage holes at the bottom, otherwise plants will be prone to blackleg disease. Before starting to plant, it is necessary to ensure good lighting, regular temperature and air ventilation.
Tomato seedlings in plastic cups, photo from assets.entrepreneur.com
For planting seedlings of tomatoes, you can use any universal substrate or a mixture of sand and peat, taken in equal parts. Sow too thickly not worth it, otherwise the seedlings will stretch, will be thin and weak. In the greenhouse, sowing should be done in rows, this will allow you to use the lighting with maximum benefit.
Immediately before sowing, the substrate must be thoroughly moistened. Seeds need to be prepared - for decontamination, improving their sowing qualities and the earliest emergence of more friendly shoots. To warm dry, full-weighted tomato seeds need variable temperatures: 48 hours - about +30 ° C, and another 72 hours - at +50 ° C. Sow dry or pre-soaked in 1% potassium permanganate solution. Omit the seeds in a glass with a solution, soak for about half an hour. After that, the seeds should be washed in running water for about 10 minutes. Immediately after sowing, the substrate must be covered with a film or a thin (about 5 mm) layer of vermiculite, this will help maintain soil moisture.
Tomato seeds, photo from moyateplica.ru
Before the first shoots, it is necessary to maintain the temperature not higher than +23 ° С. And immediately after their appearance, the film from the transfer containers must be removed. In order not to expose even very weak seedlings to excessive evaporation, it is better to remove the film in the afternoon. Watering should be done with a finely sprayed jet; watering the seedlings strongly cannot It is also necessary to observe the temperature regime: as soon as the first shoots appear, the temperature should be reduced to +8 ° С. +10 ° С at night and +10 ° С. +15 in the afternoon - for 3 days, thus tempering the seedlings from the first days of its growth. Hardening should be continued until it is transplanted into a greenhouse, but for at least 15 days during its growth.
For the cultivation of tomatoes it is better to choose the southern, south-western or southeastern areas. Tomatoes planted near the southern wall of buildings or a fence give good yields. Tomatoes can be successfully grown in the same place even for 2-3 years in a row, although then it is necessary to make organic fertilizers for planting. The best precursors for tomatoes are cucumbers, cabbage, zucchini and onions. It is not recommended to grow tomatoes after pepper, potatoes, eggplant and Physalis. In those areas where these crops were cultivated, tomatoes can be planted not earlier than in three years. Otherwise you will put the plants in danger of getting sick.
Planting tomato seedlings in open ground, photo from monroviaweekly.com
The soil for planting tomatoes in open ground must be prepared in autumn. So, if the acidity of the soil is increased, it is necessary to add to the autumn digging per 1 m2:
- 0.5-0.9 kg of lime,
- 5-7 kg of organic fertilizer (you can take compost, bird droppings, peat or manure),
- 40-60 grams of superphosphate.
If you have made a sufficient amount of fertilizer (about 10 kg per 1 m2) under the previous crop, then the area set aside for the cultivation of tomatoes, you only need to dig.
The soil for planting tomatoes in open ground must be prepared in the autumn, photo from greenhobby.ru
Spring tillage for preparation for tomatoes should include the application of 30–40 g of superphosphate and 25–30 g of potash fertilizer per 1 m2 of soil. Immediately before planting, already under the last loosening of the soil, it is necessary to add 15-20 g of potash and 30-40 g of nitrogen fertilizers per 1 m2.
Planting seedlings of tomatoes in the ground
From the timely and high-quality planting hardened seedlings in the ground depends largely on obtaining a high yield of tomatoes.
Высаживать помидоры необходимо в первой декаде июня, и только лишь после того, как минует опасность заморозков — полностью установится теплая погода. Как в гребнях, так и на ровной поверхности растения необходимо размещать рядами, с расстоянием между ними в 30-40 см, между рядами — 30-50 см.
При высадке томатов в открытый грунт необходимо выдерживать расстояние между растениями, фото с сайта babyben.ru
Before planting tomatoes in the area it is necessary to make the wells and thoroughly spill them with water - 0.9-1 liters per well. Try to get tomato seedlings a few hours before planting, so that it does not fade - the faded roots take root badly, it hurts, it lags behind in development. For those who grow seedlings on their own, such problems should not arise, they can plant it on the bed immediately after being removed from cups or chosen from a greenhouse.
To plant seedlings on the garden bed should be immediately after it was removed from the cups, photo from teplica-exp.ru
Plants need to be somewhat deeper than they grew in the greenhouse. Experienced gardeners are advised to tear several lower leaves off the plant, and to plant them as deep as possible when planting (up to half of the stem can be). It is necessary to plant a little with a slope to the north-west. The roots of the seedlings must be carefully crimped with earth, without bending them, so that the ends of the roots are directed to the bottom of the hole. After the seedlings of tomatoes are planted, the plants must be watered, and the hole itself should be sprinkled with dry soil on top.
Excellent results are obtained by growing tomatoes under simple film shelters and on warm ground — steam ridges. This allows for higher yields of early tomatoes and also accelerates the ripening of fruits.
Excellent results are obtained by growing tomatoes under simple film covers, photo from kan.ucoz.ru
To make steam ridges, it is necessary to dig a ditch about 60 cm wide and about 20 cm deep. Biofuel needs to be loaded inside - heated manure (about 5 cm thick), and close to the ground by 15 cm. Seedlings should be planted in steam ridges and in open ground, the only difference is that it is necessary to proceed to planting 20 days earlier, somewhere in the middle of May.
Quite often used and shelter of transparent plastic film, the use of which, especially when combined with steam ridges, makes it possible to plant tomato seedlings in early May and get a crop of tomatoes in mid-July. Frame covered with foil, you need to install on steam ridges immediately after transplanting, leaving for the entire period of cultivation. Caring for plants under the film is exactly the same as for growing in open ground: timely loosening, fertilizing, the formation of bushes.
Caring for tomatoes consists in hilling, loosening the soil, feeding and watering, forming a bush and timely fighting diseases and pests.
The soil between rows and rows with tomatoes needs loosening - approximately every 10-12 days, but no less than several times over the summer. If you cultivate tomatoes on heavy soils, deep loosening is necessary in the first 10-15 days after planting.
The first time you need to spud tomatoes 9-11 days after transplanting. Immediately before starting work, watering should be done: hilling with a damp ground will accelerate the formation of new roots on the plant's stem. The second hilling is necessary to hold 16-20 days after the first.
Tomatoes need to be watered in wells in a timely manner, water consumption - 0.7-0.9 liters per plant. The best time is considered the second half of the day and overcast weather. Watering is mandatory during the flowering period of the first and second brushes, before loosening the soil, after applying dry mineral fertilizers. The plants are undemanding to the air humidity, but if it is too high, they can get phytophlorosis and brown spot.
During the summer, tomatoes must be fed several times with mineral and organic fertilizers.
Tomatoes need to be watered in a timely manner, photo from moyateplica.ru
The first top dressing should be made 10-12 days after planting - a mixture consisting of mineral and organic fertilizers. So, for 10 liter bucket of mullein solution (for one part of the mullein or slurry, you need to take 8-9 parts of water) you need to add about 20 grams of superphosphate. One bucket of this nutrient solution needs to be spent on 10 plants. The second and third feeding (with an interval of 2 weeks) should be made with dry mineral fertilizers immediately after loosening or under hilling. On a plot of 1 m2 you need to make about 20 grams of superphosphate, 15 grams of potassium salt and 10 grams of ammonium nitrate.
Feeding tomatoes with mullein solution, photo from www.ogorod.ru
In the process of caring for tomatoes, much attention should be paid to the formation of the bush - timely pasynkovanyu, pinching the top of the stem. The practice of many gardeners has shown that an excellent harvest of ripe tomatoes in the open field can be obtained by shaping a bush in one stem, leaving 2-3 brushes.
Tomato plants need to be tied up to the stakes or a special rope stretched along the rows. Stakes should be placed on the north side at a distance of 9–11 cm from the stem.
Bushes of tomatoes need tying, photo from moi-ogorod.ru
Plants must be attached to the stakes in three steps:
- the first time - immediately after transplanting (not far from the first leaf),
- the second and third - as the plant grows, at level 2 and 3 hand.
If trellis is used, it is necessary to drive poles every four meters, between which you need to stretch the thread.
Tomato pests and diseases
The most common diseases of tomatoes:
- late blight,
- peak rot.
It is very important to recognize the disease as early as possible, photo from topnauka.ru
- gall nematode,
The lack of most nutrients in tomato plants can be defined as:
- with a lack of nitrogen changes the color of the stem, leaves, as well as the fruits themselves. The leaves become more small, yellowish in color, the veins located below the leaf become red-bluish, and the fruits become more solid and small,
- if phosphorus is lacking, the leaves of the plant are wrapped inside,
- with a lack of potassium sheets become curly,
- a lack of calcium leads to the fact that young leaves are completely covered with yellow specks, and the old ones become larger and change color to dark green. Often in such cases, tomato plants are affected by vertex rot, especially at high humidity,
- during a sulfuric starvation, the leaves first become pale green, after which they intensively turn yellow, and sometimes turn red. Sulfur starvation appears first on young leaves, while the stems become extremely brittle and fragile,
- the lack of boron leads to blackening of the point of growth of the stem, and the fruits are affected by brown spots,
- if molybdenum is lacking, the leaves of the tomatoes turn yellow, twisting upwards, gradually the whole plate is affected by chlorosis,
- in case of iron deficiency, the tomatoes completely stop growing. Their young leaves are affected by chlorosis. In the most severe cases, the leaves of the plants whiten completely.
Three weeks before the final harvesting, the buds and flowering shoots of the plant must be removed, this will contribute to the early ripening of the bulk of the fruit. Tomato harvesting is done selectively, in the first place, they remove ugly fruits.
Tomatoes need to be cleaned on time, photo from the site kto-chto-gde.ru
To preserve tomatoes for a long time, they need to be cleaned not red, but brown, and only then they are put on ripening. Tomatoes must be removed from the bushes until the temperature at night has dropped below +8 ° C (at low temperatures, the risk of tomato diseases increases significantly).
Growing tomatoes (tomatoes): varieties, planting and care, watering
The best soil moisture for a tomatoIt is necessary to remove the stepchildren ("How to properly pinch tomatoes"), as well as all the lower leaves before each new blooming brush. The remaining 2-3 upper leaves will be enough for nutrition and photosynthesis. If tomatoes are grown in hot regions, heavy pruning can damage the plant, because the leaves help protect it from overheating.If, however, 24 hours after the next watering, you notice a lot of moisture in the hole of the plant, you urgently need to reduce water consumption.Also subject to cutting and weak branches of seedlings.All varieties of tomatoes require regular feeding
Photo of the organization of watering the greenhouse
Proper care of the culture
Copper sulfate 0.012,
Prior to fruiting, ideal conditions for the normal development of the plant are up to 25 degrees C on a sunny day, 18-22 degrees C - in cloudy weather and not less than 15 degrees C - at night.
Sowing and caring for seedlings
If cassettes are used for seedlings, they should be with drainage holes at the bottom. Used sowing substrate of several types. The most popular is compost from a mixture of peat and sand. It is better to sow seeds on greenhouse racks.
75-80% is considered, and the optimum relative humidity of air is 45-60%. It is very important to observe the temperature. For this purpose, a special thermometer is used, which is placed in the soil mixture of the pot.
Watering is not necessary to do manually when the tomato began and the leaves began to grow. You can also use hoses and various sprayers for watering them. The soil should always be loose. Loosening along with weeding must be done at least once every two or three weeks. Go
Soil for tomatoes
Why do tomatoes crack in the greenhouse? In most cases, this can be observed with improper and untimely irrigation of tomatoes.
In order to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse, care must be appropriate.
Ammonium molybdate 0.012.
Fertilization of a tomato flower occurs at a temperature of 23-32 degrees C. If the temperature drops below 15 degrees C - the tomato will not bloom, at temperatures below 10 degrees C - the growth of the plant stops. Too high a temperature is also unfavorable for plant growth and development - pollen grains do not germinate and photosynthesis is inhibited.
If water is retained in the garden due to insufficient drainage, the seedlings may be contaminated with a “black leg”.
Tomatoes, herbaceous plants of the family Solanaceae, are divided into three large groups: Peruvian, hairy and ordinary Plants with bright, extremely tasty fruits have long won worldwide popularity. Now, few people remember that they were taken out of South America in the 16th century, and at first served to adorn gardens and parks of the sovereigns of European countries. Nobody risked beautiful fruits then: it is clear that someone dismissed the evil rumor about their allegedly poisonous properties. The name of the plant received from the native, Aztec "
The need for tomatoes in the air is extremely high
The first feeding of seedlings takes place in a week and is repeated every ten days. Top dressing is made from mineral fertilizers. Also, suitable mulch ("Mulching soil") or compost ("Compost pit with your own hands"). Go
When your plants have grown, it's time to pile up with loosening. This treatment contributes to the fact that the roots of the plants do not become bare, and also creates the best conditions for the soil to warm up, and the adventitious roots germinate. The very first hilling needs to be done two to three weeks after planting the plant into the ground. The following is two weeks later. Spud need wet ground. You can still pour humus soil, as an alternative to soil sub-training.
How to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse how to care for them correctly? These questions are always interested in novice gardeners.
If there is an excess of moisture, then many varieties are saturated, and stop growing, thereby starting to crack. If it is in insufficient quantity, then fetal deformities are also possible. It consists of:
When preparing a stock solution, the concentration of elements should not be disturbed, since a certain number of elements are required for tomatoes, the lack of which adversely affects the ovary and the development of fruits.
Before the start of fruiting, ideal conditions for normal plant development are up to 25 degrees C on a sunny day, 18-22 degrees C - in cloudy weather and not less than 15 degrees C - at night
Planting tomato seedlings in open ground
When seedlings are sown directly in the soil, the seeds should not be sown too thick, so that the seedlings are not too thin and weak. Sowing is best done in rows to maximize the use of lighting.
. From it plants get carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen for their vital functions. If in the open field this is not a problem, then in the greenhouse one must constantly take care of the influx of fresh air and even give artificial fertilizing with carbon dioxide in order to get a good harvest.
If tomatoes are cultivated in the open field, then top dressing should be done with solutions of complex mineral fertilizers. One week after transplanting, the tomatoes are fed with solutions with the potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen elements that they consume the most. Subsequent feeding is done until the end of fruiting every 2-3 weeks.
Mulching is a great care for tomatoes. This process will save you time from weeding or loosening the soil.
In that case, if you are not aware of certain actions for caring for tomatoes, then it is not recommended to perform them without first consulting with a specialist. Care of the bushes of tomatoes can be any.
When to start planting seedlings?
As a rule, top dressing (see Why fertilize tomatoes to get a rich harvest) is performed only twice. The first time after the seedlings take the soil in the greenhouse and the second - as soon as the fruits begin to appear (strings).
What is the best irrigation system to choose:
Creating an optimal temperature.
Lack of nitrogen causes changes in the color of the leaves, stem and fruits of tomatoes. The leaves become small, yellowish, the veins on the underside of the leaf acquire a red-blue tint, the fruits grow small and hard.
The ideal relative humidity of air is 60-65%. During the pollination period, the air must be dry, because tomatoes are a self-pollinating crop, and wet pollen cannot separate from the stamens.
Immediately before sowing the substrate should be thoroughly moistened. After sowing, the substrate should be covered with a 5 mm layer of vermiculite, sand or peat powder and a film to maintain soil moisture. If necessary, the plastic wrap can be replaced by paper or jute.
Care of adult plants
When watering tomatoes it is necessary to direct the jet to the middle of the aisle. It is not allowed to wash out the soil and expose the roots, water should not fall on the fruits and leaves. Watering is done in the first half. The water temperature should be below 20-25 ° C in warm weather, and warmed up to 25-30 ° C in cold. With good soil moisture tomatoes can survive a temperature of 32-35 C.
Mulch performs many useful things, namely:
The most important thing is quality soil in the greenhouse itself. Only because of its fertility is it possible to get an excellent harvest of tomatoes.
At a time, any feeding should not exceed 0.40-0.45 kg per 1 hundred square meters of soil.
Preparation of nutrient solutions
To prevent overheating, the beds can be covered with white polystyrene foam plates.
- That a high content of carbon dioxide in the air or soil (more than 1%) adversely affects the plant. This happens when a crust forms on the soil, and in the ground layer
- With further growing seedlings need regular watering. This requires separated water at room temperature. You also need to loosen the soil and pour fresh mixture. Due to the fact that the seedlings reach for the light, it must be periodically rotated 180 degrees.
- Protection of soil and soil from moisture evaporation,
- To plant seeds for tomato seedlings should be closer to the beginning of spring, and in the middle of summer small ready-made bushes will be planted in the greenhouse ground. There they need to create all the conditions for normal growth.
- Calcium or ammonium nitrate is used as a means and preferably in powder form - when the fertilizer process is carried out after taking the seedlings. This powder sprinkles the ground and watered.
- There are several options for watering tomatoes in the greenhouse:
- Top dressing.
- A lack of potassium causes curliness of young leaves and burns of old ones.
- A more modern way is watering with the help of drip irrigation systems. In this case, watering and feeding plants occurs simultaneously, as fertilizer is added to the nutrient solution. The advantages of this method of irrigation are as follows: water enters for a long period of time and does not cause sharp fluctuations in soil moisture, the given humidity level is not disturbed, water does not stagnate on the soil surface, and this reduces the risk of fungal diseases.
- A separate area should be used for sowing.
- “The first Italians decided to try the dangerous fruits and, admiring the wondrous taste, gave the new products the second name“ pomodoro ”-“ tomato ”, or“ apple of gold. ”Since then, the triumphant march of tomatoes began in kitchens around the world.
- воздуха при чрезмерном удобрении свежим навозом.
- Когда до высадки рассады остаётся 10-12 дней, необходимо ограничить полив и приучать растение к прямым лучам. Если погодные условия позволяют, то можно поместить рассаду в теплице на ночь, а днём выносить на улицу.
- Препятствует появлению сорняков, различных щелей и корки на почве,
- Помидоры по своей природе многолетние овощи. Несмотря на это, его выращивают чаще всего как однолетнее растение. In Russia and Ukraine, the harsh climate makes it difficult to grow perennial tomatoes, as these fruits love the warm season, and they do not tolerate a minus temperature. For those who need to know how to care for tomatoes after planting, this article is written. Go
The consequences of a lack of elements
You can use these tools in the liquid state and apply them in the process of watering tomatoes.
Do it yourself with a bucket or hose. This process takes quite a lot of time and effort and is practically not used at the moment.
With a lack of calcium, young leaves are covered with yellow spots, old leaves increase in size and become dark green. Often in these cases, the plants are subjected to apical rot, especially at high humidity.
Do not forget that excessive watering of tomatoes is very harmful. Water should be at room temperature. Amateur gardeners are recommended to water in the evenings and not to water the plants on a hot sunny day. If tomatoes are grown in indoor conditions, then you can water through the pan. When watering plants, it is necessary to ensure that water does not fall on the leaves and the trunk and does not cause burns.
If cassettes are used for seedlings, they should be with drainage holes at the bottom.
Tomatoes, herbaceous plants of the family Solanaceae, are divided into three large groups: Peruvian, hairy and ordinary.
Planting tomatoes in one place for several years is undesirable.
Tomatoes need weeding, garter, dressing and watering, as well as the destruction of pests and diseases.
Also saves your time from loosening,
Watering tomatoes is very important because much depends on how well you do it: how the plant will take root, how quickly it “adapts” at the landing site. It is also important to protect the plant from various diseases. To maintain the plant in a healthy state, it is necessary to maintain the optimum temperature and adhere to proper watering of it.
Tomatoes belong to the nightshade family and are grown by gardeners as an annual crop. They eat the fruits formed after the formation of ovaries, which have red, yellow or orange shades.
The height of the bush varies between 50 cm - 3 m and depends on the characteristics of the variety and care, climate. There are determinant varieties and indeterminant varieties. The former have a point of growth inherent in nature and, having reached it, independently stop growing high. The second do not have such points, therefore, to obtain a high-quality harvest, it is necessary to periodically pinch the upper part of the bush.
Tomatoes are grown both in open ground and in the greenhouse. However, initially seeds are usually grown at home, sowing in early to mid-March.
In open ground or greenhouse, seedlings are transported after 55-65 days from the time of sowing, also focusing on air and soil temperature.
For growing use seeds or processes. The first buy in stores or harvested from the most successful fruits grown in the past year. The important point is that the last method can only grow non-hybrid varieties of tomatoes. Hybrid need to be updated annually, buying new seeds, otherwise the result may be unpredictable. You can also root stepchildren, placing them in the water before the roots or immediately in the ground.
Depending on the speed of fruit ripening, tomatoes are divided into early ripening, mid-ripening and late ripening. Early ripening ripens 80-95 days after planting, late ripening after 118-125 days. Mid-season have an intermediate between these two time indicator.
As a rule, early-maturing varieties delight the crop in early-mid-July, but not every variety is suitable for long-term storage and preservation. These tomatoes are usually consumed fresh.
The late-ripening crop is removed from late August to mid-September (and sometimes the first frosts), it is characterized by its long-term storage capacity, and is well suited for winter harvesting.
To care for tomatoes is quite a responsible occupation. Being a southern culture, they are extremely demanding on the temperature regime, the length of daylight, the quality of the soil and the characteristics of irrigation.
Hybrids are considered easier to care for, they are usually deterministic, do not require staking, tolerate temperature fluctuations well and are resistant to the most common diseases for tomatoes. With a lack of experience, it is recommended to breed exactly hybrid tomatoes as easier to care for.
However, according to many gardeners, hybrid tomatoes are inferior to non-hybrid in taste. The latter demonstrate the diversity of tastes, while the hybrid "all for one taste." By the way, the taste characteristics also depend on the growing conditions - the most delicious tomatoes grown and ripened on the branch.
Tomatoes have a developed root system and demonstrate the best result on enriched, slightly acidified soils. The best is the combination of black soil, humus and peat.
Tomatoes are involved in crop rotation, therefore, to increase their yield, it is recommended to plant them on the beds, on which cucumbers, beets, onions, cabbage, peas, radishes grew last year. It is impossible to plant tomatoes on sites where the solanaceous grew before - potatoes, peppers, cucumbers, eggplants. In this case, the probability of infection of tomatoes with infections characteristic of this type of crop is high. For the same reason, tomatoes should not be planted next to the listed vegetables.
For culture, a warm sunny place without drafts is chosen. Tomatoes should receive sunlight and heat for at least 7-8 hours per day. For this reason, they cannot be planted along fences, under trees, where they cannot bear fruit.
When planting seeds last need to prepare. Quality seeds should not be empty, have dark spots and other imperfections. After a visual inspection of the seeds can be dipped in a glass of water. Those that have fallen to the bottom are suitable for future use. Floating on the surface - will not ascend or will not give a quality crop.
The majority of diseases of adult plants (up to 80%) are associated with infection of seeds, from which they have hatch, therefore disinfection is an extremely important procedure.
For its implementation it is necessary to dilute 1 g of potassium permanganate in a liter of water and mix the mixture thoroughly. Tie the seeds in a gauze bag and lower the solution for no more than 30 minutes.
Next, the seeds need to be washed in clean running water, after which it is recommended to treat them with a means to stimulate growth. This will improve germination and reduce the time of appearance of seedlings.
Biostimulant growth should pour the seeds, you can also leave them in a bag of gauze, or put them in the solution itself for 10-12 hours. Now the seeds are ready for planting. They are immersed in the ground at a distance of 2 cm from each other, if we are talking about growing in common boxes, or 2-3 pieces when grown in individual pots.
With such a technique of planting seedlings after the appearance of two leaves will have to thin out. You can avoid this by first germinating the seeds. To do this, they are placed on a saucer, it is better to lay a piece of cloth or gauze under the seeds, and pour water at room temperature. Top also covered with a cloth. Now you need to place the towel in a warm place, for example, on a windowsill and moisten it as needed.
A few days later, seeds will appear from seeds, after which they can be transplanted into the ground. After the seeds have been planted, they are sprinkled with earth (approximately 1 cm thick), moistened (preferably with a spray) and covered with glass or plastic wrap. In this form, the container is left at a temperature of +25 until the first shoots appear.
When this happens, the glass or film is removed, the air temperature can be reduced by 1-2 degrees. After a week and a half, when the seedlings will find 2 leaves, make a pick. Weak plants are removed, if necessary transplanted into other containers.
A few days after the picking, it is necessary to harden the seedlings, placing it for a few days (3-5) in conditions of temperature reduced to 15-18 degrees.
Another hardening of the plant expects a week or two before landing in the ground. True, in this case the plants are taken out already on the street, first for half an hour a day, and then for 2-3 hours.
After 55-65 days from the moment of planting, the tomatoes can be transplanted into a greenhouse or open ground. As a rule, the bushes by this time reach 10-15 cm, they are strong, and in boxes and pots they become clearly crowded.
That's right when planting tomatoes to focus not so much on the recommendations of the seed manufacturer, but rather on the weather conditions. In the greenhouse tomatoes can be transplanted from the end of April (if the structure is equipped with a heating system) or the end of May. In open ground - not earlier than the first half of June. At the same time, there should be no night frosts, the temperature of the air at night should not fall below +10, the temperature of the soil - no less than +8.
It is recommended to plant tomatoes in dry windless weather, preferably in the evening. It is recommended to prepare the soil for them in the fall - dig, make humus. However, if this was not done in advance, you can perform the procedure for 3-4 days before planting.
The depth of the holes is usually 25-30 cm, but this may also depend on the variety. It is necessary to focus on the height of the plant - its lower leaves should be located sufficiently high above the ground.
Between seedlings, a distance of up to 50 cm is usually preserved. The wells are pre-moistened, and the bushes are transplanted by the method of transshipment, that is, together with an earthen clod from a pot or box. This allows you to cause minimum damage to the roots, to accelerate the time of plant survival.
Planting tomatoes can only be in warm ground, otherwise they will adapt for a long time, and may die. Additionally, the soil can be heated by stretching a transparent polyethylene film on its surface 2-3 days before planting. Greenhouse conditions are formed under the film, which will contribute to the heating of the earth.
Immediately after planting is recommended to tie up the seedlings. After a few days, it is likely that some earth will need to be poured in, since new roots form close to the surface.
One week after transplantation into open ground, nitrogenous fertilizers can be applied to strengthen the root system. The procedure should be repeated every 2-3 weeks until the formation of flowers. During the formation of ovaries and fruiting recommended potash-phosphorus fertilizer.
To get a good harvest, it is necessary to form a bush from one, maximum two trunks. Interderminant cultures should be clamped after 5-6 brushes for ground tomatoes and after 7-8 for those that grow in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
It is necessary to dive extra lateral processes that will pull the plant's forces, preventing it from forming flowers and ovaries. Dives should be dived before they reach more than 5 cm in length. Otherwise, the plant can get sick.
You can not dive at once all the plants, because it is stressful for the bush.
By the way, greenhouse bushes are extremely demanding for air exchange inside the structure, so the latter must be equipped with air vents and doors.
It is recommended to water the tomatoes every 5-7 days, avoiding drying of the upper soil layers and stagnant moisture. The lack of moisture causes a lack of strength in the plant for growth and fruiting, the excess causes rotting of the roots and the stem.
For watering should use warm water, pouring it as close as possible to the root. Immediately after watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil, which will help prevent moisture stagnation.
If it is not possible to loosen after each watering, it should be done at least every 2 weeks. Once a month it is necessary to loosen the soil between the rows.
Peeled fruits mainly as they ripen. Almost all varieties of tomato, being removed from the bush brown, perfectly ripen at home on the windowsill.
Diseases and pests
Most modern tomato varieties are resistant to diseases and infections. Solanaceous late blight and attack of various fungi are most susceptible. Late blight manifests itself as black spots on the leaves. When detecting the first signs of phytophtora, the affected plant should be treated, as well as the rest of the bushes in order to prevent it with special means.
If it is not possible to cure the bush, it is recommended to remove it, sanitize the growing place in order to prevent the death of the remaining tomatoes. Similarly, come with a black leg, usually occurs due to stagnant moisture in the soil and its airtightness.
Yellowed foliage indicates damage to the root system. If the leaves turned yellow only slightly and it happened after transplantation into open ground, this phenomenon is considered permissible. After the plant adapts and restores the roots, the leaves no longer turn yellow.
ROLLS AND PREPARATIONS OF TOMATOES
I skip 2.5 kg of tomatoes through a meat grinder, 1 kg of peeled sweet pepper, carrots and apples (preferably sour-sweet), 5-6 pieces of bitter pepper. I add 1 tbsp. sugar, sunflower oil, 6% vinegar, 2 tbsp. with a pile of salt, bring to a boil and cook for an hour. 5 minutes before the end of cooking, I put 200 g of crushed garlic. Hot roll in sterilized jars. Out 4 l. And delicious as! For kebabs wonderful seasoning!
TIP: Often, instead of sterilization, just wash my jars in hot water. Then I fill them about a third with a solution of soda (1 tbsp per 1 liter of boiled water) and rinse. Never has a single jar exploded!
I put tomatoes and cucumbers in 3-liter jars (arbitrary proportions). Then squeeze the juice from the tomatoes through a juicer. I heat it up to +70 degrees, fill them with cans, add 1 tbsp. salt. Sterilized for 30 minutes. Roll up, turn over, hold to cool. I keep in a cold place.
I cut it in the center, but I don’t fully finish a bucket of green tomatoes and stuff it. For the filling you will need: 2 sliced buns of parsley and a bunch of dill, 8 chopped garlic heads, 6 pieces of sweet pepper, cut into cubes. Tomatoes laid out in 4 three-liter jars. Preparing brine: 4 liters of water - 2 tbsp. sugar, 1 tbsp. salt. Boiling, at the end of pouring 0.5 liters of vinegar. Brine pour tomatoes in jars and sterilize each 5 minutes. Rolling and wrapping.
TIP: To prevent the formation of mold on tomato paste, it is often sprinkled on top of it with salt or filled with vegetable oil. And I just smear a little plastic cover with mustard (paste or dilute some powder with water). The stock is stored for a long time! I note that this can be done with other conservation.
I put whole tomatoes in jars, sliced Bulgarian pepper (2 or 4 quarters) and 3-5 cloves of garlic. Pour boiling water (you can drain and pour the 2nd time). For saline water (or separately) I make brine: for 1 l - 1.5 tbsp. salt and 6 tbsp. Sahara. I add 1 tbsp. 9% vinegar. It turns out delicious!
Harvested tomatoes in the fall stored in a dark dry place laid in one layer of stalk up. I place the green fruits in flat wooden boxes and keep them on the floor where it is cooler and darker. The temperature should be above zero. If next to put 2-3 ripe tomatoes, the rest ripen much faster.
And if you select the healthiest green fruit, each wrapped in paper and put the stalks up in a box lined with straw or shredded newspaper, then they will lie down until the New Year. You need to store in the dark at a temperature of + 11 ... + 13 degrees.
Surely this recipe will seem extreme to someone. No sugar, no vinegar, no salt. Natural product in its purest form. True, the cooking process is somewhat unusual. The main thing is to do everything quickly. By the way, such tomatoes are stored and in taste are not too different from fresh ones.
In a clean, “roasted” jar in the sun, I put washed and dried tomatoes of ripe blush.
I pour into the container 2 tbsp. alcohol, ignite and shake sharply several times. After that, immediately rolled up the sterilized lid.
Harvested tomatoes in the fall stored in a dark dry place laid in one layer of stalk up. I place the green fruits in flat wooden boxes and keep them on the floor where it is cooler and darker. The temperature should be above zero. If next to put 2-3 ripe tomatoes, the rest ripen much faster.
And if you select the healthiest green fruit, each wrapped in paper and put the stalks up in a box lined with straw or shredded newspaper, then they will lie down until the New Year. You need to store in the dark at a temperature of + 11 ... + 13 degrees.
Salad without vinegar
We really like to harvest tomatoes salad without vinegar and salt.
Pure, ripe fruits are cut into medium-sized slices, placed in half-liter jars, shaking gently to thicken tomatoes.
Then pour juice from the remaining tomatoes into containers so that it covers the contents, but does not reach the lid. After all, the salad has yet to be sterilized for 10 minutes. After that, I roll up the cans, turn them over, wrap them up and leave them for about half a day (until they cool down).
Когда открываем баночку, съедаем не только сами помидоры, но и выпиваем сок. Вкусно и полезно!
ТОМАТЫ: ПОЛЬЗА И ВРЕД
Пятки — без трещин
В студенческую бытность на работе в крымском совхозе большинство моих подруг, да и я тоже, столкнулись с таким неприятным и болезненным явлением, как трещины на пятках. А ведь лекарство, как потом оказалось, росло прямо у нас под ногами! Лечились мы так: спелый помидор разламывали пополам и обильно смазывали им пострадавшие пятки, ждали, пока подсохнет. Повторяли процедуру раз 5-10 за день. В первый раз раны сильно щипали, а потом постепенно затягивались. The improvement was noticeable on the second day.
Olga AMBRUZHEVICH, Grodno
Fresh tomatoes should be limited with gallstone disease due to the high content of organic acids. And canned tomatoes, in which, as a rule, a lot of salt, it is desirable to avoid patients with hypertension, diseases of the kidneys, circulatory organs.
- Tomato is a rather allergenic vegetable. People with food allergies should eat it very carefully.
- Marinated, canned and salted tomatoes are desirable to exclude from the diet of those who suffer from hypertension, kidney disease and the cardiovascular system.
- With constant drinking of canned tomato juice there is a risk of kidney stones and bladder formation.
- Nutritionists warn that tomatoes are incompatible with fish, eggs and bread. Between the intake of these products should take a break for a couple of hours.
The nutritionist advised a female friend who is overweight to replace sweet high-calorie juices with tomato. And for the best result in losing weight, mix tomato juice with pumpkin and apple juice (2: 1: 1). Drink a glass for 20-30 minutes before meals.
Fact: Tomatoes are an ideal product for replenishing minerals. They contain potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, calcium, phosphorus. And thanks to the antioxidant - lycopene - they protect the cells of the body, helping to prevent cancer.
To make a salad with tomatoes bring maximum benefit, fill it with sunflower oil, because in combination with vegetable fats lycopene is absorbed much better.
Which tomatoes are better?
Show me a man who will say that he does not like tomatoes, and I will think that he has lost a lot in life! In pickles, in marinade or just fresh yellow, red, black - how are all tomatoes always good! I like to experiment with planting different varieties, I’m still looking for which ones are more delicious.
And I’m still looking for just such ones, that they wouldn’t cause any particular troubles (there’s no time to mess around for a long time) - preferably a low sprout without cracking. Last season I was pleased with several varieties, I will tell about them.
Apricot F1 - superearly variety with wonderful golden fruits. From a distance, beds of ripe tomatoes seem like small apricot dwarf gardens! To taste - a real delicacy! Very good in salads and in preservation.
And what a beautiful color assortment is obtained from Apricot and red tomatoes varieties Manzherok F1.
I often preserve them together, because Manzherok is also an early variety. And I note that the best tomatoes for conservation have not yet met. Fruits-cream and ask to lie down together in a jar. It is easy to care, the bushes are low, standard, do not lie down, do not require staving.
Not the earliest and not the largest - so I can characterize tomatoes of the F1 Debut variety. What he won me - high yields. Last year, she took about 5 kg from each bush! Even distributed to neighbors.
Why did I love the Duchess F1 variety?
I have five reasons for this!
Beautiful, juicy, tender, fragrant, sweet. The last quality, by the way, I especially appreciate in tomatoes. Only sweet tomatoes, in my opinion, give when salting fruits amazing to taste. Fresh "dyushesiki" have a thin skin and very tasty pulp. Bushes nevelichki can not stepchild.
If you want the mother-in-law to call you on pancakes not only for the feast, plant the Golden Mother-in-law F1 tomatoes. In open ground, the height usually reaches 80 cm, in greenhouses - higher.
This variety requires pasynkovaniya. But I planted it for the first time out of interest and I will plant it again this year. Early ripening, together gives the harvest, and what wonderful fruit! Smooth, sunny orange, delicious, and smell! Plus, unpretentious and unpretentious plant. Give the mother-in-law to the table a bucket of such a miracle - she will welcome you forever!
If you notice, all listed varieties are hybrids. Yes, in our climate, I prefer not to risk it, and if I grow tomatoes, so surely. And I practically do not plant late varieties.
Not because there are no decent ones among them, but because at the end of summer the weather begins to be capricious and late varieties produce poor-quality crops. I hope my advice will help someone to make the right choice and get pleasure from their work this summer!
If the tomatoes inside are white stolbur
In recent years, more and more faced with such a problem: you harvest the first crop of tomatoes, everything seems to be good, there are many tomatoes and everything is ripe, and you cut them - the fruit is white, fibrous, hard and tasteless. You get upset, well, you think it happens, the rest will be tied, it will be better.
Only the subsequent harvest is not tied at all. And it turns out: he cherished, cherished the plants, guarded, spent his strength and was left with nothing. Many neighbors also complain about such a bad harvest. I began to understand what was happening, how to save my tomatoes, and I learned about a disease called stolbur.
I must say, it's nasty and harmful sore, but it affects seedlings and very young plants. Recognizing it in the first stages is almost impossible, but still be careful, more often look at your stretch marks on the windowsill.
If you notice that the leaves are shrinking, the trunk grows coarse and thickens, you need to worry, but if the plant has a pinkish tint instead of green, then you need to sound the alarm by ringing all the bells, although the stolbur disease is very tricky and may not show itself at the seedling stage. Even if you did not see the first signs, this does not mean that you can relax. After planting tomatoes, keep looking after them, do not be lazy to notice all the changes, the infected plants grow coarse leaves, flower brushes grow up, and the calyx grows together and resembles a bell.
And distribute stolbur cicadas. Immediately the question arises, how can seedlings get sick if the tsikadki appear only in June?
And the answer is simple: cicadas infect many weeds - bindweed, dope, spurge, alfalfa, plantain, chicory. And already from weeds the disease spreads to tomatoes and not only - all of nightshade are susceptible to stolbur. A plant can become infected quite late, in the middle of summer, when the fruits have already appeared, but in this case it is difficult to recognize the disease. Therefore, unsuspecting gardeners are already harvesting tomato seeds from diseased plants.
It turns out that escape from the stolbur is not easy: if the plant has become infected, then write it is gone, and you can’t cure it. But the way out still exists and it is in the conduct of prevention.
And this is not the most, I want to tell you, the worst option. As you know, forewarned - armed. Therefore, we begin prophylaxis with seed disinfection. We continue to tirelessly remove all weeds, clean garden - the key to a good harvest. Do not forget to actively loosen and water the soil.
In June, when the cicadas and aphid are massively distributed, we spray it with insecticides. It seems not difficult, in fact it is a daily work in the garden, which everyone already does. The main thing is to do it in a timely manner and then not only a stolbur, but also many other diseases can be avoided. There are also varieties of tomatoes that are resistant to stolbur: East. Standard Alpatieva.
Last year, despite the hot beginning of summer and a lot of insects, I managed to avoid this ill-fated sore that ruined my tomatoes. I hope you will have a positive result. Good luck to everyone in the gardening business.
Nina Semenovna Kolomina, Lipetsk Region
Varieties and hybrids of tomatoes
According to the structure of the bushes tomatoes are divided into:
Neshtambovye differ thinner stems, decumbent during the fruiting period, as well as large, slightly corrugated leaves.
Standard tomatoes differ in compact bushes with rather thick stems, strongly corrugated leaves, medium in size, with short petioles.
Potato-shaped (large-leaved) tomatoes are quite rare, and they are called so because of the leaves, resembling potato in shape.
Choose the right varieties or hybrids of tomatoes, photo from file2.answcdn.com
Today there are more than 70 varieties and hybrids of tomatoes for cultivation in open ground, as well as more than 40 - for greenhouses. The most common ones are:
Early ripe varieties
White filling - one of the most productive varieties.
Tomato grade white filling, photo from vaneevasdorove1.ru
Shrubs are relatively small and do not need to be staved. Fruits are round or rounded flat, fleshy, smooth, slightly ribbed at the stem, weighing up to 130 g. The color of mature fruits is bright red, in an unripe condition - milky white.
Gribovsky soil - it is resistant to both diseases and low temperatures, drought-resistant, but at high humidity prone to late blight.
Tomato grade Soil Gribovsky, photo from ww.photohost.ru
It gives high yields not only when grown through seedlings, but also by sowing seeds directly into the ground. Fruits are round or rounded flat, smooth, medium in size, weighing up to 100 g.
Sparkle - low srednevetvistye tomatoes.
Tomato sort Sparkle, photo from plodovie.ru
Fruits are oblong-oval, weighing up to 110 g, the vegetative period is up to 115 days. High-yielding, with delicate fruits.
Mid-season and mid-late varieties
These varieties are most suitable for cultivation in the open field, the fruits ripen in 100-130 days.
New Transnistria - medium late, extremely productive variety.
Tomato cultivar New Transnistria, photo from graham.ces.ncsu.edu
Bushes of medium height, medium-sized fruits weighing up to 60 g are orange-red or bright red, elongated-oval, smooth, with a rather dense shell. Resistant to vertex rot.
Torch - The variety is high-yielding, distinguished by ripening of fruits.
Tomato variety Torch, photo from teplichniku.ru
Bushes are compact, medium sized. The fruits are very easily separated from the stem, rounded, smooth, red, weighing up to 100 g.
Late ripening varieties
Late-ripening varieties of tomatoes are best grown in the southern regions of the country, since their growing season reaches 150 days. By yield, they significantly exceed the early and mid-season.
Ermak - variety of stunted tomatoes with round-oval red fruits with a rough skin, weighing 140 g.
Tomato variety Yermak, photo from www.zelenmir31.ru
Resistant to cracking, characterized by consistently high yields and ripening. Fruits of a grade long time remain on plants.
Tortilla - indeterminal (tall) non-standard hybrid.
Tomato grade Tortilla, photo from topnauka.ru
It is best to grow in a greenhouse, fruits all season. Flat-rounded fruits weighing up to 100 g. Extremely resistant to viruses, root rot and brown spot.
I shared with you all the secrets of the successful cultivation of tomatoes. I hope they will help you get a rich harvest of tasty tomatoes!
What you need to do initially
In cases of sulfur starvation, the leaves first become pale green, then turn yellow or even turn red. Sulfur starvation appears first on young leaves. Stalks of plants become too fragile and fragile.
The ideal relative humidity of air is 60-65%. During the period of pollination, the air must be dry, because tomatoes are a self-pollinating crop, and wet pollen will not be able to separate from the stamens.
- Trays and boxes for sowing seeds are recommended to be placed on open racks above heating devices. There must be a fairly large distance between the racks and heaters (at least 0.5 m) to prevent overheating. With the help of shelves you can maintain a uniform temperature. Before the appearance of the first shoots, it is necessary to maintain a temperature of no more than 23 degrees C. In order not to subject the seedlings to excessive evaporation, the film should be removed in the afternoon.
- In turn, an ordinary tomato is divided into cultural, semi-cultural and wild species. There are more than 2000 varieties of common tomato.
- , As painful microflora and pathogens accumulate, contributing to the development of dangerous diseases. You can not place it after the potato, as it is related plants, and the most dangerous disease - blight, or potato rot, can affect plants.
When the fruits have ripened to the end (shine appears along the way) they can be collected. If this needs to be done earlier, then you can pick up the brown fruits, and then place them in the boxes, and after a certain time, they will dope (they will get the color we need). Such tomatoes can ripen in one day or a week, so you should check them daily.
Stabilizes the temperature of the soil and humidity
What is included in the system of care for tomatoes in the greenhouse
Watering seedlings is influenced by several factors, the main of which are:
It is not necessary immediately after the seedlings begin to feed. you need to initially analyze the soil for the presence of nutrients in it. If they are in it in sufficient quantity, then the first feeding can be canceled.
Automatic equipment. There is a very large variety of irrigation systems that are most often used in greenhouses.
- To perform all such actions there is a special instruction for each of them. Only by strictly following a clear sequence can you get a good crop of tomatoes.
- The lack of boron causes blackening of the point of growth of the stem. New leaves begin to grow in the lower part of the stem, the cuttings of young leaves are fragile. Fruits are affected by brown spots.
- Nutrient solution for tomatoes should be made on the basis of concentrated stock solutions. The working solution enters the plant through a drip irrigation system. Fertilizers for stock solutions are selected so that the individual components do not precipitate.
- The beds should not be overly poured with water when watering. It is best to check the soil moisture by hand, lifting the cylinders or soil-humus cubes. Watering should be only very fine spray. So that seedlings do not remain on seedlings, the soil should not be allowed to dry.
- A tomato is an annual plant with erect or doped pubescent or bare stems and unparalleled pinworm leaves. The inflorescence of a tomato is a simple, uncomplicated or complex curl. The inflorescences can be small or large in various shades of yellow. Ovaries come in various sizes and shapes: round, elongated, smooth and ribbed. Fruits - large or small, round, elongated, ellipsoidal, pear-shaped, oval-shaped berries. The color of the fruit can be extremely diverse: white, all shades of yellow, orange, red and even black and red. Tomatoes contain soluble sugars, organic acids, pectic substances, vitamins and minerals.
To store tomatoes must be laid on the side of the stem at room temperature, in a place protected from direct sunlight.
A positive effect on the cultivation of worms, which contributes to a more loosened soil.
What is the quality of tomato seedlings.
- Council There are still some methods that involve feeding the root system directly.
Council In order to take care of greenhouse plants to spend less time and effort during their irrigation, it is best to use automatic irrigation, which, thanks to special equipment, can turn on and off independently.
Regime and temperature for growing tomatoes
- With a lack of molybdenum, the leaves of the tomatoes turn yellow and twist upward, the entire leaf plate is affected by chlorosis.
- Uterine solutions (kg / m3)
Seedlings are transplanted into soil-humus cubes, peat pots or plastic pots 10-14 days after sowing. During this period, the first true leaf reaches 0.5 cm in length.
- Tomato ordinary is divided into cultural, semi-cultural and wild species. There are more than 2000 varieties of tomato ordinary.
- For tomato are cabbage, peas, roots, cucumbers,
Tomato plants are light-requiring.
- Top dressing, processing of seeds of tomatoes - an important element of care when growing tomato. Go
What are the physical properties and quality of the soil in which the plants are planted.
Proper and timely watering
But, as practice has shown, it is best to apply fertilizer over the ground. In this case, the results can be seen for two weeks before the root.
There are varieties that can freely tolerate not too low temperatures, and there are also heat-loving ones, which require the creation of a very warm atmosphere inside the greenhouse.
With a lack of iron, tomatoes stop growing. Young leaves are affected by chlorosis. In the most severe cases, the leaves can become completely white. The lack of zinc causes the appearance of small pale leaves.
Seedlings are best transplanted into soil cubes of 10x10x10 cm. It is impossible to transplant plants before noon: in the morning they are too fragile and can be damaged. If, however, planting is done in the morning, the seedlings on the eve of the evening is better not to water.
- Tomatoes are heat-loving plants that die when the temperature drops sharply. Семена всходят при температуре 20-25 градусов С. Всходы следует выдерживать в течение недели при температуре 10-12 градусов С днем и 8-10 градусов С ночью. Томаты начинают цвести при температуре около 20 градусов С. Самые оптимальные условия для хорошего роста и развития - не менее 25 градусов С при влажности воздуха 50 % и 70 % полной влагоемкости почвы. Растения можно выращивать на плодородной, рыхлой почве при кислотности около 4,5.
под которые была внесена органика.
- Только при достаточном освещении они хорошо развиваются. With a lack of light growth is delayed, the plants become frail and weak, the leaves turn pale, the formed buds fall off, the stems are strongly drawn out.
To process and conduct dressing a tomato needs every fifteen weeks.
What are the weather conditions during the landing period.
- Organization of pollination
- Subsoil irrigation.
Fruit should be harvested at the maturity stage daily. It is recommended to collect tomatoes in the pink degree of maturity, since the red fruit accelerates the ripening of the brush. It is better to collect fruits without stem.
Seedlings are transplanted into soil-humus cubes, peat pots or plastic pots 10-14 days after sowing
- In the southern regions of Russia, tomatoes are grown by sowing in the ground. In other regions of the country it is common to plant seedlings in greenhouses and greenhouses on insulated beds, which then land in the ground.Tomato plants are very responsive to fertilizer.
This should be considered when growing seedlings.
- For this, slurry from manure is used. You can also use manure (in the ratio of one bucket of manure - one hundred liters of water), or you can use any litter (in the ratio of a quarter kilogram to ten liters of water). This dressing must be insisted at least a day, and water a tomato - at the rate of two or three liters per one.
That seedling, which is adapted for temperature, is considered to be hardened. It is sufficiently watered abundantly once a day. Approximate water consumption for irrigation - one bucket for four holes, or, for one well, about three liters of water. This parameter is especially important to observe if planted seedlings in a trench. Irrigation time interval - preferably before sunrise, that is, as soon as possible, sutra. If the sun's rays are very dry land for the day, you can water more in the evening, but for one plant - one and a half - two liters of water. It is also important not to flood the plant, otherwise the soil will be oversaturated, there will be a lack of oxygen to the roots of the tomatoes - from this they can also die.
In principle, all varieties of tomato seedlings that are grown in greenhouse conditions and are so capable of self-pollination. The gardener can only plant them properly inside the greenhouse, so that the air masses can carry the pollen from the bush to the bush.
Tomatoes selfing in the greenhouse
If one temperature condition is needed for growing tomatoes, and the actual temperature inside the structure is several times higher, then the tomato rotting process will not be uncommon.
Tomatoes can be grown in the apartment: on the windowsill or on the balcony. For a window sill, it is better to pick short-growing varieties; on the balcony you can put a rather large pot for a tomato and grow tall and large-fruited plants, for example: “Bull's heart”, “De Barao” and “Carlson”.
- Ammonium nitrate - 4.0,
- When transplanting seedlings from cassettes, soil cylinders with seedlings are best removed from the cassettes using substrates from spikelets.
- Shoots should be maintained during the week at a temperature of 10-12 degrees C day and 8-10 degrees C at night
From organic fertilizer
Pruning tomatoes in the greenhouse
Relative to the length of the day
Plant care is simply necessary when you want to get a good, decent "reward" as a big harvest. When you are caring for tomatoes - everything is important here to the details: choosing the necessary and desired varieties of tomato seed, seedlings, planting tomato seeds in the soil, what kind of soil and how to look after it during the whole period until you harvest, growing is the process , also before harvesting, processing tomato seeds. Each of the stages carries a special role, which ultimately affects the quality and quantity of your crop.
To a large extent, the care of tomatoes is important in order to get high yields as a result.
For this purpose, the vents are provided in the greenhouse, which serve not only to ventilate the structure, but also for such purposes.
Council To grow tomatoes inside the greenhouse you need under a certain temperature regime, which ranges from 23-26 degrees Celsius.
General guidelines for growing and caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse
Proper care of tomatoes
Iron chelate (9%) 0.56.
If the seedlings are too dense, and the light only falls from above, the plants can stretch too much. In order for the seedlings to be low and strong it is necessary that the light falls on the sides of the stem. Therefore, 2-3 weeks after picking the plants, it is necessary to arrange the seedlings, when the plants are distributed by 20-30 pieces per 1 sq. M.
Tomato seeds can also be planted in peat pots and cubes. Seedlings need to dive regularly. After 6-8 weeks after the shoot, seedlings can be planted in open ground in a square or square-nesting way on ridges or ridges. We also recommend reading the article about growing tomatoes and tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Humus, rotted manure, peat-manure compost, slurry and chicken droppings are brought under the tomato, nitrogen, phosphate, potash and calcium fertilizers from mineral fertilizers.
How to care for tomatoes after disembarkation
Growing and caring for tomatoes just can not happen without processing plants. After all, this is an important element, primarily for human health. It's about spraying. To do this, it is not recommended to use pesticides, which are sold everywhere, a safer way - Bordeaux liquid. You can cook it yourself. You will need: one hundred grams of garlic, one hundred grams of onions - turnips - scroll through a meat grinder, then place in a three-liter jar and fill three-fourths of it with water. Close the lid and let it brew for a day and a half. Shake the can well from time to time. Separately, pour two hundred grams of litter into the bucket (the pigeon is perfect), fill it with water and, also stirring occasionally, let it infuse for a day or two. After the time, the solutions must be drained and poured into a container for spraying.
Experts recommend to pay attention even when buying seedlings at what temperature they grew, because it is very important for their future destiny, including for yield. Another thing is when the seedlings are grown by you, then you know for sure its origin. Those seedlings, the cultivation of which takes place at home, on the windowsill, require "hardening". To do this, you need to take them out for a few hours so that they get used to daylight, wind and sun. Also occurs with greenhouse seedlings.
- Independent pollination is to shake pollen from the flowers on a tomato bush with a soft stick (lightly hitting the bush) or simply shake up the seedlings. After that, the pollen should fall to the ground.
- Intra-soil irrigation system is a pipe that passes under the ground and the water from them goes directly to the root system of tomato.
- Only in such conditions that are close to the real summer temperature is it possible to grow this vegetable. How can such conditions be created?
To yield tomatoes in the greenhouse was very high, you need to organize the correct system of care for them, which involves the implementation of certain actions.
The mother solution B:
Tomato seedlings should be planted in a permanent place after the appearance of the first flower brush. The plant should have 7-8 leaves, a strong root system and about 30 cm in height. At a permanent place seedlings should be transplanted vertically. The stem can not be covered with earth. Caring for tomatoes is carried out by regular loosening of the soil, weeding, feeding, bush formation, systematic watering, pest control. The most common diseases are: macrosporiosis, septoriosis, late blight, vertex rot, streak and stolbur. Pests: medvedki, scoops, wireworms, gall nematode, whitefly.
At the tomato in the initial period of growth
Loosening and weeding
Tomatoes contain about 95% water.
The first time you need to do spraying before planting seedlings in the ground. Further, the care of plants occurs less frequently: once every two or three weeks (in wet, rainy weather - spraying should be done more often).
Of course, any gardener wants to get a wonderful harvest, but for this it is important to know the main points of caring for tomatoes. Some of them you can read in this article, and also, you can watch the video at the end of the recording, where it is explained in detail - how and what to do to do this on the example of the varieties “Kenensberg”, “Pinocchio”, “Persimmon”, “Shuttle” and "100 pounds."
There is also a special product that is sold as a solution. flowers of tomatoes can be dipped into it or simply sprayed.
- Council It is necessary to use such a method of watering very carefully, because of the glut of moisture there is a possibility that the root system will die.
- An important role in creating the optimum temperature is played by the construction itself, the coating of which should not only be durable, but also not allow cold air to enter the inside of the greenhouse.
- The most important thing is to choose the right variety of tomatoes, which is intended for cultivation in the greenhouse. There are a very large number of types of tomatoes with diverse yields.
Potassium nitrate 30.4,
Tall varieties of tomatoes are planted in a two-line way: 100 + 60 + 45 (50) cm, plant density 2.5 pieces / sq. Shrubs that do not exceed 100-120 cm can be placed thicker: 3-3.5 pcs / sq. After planting the plants must be watered.
Caring for tomatoes is carried out by regular loosening of the soil, weeding, feeding, bush formation, systematic watering, pest control And developmental nutritional needs are small. During the fruiting period it increases dramatically. The older the plant, the more it consumes phosphorus, potassium and calcium.
- And although this plant is drought-resistant, it still has a great need for moisture. To timely sufficient moisture tomatoes respond increased yield
- On the record, an experienced gardener shares his experience on growing different varieties of tomatoes.
- Every day you need to water the seedlings until they are taken, it takes up to ten days. Then you need to make the soil loosening and weeding. Loosening is also called "dry irrigation." It must be done very carefully so as not to hurt or damage the roots of the tomato. The depth of soil loosening is up to three centimeters. In this way, you will help oxygen to penetrate the roots of the plant and reduce the amount of evaporated moisture from the surface of the earth.
- Council Before such work, it is best to consult with a specialist in this area so as not to harm the plant with your wrong actions.
- Sprinkler irrigation system is more modern and is most often used in greenhouses.
The process of heating the structure itself is carried out in several ways:So:Potassium phosphate 20.4,
A few days after planting, the plants must be tied up to a twine, stretched vertically. This operation should be performed at least once a week. Having tied up a sapling, it is necessary to immediately begin to form a plant. Tomatoes are grown on soils consisting of a mixture of several components. The soil should be porous (up to 70-75%), with the least moisture capacity of about 50%, air consumption of 20-25%, density - 0.4-0.6 g / sq. see
The best concentration of nutrient solution
Video "Tips for growing tomatoes"
But when growing it is important to remember that there are conditions that promote the best performance. For tomatoes it is important to warm. The most optimal temperature during the day is 22–23 ° C, while the night is 17–18 ° C. Lighting is necessary from morning to evening. Small frosts can adversely affect that is why tomatoes should be planted when the soil temperature warms to 10 C and higher, that is, about three weeks after the last frosts.
Conditions for growing tomato
Watering and loosening should be alternated. Having loosened the soil well, you can not water it for up to ten days (especially when it is cloudy, not very hot, weather). When the plant grows, it will become high, you can put young grass (a layer of up to five centimeters) to its roots - which will greatly facilitate cultivation and care, your work and efforts: firstly - less weeds will grow this way, and secondly - longer hold moisture.
Potassium sulfate 4.4,
After 1.5-2 months after planting, it is necessary to begin the gradual removal of the lower leaves of the seedling, which cause stagnation of air in the surface zone, which can later lead to the emergence of plant diseases. This operation is performed at least once a week. For 1 time you can remove no more than 3 leaves. 24 hours after removing the leaves, the plant must be watered.
In greenhouses, tomatoes can be grown in soil and mineral wool. Similar results in different climatic conditions can not be guaranteed. Nevertheless, such information may be useful for practicing vegetable growers.
Damage to the stem of tomatoes
I'm in a greenhouse on tomatoes someone bites a stalk of flowers (like a strawberry weevil). Flowers on a brush dry up. Harvest 2-3 brushes on a single bush. What to do, tell me, please. Attaching photo. I live in the Vladimir region.
Elena DILE (by email)
Natalya SOLONOVICH, scientist agronomist
Many gardeners are familiar with the situation when seemingly completely healthy tomato bushes from time to time have flowers that have not yet blossomed dried out or ovaries are falling off. The main cause of crop loss is not pests, but a violation of the pollination process.
Tomatoes, although a culture of self-pollinating, able to do without insects, but for successful pollination requires certain conditions. These are created in a greenhouse at a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 * C and humidity from 40% to 70%. If the summer is too hot and the air temperature stays above + 32'C, the pollen is simply sterilized and ceases to perform its functions. Flowers wither, not even blooming.
The most harmful factor is high temperature with high humidity. If at temperatures above + 32 ° C humidity of the air tends to 100%, fruiting can not wait at all. High humidity leads to the adhesion of pollen into lumps, it does not fall on the pistil and can not be transferred by wind. Experienced gardeners have long noticed this feature and know that tomatoes love drafts.
Unexpected and abrupt cold snaps bring no less harm than high temperature. If during the night the temperature drops to + 13’C and stays at this level for 5 hours or more, the pollen also loses its properties. In the greenhouses in the spring, the air often warms up to + 25'S and higher during the daytime, and drops below + 13 * С at night. Therefore, do not rush to plant seedlings in unheated greenhouses too soon, when the threat of return frost persists.
Flowers of tomatoes also fall in the event that plantings are thickened, poor illumination of plants. The problem is especially aggravated in the absence of good ventilation.
Partial loss of yield may also result from:
a) excess nitrogen, leading to the modification of flowers. This happens if you overfeed the plants with manure. Most often, the first brush is badly tied. Nitrogen deficiency, on the contrary, reflects badly on the setting of the second and third brushes,
b) a large load on the plants during flowering. This is especially noticeable in the cultivation of large or multiple varieties,
c) disease. Plants afflicted by them shed flowers and ovaries.
How to help tomatoes
Do you want to create favorable conditions for pollination? Make it so that the wind constantly goes around the greenhouse. In the heat will require more and shading. During the mass flowering of tomatoes in the morning, it is advisable to gently shake the bushes or knock with a stick on the posts to which they are attached.
Advanced gardeners use electric toothbrushes, mobile phones in vibration mode or install fans in greenhouses to easily shake bushes. For me, it’s quite enough to do manual shaking every other day.
Dry pollen is easily poured from the anthers on the stigma. But for it to sprout, the stigma of the pistil must be wet. Therefore, after shaking it is necessary to carry out light irrigation with spraying. With such pollination, fruit sticking will be maximum.
To ensure the access of the sun and air to all parts of the plant, it is necessary to form tomato bushes in a timely manner. Moreover, the lack of illumination affects the set of fruits much more than cooling.
Pollination will be better if you sprinkle the plants during flowering with a solution of boric acid (1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water), at the rate of 1 l per sq. up to 10 l) or drugs such as Ovary or Tomatone (according to the instructions). Such actions are especially effective in cloudy weather.
How to find out if the harvest will be
Tap the flower lightly. If you see a light cloud of pollen, your harvest will be fine. Чтобы процесс лучше рассмотреть, за цветком можно держать лист темной бумаги. Отсутствие пыльцы, торчащие рыльца на длинном столбике и засохшие венчики – свидетельства того, что процесс нарушен и плодов не будет.
Все незавязавшиеся цветки следует удалить, а если в кисти нет ни одного завязавшегося плода, то срезать ее целиком. Это поможет кусту перенаправить пластические вещества на скорейшее формирование последующих кистей.
Хорошо завязывать плоды при любой погоде способны современные гибриды томатов
Выращивание рассады помидор – мой опыт
Признаюсь, что особенно неравнодушна к письмам и статьям про рассаду томатов. Перечитываю их по многу раз. And that's what I noticed: many gardeners believe that it makes no sense to immediately grow it in large containers. And I think that in a spacious box the seedlings are better: constant temperature plus the same humidity of the soil - and the shoots are friendly.
I plant mostly my two or three varieties tested over the years in one box, and new and late ripening - in separate jars. And here in them, the shoots are always uneven, because small containers rather warm, but cool quickly, besides, the ground in them can dry up on one side.
Yes, I understand the reasons that lead gardeners. Especially the one that all sorts of small cups great save space. But after all, a seedling does not live in an apartment all year, for some time it is possible to suffer for it. And in close cups in two weeks the leaves of the seedlings will close, and it will become cramped. Of course, it will be attached, but it will still soon begin to stop growing and lose weight. In general, a big mistake - growing seedlings in small pots without transplanting for a long time. Yes, it does not stretch. But where could she be before - if only to survive! She tolerates and waits.
And when at last the hostess pulls her out of the cup, she will have a ball of roots in her hands (there is no land there either). Once in normal soil, the poor hotbed rushes out of all the last heels to grow, blossom and somehow give birth to the children of the heirs. And if the hostess had earlier transported her seedlings into large containers, even at the end of April, then a couple of weeks would have remained before landing in the ground. And the harvest would have ripened earlier and better.
And I think it’s better to dive with the first leaf, while the spine is small - it will be less injured. In what to dive, everyone decides for himself. I've decided to give up homemade cups. Why are they? Look how many now any packaging left over from the products. In addition, it is easy to clean and stack.
It is only important that the width of the tank be greater than its height.
For example, mayonnaise jars, in my opinion, are best suited for picking. The roots of the plants there breathe "full breasts", and do not suffocate in deep glasses, made of newspapers. But plants still have to live there no more than 20 days. Next - transfer into a large container. A jar of such a volume now of all colors can be found. It’s very convenient: you don’t need to sign anything - I plant one variety in blue, the other in white, the third in pink. When grown in an apartment, with a lack of light, it is often necessary to rearrange the jars. It is important not to confuse varieties, and the color will always tell you where you put it.
It is often written that jars for seedlings need to be holed so that excess water flows from them. In my opinion, useless labor. Just do not be zealous with watering, here and there will not be an overabundance of moisture, and the black leg will not start. I once, for the sake of experiment, drilled several jars. And it was in them at the time of landing the seedlings turned out to be the worst. Why?
Yes, because when the shoots grow five to six leaves, they have increased thirst, a clod of earth quickly dries out, but with the next watering, the water takes and flows into the holes, not having time to feed the roots.
Now a little about your greenhouse. She has dimensions 6 × 4 m, she has glass. The land in it has been prepared since autumn (for the seedlings, by the way, also). In winter I put snow in it. At the end of February - the beginning of March, it begins to melt and saturate the earth with life-giving moisture. On the remnants of snow I covered the soil with black film. For one quarter of the greenhouse I set the arcs for additional shelter of seedlings.
In mid-April, I begin to carry seedlings. I go by bus. I can take 15 jars at a time. Early varieties by that time already with small buds. When I bring it, I immediately load into large pots with a volume of one and a half liters (and again, different colors are selected for each variety). By April 20-25, all the seedlings are already sitting quietly in a large container. For two or three weeks in such a "sanatorium" she recovers well in the light and freedom. And by early May, ready to disembark with large buds and flowers.
And to hide in the greenhouse in arcs is not a problem. Convenient materials for this now also abound. And if absolutely angry return frosts appear, then late in the evening plastic bottles with hot water can be placed under shelter, because the nights are not so long in the spring.
However, caution should be exercised when planting seedlings in the ground at such a time. Since the earth is still not warm enough, in order to rid the plants of the cold coming from inside, I plant them almost two or three centimeters without deepening them.
In the greenhouse I place 80 roots. Another 20-30 in the open ground - it will be a “trifle” for salting. I form everything strictly in one stalk.
M. Belousova Sverdlovsk region
I love tomatoes! And eat and grow
A very long time ago, tomatoes were grown only in warm countries. For Europeans, they were discovered by Christopher Columbus, calling “tomtal”, which means “large berry”. Europeans were wary of unusual fruits, growing them only for beauty, in flowerbeds. Only in the XIX century, the myth about the dangers of tomatoes disappeared. For the beauty and benefit they were called "the apple of love." And nobody argues with that today.
I have countless varieties; growing new varieties has become my real hobby. Nowadays, many people buy seeds for seedlings, I want to share my collection: whatever the bush is, it's a masterpiece!
Very decorative look on the bush, like a rose flower, tomatoes American ribbed, Lothargin Beauty, Izmailovsky ribbed. The colors of these tomatoes are very different: red, pink, orange. The weight of each fruit is up to 600 g.
Tomatoes grow from which you can not take your eyes off Tiger, Apple color, Fireworks, Silver spruce, Hen Ryaba, Green zebra, Matrosik. Fruits as if doused with golden stripes.
And another variety with velvet yellow fruits - Peach. Fruit and tops pubescent, very fruitful.
Loved one of the most beautiful and tasty tomatoes - Striped. The elongated red fruits are decorated with bright yellow winding stripes. Tasty and good for canning.
A rare variety Super Exotics will not leave anyone indifferent. Plum-colored fruit of the motley color is very tasty.
In the open ground and for preservation, and just on the table look spectacular Chinese tomatoes. They are all speckled and striped, very sweet and fruitful. So, Ildy's yellow cherry cherry hangs on the branches to the very frost, endlessly setting fruit. Very resistant to diseases. Past such a sweet children do not pass by.
Another novelty is tomatoes Voyage (garlic) Germanic breeding. This is a tall plant with fruits from accrete slices, similar to a bunch of grapes. He tore the lobule, and it grows further.
My 5 kopecks - tomatoes - questions and answers
It will take a little time, and the tomatoes sown for seedlings will turn green, go to growth, perplexing the novice gardener with various questions.
How deep should sow tomato seeds? Am I right?
It is necessary to sow to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. If it is less, then the seedlings may appear with a seed coat, from which they will not be able to free themselves, and they will die, if more, the germination period and the plants will develop poorly.
Do I need to deepen the seedlings when picking?
Seedlings of tomatoes at the age of 25-30 days (in the phase of 2-3 true leaves) dive into pots, deepening to the level of cotyledon leaves or less. On the recessed part of the stem, additional side roots are formed, which increase the nutrition of the plant.
Do you pinch the spine when picking?
Tomatoes have a tap root system. Therefore, plants planted directly in pots (or soil) without picking form one powerful root with rare ramifications. Plants that pinned the tip of the root, are forced to form a branched lobe, which is stronger and more suitable for growing in soils with a small fertile layer.
Do I need to replant seedlings in larger pots?
Each transplant retards plant growth for 10-14 days due to enhanced root growth. Re-transplant is used only if the seedlings outgrow.
What should be done so that the seedlings grow even and not kosobokoy?
It is necessary to turn the pots and drawers every 5 days. You can also make a screen that reflects light from the room. The screen will help, firstly, to increase the illumination of plants, and secondly, make this illumination even and comprehensive.
Tomato harvest will not be if ..
These notes are the result of my many years of experience.
I suppose that these are not all the reasons on which tomato harvest depends.
I hope that other gardeners will complement me.
- in the daytime temperatures above 30 °, and at night below 10 °. Flowering occurs "idle and the ovary is not formed. Irrigation helps to reduce the heat, and to heat the greenhouse in the evening it is enough to put bottles of hot water in the evening,
- Deep landing and transfer to cold (below 10 °) soil. Such conditions cause inhibition of root growth, and weak roots poorly “feed” the plant,
- thickened planting - tomatoes are poorly pollinated, more easily affected by infection and pests. Soot not more often 4 bushes per 1 sq.m. Delete old and diseased leaves. On the bushes I leave the leaves only for the formation of the crop (below the loose brush). If you remove too many leaves, the ovary will begin to crumble, and the fruits will crack,
- windless weather, lack of drafts in the greenhouse. Therefore, be sure to walk along the rows and gently shake the stems for better fruit set,
- soil lack of or excess moisture. Therefore, in sunny weather I water tomatoes rarely, but plentifully and regularly until mid-August. You can not stop the watering in the heat and resume them after a long break,
- too wet due to rain or condensation accumulates in the greenhouse. High humidity of the air not only worsens the formation and pouring of fruits, but also contributes to the development of diseases. In the open ground over the tomatoes, you can install a film canopy, and the greenhouse must be aired,
- lack of carbon nutrition. In a greenhouse, you can put a barrel of fermented grass or dung, and in the garden helps mulch from mowed grass,
- lack of potassium, phosphorus and trace elements in the background of excess nitrogen. Fatty tomatoes are tying few fruits. Manure dressings give only in the first half of summer. Then I water the plants under the root of an infusion of ash or a solution of complex fertilizer without nitrogen or with its low content,
- wrong shaping. I leave no more than two stems, timely break out the stepchildren,
- neglect preventive measures. The disease is easier to prevent than to cure. Therefore, I spray tomatoes with biological preparations of Alirin, Gamair, Fitosporin, NV-101 almost until the end of the growing season,
- wrong choice of varieties - not for its soil-climatic zone,
- It is important to deal with the "fatigue" of the soil. I apply the methods of recovery: crop rotation, application of organic fertilizers, the use of mulch and side-rats.
© A.VDOVIN Tyumen region.
To make tomatoes ripe
I have been growing tomatoes in the greenhouse for a long time, but no matter how hard I tried and no matter how early they were planted, they still did not ripen. Well, so wanted to pamper the grandchildren ripe tomatoes, especially with the purchased, they can not be compared. After all, their own! During the long years of torment I read a lot of magazines and chose three effective ways for myself.
I collect green fruits and put them in boxes. It is important that they are intact, free from damage. I lay a newspaper on the bottom, put tomatoes on top of two, sometimes three “floors” (to fit more) and tidy up the drawer under the cupboard. The room should not be hot. If the temperature is above +30 ° C, the fruits will get a motley uneven color and do not ripen. Best of all, tomatoes work out at a temperature of + 23 ... + 25 ° С. Look under the cupboard somewhere in five days - it will be possible to harvest the first “harvest”. And then check the box every two days to remove ripened tomatoes on time. Just wake up - perezrezet, rotting and even spoil the neighbors. So be on the lookout! Another very important thing: it is necessary to remove tomatoes from a bush as early as possible - in a state of blanket ripeness. If you tighten, late blight will get to them before you.
If it's time to harvest the tops of the tomatoes, and green tomatoes still hang on it, you can try to save them. You do not need to tear off the fruit, just pull out the bush, shake the ground from the roots and hang it upside down indoors. Plants gradually wither, and most of the fruits ripen.
I learned this original way from my sister. She puts several bananas in a box for unripe tomatoes. In this neighborhood, tomatoes ripen faster. Bananas choose not green, but already with the outlined brown spots on the peel. They contain ethylene, which accelerates the ripening of any fruit. This is very convenient, if you need to quickly, in just a couple of days, get bulk tomatoes. By the way, bananas act in the same way on all vegetables and fruits. Therefore, now I keep them only separately, so that they do not overripe before time.
© Natalia Glazova, Vladimir region.
Growing tomatoes in the Leningrad region
In the winter of last year, I sat on the Internet and repeatedly watched a video clip with a famous St. Petersburg gardener G.A. Kizima. She assured that tomatoes can grow without watering. Oh, how I liked this idea! But it was scary to realize it, all sorts of "what if?" What if the seedlings wither, and suddenly the fruits are not tied up, and if they are tied, they will not survive?
But the eyes are afraid, and the hands do. Besides, I have been doing tomatoes for 10 years, I have experience. Sometimes I experiment with one goal: less labor costs - a bountiful harvest. I understand people who get super crops, investing a huge amount of time and effort, and are justly proud of it, but I myself want to get a stable big harvest without any special problems. In other words, I am a supporter of the golden mean. But where it is, this middle, everyone defines himself.
I have a standard greenhouse, made of cellular polycarbonate, 3 × 6 m, it has two rows of 40 cm high, edged with professional sheet so that it does not bend under the ground, and even a bar 120 × 120 mm.
I sow the seeds in March, grow seedlings until the end of April, then about half of the bushes pinch the tops and put them in the water. Cuttings let the beard of the roots, and in May (last year it was the 8th and 24th numbers) I planted seedlings with a clod of earth and rooted cuttings (approximately equal of both) in the greenhouse.
I must say that both the seedlings and the cuttings were of unimportant quality. But the main idea was what? Grow tomatoes without watering. In spring and summer, if it rains regularly, I have close groundwater. But if it costs two or three weeks dry, it’s dry everywhere. And who is easier to settle down on a new place - a young cutting with a small root system or an adult “solid” plant with a clod of earth tightly braided with roots? It turned out that they both take root (for which I love tomatoes).
The greenhouse beds themselves (even without the greenhouse) were in my autumn-winter 2013-2014. covered with cardboard so that the weed does not grow, and I don’t like to dig. In April last year they set up a greenhouse over them. One half of the bed (where the cardboard quickly rotted away) still had to be dug up, as it was overgrown with tears and wheat grass. In time, I did it: I got to the bottom of a mink with four crooks. My scream stood on the whole district. Well, I can not kill them, they are alive and squeak! I had to call an assistant, he took them away from the site.
And so, by making a peg a hollow for cuttings and digging holes for the bushes, I planted my future wealth, pouring 1-1.5 liters of water under each. Immediately after landing, she leveled the ground, covered overlapped with newspapers of 5-6 layers, and covered it with hay on top and pressed it with bricks and stones in some places. And she said to her wards: “Well, guys, in a good hour!” And that’s all. No worries or watering.
Golden mean always and in all
I began to observe, looking several times a day into the greenhouse. My gavriks thought for a week, and - and there is nothing to do - they began to grow. I was still afraid for the first month that I would wither (I repeat: there was no watering!), But when I saw my stepchildren from the strong plants <и, конечно="" же,="" удаляя="" их="" своевременно),="" поняла,="" что="" дело="" идет="" на="" лад,="" и="" так="" оно="" и="">и,>
I will say more, they increased the green mass in excess, somewhere I removed the leaves, somewhere I broke out the branches. I think because the land was fresh, a lot of nitrogen.
I am very pleased with my harvest. But it could be even more if the quality of the seedlings was better.
The entire greenhouse was planted around the perimeter with black beans every 20-30 cm, but the mole piles from the outside were still there, and the beds did not suffer, as the whole summer was closed with newspapers and hay.
By a very rough estimate, I got 3-4 kg from a bush (all determinants). And let these numbers seem undignified to someone, my spool is very dear to me
I want to say a few words about mineral fertilizers. Many are proud of the fact that they do not “chemically” on their site. Well, it's great if your players feel great. I reason as follows: if I see that some plant lacks some element for growth and development, and I know which one (well, or at least I suppose), I give it additional fertilizing with mineral fertilizer or in the ground, or (which is faster) hood, spraying on the sheet. Honestly, you will not suffer for a long time with a headache, but take some medicine. Минеральные удобрения для растений – это как для нас с вами таблетки: пить горстями (считай – класть горстями в землю) глупо, но и вовсе не лечиться тоже не получится. Что делаем? Находим, выбираем ту самую золотую середину.
В.А. Ратникова Санкт Петербург
Ускоряем созревание томатов
Томаты из зеленых становятся светлее — молочная спелость, после буреют — бланжевая спелость, и потом зреют окончательно, становясь присущего сорту цвета. На все это у них уходит примерно 15 дней. Однако срок можно сократить, особенно если плодам угрожают туманы — предвестники фитофторы. /. Two days in a row I water the plants with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or spray it with a solution of iodine (30-40 drops per 10 liters of water) - and after 5-7 days they noticeably redden.
2. This year on plants I will try to put fruit brushes in plastic bags, put them over the skin of a banana and tie a bag on a branch for 2-3 days. They say it works.
3. In August, stop feeding. And 1 -1.5 weeks before the last harvest - and watering.
4. At the end of the season, you can close the greenhouse for the day - the heat will accelerate the ripening of the fruit. In the evening to air.
Roman EROSHENYA, Soligorsk
We make tomatoes
In the morning I pick up all the brown and large green tomatoes and leave them for roasting on the windowsill. If there are many tomatoes, put them in wooden boxes and put them one on top of another in a dry ventilated room.
I add a couple of ripe specimens to the fruit - they produce ethylene, from which other tomatoes redden faster. Once a week I check the crop, pick ripe ones, throw out suspicious fruits. Tomatoes can also be poured in the released greenhouses: I put plywood or straw on the ground and lay the fruits in 2-3 layers. On sunny days I air. She noticed that tomatoes ripen faster in the light, and more evenly in the dark.
Natalia Furs, Vitebsk
More - down!
So that tomatoes spend their energy on pouring the available fruits, and not wasting on the formation of new ones, which still do not have time to ripen, remove the branches from the ovaries, the unblown and excess flowers, the ovaries. As a result, a maximum of five brushes remains on short and medium plants.
In August, after the fourth brush, I pinch the tops of the bushes. Above the inflorescences with knotted tomatoes I leave 2-3 leaves, and under them leaves are removed.
Powerful bushes of tomatoes and eggplants make a little stress, from which they quickly tend to form fruits and seeds. For example, on stems at a height of 8-12 cm from the ground with a sharp knife I make longitudinal cuts 7-10 cm long and insert toothpicks into them so that the walls do not close. Or this: holding the lower part of the stem, a couple of times gently smack the bush towards me to tear the roots.
If the stem 4-5 cm from the ground is wrapped around the copper wire rings from the phytophtoras, this will also somewhat accelerate ripening.
Marina SHEVTSOVA, Volzhsky
Seed - cassette - soil
Tomatoes are usually grown through seedlings.
The scheme is known: soaked the seeds, planted, spread out the shoots. But this last stage - picking - do tomatoes really need it? There is an opinion that it is possible without him.
It all started with the fact that I remembered what a root is. It is a “holder” of a plant in the ground and a supplier of nutrients and water. And how it happens, many have forgotten. Although the textbook botany 5th class has an interesting picture - it shows the length of the roots of different plants. Even the children were surprised that the roots of sugar beet deepened by 3 m, and the roots of sunflowers are looking for something at a depth of 2.7 m.
The roots of tomatoes are able to reach the depth of 1.5 m, and especially curious specimens are 2 meters deep. Tomato roots are taped: the main root begins to branch at a depth of more than 0.5 m. It grows lateral, or secondary, roots. The volume of soil in which the entire root system of a single plant is located is approximately 1.2 cubic meters. m
Why does tomato root when there is a gardener?
But why should a tomato look for food so deeply when a caring gardener will fertilize the surface tillage layer? So there appeared an opinion, introduced into the rank of the law, that tomatoes should be disfigured by all means in childhood, tearing off the very tip of the spine (many tear off the entire root!), So that it turns from a core one into a fibrous one. But! The growth zone is located on the very detached tip; without it, the root cannot climb to the depth it needs. It remains in the arable layer exactly where fertilizers are applied.
It seems everything is logical! Let the roots grow there. where there is food for them. If something is not enough, the gardener will add. And water will be poured into each tomato well, so as not to suffer from drought. And what if you let the plant have the root that nature has endowed it with? Let the plant itself get to moisture! Let her search for the necessary substances! Let it grows extremely tasty fruits!
I grow without picks
Dishes If you plan to grow only 20 tomato bushes, then you will need 20 pots or any utility container, such as sour cream boxes or peat cups. And if you need 100 plants, it is better to buy cassettes in the garden center. This is a unique opportunity to place all the seedlings compactly, because the cassette is a mini-pots, gathered together in one place. Cells or cups come in different sizes.
For flowers, I choose a smaller one. For tomatoes, I recommend cassettes with large, voluminous cups. Two or three cassettes will take up considerably less than 100 individual pots.
Soil for seedlings buy ready. It is a guarantee that the black leg does not destroy the seedlings.
It is necessary to put soil in each cell of the cartridge with a spoon so much that after compaction two thirds of the volume is filled. Now you can expand the seeds in each cell. It is desirable for a few things, at least two or three. What for? Not all seeds will come out equally, among them there will be weak sprouts and those who could not throw off the seed coat from themselves will be presto late. In each cell I leave one plant, ruthlessly remove all inconspicuous.
From above, I again compacted with a spoon and poured the soil. All sowing is over. Now you need to water. It is even simpler here - I pour warm water into the pan, I watch that the cassette is standing horizontally, otherwise the water does not reach all the cells. Therefore, when the first watering let the tape stand on the table.
And nothing! All work has been done! It now remains to place the cassette in the warmest place (this is definitely not a window sill!), But first pack it in a clean, new large plastic bag for bins. Wait for the first shoots of the day three or four. Then the bag can be removed. The seedling will be quartered each in its house before landing in the ground.
And how to fertilize the seedlings and prepare it for sowing, I will tell in the next issue.
© Author: Vera TUKAEVA, Altai Territory
How to choose a sort of tomato for planting?
From the old proven can not refuse, and new items must be tested. And there is only one greenhouse!
I read the label and what is not suitable for my conditions, I dismiss at once. The main thing is to understand that tomatoes differ in growth type (interdeterminant and determinantal). And in appearance are divided into three types.
Always powerful, strong, but compact bushes. With a large number of dark green leaves, huge, like paws of fir-trees, thick, with short petioles, which can keep the bush upright, because the lowermost ones rest against the ground of the beds. However, at least once a season, but they are tied up so that the fruits do not touch the ground.
Interesting variety Shuttle. Height of a bush is 45 cm. Old and good acquaintances: Alpatyev, Volgograd. Yamal
They are also called non-standard. Growth they may be different. There are high with powerful greens, there is kutsie, as if they had just recently been broken by a hurricane and all the leaves were torn off. How do they differ from standard? They have trunks
frail, thin. The stalks themselves can not even keep without fruits. And so loaded with a crop, they will lie, and the crop will spoil from contact with the earth. And no matter how fruitful the variety, the gardener will get little. These tomatoes must be tied up to the support! If you recall your growing experience, it turns out that almost all were ordinary tomatoes. Yes, and varieties of this variety most. Liana Dina, Novice, Perebudova, Picket, Rocket - these are ordinary or non-standard tomatoes.
Never, on one bag such words can not be read. Although they mean a familiar concept - potato leaves,
If out of all the seeds of the sachet one grew up with potato leaves, this is not a mistake of nature, but an oversight of the seed supplier. Because the varieties of tomatoes are bred with such leaves. They are few. It is authentically known that the varieties Yubileyny Tarasenko, Mikado, Lotos. Japanese truffle is a large-leaf tomato with a potato leaf.
Beautiful large fruits up to 600 g of raspberry-pink color at the variety Pink Elephant, the height of Bach-temir is only 50 cm, the fruits are rather small, only 80 g, but they are stored for 20 days. The Czech variety Moravian miracle is an early miracle, it needs 86 days for small fruits, like those of cherry tomatoes, to ripen. Cut from Holland - a plant of unlimited growth.
Suppose I took a bag of the Bullfinch variety, I read: the plant is not a standard, determinant, the first inflorescence is laid over the 6th leaf, the next through 1-2 leaves, the variety is early ripe, the fruits are up to 200 g. Now I understand what we are talking about?
© Author: Vera TUKAEVA, Altai Territory
And watering and protecting tomato seedlings
Tomato seedling is now expensive. I collected the seeds and decided to sow myself. Prepared soil: earth (3 parts), sand (2 parts), ash (1 part). She took a plastic box for vegetables, first laid the bottom and sides with cellophane, then put the cardboard and put the soil in the box.
Sowed the seeds, lightly sprinkled with earth for seedlings and poured warm water (from the hand). I planted seedlings on April 19, the next year I sow earlier, and in autumn I will prepare the soil.
She put the seedlings into the warmth for the night, carried her out into the street during the day. She rose together. Watered with warm water, a month later, transplanted to a permanent place under the p / e bottle (1.5 l). Called her mini-greenhouse for tomatoes. The bottom of the bottle must be cut off first with a knife, and then with scissors in a circle. And be sure to remove the cork, otherwise the plant will die! I tried to adapt the bottom, but the seedlings under it died. I water over the neck of the bottle. It is necessary to use a greenhouse-bottle only on cold nights, if left in a hot time, the seedlings will die - the sun will burn.
Spend drip irrigation of n / e bottle. I cut the bottom, do not remove the cork, but make holes with a red-hot nail 10 cm below the cork. Once a week I add a top dressing to water: a glass of ash per 10 liters of water, a week later - a second time. Or 1 liter of fermented herbs per 10 liters of water - nettle, dandelion, knotweed, etc.
Read more about openings in bottles. I make a different number of holes - 1,2,4. A hot nail does not need to be deeply buried in a polyethylene bottle, it is enough just to pierce the hole with the tip, otherwise it will turn out to be large and the water will quickly go away, and we will have drip watering. Depending on the number of holes, I put a bottle or under the seedlings of tomatoes (1-2), or under the strawberries (4 or more) in the middle of the bushes. I lift the ground slightly with a shovel, insert the bottle, seal my hands well and pour water for irrigation.
© Author: Anna Manuilova
My tomato technology
My gardening experience is over 60 years old! During this time, he himself wrote many articles, and gathered a lot of useful literature, thanks to which he developed a suitable agricultural technique. For convenience, all the stages of growing tomatoes are listed in the table. I hope it will be useful to readers.
Soil preparation February 6-12
In peat, humus and turf (1: 1: 1) add 1 tbsp. ash and superphosphate, 1 tsp potassium sulfate and urea based on a bucket of soil. 6 days before sowing, the mixture is slightly compacted, I spill with warm (+ 30 ... + 40 degrees) Humate solution (the color of beer) and heat it at +100 degrees. 20 minutes. Then wet again.
Seed preparation - February 13-19
1. First, immersed in salt water to empty.
2. Then I disinfect the solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes (1 g per 1 tbsp of water).
3. Rinse with water.
4. Soak for a day in a solution of the drug Ideal (1 tsp. Per 1 liter of water).
5. Hardened day at a temperature of + 1 ... + 2 degrees.
Sowing - February 20-26
1. In the boxes with the ground I make every 5-6 cm grooves 1.5 cm deep.
2. I spill them with a solution of the drug Bud (1 g per 1 l of water) and, as it soaks, spread the seeds at a distance of 2 cm from each other.
3. I fill the grooves with soil and cover the boxes with a film (I do not water it!).
February 27-29, March 1-4
1. After all the seeds have come, I water a little. Next time - in 7-8 days. 2. During the day I keep the temperature + 16 ... + 18 degrees, at night - + 13 ... + 15 degrees. 3. After the emergence of seedlings, I feed with urea (1 tsp. Per 3 liters of water).
1. I water with warm water under a root.
2. Until the appearance of the 2-3rd sheet in the daytime I keep the temperature + 18 ... + 20 degrees, at night - + 15 ... + 18 degrees.
3. 10 days after the previous feeding, I make Agricola Forward (1 tsp. Per 1 liter of water). Or in 3 liters of water I mix 1 tbsp. superphosphate and ash, watering 0.5 st. on the plant.
1. I water with warm water under a root.
2. I spray polystochkam skim milk (1 tbsp. Per 1 liter of water).
3. A week before the picking, I feed with a nitrophosphate (1 tbsp of nAZ l of water) - 1 tbsp. on the plant.
In the phase of 3 true leaves I water the seedlings with the solution of the preparation Barrier (1 tbsp per 1 l of water).
© Author: Vladimir MANUNTSEV, Samara
Tomatoes without hassle
Tomato seeds (I prefer Rio Grande varieties, Bounty, Bull heart. Wild rose, Persimmon) sow in March. I pour the earth into the trays, wet it a little and make a groove 1–1.5 cm deep every 2-3 cm. I put the seeds in them and sprinkle them with the soil. I moisten from a spray, I cover with a film and I put in a bright warm place. After 5-7 days, fragile shoots appear, which I watered from the sprayer before picking. I plant seedlings in separate peat pots when they have 2-3 leaflets.
After growing up, according to the instructions, I feed up every 7-10 days with fertilizer Zdravna for tomatoes. I spray the bushes and carefully loosen the ground in pots. 2 weeks before landing in the ground I start hardening. First, I increase the airing, then gradually carry the seedlings out into the street for 10-15 minutes, increasing the time every day by 5 minutes. After the threat of frost has passed, the seedlings are planted in the ground.
TIP: In order not to spray tomatoes with pesticides in the summer, I plant basil, tobacco and marigolds next to them. Due to their smell on plants there is neither aphids nor the Colorado potato beetle.
© Author: Maria GUZENKO
Growing tomatoes in caps
Many are now promoting the principles of natural farming, but, unfortunately, on my site you can’t do without spring digging - during the winter the soil is so compressed that neither a flat cutter nor a chopper can be stuck into the ground. Planting C-derata helps a little. Therefore, the shovel remains my main friend in the country to this day.
(In addition, we always have problems with water, they give it strictly according to schedule for an hour and a half in the morning and evening, and even after a day. You just don't have time to pour all the landings on the plot. You have to mulch the land generously to hold at least a little moisture.
However, even under a thick layer of mulch, our sandy soil dries out extremely quickly. Accordingly, the feeding, which I spend, also do not have time to fully digest the plants. But I want the work invested not to be in vain.
A few years ago we did repairs and blocked the roof in a country house. After that, a lot of old ruberoid remains. I cut it into rectangular pieces. Then each stapled. It turned out cylinders, half of which were 15 cm high, and the rest - 20-25 cm. The diameter of those and others was about 20 cm. These cylinders decided to use when growing tomatoes - small for short-growing, and large - for tall varieties.
When transplanting seedlings into open ground, I put on such a “cap” for each shoot. At first, he protected the plants well from the wind and the scorching sun, and contributed to a more rapid adaptation. Later, as the tomatoes grew, I began to pour humus into the cylinders, removing the lower leaves. Due to the humus, the plants quickly developed an additional root system, which favorably affected the growth and fruiting of tomatoes.
Watering and dosed top dressing made it in this cylinder. Due to it, the soil remained wet for a very long time. In the first season, as I began to use my inventions, the harvest was that-. mats just surpassed all expectations! Since then I use cylinders every year. Now I have reduced the number of seedlings almost 2 times, and I still get a big harvest.
© Author: Irina KUDRINA, Voronezh
Dark for tomatoes
I grow tomatoes in the open pound, but there are wire arches in the garden. Cover material is used depending on the situation.
Immediately after planting, I plant black spunbond arcs on the arches and hold plants under it for 3-4 days. This is so that the seedlings adapt and do not wilt under the sun. A neighbor does differently. At night, each tomato bush she covers a cardboard box, so warm. After planting 10-12 days, I do not water the seedlings until the plants have taken root, there will be enough water for planting at this time. Watering tomatoes is always at the root, so that water does not fall on the leaves, and only in the afternoon. But at first I don’t really like watering. I watch only that the pound was wet and not dry. But when the fruits start to grow, then I water it often and regularly, otherwise the fruits grow with cracks and do not mature well.
Spud or not
Personally, I spud. I believe that in this way the soil is enriched
with oxygen, the root system is more developed, and pits form between the mounds, which hold water for a long time. But I know those who do not spud and harvests no less. I occasionally look at the tomatoes and see that adventitious roots have appeared on the stem, in this case I will need to spud. But not everyone has the opportunity to water the tomatoes daily. Then your salvation is a mulch. To keep the soil moist, lay peat, straw, sawdust between rows.
To prevent phyto-rose. I prepare the ash solution: 2 tbsp. l золы на 1 л воды, настаиваю в течение 2 дней. Зольный раствор и от болезней защищает, и питает. Опрыскиваю им томаты каждые 2 недели.
Прошло 20 дней со дня высадки томатов- начинаю подкармливать. Первая подкормка: в ведре воды развожу 15 г аммиачной селитры, 50 г суперфосоЬата и 30 г сульфата калия. На каждое растение выливаю по 1 л раствора.
Вторая подкормка – через две-три недели и такой же состав.
The third dressing, when the tomatoes reached the fruiting period: in a bucket of water I spread 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 60 g of potassium sulirat, 30 g of superphosate. Someone believes that this is chemistry, and someone - that the vitamins for plants. I try not to abuse it, although I would be happy to listen to the advice of supporters of natural farming. Write how to grow tomatoes without manure and without mineral fertilizers? I would be glad.
I. MASLENNIKOV, Vyatka
Sometimes novice gardeners in any change in tomato leaves see a threat to the entire crop. Find out when the fears are in vain, and when it’s really time to sound the alarm, an experienced gardener Sergey SAMUSEV will help us.
Even when planting seedlings in the well, be sure to add nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace elements - the owner shares. - During flowering from barren flowers, if the ovary is weak or small, I add boron (Bormaks, Borvit). When tying fruits of tomatoes and peppers under the root or on the leaves, I give calcium (Vap-novit, chalk, dolomite flour, calcium chloride - 30-40 g per 10 l of water, calcium nitrate - 5-10 g per 1 l of water) . Otherwise, when there is a shortage of calcium, there is a high risk of dry (top) rot on the fruit, the first sign of which is leaf curling. In general, for the season I can give calcium three times.
What are some other “help signals”?
If the leaves turn yellow - the plants do not have enough magnesium, pale - phosphorus is needed, turned blue - they froze, and they were also poured (loosen the soil so that the earth dries out).
How to distinguish between the lack of an element and the beginning of the disease? Sometimes they look like ...
The disease progresses, and a burn or lack of an element usually does not go further, if it manifests itself. For example, if the leaf has dried up and turned yellow - this is most likely a lack of an element. But if there are new brown dry leaves with dark veins - this is alternarioz. Which, in turn, is often confused with late blight, although it strikes first the tops, and only then descends further along the bush, making the leaves gray-black, and their opposite side is gray, but with black veins.
How do you fight disease?
And if the pests attacked?
The hardest to deal with the whitefly, because it appears more often when the fruits are already poured, but I don’t want to apply “chemistry”. Therefore, I remove the fruits from the affected bushes and only then I process them with Sharpei (you can use Fufanon). Nurel helps from aphids and caterpillars, but they can be processed no later than 28 days before harvesting. If the pests appeared shortly before harvesting, use drugs with a faster period of decay - for example, Superkil.
Tomatoes were sweet
In the greenhouse, I grow proven tall indeterminate tomatoes of the varieties Mazarin, Sevruga, Rosy Honey, Raspberry Jingle. Peruvian, Golden Domes. They give aromatic, dense, fleshy and sugary fruits weighing 400-500 g. But the composition of the soil also decides a lot. If it contains enough potassium and magnesium (there are enough of them in the ashes) - a tomato is sweet, if it is low and more nitrogen - sour acid prevails.
Tomatoes form in one stem. On stunted in the open field I leave 3-4 brushes, and tall greenhouse - 6-8 brushes.
Every week the stepson, otherwise the tomatoes will be tied up a lot, but they will grow no more than a walnut, and we need no less than with a man's fist! And I cut the leaves of all of them before the first fruit cluster - “barefoot” bushes are better ventilated, which means they are less susceptible to diseases.
If the leaves are pale, water the bushes with infusion of weeds. If the leaves turn brown at the edges - I water the plants with a 0.5-1% solution of potassium sulfate. If the bushes “fatten”, bloom poorly and do not tie fruit - I feed up 5% superphosphate extract.
In rainy and cold summers, tomatoes are threatened by late blight. In order to prevent the onset of the disease, I spray the bushes with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, with Homeom or Oxyx drugs - three times with an interval of 10 days.
© Author: Tamara KURDYUKOVA. Ishim
My secrets of growing tomatoes
I have been growing tomatoes on my plot for 30 years already, and during this time I don’t remember a single lean year.
Fruits always grow tasty, fragrant and in large quantities. The pledge of a rich harvest is fertile soil and little secrets, which I gladly share with readers of the Gardener and the Gardener.
Secret One: Seating Wisdom
In order for the seeds to germinate well, and the plants to be strong and healthy, dry seeds before sowing must leave the “warm sides” on the battery for a day, pretreated in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or soda.
Sowing seeds in the garden soil with the addition of ash and peat (10: 1: 1).
Seedlings dosachivayu 14-16 hours a day. To prevent the plants from stretching, I maintain the temperature in the room at about +20 degrees.
Before planting in the ground two or three times with an interval of ten to fourteen days I spray the seedlings with a solution of boric acid (1 tsp. Per 10 liters of water).
Secret two: orders on a tomato garden
In the fall, I collect stalks and leaves from fully healthy tomatoes, crush and put the shovels in the soil on the bayonet bayonet where I plan to grow tomatoes next year. In spring I form a bed from east to west so that the bushes are well lit from all sides. Before planting seedlings in the wells I throw a pinch of nitroammofoski.
Next to the tomatoes that I grow in the open field, I sow the seeds of beans, basil, carrot, radish, radish, green onions, watercress, spinach and celery. And I never grow cucumbers, fennel, kohlrabi and sunflower in the neighborhood. I mulch a garden bed with tomatoes with any material that you can eat: hay, straw, compost, sawdust, newsprint, fallen leaves, mowed grass, tree bark, pine needles, and peat.
I spud plants only with moist earth during periods of active root growth: the first time is when bulges resembling pimples appear on the ground stalk, the second time when the stalk near the ground itself becomes bluish.
Throughout the season, I delete stepchildren. And so that they do not grow back, I do not remove them completely to the stem, but leave a small stump in 0.5-1 cm.
The third secret: food
Every 7-9 days in calm weather in the evening I spray bushes with one of the compositions (alternating them).
- 1 tsp I grow urea in 10 liters of water.
- 1 tsp potassium nitrate or potassium monophosphate dissolved in a bucket of water.
- 1 tsp Calcium nitrate is diluted in 10 liters of water.
After pinching and healing of wounds, I spend the root feeding: 0.5 l of mullein, 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate, 1 tsp magnesium sulphate, 1.5 tsp I dissolve boric acid in 10 liters of water and pour out 1 liter under each bush. During the period of the mass ovary, I spray tomatoes with this solution: 0.5 l of milk, 5 g of boric acid, 15 drops of iodine, 50 g of soda ash I dilute in 10 liters of water.
During the flowering of the second and third flower brushes, 1-2 times process plants with a weak solution of boric acid (10 g per 10 l of water).
When tomatoes begin to bear fruit, I alternate such feedings once every two weeks.
- I pour 1.5-2 l of a weak iodine solution at the root (3-4 drops per 10 l of water).
- In 2.5 liters of water I dilute 100 g of yeast and 0.5 tbsp. Sahara. I give a ferment. 1 tbsp. the composition is dissolved in 10 liters of water, pour 1 liter under a bush.
- 2 liters of ash pour 5 liters of boiling water, after cooling, add another 5 liters of water, 10 g of boric acid and 10 ml of iodine. Insist day. Pour a liter of solution (1:10) under each bush.
Fourth secret: no phytophthora!
Against late blight, I spray plants with a solution of greens (1 drop per 1 liter of water) two weeks after transplanting to a permanent place. Treatments repeat every two weeks.
There is in our family a favorite recipe for tomato preparation.
At the bottom of a liter jar I put a pinch of chopped dill, 4-5 peas of black pepper, a small onion, cut into rings, 2 chopped cloves of garlic, add 1 tbsp. vegetable oil. Then cut down I put strong, washed tomatoes cut in half. Pour to the top with warm brine (3 tablespoons salt, 7 tablespoons sugar, 1 article 9% vinegar to 3 liters of water). Sterilized 10 minutes from the moment of boiling. I roll it, turn it upside down, wrap it until it cools. I keep in a cold place.
The soil for cultivation is best prepared by yourself. To do this, sift through a sieve with a 4-6 mm cell of humus, sod land and peat, and then mix in equal parts. It is advisable to prepare for sowing the seeds: soak in a solution of a growth stimulator (for example, zircon).
If you made the landing of hardened seedlings, then you will need until the moment when it begins to grow and cover, shade it from the winds and the sun. For this you can use such material as spunbond. Watering a plant in this case is daily and morning and evening, consuming up to two liters of water per plant.
How to do it right?
Council This method of watering is best used for moisture-loving varieties of tomatoes.
Tomato loves soil change
A plant with a high degree of vegetative development should have at least 15 leaves and 8 brushes with fruits. The normal frequency is the formation of 1 hand per week. Between the brushes should grow at least 3 leaves. The plant is considered overloaded if it blooms more than 8 brushes. In this case, enhancing the generative development of the plant should be avoided.In winter, seedlings should be grown for 9 weeks, in spring - 6 weeks, in summer - 5 weeks. To the stage of flowering of the first brush, the seedlings should be healthy and well developed.
That nutrient deficiencies can be easily replenished with additional supplements, but it is very difficult to eliminate them in excess. From excess fertilizer greatly increases the concentration of soil solution, which can cause great harm to plants.
With all this, tomato requiresAfter 15-25 days, 2-3 real leaflets appear. Timely marking out in separate pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm is necessary.
If the weather is hot, from the morning watering moisture should remain at least a little until the evening. Determine whether you need watering the plant, you can by the color of the soil around it: if the ground is darker than that around the plant - no need to water, if light - you need to water.Council Such actions are very important in quality care for tomatoes, and especially in the greenhouse. They help the nutrients to be extracted by the fruits of the tomatoes, and not by the bushes themselves.
The video shows all these systems of irrigation of tomato seedlings in the greenhouse.But here it is worth considering that the last method of the greenhouse heating system can be chosen if there is a centralized gas pipe on the site where the greenhouse is located and a frame can be made to it. It is not recommended to heat this type of room from gas cylinders, as the fuel consumption will be unjustified.
Council It is best to grow tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse. This material is distinguished by its properties and characteristics. The price for this type of greenhouse is low.Zinc sulfate 0.11,
There is another way to form a tomato. On the trellis with the help of special coils it is necessary to attach a vertical twine. Growing stem falls on the net or staples. In this case, the lower leaves must be removed. We also recommend that you familiarize yourself with the gardener's calendar in order to select the most accurate date for planting tomatoes in the ground.
For seeding should use a separate area. The nursery needs to be sanitized and provided with lighting, air ventilation and temperature control. Best for planting seedlings to separate part of the greenhouse film. Constant microclimate can be provided with a double film.Return to Table of Contents - Articles
- Low humidity, which should be considered when creating optimal conditions for plant growth. Since the conditions of pollination of flowers deteriorate, plants are affected by various diseases - this contributes to a decrease in yield and deterioration in the quality of fruits.
For picking, the strongest seedlings are selected, the weak ones give minimal yield. With the help of a picking peg, a recess is made for the seedling, which is placed in the soil until the cotyledon leaves are then densely surrounded by earth.