In the middle of summer, the stalls in the markets and shops are filled with various fruits and berries. One of the favorites is the bright and sunny apricot. We love fragrant fruit in any form - fresh, dried, canned. It is a pity that it is cultivated mainly in warm countries. But it is possible to grow it in cooler regions. Let's learn how to grow apricot in central Russia. It is not difficult, but this is not the case when you planted and forgotten.
Apricot ordinary: characteristic
Fragrant orange fruit is often called the Armenian apple. This is primarily due to the issue of the territory of origin of apricot. Modern scientists allocate from 3 to 6 places where this tree could appear for the first time. According to one of the versions (most probable), in Tien Shan (China). But in the recent past, Armenia was considered the birthplace of the tree, from where the apricot later came to Europe.
This culture is a deciduous tree, growing in height from 5 to 8 meters. The color of the bark on old specimens is gray-brown, cracks longitudinally. Apricot is a long-lived, in warm climates trees grow up to 100 years. The leaves are ovate in shape, alternate, up to 9 cm long. The flowers are sessile and single, the petals are white in color. The fruit is a single-stem of yellow-red color, having a rounded shape.
Apricot in central Russia
The tree is thermophilic, which determines its natural distribution. Apricot has been grown since ancient times in temperate countries. In our country it is widely cultivated in the Caucasus and the Crimea, as well as in the European part (southern regions) of Russia. They grow in almost every yard and are quite common, because they are unpretentious and drought-resistant. But in order to grow apricot in central Russia, it will take some effort. Work on the creation of acclimatized frost-resistant hybrids was begun at the end of the 19th century by Michurin I.V.
In the future, the selection succeeded in breeding a whole range of varieties with high fruit quality and relatively high winter hardiness. Apricot varieties for central Russia are currently quite numerous, so we’ll stop focusing only on a few.
The cultivar is familiar to many gardeners because of its exceptionally positive qualities. The tree is tall, fruiting begins in the 3-4th year. Characterized by high drought resistance and winter hardiness. Fruits of orange color, with small red splashes are oval in shape, weight - from 40 to 60 g. Maturing term - July (second half).
Promising hybrid with high winter hardiness. It is included in the best varieties of apricots for central Russia. Fruits are yellow, with a weak blush, weighing up to 45 g. Maturation occurs in the second decade of July. Fruiting frequent and abundant.
Triumph of the north
A variety with high winter hardiness of the tree and medium in flower buds. It is zoned for the southern part of the Central Black Earth Zone. Large fruits weighing up to 55 g have a yellow-orange color. They are used mostly fresh. For this variety is characterized by the formation of vigorous trees and sprawling crown. Fruiting occurs in the 4th year of life.
Very frost-resistant variety bred by the South Ural Scientific Research Institute of free pollination. A tall tree (up to 4 m) with a spreading lush crown. Medium sized fruits (up to 15 g) have aromatic and sweet flesh. Their color is yellow, with small subcutaneous patches of red. Characterized by high yields, up to 20 kg per tree.
The real leader among all other varieties in terms of frost resistance. This apricot in central Russia will feel great and delight the hosts with a harvest. Tree of small height: from 120 to 150 centimeters. With winter shelter you can grow it even in the Urals and in the northern regions. The yield is appropriate - 7-10 kg from one tree, ripening begins in mid-August. The fruits are not very large (15-18 g), with excellent taste, have dense pulp and medium sugar content. Cream-colored skin, with purple blush.
A typical dwarf tree that grows into a height of only up to 1.5 meters has a cup-shaped crown, which explains the name. Winter-hardy hybrid. The apricot of this variety bears fruit every year, the yield is quite high. Fruits weighing 25-30 g with a creamy yellow skin and a slight blush. They have a loose, tender and sweet flesh with a strong aroma.
It is also worth noting the following best apricot varieties for central Russia: Tsarsky, Alyosha, Monastyrsky, Lel, Spicy, Ilyusha, Uspeh, Russian.
Landing dates and site selection
The best time to plant an apricot is the third decade of April, when the earth is already warm and the threat of recurrent frosts disappears. Carefully choose seedlings, buds should be slightly swollen, but not at the stage of leaf blooming. Prefer trees in separate containers, rather than with an open root system. Experts advise growing apricot from the seed of local varieties, so it grows stronger and more resistant to various diseases and weather conditions.
Cultivation of apricots in central Russia implies careful selection of a place at the initial stage. This southern visitor in our gardens prefers the warmest, lighted and preferably the site without the north winds. Apricot normally tolerates the proximity of groundwater.
Pit preparation and landing
The landing hole for apricot should be spacious enough (70 * 70 * 70 cm). It is worth remembering that the root system of a tree is twice the size of its crown. Therefore, the distance between the individual seedlings must be maintained, based on the characteristics of the variety, on average about 3 meters.
Cooking pit in the fall. After digging, fill it with humus, add 2-3 liters of mullein, 400 g of potassium sulphide, 700 g of superphosphate, one glass of ash. Thoroughly mix all the ingredients and leave in the winter. At the bottom of the pit must fill the drainage layer of expanded clay or gravel. Sapling during planting must be kept upright and gradually fill up with soil to the point of growth. As a result, the tree should be located on a certain hill, knoll. According to its diameter make a watering circle, after planting pour 2 buckets of water.
Recommended Apricot Varieties
The well-known breeder Michurin began to cultivate winter-hardy varieties of this tree at the end of the nineteenth century. Scientists still continue to develop new types of apricot crops that can be grown throughout the country and do not require special care.
Some fruits are sweet, others are slightly sour, a large selection suggests that each gardener will be able to choose for himself what he likes most.
For survival in central Russia, varieties are best suited:
- Early maturation - Iceberg, Alesha, Tsarsky, Lel,
- Mid-season - Success, Edelweiss, Delight, Aquarius,
- Late maturation - Monastic.
Apricot trees require special attention. Since this culture has come to us from the southern strip, it is important to protect it from strong gusts of wind and hypothermia.
Early ripe apricot species
This is a tree that is different medium yield. The tree grows up to four meters high and has a spherical shape. This variety of apricot, as a rule, annual shoots, which in the beginning of spring appear large flowers. The tree does not need special care, and grows well in different parts of the soil.
The tree begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting seedlings at a permanent place. Fruits are bright yellow with a slight shine. Apricots grow large, about twenty grams each. They have orange juicy flesh, which has a sweet-sour taste.
Fruits have a large bone, which is well separated from the pulp. Apricots of this variety have good keeping quality and can be stored for a long time. The type of application is universal, they can be canned or used fresh.
This variety shows good frost resistance and does not need special care. The tree grows to a height of about three meters and has a spherical compact crown.
Apricot tree begins to bear fruit in the third year after planting. It has small annual shoots, on which fruits are formed with thin yellow skin and bright orange juicy flesh.
Yield this variety is not bad, about twenty - thirty kilograms from one tree. This amount of fruit can be expected from the fifth year.
Inside the apricot fruit there is a small round stone, which is well separated from the pulp. The storage quality of this variety is bad, it is best to try to use apricots as quickly as possible. The best use of fruit is canning.
This apricot variety got its name due to unusually tasty fruits. The content of a large amount of potassium makes it unique.
Inside the apricot fruit is a large bone, which is a quarter the size of apricots and is usually separated along with the pulp.
This tree grows about four meters in height and stands out among most varieties of large flowers. It, as a rule, bears fruit on all grown shoots, regardless of their age. You can collect the fruit already in the third or fourth year after planting. It is important to care for him more actively in the cold season, and to organize the insulation of trunks and roots.
Trees varieties Tsarsky, tolerate frost well and can grow in any parts of the country.
For this variety are characterized by such qualities as:
- Frost resistance
- Winter hardiness
- Getting a high yield
- Good lezhkost.
The tree grows up to three meters high and has vigorous annual shoots. Large flowers appear on them.
Fruits Iceberg have a mass of about twenty grams, and have amazing taste. They have a yellow-orange peel and flesh of the same color. It is tender and juicy, and also has a strong fruity aroma. The stone is very easily separated from the fruit pulp. The type of consumption is universal.
Mid-season varieties of apricots
it very cold resistant a variety that can partially self-pollinate. Flower buds of this variety are unique features, they can tolerate frosts up to forty degrees.
The tree is of medium height and not very branched. In order to achieve good yields need to plant two or three trees, they will create cross-pollination.
The yield of this variety quite high, in a season, ripen up to thirty five kilograms from one tree. Fruits are bright orange with juicy pulp. They are quite large and have a mass of about thirty grams.
Trees of this variety grow to a height of not more than three meters. They are undemanding to the soil composition.
Apricot fruit very juicy and tasty. They have a bright orange peel and darker flesh. Perfectly stored for a long time, and can be used in any form. Their apricot of this variety is perfect for canning and fresh consumption.
This variety got its name due to its excellent taste.
In central Russia, he isthe most frost resistant from all mid-season representatives.
The tree usually grows in height from four to five meters and actively bears fruits on freshly-grown shoots.
Appointment of the fruits of this variety is universal.
This tree is the most tall among apricot trees of mid-ripening varieties. It can grow over six meters in height and begins to bear fruit two years after planting.
The variety has got its name due to the appearance it acquires during the ripening of the crop. Densely located fruits on all shoots, during maturation become harder and the clumps lean in them, becoming like jets waterfall.
Late ripening varieties
This variety is apricot late-ripened. The tree is medium thick and has a spreading crown. It can reach five meters in size and amaze others with its appearance.
This plant tolerates the cold season very well and can withstand cooling. up to minus thirty degrees.
Fruits grow large enough, about thirty grams each.
Maturation occurs towards the end of August. Fruits have good keeping quality and can be stored for a long time.
Planting apricot trees
It is best to plant apricot orchard in the beginning. of spring. At this time, the soil is already warmed up quite well and it will be easier for seedlings to adapt to the new place.
It is important before planting to try to create suitable conditions for this. Choosing a place to plant apricot trees, you must give preference sunny placeswhich are protected from strong winds and are located on a small hill.
The pit for planting should be small in size, about seventy centimeters wide and the same length. At its bottom you need to pour the soil, which is prepared according to the composition:
- Peat - one part,
- Local soil - one part,
- Sand is one part,
- Humus - three parts
- Glass of wood ash,
- A pound of superphosphate and the same amount of potassium sulfate.
All of these components are mixed and poured into the hole for planting.
After that, you need to pour on top of a small layer of local land and plant a tree.
Growing apricots in central Russia is surprisingly pleasant, since all efforts quickly pay for themselves. tasty and juicy fruitsthat will not leave anyone indifferent.
I really want to plant a garden in my plot, but I don’t know the rules of care and how it is necessary to plant one or another tree. Thanks to the special literature, I managed to learn a lot of new things. I decided to leave my review here, maybe someone also dreams of a garden, but does not dare. Do not be afraid, you can quickly learn all the rules of care and other subtleties.
I grew apricot trees in the south for many years. After when she moved to central Russia, she began to wonder how to plant and provide care for this type of plant. I am very glad that breeders have brought a large number of varieties that are not afraid of local frosts. A big plus is that the care is almost the same as what I did before. I want to tell everyone, be sure to plant apricots without fear of difficulties, because they bring tasty and healthy fruits.
In order for this southern plant to develop successfully and possess excellent fertility, it is necessary that it be stable not only in frosty winters, but also in residual frosts in spring and autumn. Only in this case is it possible to enjoy healthy and tasty fruits in the summer.
As early as the 19th century, I. Michurin began breeding winter-hardy varieties that could be successfully grown in central Russia. His work was continued by a whole group of Russian breeders, and as a result, the following were derived:
Such varieties were obtained by crossing heat-loving varieties from the southern regions with Manchurian apricots, which stand up to - 50 degrees. The peculiarity of the latter can be noted low taste, but high resistance to frost and cold. This variety is often used for pollination of self-cultivated varieties of apricots.
Apricot varieties included in the State Register
And today, work on the cultivation of new varieties of apricots continues, but there are those that are listed in the registry and are considered the most adapted for our climate. They have passed many tests both on the quality of taste and on the tolerance of low temperatures and the unpredictability of the off-season.
The variety was obtained in 1988 by Moscow breeders. The tree has a large volumetric crown 3–4 m in circumference with sprawling straight branches, directed upwards, and its height is about four meters.
- Flowering begins quite early, flowers whitish - pink, large.
- The advantage of the variety is very good resistance to frost winters and frosts, which occur in autumn or spring, as well as its early maturity.
- The harvest is ready for assembly already from mid-July.
- This variety is self-pollinating and can be used to pollinate other trees.
- The berries are sweetish-sour, yellowish-orange, the peel is smooth and low-grained. Fruit weight from 13 gr to 20 gr. They are not only excellent fresh, but also used for preservation.
The tree is medium thick, height is usually not more than 4 m, the crown is not very branchy, the growth is moderate. The variety was also bred in the Botanical Garden and its characteristics were checked for more than 10 years before it was entered into the State Register.
- Flowering is characterized by lush white flowers.
- Fruits weighing 20-22 grams, oval, peel dense and pubescent. The color is saturated, yellow. In some cases, there is a slight reddish tint.
- The flesh of warm yellow - orange tone, dense and juicy, fragrant, separates well from the stone.
- The variety is very undemanding as to weather conditions, and to the composition of the soil.
Один из самых известных среди садоводов — любителей раннеспелых сортов. Популярен благодаря своим вкусовым качествам.
- Дерево среднерослое, высота колеблется от 3 — х м до 4 м.
- Цветки белые, крупные диаметром 3,5 — 4 см.
- Листья темно — зеленые, на концах заостренные, средние.
- Плоды небольшие, немного сплюснутые, вес около 20 гр, желтого цвета.
- The skin is thin, with no pubescence, sometimes with a reddish-colored dot.
- The flesh is yellow - orange, juicy and tender, easily separated from the bone. Tastes are rated at 4 points out of 5.
- The tree reaches a height of about 6 m. The branchiness is rather weak. Fruiting begins no earlier than three years after planting the sapling. The leaves are large and smooth, dark green.
- It blooms with small white flowers in large quantities.
- Fruits are rather large 28 - 32 g, have a pronounced seam, rounded. The skin is dark yellow and thin, with a slight blush.
- The flesh is juicy, has a bright yellow shade, it is easily separated from the stone, the density of fibers is average, delicate in structure.
The variety was created in 1998 and was originally intended for Moscow and the Moscow Region, where it occurs most often. Differs in frost resistance, but a minus is frequent defeat by klesternospores.
- The tree is tall, with a large spreading crown, with timely pruning can grow more than 6 m.
- The variety blooms with small white flowers and belongs to the self-fruitless, it requires pollinators that can be Lel, Triumph of the North and others.
- The first harvest can be harvested in 3 - 4 years after vaccination, ripening occurs in the second half of August.
- Berries can be medium size 20 - 25 grams, but sometimes they can reach 30 - 35 grams (when the harvest is small). Fruits are yellow, slightly pubescent, with a small blush.
- The flesh is juicy and tasty, easily separated from the small bone.
The tree is of medium height, with reddish-brown branches. The crown is raised, albeit sprawling, but the branches are quite wide and do not require constant pruning. Leaf plates are dark green, large. The fruit itself is yellow - orange with a reddish blush, almost no pubescence. The flesh is juicy, sour - sweet and slightly gristly.
Popular varieties not included in the State Register
There are varieties that are not included in the registry, but, nevertheless, are very popular among gardeners and successfully grown in suburban areas.
The variety has established itself as winter-hardy and promising, has many positive reviews among amateur gardeners.
- The tree is quite low, the height is only about 3 m, the diameter of the crown is 4.5-4.7 m. The above-ground part after frost and stable winter frosts is perfectly preserved without freezing.
- Fruit weight does not exceed 22.5 - 23.5 grams, color yellow with a reddish tint.
- The skin is loose, thin, poorly separated from the pulp. The fruit itself is very juicy, with a fine fibrous structure, perfectly separated from the oval small bone.
- The tree is a good honey plant.
Suitable for small areas, the height of the tree is only 2 m. The crown is highly branched, requiring annual thinning. Flowering begins in May, the variety is partially self-pollinating, better planted next to other trees for better yields.
- Fruiting occurs only in the fifth year, but the fruits are very sweet (up to 9% sugar).
- The weight of the berry is about 20 grams, the skin is elastic, it does not burst and is not crushed during transportation. It has a yellow color with a reddish blush, sometimes bitter. The flesh is tender and fragrant.
- Productivity is stable, about 10-15 kg is collected from one tree.
- The tree is able to bear fruit for many years without a break, while the quality of the fruit's taste does not decrease.
The average grade height is 4 m, the crown radius is 3-4 m, the variety was bred in Chelyabinsk. The leaves are green and oval in shape, slightly toothed. Fruiting occurs in the 4th year after vaccination.
The variety is early ripe, in the beginning of July an active period of fruiting begins. From one tree can be removed 15 - 20 kg each year. Fruits are quite small, no more than 15 grams, equilateral, rounded. The peel is not completely separated, medium thickness and slightly pubescent. The color is even yellow, the flesh is not very dense. The big plus of these fruits is the absence of bitterness, only a rather pleasant sweetish taste.
Choosing a place for apricot
Apricot planting place should not be low (where cold air flows), but be sure to be warm, sunny and closed from cold winds (northern and eastern). Gardeners do not advise planting apricots on the southern slopes, because in the sun, plants start growing at the expense of their winter hardiness, and flowering is more likely to coincide with residual spring frosts. Still, some gardeners recommend planting apricots on the south side of buildings, fences, or custom-made shields painted in bright colors to better reflect sunlight on the trees (that is, to do something like a heat shield).
According to experienced gardeners, these measures will improve the illumination of trees and protect them from cold winds. And another thing: the soil in the apricot planting places should have good air permeability, because the roots of the plant need a free flow of air throughout the growing season. Even short-term flooding with water or strong waterlogging of the root zone of soil is unacceptable, the plant may die from this. It is necessary to choose the composition of the soil. For example, one part of peat and one part of sand are added to one part of clay. On a sandy soil with poor moisture, apricot trees get burned in the summer and age early. On non-irrigated black soil they come to fruition late and give poor yields.
Experienced gardeners know that if old pears, oak, Norway maple, ash and other trees with a very deep root system grow on or near the plot, then this is a sure sign that apricots will take root here. The trees are recommended to be planted according to the 6 × 4 m scheme (ie, 6 m is left between the rows and 4 in the row). The most favorable for apricot are sandy, loamy, light loamy soils, with a neutral and slightly acidic reaction (pH 6-7). In the soil, poor in humus, must be added rotted manure in an amount of at least at least 3 kg per square meter. meter. Mineral fertilizers are applied depending on the content of nutrients in the soil. On clay soils, for example, more phosphate fertilizers are required (at least 100-120 g per 1 square meter). Plant apricot is better in spring. Seedlings are placed in prepared soil, deeply dug up (up to 45 cm) with simultaneous application of fertilizers. Planting pits 60-70 cm deep make immediately before planting, bringing 8-10 kg of humus and up to 1 kg of superphosphate.
Young apricot tree, variety "Murpark". © drobarr
Preparation of apricot trees for wintering
With a long and warm autumn in apricot trees there is an intensive growth of shoots. In this case, even in mild winters, there is a danger of freezing of poorly matured shoots, flower buds and wood. To avoid this, experienced gardeners recommend starting from August to water the trees with a solution of ash, which will help to stop the growth of shoots and their rapid maturation. Usually, 5-10 buckets of ash solution help apricots to keep within our short summer and by the fall of the leaves to complete the preparation of the trees for the cold. Under young trees is not recommended to make a lot of nitrogen-containing fertilizers, especially in the second half of summer. As already noted, young apricot trees need special attention: they are less hardy than adults. However, the “old men” should also be well looked after, especially in May-June, so that they develop a powerful, healthy sheet canopy as early as possible.
Then you can count on a decent harvest, and the trees will have time to prepare for the winter and stand firmly in the frosts. Of all the fruit trees, apricots, as early-flowering, most often and strongly suffer from spring frosts. The best way to protect the flowers is the shelter of tree crowns with agrofabric in two layers or any other fabric for the entire flowering time. Under such clothes flowers are not afraid of frost to minus 4 ° C. At the corners, covering material is tied to the branches, but so that insect pollinators can freely visit flowering trees.
Apricot fruits on the branch, variety Muscat. © Daniel Jolivet
Adding an article to a new collection
With the advent of winter-hardy varieties, apricot has ceased to be exotic, because today in central Russia you can independently grow a fruit-bearing tree on the site. The main thing - to choose the right grade.
In the central regions of Russia, the climate is unstable. In winter and early spring, finicky crops (including apricots) can freeze slightly, and then you should not expect a rich harvest. But you want so much to taste tasty, juicy and healthy fruits!
Plant in your garden apricots resistant to cold and frost varieties. And then with the right care for the plant you will be able to get a good harvest.
The name of this apricot variety speaks for itself. The plant easily adapts to adverse conditions, and not only the tree itself is not afraid of severe frosts (due to the fact that it has a thick bark), but also its buds, which in other varieties often die during spring frosts.
The tree grows quite large in a short period of time, but begins to yield only 5-6 years after planting. Fruits differ in the average size, rounded shape and coloring, golden with a coral shade. The skin is slightly pubescent, the flesh is very sweet and aromatic, orange in color.
In conclusion, summarize
It is quite possible to grow apricots in the backyards of the middle zone, only the following conditions should be observed, which are dictated by the biological characteristics of these plants, which we mentioned above:
- to choose the right landing site, taking care of the most favorable microclimate for apricots,
- to choose the right time for planting (best in spring) in a well-structured soil, observing all generally accepted rules for planting trees,
- strictly observe all agricultural practices and take into account the peculiarities of apricot care,
you should not forget:
- about the proper watering of trees, stopping it by the beginning of August,
- about collecting fallen leaves under the virgins in the fall and burning them to get rid of pests,
- in October-November, whitewash apricot trees, thus protecting them from sunburn in early spring and from the initiation of early biochemical processes in their branches and buds,
- about pruning trees in early spring, especially if it wasn’t done in the fall,
- fertilization: nitrogen - in early spring, phosphate - in summer.
Early ripe, winter-hardy versatile variety. The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing, with a panicled raised crown of average density. In fruiting comes in the third year. Shoots are straight, dark red, naked. The leaves are broad, ovate, short-pointed, dark green, smooth, brilliant, with cityy edge.
Fruits are roundish, with orange basic and red integumentary coloring, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 20 grams. The flesh is yellow, tender, juicy, melting, mealy, sweet-sour taste. Tasting score 4 points.
Average yield: 48 c / ha.
By klyasterosporiozu moderately resistant, aphid was damaged up to 1%.
Apricot variety Iceberg is included in the State Register for the Central Region.
Apricot Academician, characteristic
Medium ripening, winter-hardy, versatile. During the years of observation, the variety showed high winter hardiness and withstood negative air temperatures from 38 ° to 40 °.
Trees are vigorous, form a rounded elongated crown. Stamb medium thickness. The bark on the trunk is uneven, gray, on the branches of the first and second orders - pale gray. The leaves are large, ovate, with a slight spike to the top, thin and smooth. In fruiting comes in the third year.
Flowering from 10 to 18 May.
The fruits are large, at the stage of full maturity yellow, weighing 30 grams. The flesh is yellow, tender, fibrous, sweet-sour taste. Tasting score 4 points. The fruits contain: sugars 8.2%, acids 1.8%, vitamin C 11 mg /%.
Yield: up to 124 kg / ha.
Advantages: when ripe, the fruits do not crumble, in rainy years do not crack. Large fruit universal use, good marketability, resistant to fruit rot. This is by far the largest of all our varieties.
Apricot Variety Academician is included in the State Register of the Far Eastern Region.
Apricot Alesha, photo
Early, winter-hardy universal grade. The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing, with a panicled raised crown of average density. Enters fructification for the 3rd year. Shoots are straight, dark red, naked. The leaves are broad, rounded or ovate, short-pointed or long-pointed, dark green, smooth, shiny, with cityy edge.
Fruits are round, with a yellow basic and red topcoat, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 13 grams. The flesh is yellow, gristly, sweet-sour taste. The fruit contains: dry matter 13.2%, acid 1.8%, sugar 8.1%. Tasting score 3 points.
Average yieldl 43 t / ha.
To klyasterosporioz resistance medium, aphid was damaged up to 1%.
Apricot variety Alesha is included in the State Register for the Central Region.
Apricot Cupid, description
Medium ripening, table. Frost resistance is high. Productivity is high. Crohn rounded thick. The trunks are resistant to salivary and burns, but at a young age they are damaged by moniliasis, albeit in a weak degree. Resistance to burns satisfactory. The cultivar has the best winter hardiness on elevated locations with well-drained soils, provided the roots are kept wet.
The variety has a relatively high drought tolerance. In the first half of summer, it satisfactorily tolerates a lack of moisture in the soil, retains leaves completely, fruit ovaries, and gives a good one-year growth. The dying of leaves and branches due to drought was not observed. The negative effect of excessive soil moisture on the death of roots was noted.
Trees are resistant to asteriasis, fruits, like all varieties, are damaged in rainy weather by moniliosis. The flowers are relatively resistant to this disease.
The Amur tree - slow-growing, compact, with a thick rounded elongated crown. The width of the crown at the age of 12 years - 3-3,5 meters. The variety has a strong foliage.
Trees enter fruiting season in the third or fourth year of the graft, depending on the quality of the seedlings.
Fruits are small, rounded, slightly elongated, weighing 32 grams. The side seam is small. The skin color is yellow with a bright carmine blush. The funnel is small, wide. The top of the fruit is pointed. The skin is thin, velvety hairy. The stem is very short, 3-5 mm long, thick. The flesh is orange, dense, tender, medium juiciness. The taste is good, sweet and sour. The bone is separated. The seed is sweet.
The grade of an apricot Amur is included in the state register on the Far-Eastern region to the region in 1979.
Distinctive features of this variety: rounded compact crown, moderate growth. Strong foliage persists until leaf fall. Beautiful fruits with a blush, peeking through the leaves that do not fall off when ripe. Red maroon buds and slightly pinkish flowers. The grade possesses well-marked signs.
Apricot Kichiginsky, description of the variety
Mid-season grade of universal appointment. The tree is medium thick with a flat crown of medium thickness. Enters fructification for the 5th year. The shoots are medium thick, straight, dark red. The leaves are medium, rounded, dark green.
Fruits are round, yellow, with an average weight of 14 grams. The flesh is yellow, juicy, sweet-sour taste. Tasting score of 4.5 points. The fruit contains: sugar 6.3%, acid 2.3%, vitamin C 7.6 mg /%.
The variety is self-infertile, winter hardiness is high.
Apricot variety Kichiginsky is included in the State Register for the Ural region.
Apricot Lel, description
Winter-hardy Lel grows well and bears fruit in the climatic conditions of the Moscow region and the Moscow region. In these regions, there are almost no sudden changes in spring night temperatures at which apricot flowers can freeze, and winter temperatures are stable here, unlike frequent temperature fluctuations in southern regions. This reduces the risk of tree stumping during thawing, so the Lel variety is considered one of the best for breeding in these regions of the country.
Tree srednerosloy, reaches 3 meters in height. Dense light brown wood takes on darker shades in the center of the trunk. The tree is characterized by moderate growth. Annual shoots of red-brown color darken with age. Weakly shoots for 3-4 years form a neat compact crown.
Dark green shiny leaves ovoid, smooth and soft to the touch. Short-pointed leaf blade bordered with small teeth. The back of the sheet is matte. On the branches and annual shoots the leaves are arranged alternately.
Single white-pink flowers sit tightly in the axils of the leaves. They have 5 rounded petals of regular shape and reach a diameter of 3 cm. Flowers can withstand a decrease in night temperatures to -1–1.5 ºС. The early flowering period (end of April - beginning of May) allows the tree to be a wonderful honey plant.
Fruits are roundish, with orange basic and red integumentary coloring, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 18 grams. The flesh is orange, tender, juicy, melting, sweet-sour taste. The fruit contains: dry matter 16.0%, acid 2.7%, sugar 9.0%. Дегустационная оценка 5 баллов.
Урожайность абрикоса Лель: до 40 ц/га.
К клястероспориозу устойчивость средняя, тлей повреждался до 1%.
Сорт абрикоса Лель включен в Госреестр по Центральному региону в 2004 году.
Среднего срока созревания, десертный сорт. Дерево среднерослое, быстрорастущее, с метельчатой средней густоты кроной. В плодоношение вступает на 3-4-й год. Побеги средней толщины, прямые, темно-красные, голые. The leaves are large, ovate, long, acuminate, dark green, dull, with a crenate smooth edge.
Fruits are heart-shaped, yellow with red dots, with middle felt pubescence, with an average weight of 21 grams. The flesh is yellow, tender, mealy, sour-sweet taste. The fruits contain: dry matter 11.6%, sugar 6.1%, acid 2.1%, vitamin C 132.0 mg%. Tasting score 4.8 points.
Average yield: 18.8 c / ha.
Resistance to frost, pests and diseases is high.
The variety of apricot Favorite was included in the State Register of the East-Siberian region in 2008.
Apricot Monastic, description
Apricot Variety Monastic unpretentious care, withstand frosts withstand and gives abundant annual yields.
Monastic Apricot is obtained by free pollination of a seedling of 3-4 of its own generation in the Main Botanical Garden named after N.V. Tsitsina RAS in 1996. The author of the variety is L. A. Kramarenko. It has a wide zoning zone, entered into the State Register in the Central Region in 2004. Excellent characteristics and rapid acclimatization make it possible to grow this variety in the cities of the Moscow region.
Late maturity, winter-hardy, versatile variety. The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing, with a spherical sprawling crown of medium thickness. Enters fructification for the 3rd year. Shoots are straight, brownish yellow, naked. The leaves are large, wide, ovate, long-pointed, dark green, smooth, brilliant, with cityy margin.
The fruits are round, with a yellow basic and pink top color, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 22 grams. The flesh is yellow, juicy, mealy, sweet-sour taste. The fruit contains: dry matter 13.2%, acid 2.1%, sugar 8.0%. Tasting score 4 points.
Apricot yield Monastyrsky variety: up to 150 kg / ha.
To klyasterosporioz resistance medium, aphid was damaged up to 1%.
Apricot Orlovchanin, characteristic varieties
Mid-season, universal grade. Tree srednerosly with sprawling raised crown of average density. Enters fructification for the 3rd year. Shoots brown, naked. The leaves are large, wide, ovate, long, acuminate, smooth, dull, with a dentate edge.
Fruits are flat-rounded ovoid, with yellow basic and top color, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 33 grams. The flesh is yellow, mealy, sweet-sour taste. The fruits contain: dry matter 11.8%, sugar 6.2%, acid 1.9%, vitamin C 8.7 mg%. Tasting score of 4.2 points. Stone is well separated from the pulp.
Average yield 147 c / ha.
Advantages of a grade: high frost resistance, resistance to klyasterosporioz. Partially samoplodny.
The variety of apricots Orlovchanin included in the State Register of the Central Black Earth region.
Advertising Apricot, variety description
Variety of table purpose, medium maturity. Selection of the Stavropol gardening experimental station. Obtained from crossing the selective form Zherdeli with the Red Cheek variety late. Zoned for the Stavropol Territory.
The tree is large, medium-growing, with a reverse pyramidal crown of medium thickness, good foliage. The skeletal branches are long, of medium thickness, with a discharge angle of about 50 °. The shoots are of medium length, weakly split, red-brown. The leaf is large, wide, rounded, dark green, smooth, matte with a slight gloss. The flower is medium in size, single, the petals of the corolla are white with a light pink shade. Fruits are placed on one-year growth and shortened shoots (spur).
Apricot Samara, description, photo
Late maturity, versatile, frost-resistant. Tree srednerosly with sprawling medium density crown. Enters fructification for the 4th year. The shoots are medium thick, straight, red-brown, naked. The leaves are ovate, long-pointed, dark green, smooth, with a finely serrated margin.
Flowering of this variety: 1-3 May.
Fruits are one-dimensional, ovate, yellow, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 17.6 g. Yellow-orange flesh, juicy, dense, sweet-sour taste. Stone is well separated from the pulp. Tasting score 4.4 points. The fruits contain: dry matter 13.1%, sugar 8.4%, acid 2.4%, vitamin C 13.8 mg%. Terms of removal of fruits - August 7-12. Commodity and consumer qualities of fruits are high. Fruits taken immature, stored up to 7-10 days. The transportability of apricots is high.
Yield at the age of 8 years is 15-20 kg per tree, at the age of 12 -13 years - 40-50 kg. Fruiting annual. Fruits keep firmly on the tree, they do not crumble when overripened.
Derived A.N. Kuybyshev Jubilee at the Samara Zonal Experimental Gardening Station as a result of crossing varieties with the Kuibyshev Early Plant. Introduced into the State Register for the Middle Volga Region in 2005.
Propagated by grafting on seedling rootstocks of winter-hardy varieties: Red Hurles, Kuzbyshevskoy Ternoslivy, October Hungarian and clone rootstock OPA-15-2.
Trees grow well on elevated areas of the western, south-western, north-western slopes, on light soils and medium texture.
At a young age, formative trimming is needed. During the period of full fructification it is necessary to cut the ends of gains by one third, at the old age to carry out the rejuvenating pruning.
The merits of the variety: high winter hardiness of wood and flower buds, high annual yield, high quality fruits.
The disadvantages of the variety Samarsky: insufficiently large fruits.
Apricot Saratov Ruby, description, photo
The hybrid yields the best yields, of course, in the native Saratov region. Reviews from other regions are not always unequivocal, so we can say that he is still undergoing a test.
A variety of medium ripening, universal purpose. The tree is medium-sized, fast-growing, with a spherical, sprawling crown of medium thickness. Preferential placement of fruit formations on annual shoots, fruit twigs and spur. Bark flaky, brown. The shoots are medium, straight, brown-brown, naked. Chechevichek is small, they are small, yellow-gray. The leaves are medium, broadly rounded, long pointed, dark green, smooth, shiny. The leaf plate is concave, downward curved, sharp-pointed, the leaf base is blunt, there is no pubescence. Edge of the leaf is graby. The scape is medium. 2-3 pieces of iron, they are yellow, oval. The flowers in the inflorescence are medium, white, solitary.
Fruits are medium size, elliptical, with an average weight of 42 grams. The main color of the fruit is light orange, the cover color is carmine, blurred over most of the fruit. The skin is moderately coarse, with velvety pubescence, is removed from the fruit with difficulty. The flesh is orange, medium juiciness. Juice is colorless. The taste is sour-sweet. Tasting score of 4.3 points. The content of dry matter in fruits is 14.2%, sugar is 8.5%, acid is 1.5%, pectin substances are 1.33%, and vitamin C is 12.3 mg%. The stone is small, elliptical, slightly acuminate, smooth, well separated from the pulp.
Average yield 338 c / ha.
The variety is resistant to monilioz and klyasterosporiu.
Apricot variety Saratov Ruby is included in the State Register for the Lower Volga region and is recommended for testing in the North Caucasus region in 2015.
Apricot Siberian Baykalova, variety description
Universal, frost-resistant variety, early ripening. Tree srednerosly with spherical sprawling krone of average density. Enters fructification for the 3rd year. The shoots are thick, straight, red. The leaves are ovate, dark green, dull, with a large serrate edge.
Fruits are oval, orange, with a small blush and with medium pubescence, with an average weight of 27 g. The flesh is orange, fibrous, sweet taste. Tasting score 4.8 points. The fruits contain: dry matter 15.8%, sugar 7.1%, acid 2.4%, vitamin C 8.1 mg /%.
The average yield of 75 c / ha.
The variety Sibiryak Baykalova was included in the State Register of the East-Siberian region in 2002.
Apricot Son of Krasnoshcheky, description, reviews
The variety was bred at the Rossoshansky zonal experimental gardening station MM. Ulyanischev from crossing varieties Golden Summer and Red Cheek. Since 1974, the variety is zoned in the Astrakhan region. Currently part of the State Register for the Lower Volga region.
The tree is medium to tall, with an oval or broadly raised, dense crown with good foliage. The lamina is rounded, with a short pointed and often rolled side to the top and a heart-shaped base. The scape is long, 20–40 mm long, medium thickness, bare, with bright burgundy anthocyanin coloration at the top. The flowers are large, 25-30 mm in diameter, pure white, blooming from pure white buds.
Apricot Favorit, variety description
Late maturity, winter-hardy, versatile variety. Tree srednerosly with paniculate sprawling raised rare crown, height of 3-4 meters. Enters fructification for the 3rd year. Shoots are straight, dark red, naked. The leaves are large, wide, ovate, long-pointed, dark green, smooth, brilliant, with cityy margin.
Fruits are round or ovate, with a yellow basic and red integumentary coloring, with a large dense flush, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 30 grams. The flesh is orange, juicy, gristly, melting, sweet-sour taste. Tasting score of 4.5 points.
Yield: 30 kg / ha.
The variety Favorit was included in the State Register in 2004 in the Central Region.
Disadvantage this variety, as well as Monastyrsky, is later ripening of fruits. In years with cold, rainy summer, the fruits do not have time to ripen and remain immature on the trees in September.
Apricot Khabarovskiy, description
Early ripe, winter-hardy, disease-resistant, productive variety of apricot. th ripening period.
The tree is vigorous, reaching large sizes. At the age of 10 years, its height is 4.8 m, width is 5.1 m. The crown is sparse and spreading. The leaves are of medium size, oblong-oval, with a sharp long end. The flowers are large, white. Petal shape rounded.
Trees come into fruition in the fourth, fifth year of the graft. The variety is capable of annual fruit bearing. The fruits ripen on July 28-30. The maximum yield per tree is 36.6 kg.
Apricot Tsarsky, description, photo
Early ripening, universal, winter-hardy variety. The tree is medium-sized, slow-growing, with a panicled, raised crown of average density. Enters fructification for the 3rd year. Shoots are straight, dark red, naked. The leaves are broad, rounded or ovate, short-pointed, dark green, smooth, shiny, with cityy margin.
Fruits are round, with yellow-orange basic and red-pink top color, with weak pubescence, with an average weight of 15 grams. The flesh is orange, tender, juicy, melting, sweet-sour taste. The fruit contains: dry matter 17.8%, acid 1.7%, sugar 8.5%. Tasting score 4 points. Fruits of a grade are suitable for the fresh use, and quality jam and compotes. The quality is good.
Average yield 30 kg / ha. Productivity is average, but stable. Grafted plants enter fruiting for 3-4 years after vaccination.
The variety of apricots Tsarsky was included in the State Register for the Central Region in 2004.
Apricot Black Velvet, description, photo
A variety of medium ripening, winter-hardy, versatile. The tree is of medium vigor. The crown is flat-rounded, medium density.
Fruits of medium size - 30 g, dark purple, pubescent. The flesh is yellow, pink in the skin, medium density, juicy, sweet-sour, fragrant, very good taste. Stone of medium size, separated. Fruits ripen at the end of July, transportable, suitable for fresh consumption and very good for canning.
The variety is partially self-fertile. Winter hardiness is high, at the level of winter-hardy varieties of cherry plum. Drought resistance is average. Resistant to moniliosis, klyasterosporioz, bacteriosis, cytosporosis.
The merits of the variety: high quality fruit, productivity, adaptability.
disadvantages: insufficiently large fruits.
Apricot variety Black velvet is included in the State Register for the North Caucasus region.
Apricot Triumph North, photo
Obtained from the crossing of the famous old southern variety Krasnoshchy and the seedling of the Trans-Baikal apricot Northern Early. Author A.N. Venyaminov. It was zoned in the south of the Central Black Earth Zone.
Tree vigorous, spreading crown. The branch is average. Skeletal branches are thick, depart at an angle of 45 degrees or more. The leaves are large with a spike.
Apricots are round-oval. The average weight of the fruit is 55 grams. Peel pubescent, medium thickness, sour. The color at full maturity is yellow-orange with a shadow on the dark side. Cover color in the form of a solid blurred or deep red thick blush. The flesh is orange, juicy, tender, melting, pleasant sweet taste. The core of the bone is sweet. The variety is suitable for fresh consumption.
Apricots of this variety ripen in late July - early August. The first fruiting comes on the 4th year of the tree life in the garden. Intensively picks up the harvest.
Productivity of apricot Triumph North: up to 64 kg of fruit from 1 tree.
Winter hardiness of wood is high; flower buds are medium. Resistant to diseases.
Apricot variety Triumph of the North is not included in the State Register of the Russian Federation.
If you grow any of these varieties of apricots, please write what their characteristics are important to you most. What is the yield from 1 tree in your conditions?
Your feedback on apricot varieties will help many amateur gardeners plant the best varieties of seedlings on their site.
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Varieties and varieties
Yellowberry, Zherdel, Morel - common names for apricot. His homeland is considered to be China, Greece and Armenia. And carry the fruit tree to the genus Plum family Pink. The height of the apricot can reach 8 m. The leaves are petiolate, rounded, ovate, about 6–9 cm long. The flowers are sessile, solitary. They bloom before the leaves appear. Apricot flowering lasts from March to April, and from June to August the fruits of yellow color ripen.
About 44 varieties of apricots are cultivated in Russia, but not many of them are resistant to frost.
- Apricot "Red-cheeked" - frost-resistant samoplodny grade, vigorous tree. Begins to bear fruit at 3-4 years of age. Fruits are large bright orange with red barrels. Does not require pollination by other varieties. Perfect for cooking compote, dried fruit and marshmallow.
- Apricot "Black Prince" - fruit tree, a hybrid of cherry plum and apricot. Pretty rare variety. Relatively cold-resistant species, therefore, requires careful shelter before hibernation. For the same reason, the fruits are removed from the tree immature. The fruit of the “Black Prince” differs from the rest of the apricots in its unusual color and spicy tart taste. Ideal for making jam.
- Apricot "Lel" - low tree, up to 3 m in height. Fruiting begins at 3-4 years after vaccination. It tolerates frost, bears fruit regularly, yields are average. Fruits are small, orange without pubescence. They have the perfect combination of sugar and a little sourness. Suitable for preparations for the winter as compotes and preserves.
- Apricot "Tsarsky" - A great choice for landing on the garden in the suburbs. Fruiting begins from 3-4 years after grafting a tree on different types of shoots. Cold-resistant look. The fruits are small, oblong shape. The color is bright orange, sometimes with a slight blush. The flesh is juicy, sweet and sour. Use both in fresh form, and as desserts and preparations for the winter.
- Apricot "Triumph of the North" - A hybrid of apricot "Krasnoshcheshky" and "Northern Early". A vigorous fruit tree. Fruits in 4 years of life. Fruits are large with juicy pulp. Can be consumed fresh. Winter hardy Resistant to diseases.
Planting and care
For planting apricot you need to choose a good place, it should not be in the lowland, where cold air accumulates. Culture loves potassium-rich soils and does not tolerate strong winds. And the best time of year for planting is spring.
Council Choose for planting varieties suitable for your region.
The soil must have good breathability so that the roots can breathe. To do this, periodically you need to loosen the soil. A pit for apricot is prepared in the fall. In terms of dimensions, it should be at least half a meter in basic parameters. It is believed that the poorer the soil, the deeper the pit should drip. At the bottom of the pit lay drainage, and on top of the soil, mixed with humus, potassium salt, lime and superphosphate.
As for watering, it should be moderate. The tree does not tolerate even short-term flooding. During the season, it is watered three times: the first - in the middle of spring, the second - at the end of May and the third - a few weeks before the fruit ripens. And one more watering is required in the fall when preparing the tree for wintering.
Pruning fruit tree is made annually. In the spring, branches frozen after winter are removed. It is in springtime that pruning is considered the most effective, since the circulation of juices awakens dormant buds. In the summer pruning done in late August. In the autumn it is carried out in order to prepare for the winter and increase the winter hardiness of the tree.
Mature trees can tolerate very cold temperatures. The preparation of their winter consists in wrapping the trunk with sacking and hilling the near-forest zone with snow. Young seedlings require more careful care. Необходимо соорудить небольшую конструкцию из деревянных колышков и обтянуть ее пленкой, а сверху присыпать землей.
Удобрение и подкормка
В первые пять лет жизни дерева допускается внесение удобрений в приствольную зону. С каждым годом охват почвы для удобрения следует увеличивать. В весенний период почву удобряют 4 кг перегноя, смешав их с 6 г азота, 5 г фосфора, 8 г калия на каждый 1 кв. m
For good yield apricot is extremely necessary mineral supplements:
- for 2–3 years after planting, 0.06 kg of ammonium nitrate, 0.04 kg of potassium chloride and 0.13 kg of superphosphate must be added,
- on the 4–5th year - 0.1 kg of ammonium nitrate, 0.06 kg of potassium chloride and 0.2 kg of superphosphate,
- 6–8th — 0.21 kg of ammonium nitrate, 0.14 kg of potassium chloride and 0.31 kg of superphosphate.
Further annually 0.37 kg of ammonium nitrate, 0.25 kg of potassium chloride and 0.88 kg of superphosphate are added.
Reproduction of apricot is produced by grafting, vegetatively (grafting) or grown from seeds.
The latter option is used to produce new varieties of fruit tree. Apricots grown from the stone, have a high survival rate and frost resistance.
- For planting, seeds are taken from ripe, even overripe fruits.
- Then conduct a test on the quality of the bones. To do this, put them in a container with water. Those bones that float, are unsuitable for landing.
- With the remaining bones, the same test is performed again in a month, since they can dry out over time.
- Next, you need to carry out the stratification procedure based on temperature changes. It will help the seeds to adapt to the Russian climate.
- Seeds should be planted in a pot and wait for germination. After the seedlings get stronger they can be planted in the ground, taking into account all the requirements of planting this fruit tree.
Attention! Surprisingly, apricot seeds can germinate only in a cool place. The duration of stratification is on average about three months.
Cuttings - extremely inefficient method of reproduction. Tree cuttings do not root, and green give a slight result. Meanwhile, a tree grown in this way has low viability.
Graft - The most popular method of propagation of apricot. It survives well on plum, cherry, peach, etc. seedlings. Good results can be achieved by planting cuttings with improved copulation and under the bark. They give the highest percentage of survival. The best time for these manipulations is the beginning of May.
Diseases and pests
Among the diseases that affect apricot, you can highlight moniliosis, Valsa fungus, bacterial spotting, verticillis, cytosporosis, perforated spotting, as well as comedate. Methods of dealing with them are different. Be sure to remove the affected leaves as well as the fruit. Treat wood with copper sulphate, Bordeaux mixture and other fungicidal agents.
Of insects, the aphid, the stem and the leaf-worm can become a thunderstorm for apricot. Herbal infusions and insecticides will help to get rid of them.
The area of use of apricot is not limited to cooking. Despite the fact that delicious compotes, jams, jams, marshmallow, apricot and dried apricots (dried) are prepared from it, apricot is also used in cosmetology. It is part of various creams and masks, and oil is extracted from the stone or ground to be added to the scrub.
Apricot is one of the most delicious summer delicacies. Juicy and ripe flesh, an unusual taste from sugar-sweet to sour - so characterize this healthy fruit. It is rich in vitamins and amino acids.
Apricot is an excellent option to combat anemia, it improves the cardiovascular and hematopoietic system. It improves vision and improves immunity, activates the brain and helps to eliminate cholesterol.