Rhizome irises prefer a well-lit area where they will bloom for a long time and beautifully. For free distribution of roots irises need space - not less than half a meter from each other. All species love loose, nutrient rich and oily soil. Planting irises in the spring in the soil is carried out after compost and potassium phosphate fertilizers have been introduced. Manure is not recommended.
The soil moisture for each variety needs its own:
- bearded iris is better to plant like a fan on the slopes, so that there is a good outflow of rain and melt water,
- Siberian Iris and Marsh Iris are best grown where they are always damp - in reservoirs and in partial shade.
The plot for irises is digged up, treated with fungicides, against harmful insects, and herbicides to reduce weed growth. For rhizome irises preferred soil with a neutral environment. If the soil is with high acidity, it should be mixed with ash, lime or chalk. When planting, the upper kidney remains on the ground surface; it is not buried.
Rhizome varieties - how to plant irises in the spring:
- A hole is dug under the root, in the center of which a small mound is piled.
- The central root should be located on the knoll, and the lateral roots should be distributed to the sides.
- The main rhizome is covered with earth, a layer of sand is superimposed on top, the earth is slightly compacted.
- Do not bury the roots too much; they should be close to the soil surface.
- Let the central kidney remain free from the earth - above its surface.
Experienced growers recommend spring and summer planting of irises in open ground. During the warm season, plants have time to fully take root in the soil, due to which they hibernate without loss and begin to bloom the following year.
Planting bulbous irises
Bulb irises - planting and care in the open field:
- Planting of bulbs is done in early spring or autumn before frost.
- The soil temperature for planting should not be below 10 °, otherwise the bulbs may freeze.
- A shallow trench is dug, the bulbs go deeper into the trench by 3-4 cm, no more.
- The overall depth of landing should be about 10-12 cm.
- The excavated soil is mixed with garden soil for feeding, river sand and pounded coal for drainage, with double superphosphate for growth.
- The prepared grooves are disinfected by spilling a solution of potassium permanganate and a growth stimulator to strengthen the roots.
- Iris bulbs are planted sprout up, not too deep, at a sufficient distance from each other - 15-20 cm.
- Top soil is filled up, which should be slightly tamped so that the bulbs do not climb to the surface.
- Repeated watering is needed only after 3-4 days.
Excessive root penetration harms the growth and development of irises, and the ground should not be heavy. Compost, peat and coarse sand are added to the soil to loosen.
Melkolukovichnye varieties of irises are not demanding on moisture. They are buried to three times the height of the bulb, their flowering begins as early as next spring.
Iris Care - Basics and Secrets
According to experienced gardeners, irises are strong and viable plants that grow well and bloom without fertilizing. However, in the third year of life, it is recommended to pamper the flower with a step-by-step complex top dressing - in spring, during budding and after flowering. In response to care, the plant will become stronger and stronger, it will grow faster and bloom more abundantly.
Irises - spring care:
- top dressing in the ratio 2: 1: 1 - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium,
- watering depending on the surrounding weather conditions.
During the budding period, the application of top-dressing should take place at a ratio of 3: 1: 3 - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. At the same time watering and spraying are carried out as needed. One month after the end of flowering, the application of a top-dressing in the ratio of 1: 1 is recommended - phosphorus plus potassium. In the autumn, before hibernation, you should apply a dry mineral fertilizer in a tablespoon, scattering it at each plant root.
Watering irises should be at the root of the complete drying of the land around the bush. After planting, the plant is watered only after three days.
Than to feed the irises in the spring:
- if there is a lack of minerals, then you should make a mineral dressing personally for each bush,
- In early spring, a complex nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus fertilizer for flowers is useful for the plant.
Prevention of diseases and pests includes sanitary pruning of dead plant parts, timely removal of wilted peduncles, regular spraying and showers, cleaning the beds from fallen leaves. In the open ground, planting irises weed by hand, carefully loosen the soil and watered as needed. Before winter, the rhizomes are covered with earth and covered, as they are located close to the surface itself and can freeze.
How and when to transplant irises
Irises can be planted in three ways - rhizomes, processes and grow from seeds. To get plants from seeds is the longest and most difficult way. In practice, it is much easier and faster to grow flowers by dividing the bush and shoots. At the same time, plants grown from rhizomes will bloom next year, and seed plants will have to wait another 2-3 years.
How and when to transplant irises:
- The best time for transplanting is early spring, that is, March-April, before flowering,
- flowers propagate by dividing rhizomes and sprouts.
Transplanting irises in the spring to another place is carried out using only healthy and strong plants that will quickly and easily become established. Rhizomes are removed from the ground and divided into parts so that each individual rosette has one leaf bud. Excess foliage should be trimmed. Before planting the roots for a few minutes immersed in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection. Dried rhizomes are planted in shallow trenches or small landing holes at a distance of 50-60 cm from each other.
In vegetative propagation, the iris should bloom at least once. After this, until the budding stage, young shoots can be taken from it. Root new plants should be in time from March to May in the shading place, creating greenhouse conditions. Full rooting can be observed after 2-3 weeks.
Irises can be grown from seeds. In the fall, seeds are sown in a pot with a sandy substrate, covering it with polyethylene or glass. By spring, the seeds germinate, they dive and planted in open ground. When to plant irises in the open ground in the spring? The optimal time to land in the ground is early spring, the month of March and April. By this time, young landings have grown up enough, will be able to quickly and fully take root in the ground.
Irises in landscape design
High decorative qualities of irises allow you to plant them on flowerbeds and mixborders, along fences, on flower beds and rockeries. An ideal place for them is on an elevation where there is no stagnation of moisture and there is no close adherence of groundwater. There are low-growing and high types of irises. Tall plants are usually tied up so that they do not break down and hold the bud well. Dwarf irises grow in a solid wall, they require periodic cutting and watering in dry weather.
Irises in landscape design photo:
Knowledge of the rules of planting and caring for irises in the open field will allow you to easily grow these plants in the garden. When you see an iris, you don’t want to rip it off at all, you want to admire it endlessly, inhaling the delicate and tender scent of a flower.
You can plant plants in spring, autumn and summer after flowering. It is only important to take into account that during the autumn planting they should have time to take root before the onset of frost, and in spring the soil should warm up enough. Planting irises is a simple matter, it is only important to choose the site where these plants will develop in the next 5-7 years.
All varieties are equally demanding on lighting! In the shade, they bloom poorly, and the bright midday sun can lead to wilting of delicate petals. Therefore, the best choice would be a moderately lit place where the sun warms up until lunch and at sunset. For planting tall irises, it is important to provide a windless area.
Bearded iris, Spuria and Japanese prefer areas protected from thawed snow and rainwater. But the Siberian and marsh species like to settle near water bodies, on more humid soils. But be that as it may, all varieties love a rich, nutritious and slightly acidic environment. Therefore, 1-2 weeks before planting, the composition of the soil can be adjusted so that the plants will settle down better.
It is better to dilute dry and poor soil with leaf humus, compost, humus, heavy clay soils need to be loosened with sand, sawdust, and pine needles. An excessively acidic soil requires the addition of chalk, dolomite flour, or wood ash, and an excessively snapped acidified peat. How to find out the acidity of the soil? Also, regardless of the quality of the soil, will be beneficial trace elements - phosphorus and potassium, which contribute to flowering.
When planting iris roots placed in the hole horizontally. Moreover, it is important not to deepen the roots of a bearded iris, leaving them slightly out. Deep landing in this case provokes rotting! But bezborodye species require little burial, as the roots grow a little as they grow older. Before planting, the leaves are shortened by 2 3.
Between plants it is important to keep a distance of at least 50 cm, given that they actively proliferate. After planting, water the “recruits” by moistening the soil around each bush. Then the ground can be compacted and dried with dry grass.
Choosing a place
In order for irises to grow beautiful and healthy plants, they will need a well-prepared plot. It should be sunny, well-fertilized, not overwetted and inaccessible to strong winds.
Usually, an iris flower bed is raised by 15–20 cm and is biased towards the south in order to ensure the outflow of excess moisture.
Varieties and types
Bearded iris Gained wide popularity due to the presence of shaggy hairs on the petals. This type of iris comes in different sizes (dwarf, tall, dining, and others).
The important point in growing is that you need to plant this type of iris on the sand. To do this, pour sand onto the bottom of the prepared hole (in a small layer) and then spread it out, neatly distributing the rhizome. Landing should not be deep.
Siberian iris grows to a height of 80 cm, with flowers up to 10 cm, of various colors. The natural coloring of this species has many shades from blue to dark purple.
As for some hybrid varieties, there are:
- yellow with white edging (Battz & Shuga).
With all this diversity there is a significant disadvantage of this type - the fragrance is completely absent.
Japanese iris (its other name xiphoid) has large flowers (about 25 cm in diameter), which are most similar to orchid flowers.
Iris Evansia - one of the largest species (about one meter in height), drought-resistant and frost-resistant. The flowers are lacy, have a bright yellow center and a white (dark purple, blue-purple and others) border.
Iris marsh A clear difference from other species is the fact that this iris grows only in moist soil. For this reason, most often it is used for decorating reservoirs.
Dwarf Iris - reaches only 15 cm tall, has wide leaves and yellow or purple flowers.
Dutch irises (xyphylum) - hybrid variety, first bred in Holland. Grow to a height of no more than 50-60 cm. The flowers have different shades of petals: white, yellow, orange, blue and purple.
Winter-hardy, but during severe winters requires additional shelter. Often this type of iris is used to cut, forming bouquets.
Iris spuria - a very interesting flower, which, in Latin, “spuria” means “false”. Received its name for the external similarity with the Dutch irises.
The main advantage is that the flowering period is longer (several weeks). The period of "life" of one flower week.
Iris planting and care in the open field
Irises are light-loving plants, so the location on well-lit terrain is the key to long and variegated flowering.
During the landing should take into account the fact that the irises are able to move. So in one year they can move a few centimeters away from the original location. Therefore, planting is carried out not standardly (in a row), but with a fan of leaves along a row. Planting conditions for each species are different.
So, for example, planting bearded irises stands on that piece of land where there is good light in the first half of the day, it’s better if it is a slope or elevation (for melt water outflow) and drainage. As for the marsh and Siberian irises, then love to keep the soil moist.
But at the same time, all species love rich soil, therefore, if necessary, in the spring, before planting, compost is applied (do not use manure) and potash-phosphate fertilizers. If the soil is acidic, you can add a little chalk or wood ash. And surely, before planting it is necessary to treat the area with herbicides and moisten with fungicide (for disinfection).
Watering the plant is only after the complete drying of the soil around the bush. If there is a possibility that groundwater flows close to the surface, then it is worth taking care of the drainage in advance.
The first watering is carried out immediately after planting, and the next - no earlier than three days.
Top dressing irises in spring
For lush flowering and good growth, irises, like all plants, require fertilizing and fertilizer. However, do not use manure, irises from it will start to hurt.
For fertilizing, you should use complex mineral fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. It is necessary to scatter it around the bushes in the spring after the irises begin to grow. After that, the ground should be watered to accelerate the dissolution of the granules.
Also do not forget that an oversupply of fertilizers is also very harmful for plants, as well as their disadvantage; it is better not to feed them a little as with irrigation than to overfeed. Some of the gardeners may argue: why feed and tinker with irises, because they will bloom without it. But with this you can argue.
For a dozen years of growing irises, there were periods when top dressing was not carried out at all for about three years in a row - and the difference was very noticeable. If fertilizers are used, irises bloom more abundantly and much more luxuriantly, the flowers are brighter and larger, the leaves are healthy and glossy, and the peduncles are strong enough that even with strong wind they do not break, which do not require tying at all.
But the main thing with this - the growth of such bushes, is much faster. For these reasons, the answer to the question of whether to feed or not is unequivocal - to feed, but with the mind and in moderation. I have already developed a scheme for dressing with a complex of micro and macro elements once a season before the beginning of the flowering period. In my irises I notice that they like it, they grow very quickly and bloom gorgeous.
Preparing irises for winter
Because of the characteristic feature of the irises, which consists in the fact that their root system grows horizontally, sometimes their roots become bare above the surface, so in the winter they need to be sprinkled with additional soil and peat, otherwise they will freeze. In the spring, this layer of soil is carefully removed.
Irises are categorically not suitable for leaves, straw, corn stalks as a covering material or any other materials under which the irises can rot out. For shelter is better to use the ground. Place a handful of soil in the middle of the bush in order to cover the bare rhizomes.
When snow falls, it can also be used as a shelter, additionally sprinkling it on the landing of irises. And in the spring, after the soil dries, the excess soil should be carefully distributed around the bushes. And yet, in the matter of shelter irises for the winter period, it is impossible to give definitive advice for all gardeners.
Since, in the cultivation of irises in the southern regions, you can completely do without shelter for the winter period, but in the east and north of Russia, some varieties simply need a preventive shelter.
Reproduction of irises
There are three ways of reproduction of irises - seeds, sprouts or rhizome.
In this case, the main difference between these methods is that flowering of iris seeds grown from seeds should be expected only in the second or third year, and flowers grown from rhizomes will bloom in the first year.
Vegetative reproduction of iris
For propagation by sprouts, it is necessary to wait for at least one flowering plant, only after that you can safely use young shoots. In this case, they should be cut before the buds appear.
Rooting is carried out by planting in the ground in the shade, creating a greenhouse. If necessary, further spray. After 2-3 weeks, one can observe complete rooting.
Iris growing from seed
After flowering, collect dried ovaries. Их можно хранит в коробочках, в темном и сухом месте. Осенью подготовленные семена высаживают в горшки с песчаным субстратом и накрываются стеклом или полиэтиленом (создать парник). Ближе к весне сеянцы дадут всходы, их необходимо прореживать.
Высаживается молодняк, только после того как он достаточно подрос, чтобы было удобно садить. It is worth noting that this method can only reproduce species irises, but with varietal, problems may arise with the preservation of maternal characteristics.
Diseases and pests
- If the flower is affected by any kind of rot (for example, Fusarium), then the affected specimen is immediately removed from the site, the well, where it was located, is treated with a 2% solution of foundation. The same preparation can process the rhizome and before planting, as a preventive measure.
- Known pests affecting iris - this scoopsthat eat away the base of flower stalks, as a result of which they turn yellow and die.
- Another of the parasites are thrips. They settle in the leaves, disrupting photosynthesis (become brown and dry up), and the buds are deformed and lose the brightness of colors. It can occur in a dry summer, due to lack of moisture. Control measures are karbofos.
- Also iris is affected slugs. A simple way to combat them is to: spread wet rags or wet burdock leaves around the bushes, wait for slugs to gather on them (they use them as shelter), then collect them and destroy them.
Bacteriosis or soft rot of iris rhizomes
One of the most dangerous diseases that affects irises is soft, bacterial, rhizome rot. The plant dies with a high degree of infection.
The signs of this disease are leaf decay at the base of the rhizomes, while the leaves remain green and just fall out with whole fans. The rhizomes themselves inside turn into fetid slush. Affected bushes should be completely dug out, cut out all damaged areas, reaching a healthy tissue, each time you should disinfect the cutting tool.
Bushes divide, sprinkle with a crushed coal the places of cuts, and then spread them out in the sun to the top of the rhizomes for one or two days, for a good warming up. We should not be afraid that the irises will dry up. Such procedures are a way of salvation for diseased plants. After that, delenki that have dried up and warmed up, transplanted to a new site, and watered.
The land in the contaminated area is disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate, and the contaminated material is burned. With a moderate defeat of the rhizomes in time noticed the disease, it is possible to save the irises in almost a hundred percent of cases.
Rust stain irises
In spring and summer periods, iris leaves may appear. rust stainsthat grow over time, causing a gradual drying of the leaves. Particularly rapid spread of these spots occurs at high humidity.
For the prevention of leaf spotting, irises should be treated with fungicides, in the spring period at the very beginning of intensive plant growth, with a mandatory repetition in ten to fourteen days to consolidate the results.
And at the beginning of the flowering period, control treatment is carried out. It should be taken into account that the solutions of the drugs on the leaflets are poorly maintained, for this reason, special adhesives should be added.
Irises are common almost everywhere, as they are unpretentious and are therefore particularly popular among flower lovers. This plant is mentioned in many ancient legends, myths, tales and omens. The flower is a symbol of hope and trust, a friendly disposition and strong bonds.
Today, irises are grown not only as a garden decoration, they are also used in the production of confectionery (there is even jam from iris flowers), as well as in perfumery and in medicine.
On the features of the plant, the rules of caring for him to talk below. Tell about the colors that look like irises.
About the name and meaning of iris
The legendary flower, as noted above, was named in honor of Iris, the Greek goddess of the rainbow. The reason for this comparison is that this plant is found with a variety of flower colors. There are many varieties that combine several shades. Iris has two more popular names: Cockerel and Iris.
The meaning of the name of an iris flower is unique and interesting. Known plant for more than 1000 years. In those ancient times, the flower was a popular heraldic sign, but later it was replaced by lily. This could happen due to the fact that the name of these plants is consonant (the iris is also called “saber lily”).
In addition, the hieroglyphs corresponding to the phrase “military spirit” and the word “iris” in Japanese have the same spelling. Therefore, people in Japan believe that a bouquet with irises can awaken all the best qualities of men.
Iris in the language of flowers means purity, impeccability and grandeur.
Iris flower a bit like an orchid. He has beautiful and delicate buds, fascinating with their colors. The iris plant is a perennial crop. Its peculiarity is that the root system is located in the upper layer of the soil. Stems iris simple and branched, can grow singly and beams, depending on the variety.
Flat leaves are xiphoid, gathering at the base of the stem. The coronoid perianth has the form of a tube with a six-fold bend. At the base of the flower, the petals are collected in a tube, where nectar is located. The flowering time of the plant depends on the place of growth. For example, in central Russia, the iris blooms from late May to July. Irises spread over the territories of almost all continents. They are not present only where severe drought prevails and where it is very cold.
There are plants with red, blue, yellow, purple, pink and other flowers. Virtually all species in the middle part of the petals stand out a peculiar beautiful pattern, which differs in color from the main color.
Iris is a generic name for several plants with different types of root system: bulbous and rhizomatous. It should be noted that the onion and rhizome are not roots. These are simply thickened shoots.
At present, there is no generally accepted classification of plants of the genus Iris. Therefore, in Russia only plants with rhizomatous root system are considered to be true irises, whereas in the world, on the contrary, bulbous irises are recognized as such.
Despite the presented differences in the root system, a fairly clear general description can be given for these plants. The flower, located on the annual flower stalk, single and large, exudes a strong aroma. It consists of six petals arranged in two tiers: the outer three petals (fouls) are curved outwardly, and the inner ones (standards) are raised upwards and look like a dome. Thin flat leaves have some waxy coating.
Irises rhizomatous divided into 2 large groups, called bearded and not bearded. All of them tolerate the cold winter of Russia.
Onion irises are also divided into several groups: Juno, iridodictium and Xirium. In turn, the xypium genus includes six species, which are quite widely used in breeding. Thanks to the work of breeders, today irises are represented by a huge variety of varieties: Spanish, Dutch, English hybrid onion irises and many others.
Many varieties of this plant can re-bloom in the fall. It should be noted that only 2-3 years after planting the plant reveals all the pomp and beauty of irises.
Growing these flowers on the plot is not very difficult, but there are some special features. Prefer irises light soils with an alkaline reaction. They may not bloom in acidic soils, but in them flowers quickly and well develop a leaf apparatus. To neutralize acidic soils, you can add a little lime or ash.
If necessary, fertilizers are applied about 10 days before planting. For iris, lean soil is better suited than over-fertilized. From the excess of the last plant can die. Thus, in terms of applying organic fertilizers (for example, manure), care is not so difficult. Iris flower can be fed mineral mixtures.
It should be noted that another reason for the lack of flowering may be planting plants in the shade. Flowers are light-requiring. There are, of course, among rhizomatous irises of a plant that blooms in the partial shade of trees. However, not a single bulbous variety likes shading. In addition, the closeness and great depth of finding the roots of a plant can also cause some problems when growing.
Planting rhizomatous irises
Flowers irises immediately after planting must be watered, but with the next watering is not necessary to hurry. This should be done as soon as the root soil is completely dry. Waterlogging is one of the causes of iris death. If there is a close location of groundwater, it is necessary to slightly raise the area and make a drainage.
Rhizome species of plants can be planted in open ground in August, bulbous - in September (in central Russia) and in October (in the southern regions). If necessary, they can be planted in the spring, but for this, planting material should be processed with a growth stimulator and very long and rotting roots should be removed. For disinfection they can be held in potassium permanganate. But, most likely, the flowers planted in the spring, will not bloom in the year of planting.
How to grow iris flowers from seeds? The method is very simple, but it has some subtleties. You can plant seeds in autumn - in September. This method allows the seeds to go through natural preparation. In spring, the first shoots appear. However, it should be remembered that the irises, planted in the fall, can germinate until the cold weather, and subsequent frost can kill these shoots. In this regard, the best way to grow seeds - planting in the spring. But this method is more laborious.
First you need to prepare the seeds. To do this, in early February, you should wrap them with a damp cloth and until March, keep them in this state in a cold place (you can in the refrigerator). Then, in early March, land in a container with soil, and transplanted into open ground in May.
Iris in the house
Are there any homemade irises? Dwarf flowers and some bulbous varieties can be planted at home.
At the end of the summer, the roots of the plants should be transplanted in containers, watered and put in a cool place, periodically watering as the soil dries. The composition of the soil: peat, humus and sand. In January, irises should be put on the windowsill on the south side of the house. For home flowers, watering should also be moderate, and water should not be allowed to stand. Under favorable conditions and proper care, the flower may bloom in a month. Feed the plants with a mineral mixture once every two weeks. And after flowering it should be watered for some time, and at the end of spring you can already land in open ground.
There is one magnificent houseplant - neomarika. It belongs to the family of Iris. In nature, it grows along the coast of Africa (western) and in South America. Outwardly, it is a fairly voluminous bush, covered with fragrant and delicate flowers. He has other names: devil's paw, apostolic iris. Iris-like flowers in the wild are common.
Value in medicine
The iris flower is of great importance in folk medicine. For therapeutic purposes, mainly used its root, which has a rich chemical composition.
Infusions prepared from rhizome are applied internally for bronchitis, severe coughing, pneumonia, diseases of the bladder and kidneys, dropsy, constipation, pain in the stomach and poisoning. Apply it externally - it is a rinse with inflammation of the mouth and throat, with tonsillitis, sore throat, stomatitis.
Flowers that look like irises
There are several wild-growing and cultivated species, similar to irises in the form of leaves and in the shape of their inflorescences.
Here are some of them:
- Iris water,
- snapdragon (some breeding varieties),
- cuckoo's tears.
Iris-like flowers are easily confused with them.
Absolutely all the reviews of gardeners who grow irises on their backyard plots boil down to one thing - these flowers are one of the most beloved for them. Why? There are several reasons for this:
- flower iris care requires minimal
- minimum need of moisture
- do not allow weeds to sprout between them,
- do not require special care,
- you can sit down every 6-7 years.
These are ideal plants for even the laziest gardeners.
Types of irises
The name of the flower is translated as rainbow. The ancient Greeks so called the messenger of the thunderer Zeus and his wife Hera. Irida appeared from behind a cloud after rain, descended to the ground along an air arch, which was iridescent with colors of the solar spectrum. The richness of iris shades is a gift from the Gods, it is impossible not to notice. Hippocrates, who gave the name of the flower, was clearly certain of this. Karl Linney - the founder of the classification of plants, did not change his name. Followers of botany counted all the irises of the planet, they turned out more than 200 species.
All irises are classified, divided into 2 groups. On the outer petals of a flower may or may not be a beard. Therefore, there are irises:
Most garden varieties have a beard. Siberian irises belong to the underbordered group. Its representatives are more in nature. All varieties and hybrids of Siberian irises were derived from the following species:
- Siberian iris,
- Iris is blood red,
- iris rogozolistny.
Siberian irises can be cultivated both in central Russia and in its northern part. This species is considered unique because it can be grown throughout the country. In the south, as well as in the north, where the summer is short and the winters are frosty, they feel equally comfortable, look elegant, bloom beautifully. Siberian iris has bright, expressive leaves, it forms many flowers, which is ideal for a gardener.
This is a light-requiring culture, so it’s better grow in outdoor, sunlit garden areas. This is especially true of the middle belt and the north. In the south, light-loving irises can get burned if planted in a sunny place.. It is better if the light will fall on them in the morning and evening hours. Siberian irises will grow even in thick shadow, but they will not be able to bloom. Therefore, the less light the plants receive, the less often and later they will bloom.
The plant is resistant to winds and drafts. Therefore, you can choose a windy place in the garden, where other flowers can not grow.
Almost any land will be suitable for growing iris sibirica, since deficiencies in the conditions can be compensated by careful maintenance. The only thing that will not fit perfectly - it is very poor, extremely acidic or alkaline soil. Even dry, dry, constantly marshy land will be suitable for growing this plant, if quality care is made with improvement of its characteristics.
The Siberian iris feels more comfortable on a sufficiently dense, well-retaining soil. However, it must be of high quality and processed, neutral or slightly acidic. An excellent option would be loams with a high proportion of humus. The plant iris sibirica grows well and shows its beauty in flower beds and mixborders.
However, they show their best qualities in areas unfavorable to other irises. For example, they can be seen blooming in a lowland with high soil moisture and even small flooding, which are permissible only in spring and summer. Grow well also in the hills and windy areas.
Marshy and constantly wet soils can be straightened by laying high-quality drainage. Very dry areas can be wetted and kept moist. Sandy are corrected by adding clay and organic fertilizers. In addition, the iris sibirica themselves have a disinfecting effect on the soil, having a beneficial effect on it, improving its characteristics.
Siberian Iris: planting and care
Before planting Siberian irises, it is necessary to dig up the soil and correct its characteristics. During this procedure, you need to carefully review the roots and remove weeds. Siberian irises are planted at a distance of 60 centimeters or more from each other. Plants every year grow lush curtain, ten years later capable of reaching two-meter volume. When buying, specify information regarding the distance that must be observed in relation to other colors of the garden. Since this group includes varieties with a fast growth rate, as well as hybrids, which occupy less space on the plot, as they grow slowly.
Landing Iris is pretty simple. Rhizomes are dug into the soil so that there is still 5 cm of earth above them. The holes for planting are dug out separately, their size should be according to the parameters of the root. Rhizome set carefully so as not to bend the roots when planting. Upon completion of work, the soil is mulched with peat, grass, compost.
Siberian irises will decorate the garden, even without minimal care, but will respond to the care of abundant flowering and leaf beauty. So, on one plant can form up to 200 flowers. These iris are very fond of feeding, which increase many times the number of peduncles. It is advisable to use fertilizers "sour" - ammonium nitrate or potash, for example.
Top dressing should be made twice a year: immediately after the snow melts in early spring and before flowering, when peduncles form. Если не уложились в сроки, лучше отложить подкормку, пока растения не отцветут.
Растения iris любят, когда их корневища остаются прохладными. Поэтому нужно следить, чтобы постоянно присутствовал мульчирующий слой. Каждый год для сохранения уровня заглубления корневищ необходимо подсыпать на них землю. Поливают по мере необходимости, с тем чтобы поддержать легкую влажность и в период засухи. Последняя не представляет угрозу для растения, но на поливы при цветении касатик откликнется с благодарностью.Do not worry because of the fact that the garden will have a lot of care. Siberian irises like when they are abundantly soaked with deep soil they are watered, but they do it rarely.
The iris plant is pruned. It is necessary to remove flower stalks, and before leaving for sleep, that is, in late autumn, the leaves are cut off. Pruning is carried out when severe colds have appeared, when the process of budding is stopped, and the breath of winter has appeared on the leaves. The leaves are pruned at a height of 10 to 15 cm. If you are not sure of the timing, pruning can be done in early spring before the first feeding.
Reproduction of Siberian irises
This group of iris breeds in only one way - separation of an adult plant. The procedure is carried out, digging up the roots, in a period of complete rest, which occurs after flowering, a month later or a little more. Transplantation and separation of the bush is carried out from mid-August to early autumn, if the weather permits, even until November.
The separation procedure is quite simple and on the shoulder of a novice gardener. The clump of the leaves is cut to 1/3 of the height, then the rhizome with a large earthy clod is dug. Rhizome inspect and schedule future delenki, in each you need to leave 3-8 fans.
Using a sharp knife or scapula, parts are carefully separated from the main plant and quickly transferred to the selected location. Irises can withstand the drying of rhizomes, but before planting it is necessary to soak them in water so that the tissues recover completely. Pre-soaking spend several hours, in some cases, this time increases to 2-4 days.
Siberian irises are one of the most durable plants of the family. The beauty of flowering does not disappear, the decorative leaves are not lost for decades, they do not need constant rejuvenation and transplants. They Feel great in one place on condition of free soil for increasing volume. They also need at least minimal care to please the owners with their flowering without getting tired for 20-30 years.
Flower garden decoration
Siberian irises - a beautiful garden decoration. They are planted:
- In the middle of a flower bed or in the background of a mixborder. The varieties that form flower stalks above a meter with a flower of a classical form with petals bent down are suitable. Hohenflug variety has a high stem (1.6 m), blooms with dark blue flowers with wide petals. Foreground draw varieties with open cupped flowers.
- Near the reservoir. The graceful narrow leaves are perfectly combined with the coastal vegetation, the flowers resemble moths that have flown out of the grass, which have picturesquely reflected in the water. Irises are planted on the shore, where, being reflected in the water, they increase their beauty.
- Groups on the lawn. After flowering, the stems can not be cut off, then the spectacular boxes are formed, which attract the eye to the picturesque plants in the middle of summer and autumn. To facilitate the care of Siberian irises, make curb tape, which protect other planted crops from the lawn. Also, mulch the soil around the bushes.
- Rockery. In large, you can put a group of data plants iris. In small rockeries, separate copies are used for the placement of vertical accents. You can plant miniature varieties such as Summerchase Advent, Baby Sister, Annick. It is worth considering that dwarf varieties, after a few years, can begin to grow and become high. To prevent this, they need to be shared frequently.
Thus, the Siberian iris is an unpretentious plant that can grow on almost any soil with minimal care to bloom profusely and for a long time.
Timing for landing
It is best to plant and transplant irises immediately after flowering. Just at this time, enhanced root growth begins, and the delenki are well accustomed. On average, this period falls around the beginning of July.
Autumn planting delenok held in September and October, before the onset of frost. If necessary, you can postpone the planting of rhizomes of the week for 2, while delenki store in a cool dry place, without wrapping in a damp cloth or polyethylene.
In bulbous varieties of irises, bulbs are dug up immediately after flowering. Onions are washed with a 0.2% solution of potassium permanganate or special solutions, dried at a temperature of 22-25 degrees, and stored until autumn. After flowering, it is also possible to close the flowerbed until autumn with polyethylene so that the rain does not get wet.
It is best to plant the bulbs in late September - early October.
How and from what to make drainage for flowers, read here.
Chestnut - planting, care and cultivation on the site.
Before planting, they dig up the soil with pitchforks and choose weed roots. Then saturated with mineral or organic fertilizers a week before planting.
If the soil is fertilized with manure, it is advisable to plant irises there not earlier than in a year.
Some clay is added to sandy soils and fertilized with organic matter.
In that case, if the soil is acidic (oversaturated with nitrogen), the leaves of the plants will grow powerful, but the flowers will not give the iris. Such a soil is neutralized by the addition of chalk or ash.
The place for planting irises should be sunny and windless, and the soil should be fertile and moderately moist.
Root varieties of irises are propagated by delenki. They are parts of rhizomes with a diameter of 1-2 cm, with flower buds, roots 7-10 cm long, and a bunch of leaves, cut to 1/3. Rhizomes need to be planted superficially, not completely digging into the ground.
To make the heater better heated, it is placed with leaves to the north. In the middle of the landing fossa make a mound, which straighten the roots. Then the seedling lightly pressed, and covered with earth. At the same time, the leaf fan should remain upright.
Plant irises need at a distance of 20-40 cm from each other
Then the rhizomes are sprinkled with coarse clean sand, which protects them from the sun and will pass air. You can pour a little sand and under the rhizomes for the prevention of root rot.
The distance between adjacent rhizomes is 20-40 cm. The planted plant is watered and repeated watered after 3-5 days.
Onion irises are planted in pits with a depth equal to triple onion height. Sand is added to the ground, which is sprinkled with an onion, and the earth is loosely covered with a loose layer.
Future plants are located at a distance of two bulbs width from each other (for group planting), on average 10-15 cm. For single plants, this gap is extended to 30 cm.
How to plant bulbous irises, see the video:
And about planting, dividing and transplanting Germanic irises find out here:
Since most irises do not tolerate excess moisture, after each rain the soil needs to be loosened. However, during the formation of buds and in strong heat, they need periodic watering, but only in the evening.
Weeds in the beds with irises need to be plucked regularly, they weaken the plants.
It is possible to fertilize a bed with irises after the top soil layer dries.
A plot well prepared for planting in the summer period no longer needs feeding. But the growth of vegetative shoots and bookmark flower buds requires a lot of nutrients. At this time, the irises need to be fed so that good flowers appear next year.
For sod-podzolic or medium loamy soils, a triple fertilization with phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen will be required, based on 9-12 g per 1 m². For sandy soils, this dose is 15-18 g per 1m². It is important not to exceed the amount of nitrogen, otherwise the entire force of the plants will go to the leaves.
You can also buy fertilizer for irises in specialty stores, taking into account their varietal characteristics.
Pruning leaves from irises is carried out only before picking delenki or bulbs, as well as before transplanting. This is done in order to relieve the root system of the plant from which part of it was taken. Otherwise, the tips of the fan will dry.
You can cut the leaves of irises immediately before the onset of frost.
Mandatory pruning followed by burning the leaves and flower stalks is carried out only in diseased plants.
Pruning of iris leaves is done before transplanting and before the onset of frost.
If the fall of the iris rhizomes opened by autumn, they are covered with sand.
The plot with irises is not closed before the cold comes, otherwise they will rot. Rhizomes and bulbs are covered with a layer of foliage, sawdust, or fir fur twigs.
Lapnik is placed in such a way that in case of thawing of snow, the water flows not to the irises themselves, but to the side. The protective layer should be no more than 20 cm.
As soon as the snow begins to melt, the shelter is removed so that the water does not spoil the plants.
Preventive measures to combat pests begin as soon as the length of the leaves reaches 10 cm. For their spraying apply "Malathion" or universal types of toxic chemicals. The treatment is carried out every 10-14 days and stop when the buds appear.
In spring, butterfly caterpillars are dangerous for irises. They damage flower stalks and leaves. To prevent them from reaching the plants, granozan is added to the ground at the base of the irises.
Another pest - thrips - colonize the sinuses of the leaves. The leaves of such plants have a damaged wax coating. In this case, the irises are sprayed several times with Carbofos or Chlorofos in a ratio of 20-30 g to a bucket of water.
Beginning in mid-summer, especially after the rains, the leaves of the irises begin to eat slugs. To keep them out of the plants, they sprinkle superphosphate around the earth.
The common disease of irises is root rot. In this case, the sick plant has a fan of 3-5 leaves, instead of 7-10. Sick irises of flowers will not give, and therefore the rhizomes of such plants inspect, remove rotten areas and process with a strong solution of manganese. Then smeared with Novikov's liquid. Pre-cut can be dried under the sun to kill the causative agent of rot.
Rusty spots on the leaves of irises appear in the summer-autumn period. Diseased leaves are cut and burned, and the plants are sprayed with Bordeaux mixture.
We understand the types of garden lighting and types of street lamps to give in this article.
Planting and caring for a climbing rose - create a romantic atmosphere in the garden.
Root irises are divided into bearded and unbordered.
Bearded high irises have many species, and the most common among them is German iris. His popular varieties: Bewilderbeast, Baltic, Sea Acoma.
TO underared Irises include Siberian, Japanese, Chupria and marsh species. They include grades: Snow Queen, Imperial Opal, Nessa-No-Mai, Solveig, Vasiliy Alferov, Lemon Touch, Transfiguration, Stella Irene, Golden Queen, Flore Pleno.
Onion irises are divided into Xyphyum irises and Iridodictiums (reticular) irises. Among them are popular varieties: Blue Champion, Ideal, Symphony, Seafire Beauty, Yellow Queen, Juno Bukhara, Iridodictium Vinogradova, Cantab, Joyce, Katharina Hodgkin.