The number of the genus is small, and only a few species are cultivated in the culture, the most common of which are Tigridia peacock. This species comes from the central and southern regions of North America.
It is a bulbous perennial, growing to half a meter or slightly higher. Foliar xiphoid folded. From one healthy tuber, up to five flower stalks appear on each of which up to five buds can be formed.
The flower is six long-sided, large, multi-colored - the outer part of the perianth is usually purple with orange or deep red, the inner part is smaller, orange or, more often, spotty. Flowers appear and unfold in turn and thus bloom lasts for almost a month, although the life of one inflorescence is only 9 hours.
From this type of varieties are derived:
- Alta - inflorescences are white with red,
- Aurea - yellow carmine petals,
- Canariensis - the outer part of the flower is soft tones, and the inside is red,
- Lilacia - petals of a lilac shade with red and carmine impregnations.
Tigridia tubular The shoot of this species is shorter than that of the Peacock, besides, it branches well. Foliage is also smaller. Flowers delicate pink shade.
Tigridia Chess the name of the species speaks for itself - on the petals of this species the specks are placed in a checkerboard pattern.
Tigridia planting and care in the open field
Caring for tigridia is not particularly burdensome, but still the flower is quite exotic and its cultivation has its own nuances. Land for planting should be chosen well lit, not blown by drafts.
When grown in warm regions, where it is possible to carry out early planting, the shoots of the plants will be stronger and it will be possible to do without supports, provided there is a sufficient amount of sun and no blowing with the winds.
The soils are preferably light, loose, nutritious, with drainage, the reaction is neutral, acidic soils are not welcome. If the substrate is too heavy, for example, clay, then it is mixed with sand, pebbles. The rest of the care of the plant is similar to the care of gladioli.
In the warmer parts of the mainland, for example, in Ukraine, southern Russia and Belarus, planting can be carried out in the soil in late spring. The bulbs are fully deepened into the ground, and at least 15 cm is left between the individuals. After a month or so, sprouts will start to hatch. Bushes grow large, but will begin to bloom only at the end of summer.
If you are interested in how gladioli are grown during planting and care in the open field, as well as many other recommendations for the content of this plant, read here this article.
It is worth noting that when planted directly into the soil at the end of spring, new bulbs do not develop very high quality, so even when living in warm regions it may be advisable to plant in pots in advance.
In more northern regions, located at the level of St. Petersburg, it is better to carry out early planting (in early spring) in pots and grow them before the beginning of summer in greenhouses.
As a rule, tigridia bulbs are placed in pots in a mixture of peat, sand and sod land, 3 pieces each. They are watered a little, and when to sprout sprouts watering increase. Before transplanting to a flower bed, they are grown in normal room conditions. If you do not carry out such rearing, the shoots may begin to over-reach and you will have to tie them to the supports.
At the beginning of the summer, they are transplanted into open soil, often with a pot. It is advisable to put 30 cm of horse manure mixed with foliage into the wells before the procedure, and put up the same amount of soil, and then lower the pot with the plant.
Watering is carried out as the soil dries, the heat increases the amount of liquid. Water for irrigation should be warm and, preferably, carry out deep watering.
That is, to dig a piece of a tube with holes next to the plant and pour water into it. Strong watering is needed during flowering.
Fertilizer for tigridia
After planting, it is advisable to add a nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 35 g per 1 m 2. One month after planting, a full liquid mineral fertilizer is applied, the dose indicated on the package.
During budding it is not bad to add a nitrophore - 50 g per 10 liters of water for irrigation. The same solution can be sprayed on the leaves.
Tigridia in winter
With the flowers withering, the shoot is cut off. This is to ensure that the bulbs are better prepared for the subsequent wintering. If the stems are too high or fall, then do not forget to make supports for them.
After the first light frost, the green part of the bushes will die, after which it is cut, and the onions are dug out, gently peeling off a part of the ground, but a part is left - it will fall off later.
Their minimum of 30 days is dried in the room. After 10-15 days after you begin to dry the material, scrape off the remnants of the earth, cut off the roots, and cut the hemp stumps to 2 cm.
For storage in a dry room is best to take the sand. If the storage place is too wet, it is better to just hang the material in a nylon mesh.
In the spring before planting the tubers are divided. Do it for 4 days before planting, because the place where the bulbs pressed against one to one should dry out.
Tigridia seed rearing
In southern latitudes, where flowering begins in the middle of summer, you can collect tigridium seeds and propagate the plant with their help.
Sowing is carried out in the middle of winter, pre-stratification, that is, processing by low temperatures, is not required. Sowing is carried out in a mixture of sand with peat in the ratio of 1 to 1.
The substrate is not allowed to dry out, periodically easily watering it. Shoots begin to spit 10-20 days after sowing.
At the end of spring, seedlings can be planted in a flower bed, and by the autumn the bulbs obtained from young plants will already be suitable for further reproduction.
It was discussed above about how to collect, store the bulbs and carry out their planting, that is, about the vegetative method of reproduction.
Diseases and pests
Growing tigridia can be faced with various problems. Most often gardeners have to contend with bulbs rot in winter. In order to keep planting material better, it is treated with fungicidal preparations, for example, with a weak solution of foundationol.
Sometimes found rust damage. Wherein red spots appear on the foliage. To combat this fungus, sore spots are cut off and a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or similar fungicides is used.
No flowering It often happens when fertilizers with a high nitrogen content are applied on nutrient soils, and the foliage begins to grow strongly, and vice versa, it does not bloom.
Tigridia bulbs love to eat Bears. Hitting the root system of a plant, they destroy it. You can detect this pest by small piles of earth on the ground surface. Fighting them is best trapped with dung, honey or beer. Also, finding a nest can fill it with soap and water. If the pests are too much, then resort to chemicals.
Thrips feed on plant juices. This pest multiplies extremely quickly in warm weather, and in addition can affect many different plants. For a he leaves yellow dry spots on the foliagewhich soon dies and dries.
Because thrips bloom ends early. Struggling with this insect, laying out sticky paper around plants and using infusions of tobacco, celandine, insecticides.
Sometimes they attack a tigridia slugs. To combat them, it is enough to scatter lime or crushed eggshells around the plants. Also these pests can be collected manually.
Description of tigridia and its varieties
The name of the flower tigridia speaks of its exotic origin. In our country, this plant is not very popular, but in North America, which is the birthplace of the tigridia, it used to be even eaten. Due to the fact that the tubers contain a lot of starch, for the indigenous people they were a substitute for potatoes.
The flower got its unusual name due to the spotty coloring inside the petals. From Latin tigridia translates as "like a tiger." The outer petals can be of various colors: from white and soft pink to bright red and purple.
The height of tigridia reaches no more than 70 centimeters, and the flowers are about 8−10 centimeters in diameter. In one bush can be up to five stems, on which appears from one to three buds. It is possible to admire flowering only for 8 hours, after which the flower will immediately fade.
In total, more than 40 species of exotic plants are known, but for growing in flower beds and beds use the following types:
- Auer. Large flowers that stand out with bright yellow petals and a center of lilac saturated color.
- Alba White flowers with red spotted middle.
- Lilacia The base is in red speck, from which petals of lilac color are moving away.
- Carminea. The petals are bright orange with a yellow base, on which are many red and purple spots.
For growing in the garden most often choose mixed tigridia, a mixture of different species. Together they look bright and unusual.
Features of growing
Probably due to the short flowering period, the plant is not very popular. If you want to see unusual flowers with your own eyes, you need to create the most comfortable conditions for them. Tigridia actively grows and blooms on light soils that are not distinguished by strong acidity. She feels good on sandy or loamy soils, if they are pre-enriched with peat, compost and fertilizer.
You can see big beautiful buds, if you provide tigridia with enough sunlight. Plant native to the southern latitudes of North Americathat explains his love for the sun. Because of the thin and fragile stems for planting choose a place that is protected from gusts of wind and drafts.
Experienced growers recommend planting in groups: then the flowers will bloom in turns, and this will create the appearance of continuous flowering. For cultivation in open ground you can use:
For seed cultivation, work begins in February - March, sowing them into a container and gently pressing them into the ground 2–3 mm. As containers you can use small individual pots for seedlings with a mixture of sod land, sand and peat. The first shoots should appear in about three weeks.
In late spring or early summer, plants can be transplanted into open ground. The main thing is to pass the danger of frost. In the fall with each young plant you can get bulbs that are used in the future.
It is much easier to grow a flower using its bulbs. Planting in open ground is made only after the onset of heat. The most favorable time for this is the beginning of June. Small bulbs are placed in the ground to a depth of 5 centimeters. For more tubers, the depth should be from 10 centimeters. In order for flowers to develop well, the distance between them should not be less than 15 centimeters.
You can also take care of the germination of the bulbs in advance. To do this, in early April they are planted in boxes with loose soil and actively moistened, especially during the first week. Germinated onions planted in open ground in late spring. This method allows you to significantly accelerate the appearance of colors.
Despite its exoticism, tigridia is undemanding to care. She needs to ensure regular watering, timely fertilization and winterization.
The plant needs abundant watering.especially on hot summer days. At extreme temperatures, spraying the stems and leaflets is recommended. Water should be warm and defended. After the plant pleases with its magical flowers, it begins to be prepared for winter. For this, the number of waterings gradually reduced.
With the advent of the first leaves you need to make fertilizer. For active growth, it is recommended to give preference to mineral and organic fertilizers. The next time tigridia will need fertilization when the buds appear. Applying top dressing during this period will provide beautiful flowering.
Experienced growers periodically mulch and loosen the soil to preserve moisture. Do it after watering or rain. For mulching use peat or leafy humus.
After the flowers are completely withered, the shoots are cut. Before the first frosts, the bulbs should be in the soil and accumulate nutrients that will help to transfer the wintering easier. Since tigridia is very sensitive to cold, the bulbs are dug out for the winter and cleaned of the soil. After drying, they are placed in peat or sand tanks that are stored on a loggia or in another cool room. The main thing is that the ambient temperature does not rise above 10 degrees Celsius, but also does not fall below zero. The soil is periodically sprayed with warm water.
Features of tigridia
The height of the bush tigridia can vary from 0.3 to 0.7 m. This perennial bulbous bulb plant can have branched or simple shoots. Evenly folded greenish leaf plates have a xiphoid shape. At the tops of the arrows are single flowers, and they can also be collected in 2 or 3 pieces. The flowers have a bizarre shape, similar to an exotic butterfly. The fruit is a small box, inside which are squeezed, angular seeds.
What time to plant
Since onion tigridia extremely negatively react to frosts, they should be planted in open soil only after warm weather has established, as a rule, this time falls on the last weeks of spring or the first - summer. For planting should choose a sunny open area. It is possible to grow this culture in the penumbra, but in this case the flower stalks will become weak and thin, and therefore they will need a garter to the support. Also, the site should be protected from drafts and sudden gusts of wind, as they can injure the thin and weak shoots of this flower. Suitable soil should be loose, light, moderately moist, well drained and non-acidic. It is possible to correct excessively dense soil by adding sawdust or sand into it.
Immediately before planting, planting material for a couple of hours should be immersed in a solution of the drug Maxim (2 milligrams per 1 liter of water). The bulbs treated in this way will be protected from fusarium, white and gray rot and other diseases. How deep the bulbs depend on is their size. For example, the smallest onion need to be planted to a depth of about 50 mm, and the largest buried in the soil by 100 mm. Between the onions in a row should observe a distance of not less than 15 centimeters, while the distance between the rows should be about 20 centimeters. The first shoots can be seen only after 30–40 days, the grown bushes will bloom in August, but as a rule, they do not have time to freeze until frost, which is extremely bad for the replacement bulbs. In this regard, experienced gardeners advise, before planting corms in open soil, to grow them in room conditions. To do this in the last days of March they are placed on the forcing. More on this will be discussed in the section on transplanting this plant.
Care for tigridia in the garden
Growing a tigridia in your garden is pretty simple. She needs to ensure timely watering, weeding, dressing and loosening the soil surface between the bushes. Experienced gardeners advise the surface of the site to be covered with a layer of mulch, this will not only preserve the soil structure, but also reduce the number of irrigations, weeds and loosening. Also, it will be necessary to remove the flowers that have started to fade in time, and, if necessary, to make a garter of bushes to pegs or twigs.
How to water and feed
When grown in the garden this plant requires systematic watering. During a prolonged drought, the bushes should be watered every day, and you should use such a volume of water that the earth could get wet to the depth of the bulgar. Also, in case of a prolonged drought, the above-ground part of the bushes will need to be moistened with a warm water sprayer in the evening.
If, when preparing for planting, all the necessary fertilizers were added to the soil, then it will be possible to forget about feeding tigridia until the end of the season. If the soil is poor or depleted, the bushes will need to be fed just a couple of times per season, and use a solution of complex fertilizer (3 grams per liter of water). It is necessary to bring in top-dressing 4 weeks later after emergence of foliage and during budding.
In order for the plants to bloom early, in the beginning of the spring period the bulbs need to be grown under room conditions. They should be planted in the last days of March in a pot with a light soil mixture. In 1 pot, 3 or 4 corms are planted at once, and they need to be buried in the substrate not less than 30 mm. In the first weeks of the bulbs will need to ensure moderate watering. После того как клубнелуковички начнут прорастать, обильность поливов надо увеличить, следует учесть, что субстрат должен промокнуть на ту глубину, на которой находятся корешки клубнелуковиц.It is best to pick pots with wide drainage holes for planting corms, and the stand should be fairly high so that tigridia can be arranged for lower watering. With this watering, the risk of developing fungal diseases is relatively lower. After the arrows appear, the containers with tubers must be transferred to a well-lit, warm window-sill. Remember that these plants are contraindicated drafts. Planting of these corms is made in the open soil in the first days of June.
The depth of the planting pit for the transplanted plant should be from 0.5 to 0.6 m. At the bottom of the pit should make a drainage layer of horse manure or broken brick, while its thickness should be from 0.2 to 0.25 m. it should be laid layer of loose soil of the same thickness as the previous one. Then it is necessary to put a sprouted corm on it, after which the hole is covered with nutritious soil. Transplanted plants need abundant watering.
In that case, if the bushes begin to bloom from the middle to the end of July, then the seeds can ripen to frost. The collection of seeds produced before the start of frost. They are sown in winter, and seed preparation is not needed. Tanks clean in a well-lit, warm (20 to 25 degrees) place. When picking seedlings you need to be very careful to avoid injury to their roots. After a couple of true leaf plates have developed in the seedlings, they should be ripped apart in individual pots, while taking them along with a clod of earth. From the time of sowing to the beginning of flowering, it takes about 6-7 months.
Vegetative methods can also be used to propagate this crop. During season 1, one adult corm grows around five replacement children. They should be separated from the parent bulb before planting, while the places of faults and sections should be covered with coal powder, after which the children can be planted in the soil.
Diseases and pests
Quite often, gardeners do not manage to save the tigridia planting material until spring, because most of it rot. As a rule, rot appears on those onions that have not matured well. That is why it is imperative, before you start preparing the corms, to make sure that they are well ripened. Also, for the purpose of prophylaxis, be sure to poison the corms before putting it in storage in any fungicidal solution, for example: Maxime, Benlate or Fundazole.
A plant grown in open ground may be affected by scab or rust. To prevent this, it is recommended to spray the foliage with plant infusions or fungicide solutions.
If the plant is struck with a mosaic, then it is no longer possible to cure it, since viral diseases are today considered incurable. In this regard, it is extremely important to provide the plant with the right care and suitable growth conditions so that it is strong and less sore.
Medvedki, slugs, cabbage shoots and thrips are capable of harming tigridia. To destroy thrips, as well as a scoop, along with their caterpillars, the foliage of bushes must be sprayed with a solution of any insecticide. Slugs are harvested by hands in order to facilitate their work; pieces of slate or board are laid out over the section, under which, in the hottest time of day, most gastropods slip. Remove them from the bait and destroy. And in the discovered moves of the bear it is necessary to pour out the soap solution. If the bear tries to escape, getting out, it should be caught and destroyed.
Since tigridia are a thermophilic plant, it is possible to leave it for wintering in open ground only in the warmest southern regions. Therefore, most of the gardeners with the onset of autumn time remove corms from the soil and clean up for storage until spring, while choosing a cool enough place, but the temperature there should not fall below 0 degrees. However, in digging up of corms of tigridia and their storage is not so simple. In order for planting material to be well preserved until spring, it must be fully matured, and for this it is necessary to know when exactly the onion should be removed from the soil in the autumn. This procedure is carried out only after all the leafy plates on the bush have faded. If there is a threat of frost, but the foliage is still green, it is recommended to dig the bushes together with a clod of earth, which should be large enough, then it is transferred to a cool and well-lit room. Only after the leaf plates turn yellow and wither, will it be possible to start cleaning the planting material for storage. Preparation of tubers for storage includes their cleaning, washing, and also pickling in a solution of the drug Maxim and thorough drying. Separating children from parental bulbs should be practiced in the spring before planting, but not in the fall.
Corms should be placed in a container filled with dry sand or peat. To store them clean in a cool (3-10 degrees) room with normal humidity. Also, onion, if desired, can be folded in paper bags, which are cleaned on the shelf of the refrigerator, designed for vegetables, where they will be stored until spring. During the winter, do not forget about the bulbs, you should make a systematic check, during which it is necessary to reject all damaged and rotted onions.
Tigridia - description and types
A blooming, grassy perennial between thirty and seventy centimeters in height has dense corms with rhizome, branching or erect stems, evenly folded, light green, xiphoidal leaves and peduncles with one or several buds growing right from the ground. Flowers from eight to ten diameters Centimeters consist of several small and three large petals, so that they have a triangular shape. The central part of the bud is painted with contrasting stains, and the outer monophonic petals can be pink, white, blue, yellow, red, lilac.
Every tigridia flower blooms for only a few hours, but a new bud blooms around it the next day. Therefore, in order to get a long flowering, plants are planted in a flowerbed in groups.
More than fifty species of tigridia are known., of which only a few are grown in culture:
- Tigridia peacock - plants with a height of twenty-five to seventy centimeters blooms in the second half of summer for two to three weeks. He has a corm with a width of four and a length of six centimeters, around which several children form in one season. The corm itself dries out by the end of the season. Tigridia peacocks are distinguished by light green, sword-shaped, wide leaves with longitudinal folds and purple, white, orange, light pink or scarlet flowers with a diameter of ten to fifteen centimeters. Three to five shoots with three to five flowers are formed on each bush. Depending on the variety, there may be red, carmine or yellow spots inside the flower.
- Tigridia multi-flowered differs bent-out maroon petals bent outward, the base of which has a darker shade.
- Tigridia chess - a plant with flowers of unusual color. Fawn spots are staggered on the large light petals of the flower.
- Tigridia tubular has narrow leaves, a branching short stem and rounded outer petals of light pink color. The diameter of each bud is from five to seven centimeters.
Planting and cultivation in open ground
The plant loves sunlight, so well-lit areas are selected for planting. In the penumbra, flower stems can become thin and fragile.
That wind gusts do not break gentle bushes, it is recommended to plant tigridia in windless, draft-free areas.
Before planting for plants you need to prepare the soil, because they do not like dense, heavy soil with stagnant moisture. The soil is prepared as follows:
- acidic soil is treated with lime mortar,
- dense soil mixed with sawdust,
- sand and some fertilizer are added to heavy soils.
Growing tigridia from seed
To get an earlier flowering, tigridia is grown at home by seedling. For planting seeds, you can use seedlings purchased in the store ground or prepare a soil mixture of the following components:
Tanks for seedlings Fill with moist soil, over the surface of which seeds are spread and sprinkled with a small layer of soil. Seeds should be five to six centimeters apart.
Crops from above are sprayed with water from a spray bottle and covered with polyethylene or glass. Care of them consists in daily airing of landings and in moistening of the soil if necessary.
In a warm place and with proper care, seedlings will appear in about three weeks. Shelter is removed from them, and transplanting tanks are placed in a well-lit place where there is no direct sunlight.
In the open ground grown seedlings are planted in May. Tigridia seeds grown from seeds bloom in six to seven months, so crops are grown in winter.
When the soil in the garden warms up well, and constant positive temperatures are established, the bulbs can be planted in open ground. For planting bulbs dig holes dug from eight to twelve centimeters. The distance between them should be at least fifteen centimeters. Each hole is moistened and corms are planted in it.
To obtain early flowering, experienced gardeners recommend bulging at home or in a greenhouse. In March, they are planted in separate pots and provide special care:
- The first two weeks, until the roots come to life, the corms are watered abundantly.
- As soon as shoots appear, the frequency of watering is reduced, and the plants are watered only after the topsoil has dried out.
Peculiarities of care
Care for tigridia in the open field does not take much time. Exotic plants are watered regularly as soon as the topsoil dries out. More abundant and frequent watering flowers require hot and dry weather. After flowering, watering is reducedand as soon as the ground part of the plants dries up, they are completely stopped from watering.
For the growth and flowering of tigridia, fertilizing is important, for which complex mineral fertilizers are used. If the bulbs were germinated at home, then they were first fed two weeks after planting in open ground. Planted immediately on the flowerbed plants are fertilized after the appearance of leaves on them.
It is recommended to remove flower buds on the bushes immediately so that the plant has the strength to form new flowers.
Preparing tigridia for winter
Despite the fact that tigridia are perennial plants, in open ground at sub-zero temperatures the bulbs freeze. Therefore, as soon as during frosts the aerial part of the plant will wither, corms will be dug out and stored until spring at home. Before storing the bulb, it is necessary to prepare:
- Trim the leaves and stems.
- Dry for two weeks at room temperature.
- Shake the remnants of the earth.
- Shorten up to two centimeters of stalk hemp.
- Trim the roots.
- Dry for about two weeks.
Ready for storage bulbs fall asleep dry sand. Wet soil and sand will not be suitable for their storage, as unprotected with scales of corms of tigridia in wet conditions will begin to rot. Store the bulbs placed in the sand in a dry place with an air temperature of +4 to +10 degrees.
Can be stored planting material flower in the nylon mesh at home, hanging it closer to the ceiling.
Two or three weeks before planting trigridia in the open ground, the corms of the corms are broken open and dried at the break place of the children.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to care
- 4.2. Watering and feeding
- 4.3. Transfer
- 4.4. Breeding
- 5. Wintering
- 5.1. Storage
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 7. Types and varieties
Planting and care for tigridia (in short)
- Bloom: from July to September.
- Landing: Growing bulbs at home in pots with soil - from the end of March, planting corms in the ground - from the second half of May.
- Digging: in October.
- Bulb storage: storage bulbs placed only when the ground part is completely wither. If frosts come, and the leaves are still green, the bulbs are dug out with a large earthy clod and kept in a bright, cool place until the ground part turns yellow and withers. After that, the bulbs are sorted, disinfected in Maxim's solution, dried and stored until spring at a temperature of 3-10 C, immersed in sand or in dry peat.
- Lighting: bright sunlight or partial shade.
- The soil: light, loose, well drained, moderately wet, neutral or slightly alkaline.
- Watering: regular, in drought and heat - daily. The soil is soaked with water to the depth of the bulbs. If the drought is prolonged, the tigridia will have to be sprayed with warm water in the evenings.
- Top dressing: if during the preparation of the site in the soil fertilizers were made, fertilizing is not needed. When grown in an unfertilized, lean or depleted soil, two supplements are made with mineral solution per season: one month after the leaves appear and during the budding period.
- Garter: when grown in the penumbra, the stems may be too thin, and the plant will need to be tied to a support - a rod or a peg.
- Reproduction: seeds, bulbs and children.
- Pests: cabbage scoops, bears, thrips and slugs.
- Diseases: rot during storage.
Tigridia flower - description
The tigridia flower can be as tall as 30 to 70 cm tall. It is a bulbous perennial with simple or branched stems, sword-shaped light green, evenly folded leaves and single or 2-3 pieces collected at the top of the arrow with fancy flowers like an exotic butterfly. The fruit of the plant is a box with angular, compressed seeds.
When to plant tigridia in the ground.
Since tigridia bulbs react to a cold snap, they are planted in open ground only after the threat of recurrent frosts has passed, that is, not earlier than the second half of May. Tigridia must be planted in an open, well-lit area. It grows in the penumbra, but then the flower stalks of the plants will be thinner and weaker, and they will have to be tied to a support. Does not like tigridia drafts and sharp gusts of wind, breaking its fragile, thin stems.
The soil for tigridia should be light and loose, well drained, not acidic and moderately wet. Too dense soil to make it loose should be dug up with sand or sawdust.
How to plant a tigridia.
Tigridia bulbs before planting need to be etched for 2 hours in a solution of 4 ml of Maxim in 2 liters of water - this treatment will further protect plants from gray and white rot, Fusarium and other diseases.
Depth of seeding of the bulbs depends on their size. For example, large specimens are immersed to a depth of 10 cm, and small planting is sufficient to close up by 5 cm. The distance between the bulbs in a row should be at least 15 cm with 20 cm spacing. Shoots will appear only after 4-5 weeks, flowering will begin in August, but the plants will not have time to bloom before frosts, and this may adversely affect the replacement of corms. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you grow tigridia bulbs at home before planting in open ground, placing them at the end of March for distillation. How to do it correctly, we will tell you in the section on tigridia transplantation.
How to care for tigridia.
Growing tigridia does not require any special procedures. It will be enough to water the plant, loosen the soil around it, remove weeds from the flowerbed, feed it, and if you preserve the surface of the plot with humus or peat to preserve the soil structure, you will have to water, loosen and weed less often. In addition, it will be necessary to remove wilted flowers and, if necessary, install supports in the form of rods or pegs for a tigridia.
Watering and feeding tigridia.
Tigridia in open ground needs regular watering, and in a dry season it should be daily, and surface moisture will not do anything, the soil should be soaked to the depth of the bulbs. With a prolonged drought, you will have to spray the ground part of the tigridia in the evenings with warm water.
If fertilizers were applied to the soil before planting the bulbs, tigridia will not need additional feedings during the growing season. For fertilizing a lean or depleted soil, two supplements are sufficient with a solution of 3 g of complex fertilizer in 1 liter of water per season: one month after the leaves appear and during the formation of buds.
Для того чтобы ускорить начало цветения тигридии в открытом грунте, ее луковицы с начала весны подращивают в домашних условиях: в конце марта высаживают по 3-4 луковицы на выгонку в легкий субстрат, заглубляя так, чтобы над луковицами находился слой грунта толщиной не менее 3 см. Первые недели субстрат в горшках поливают умеренно, но как только луковицы начнут прорастать, им потребуется интенсивное увлажнение: влага должна проникать на всю глубину субстрата, добираясь до корней луковиц. In order to achieve the required level of soil moisture, but at the same time not provoke fungal diseases, the bulbs are planted in pots with wide drainage holes and high plates-supports and the method of bottom irrigation is used. When the arrows appear, the pots with the forcing are rearranged to the warm, bright window sill and protected from drafts. In the open ground, the prepared bulbs are transplanted in early June.
A pit for tigridia grafting is dug 50-60 cm deep. A drainage material made of broken brick and a layer of horse manure about 20-25 cm thick are laid on its bottom, then a layer of loose soil on which the sprouted onions are laid is of the same thickness. The rest of the space is filled with fertile soil. After transplanting the area watered.
Storage of tigridia.
Because of the heat-loving nature, wintering of tigridia in open ground is impossible in most climatic zones: in the fall, plant bulbs are dug out and stored until spring at a low, but above-zero temperature. And it is with the extraction from the ground and storage of corms that the difficulties of growing tigridia are associated. The main condition for the normal storage of planting material of this culture is the complete maturation of the bulbs, so it is important to know when to dig tigridia in the fall. The bulbs can be stored only after the ground part of the plant has faded, but if frost is approaching, and the leaves on the tigridia are still green, dig up the tubers with a large earthy clod, put them in a bright, cool room, wait for the yellowed plant to turn yellow. leaves will fade, and only after that it will be possible to do the preparation of corms for storage.
Before planting in storage, planting material needs to be cleaned, rinsed, etched in a solution of the drug Maxim, dry well, but children do not need to be separated from the mother corms - set this procedure aside until spring. How to store tigridia before landing? The bulbs are immersed in dry peat or sand and kept indoors with normal humidity at a temperature of 3 to 10 ºC. You can fold the planting material in paper bags and put it in the vegetable box of the refrigerator. During the winter, it is necessary to periodically check the condition of the bulbs in order to detect damage or decay in time.
Tigridia pests and diseases
The biggest problem of tigridia - the death of bulbs from rot during winter storage. The reason for the appearance of rot is insufficient maturation of the planting material. That is why it is so important to wait for the natural part of the tigridia to wither before placing the onion in storage. To prevent rotting of the bulbs, they should be etched in a solution of the drug Maxim or other fungicides, for example, in a solution of Fundazol or Benlat.
In open ground, tigridia can also get rust or scab. This can be avoided by treating the plant by leaf for the purpose of prophylaxis with solutions of fungicidal preparations or herbal infusions. But tigridia cannot be saved from mosaic: there is no cure for viral diseases, therefore it is important to maintain plant health with good care.
Of the pests, cabbage shovels, polar bear, thrips and slugs are the most dangerous for tigridia. Scoop, their caterpillars and thrips are destroyed by treating tigridia on leaves with insecticidal preparations, which are sold in any garden pavilion or specialty store. Slugs will have to be assembled by hand, using pieces of slate or planks laid out on the plot as traps: on a hot day, the slugs hide from them from the sun, and you just need to get them out of the shelter and destroy them. And the moves of Medvedka need to be filled with soapy water, and if the insect does not die in the depths, but reaches the surface, destroy it.
Tigridia peacock (Tigridia pavonia).
Only one species of the genus is grown in culture - peacock tigridiawhich originates from Guatemala and Mexico. The plant can be from 25 to 70 cm tall. Its irregularly shaped bulb is up to 6 cm long and up to 4 cm across is covered with membranous scales. By the end of the growing season, the old bulb is completely exhausted, but instead of it new bulbs form, forming nests. The number of onions practically coincides with the number of scales on the mother bulb. One onion can form from 3 to 5 peduncles, on each of which up to 5 buds are formed. The leaves of the peacock tigridia are xiphoid, broad, light green, folded in length. Flowers with a diameter of 10-15 cm out of six lobes open alternately. The outer perianth lobes are bright red or violet-orange, the inner ones are much smaller than the outer ones, yellowish-orange spotted colors, like the pharynx. Flowering occurs in July and August, each flower lives only 8-10 hours, while the flowering generally lasts 15-25 days. Tigridia peacock has several garden forms:
- – Alba - plant with white flowers in red spots:
- – Aurea - form with dark yellow flowers in carmine stains,
- – Carminea - tigridia with orange flowers in yellow spots,
- – tigridia lilatsea - a plant with lilac-red flowers in carmine stains,
- – tigridia rosalind - a form with flowers of a gentle-pink shade,
- – Canariensis - tigridia with light yellow flowers and bright red middle,
- – Specialty - form with scarlet-red flowers in golden yellow spots.
The variety mix “Tigridia Ferraria Mixt” is also in demand - plants up to 60 cm in height with sword-shaped leaves and flowers with a diameter of up to 15 cm with single-colored outer petals of red, mauve, orange, white or yellow color and three internal petals with elegant patches.
For breeding works, tubular tigridia species with pale pink flowers, Mexican tigridia with yellow flowers, celerian tigridia with bluish-lilac flowers, and other species not cultivated by themselves are used.
Types and varieties of tigridia
Gardeners cultivate only 1 type of this culture - peacock tigridia (Tigridia pavonia). Originally from Mexico and Guatemala. The height of the bush can vary from 0.25 to 0.7 m. On the surface of corms, which have an irregular shape, are membranous scales. The length of the bulb reaches 60 mm, and in diameter - about 40 mm. At the end of the growing season there is a complete exhaustion of the old corm, but her children grow up and form nests. The parent corm number of babies and scales on the surface is almost the same. 3–5 peduncles grow from one onion, with about 5 flowers forming on each of them. Folded along the length of the greenish wide leaf plates have a xiphoid shape. Flowers, reaching 10-15 centimeters in diameter, consist of 6 lobes that open alternately. In the perianth, the outer lobes are colored orange-violet or deep red, while the inner lobes are not as large as the outer ones; they have an orange-yellow spotted color, like the pharynx. Tigridia blooms in July – August, while the life span of each flower is 8–10 hours. In general, the flowering time is about 2–3.5 weeks. Garden forms:
- Alba. The flowers are white, and on their surface there are spots of red.
- Aurea. On the surface of dark yellow flowers there are carmine specks.
- Carminea. The flowers are orange, covered with specks of yellow.
- Lilatsea. On the red-purple flowers are carmine specks.
- Rosalind. Color flowers pale pink.
- Canariensis. In yellowish flowers rich red middle.
- Specialty. The color of the flowers is scarlet-red, and there are yellow-golden specks on them.
The variety mixture “Tigridia Ferraria Mixt” is quite popular: the bush is about 0.6 m tall, the leaf plates have a xiphoid shape, the flowers reach 15 centimeters in diameter, their outer petals have a uniform color (purple-pink, white, red, orange or yellow) , on the three internal petals there are spectacular spots. Specialists engaged in selection, in their work use Mexican tigridia with yellow flowers, tubular tigridia with pinkish flowers and celerian tigridia - lilac-blue flowers. And also use other types that are not independently grown by gardeners.
Tigridia flower description
According to the botanical characteristics of Tigridia refers to perennial flowering plants. Its roots are in the form of bulbs, and are distinguished by high density. It is noteworthy that the tubers of the plant contain a lot of starch and nutrients, so a few centuries ago, in the homeland of culture, in North America, these tubers were eaten instead of potatoes.
Figure 1. External features of tigridia
The height of adult plants can reach 70 cm, and the leaf fan begins to bloom directly above the ground surface. The first buds appear in June, but the flowering period itself may continue until the first autumn frosts (Figure 1).
Note: After blooming, the bud will delight you in just 8-10 hours, after which it will wither. Therefore, if you want to create an original flower composition based on Tigridia, you need to plant several plants at once.
Culture bulbs are quite productive, and during the growing season they can produce simultaneously about 6 peduncles, each of which contains 2-3 buds, the color of the petals of which differs depending on the variety.
After completion of flowering in place of wilted buds, a box with seeds is formed, which can be collected for further cultivation of young plants.
Selection of planting site and soil preparation
The main requirement in the cultivation of tigridia should be given to the selection of a place for its landing. This culture is very fond of sunlight, so it is better to plant it in well-lit areas.
If on your site there is no place that would be evenly lit throughout the day, the flower can be arranged in partial shade. This will not affect the size and color of flowers, but the stems and flower stalks will be thinner, so each plant will need support.
It should also be borne in mind that the culture is very sensitive to drafts, so it is better to have a flower bed in secluded corners of the garden, protected from strong winds that can damage the thin and fragile stems of the culture. If this is not possible, each bush is tied to a small peg.
The soil on the flowerbed should be light and loose, as tigridia, like other bulbous cultures, does not tolerate dense, overmoistened soil. In order to make the earth more friable, it is recommended to add sand or sawdust to the soil when preparing the bed.
As mentioned above, tigridia can be propagated by seeds or bulbs. When using seeds, should not be carried out direct sowing in the ground, and a seedling method of cultivation.
If you prefer to propagate the crop with bulbs, in the fall you need to dig up an adult plant from the root, and separate several babies from the mother bulb, which will be used for the cultivation of new plants. In the future, planting material enough to wrap in a damp cloth and put on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. So you can save it until the spring landing in the ground.
Since the seed method of reproduction is considered more difficult than when growing a flower from bulbs, we will dwell on it in more detail. In temperate climates, sowing seeds directly into the soil does not make sense, since they do not have time to germinate and grow strong. Therefore, the advantage should be given to the seedling method (Figure 4).
Figure 4. Reproduction of seed culture
For this, seeds are sown in containers with light and loose soil and kept in a greenhouse or home environment. At the same time, the temperature should be rather high, of the order of +20 degrees, since the planting material of the culture is very sensitive to temperature reduction and may not germinate.
Note: It is advisable to fill the seedling containers with light peaty-sandy soil, and after planting the seeds, the soil is regularly moistened.
Shoots appear amicably and relatively early - just 2-3 weeks after sowing. If crops are too thick, it is advisable to dive them in separate pots, so that the sprouts have time to get stronger before transplanting to the ground. Planting seedlings on the flower bed is carried out at the end of May. During the warm season they will have time to form a strong onion and get strong enough for wintering.
Loosening and mulching
A flower bed with tigridia should be regularly freed from weeds, since they not only spoil the appearance of the flower arrangement, but can also cause the spread of pests.
In addition, after each watering or rain, it is necessary to gently loosen the soil around the flowers. This will prevent the stagnation of moisture and the potential rotting of the roots, as well as help the water to penetrate faster to the bulbs. It is also desirable to cover the bed with a layer of organic mulch (leafy humus or peat) to slow the evaporation of moisture and prevent the spread of weeds.
Trimming tigridia will be required after flowering. It is worth starting the procedure only after the complete wilting of all the buds. This will help to preserve the health and vitality of the bulbs before the upcoming wintering.
Experienced gardeners also recommend installing small supports near each bush. The fact is that the stalks and tigridia flower stalks are quite large, and during the flowering period a strong gust of wind or the weight of the inflorescence itself can lead to their damage.
Preparing for the winter: storing the bulbs
Since tigridia belongs to the heat-loving perennial crops, special attention should be paid to its wintering. In temperate and harsh climates, planting bulbs in the soil for the winter is not recommended, as low temperatures in most cases lead to the death of planting material, even if the bed is protected by shelter (Figure 5).
To tigridia well endured winter, you need to perform such activities:
- To ensure the full maturation of the bulbs, timely planting the crop in open ground. In addition, you need to regularly remove wilted buds so that the bulbs have time to accumulate enough nutrients before winter.
- If the first frosts began, and the leaves of the plant still did not wilt, you need to carefully dig up the plant and move it along with the earthy clod to a cool, but well-lit room. When the leaves are completely withered, the bulb is gently removed and cleaned of residual soil.
- Before storing the bulbs are dried, without separating them.
Subsequently, the bulbs are laid out in containers with dry sand or peat and stored in a cool room at a temperature of not more than +10 degrees, periodically spraying the ground with water.
Tigridia in landscape design
Tigridia can be a great decoration of the garden, if you know how to properly place them (Figure 6). First of all, it should be noted that the duration of flowering of one bud is only a few hours, so this culture will look spectacular only in group plantings.
Figure 6. Tigridia in landscape design
In addition, experienced growers recommend planting several plant varieties at the same time so that the flowerbed is bright and original.
When planning a flower bed, it is important to bear in mind that it is undesirable to plant other bright flowers near the tigridia, which will obscure the beauty of the plant. The best neighbors are conifers, arabis or phlox.
The video shows how to plant tigridia and other bulbous at home.