The moderately continental climate of the Moscow region is characterized by a rather mild winter and warm, wet summer. The weather is quite changeable. For nutrient content, soils are classified as medium and poor, infertile. In the north - sod-podzolic, heavy loamy cold and excessively wet soils. The east is occupied by peatlands and wetlands. In the west - lighter soil. The environment most favorable for gardening is in the south of the region. With not very favorable conditions for the gardener have to create them on their own.
How to plant apple trees in the spring in the Moscow region
Planting apple trees in spring
When is it better to plant apples in the suburbs? For planting apple trees, spring and autumn look great. Spring planting of apple trees is well suited for 1-2 summer seedlings. During the warm season, trees have time to gain strength and grow stronger in order to resist frost. The term of spring planting begins with the last days of April and until mid-May. Night frosts have stopped, but the buds have not yet begun to bloom.
Unpredictable spring can be early or late. In this case, the reference is the heating of the soil on the spade bayonet. Many gardeners are guided by the lunar calendar. On the growing moon comes a period when planting apples in the Moscow region favorably.
First of all, you need to decide on the site of planting an apple orchard. Apple tree likes good solar lighting, the lack of strong winds. The index of groundwater occurrence must be at least 3 m.
Important! Tall trees require about 5 meters of space free of other trees, and half-dwarf trees need 3 meters. Closer proximity is undesirable.
For the Moscow region, winter-hardy varieties that can withstand frost and a small amount of snow are best suited. The growing season should be small. Cultivar apple trees are popular with gardeners. A columnar tree has several advantages over classic apple trees: compactness, precociousness, shallow root system.
These apples can be grown even with high groundwater levels. Fruits can be obtained already in the first or second year. Despite all the advantages, the columnar type of apple has a low frost resistance, therefore not all its varieties are suitable for the Moscow region. If you still have the desire to grow this particular species, then it is better to purchase annual seedlings.
Apple varieties that best grow in the Moscow region:
- Summer: Antonovka, Papirovka, Melba, Candy, Puff, Medunits,
- Autumn: Zhigulevskoe, Brown striped, Anise, Spartak,
- Winter: Moscow Winter, Golden, North Synapse, Asterisk.
Note! It is recommended to select varieties of apple trees with different ripening periods in order to receive fruits throughout the season.
Selection of seedlings
Planting an apple in the spring in the suburbs depends largely on planting material. Competent selection of seedlings is the basis for successful cultivation of apple orchard. Healthy planting material has the following characteristics:
- No mechanical damage on the roots,
- The cut of the roots is light and moist, there should not be a brown shade. If the root is dry, then you should not take a sapling,
- The presence of at least 4 shoots per sapling
- No rot, parasites and defects.
Important! Before planting, seedlings must be carefully prepared. Remove dead and broken parts of the roots and bark, root growth to the ground. Damaged parts are cleaned and covered with garden pitch.
Planting an apple tree in spring
2 weeks before the start of planting is preparing the pits. Soil with insufficient fertility should be improved by means of imported soil. The minimum thickness of the fertile layer is 60 cm. Planting should be based on the type of soil and their adjustment:
- clay heavy soils are improved by the addition of sand and compost,
- sandy soil requires the addition of peat and humus.
An established apple tree can grow on any type of soil, except for marshy. On good soil, the pit is deepened by 60 cm. If the quality of the soil leaves much to be desired, the depth is increased to 70 cm. The diameter can be from 60 to 80 cm. It is recommended to pierce the bottom of it to the depth of the spade to facilitate the development of the roots. The bottom of the pit is filled with a layer of drainage (gravel, sand).
Next, the apple tree itself is prepared, planting and care in the Moscow region requires compliance with some rules. To protect the roots from drying, the seedlings are left to stand in a container with water for 4-6 hours. To increase the survival rate of a tree, a root formation stimulator is added to the water (“Kornevin”, “Kornerost”, “Epin”). You can use a solution of 1 tsp. honey to 2 liters of water or a solution of 100 g of yeast and a bucket of water.
Important! Before planting, the roots are dipped in a mixture of clay and mullein, diluted to the thickness of sour cream. So the roots will better bond with the soil.
- Immediately before planting, a one and a half meter peg is stuck in the prepared hole for tying a seedling,
- The embedment depth of the tree must be such that it does not immerse the grafting site and root collar in the soil. It should rise 4-5 cm above the ground,
- Now you need to fill the pit with soil in the form of a mound, about 20 cm high, add 2 buckets of warm water, fertilizer in the form of 2 buckets of manure humus, wood ash, compost. You can add 1 cup of superphosphate and 3 tbsp. l potassium sulfate,
- At the top of the elevation you need to plant a seedling next to the peg, which should be on the south side, and gently straighten the roots. The remaining fertile soil is added and crushed,
- One of the features of spring planting is enhanced watering. Sapling plentifully watered until the earth is saturated with moisture. It usually takes 3-4 buckets of water. To preserve moisture, the ground surface is covered with dry grass and humus,
- The seedling is tied to a peg at the top and bottom with a soft cloth, twine or film. The place where the garter material comes into contact with the bark of the tree should not injure it. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically loosen the garter,
- It remains to shorten the center conductor by 2-3 buds to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots, while it should rise above any side branch.
Further care of the apple tree consists in regular loosening, eliminating weeds, feeding and watering. If it was rainy spring, then watering can be reduced. During loosening of the trunk circle, nitrogen fertilizer is added to help the roots and branches grow faster.
Watering in the first month is carried out every week, 2 buckets of water for each apple tree. In the future, it will be enough for 4-5 buckets every 3 weeks.
Important! For the winter, young apple trunks must be warmed, wrapped with covering material for the first 3-4 years. This measure will also protect the tree from rodents.
Diseases and pests
The main diseases affecting apple trees in the Moscow Region are scab, powdery mildew. Therefore it is necessary to choose varieties with high immunity to fungal diseases.
Measures to combat scab include the destruction of infected leaves in early spring, spraying the ground in pristvolnyh circles with urea (7%), potassium chloride (10%). Before budding helps spraying Bordeaux liquid (3%). This drug is also used to combat powdery mildew at the beginning of the spring season. During the growing season will need 1% Bordeaux liquid. It is good to apply a mixture of 50 g of soda ash, 40 g of household soap shavings and 10 liters of water. Well proven drug Topaz.
From the category of dangerous pests can be called aphids, fruit mites. Aphids on an apple tree can be defeated with wood ash. In the spring, right after the snow melted, a thick layer of ash is poured under the apple tree, dug up and poured over with hot water. You can use drugs: "Fitoverm", "Iskra", "Decis".
On a note! Against a brown fruit and red apple tick helps a solution of 4-5 ml of the drug "Apollo" in 10 liters of water. You can make an infusion of onion peel - half a bucket of husk is poured 5 liters of hot water, insisting for 2 days. Strained solution is brought to 10 liters and used fresh.
Ensure a good harvest of apples for the whole year, you can even in difficult conditions of the Moscow region. It is only necessary to correctly determine the time of planting, correctly prepare the soil, observe all stages of apple cultivation.
The most favorable time for planting an apple
Before planting apple trees it is necessary to choose the right gradewhich will best suit the climatic conditions of the area, otherwise the future tree will not give the desired yield. It is best to choose a seedling in the local nursery. Open or closed root system does not play a special role, the main thing is to make sure the quality of planting material.
In Moscow, planting of seedlings is supposed to be carried out in autumn or spring, this is due to weather conditions and a dormant period in plants. When apple seedlings are healthy and with a well-developed root system, they will take root in any of the above seasons, if properly prepared for the first winter.
Autumn planting of apple trees
Autumn is considered the most successful time when you can plant fruit crops.since the tree is at rest and tolerates adverse conditions better, it grows into the ground. The lack of summer heat and heavy rains contribute to the survival of the seedling. Ideal dates for planting are from the end of September, when the leaf fall begins, until mid-November. It is necessary to complete the work a month before the start of stable frosts. Before planting, the remaining leaves from the seedling must be carefully removed so as not to damage the bud.
Planting rules depend on the type of soil and the selected variety. Apple tree loves sunny, elevated places and does not tolerate when it is too windy. Therefore, in the fall, it is preferable to place the seedling in a place protected from the winds.
Apple trees treat painfully marshy soils and places with a shallow location of groundwater. To prevent the emergence of excess moisture, which can lead to the death of a young plant, you need to prepare drainage system for removal of thawed and rainwater. For this, loose materials (gravel, sand) are well suited.
An immature plant for the winter must be protected from rodents. To do this, it is wrapped with a thick cloth.
It is wrong to add fresh manure to the landing pit in the fall, as this will only interfere with the rooting of the fruit crop. Therefore, the soil is fertilized when spring comes.
Planting seedlings in the spring
For novice gardeners it will be easier to produce planting young plants in spring. This event is best done after the end of the night frosts, but before the start of bud break. The best time is from the end of April to mid-May. But since spring is late or, on the contrary, comes too early, it is necessary to check how the earth warms up. The best option is when a shovel enters the thawed land no more than on a bayonet.
For spring planting, it is desirable to choose seedlings, no more than 3 years old. A young plant must be carefully examined so that the kidneys are not yet swollen on the cuttings, and the root remains at rest. Dried parts of the crown or roots must be cut out with a garden knife and covered with a boil. Damaged bark is also trimmed and smeared. Root growth is carefully removed with pruning shears so as not to damage the thickening on the root.
If you tighten with the landing, the root system can not cope with the load of adaptation that fell on it, and the seedling will die. At best, fruiting can be delayed indefinitely.
In this case, the landing pit is prepared in autumn, the soil is dug up beforehand.
Choosing a place on the site
Before planting trees, plot must be prepared, given its features. If the fertile layer on the site is small, then it will be necessary to increase its thickness to at least 60 cm using imported soil. Clay soils are very heavy, so they are improved with sand and compost. Peat and humus are added to the sandy soil.
When choosing a place, you should avoid the south side, it is desirable to have other plants near you that will protect the young apple tree from the cold wind. From the boundary of the plot, trees should be planted, departing about 4 meters.
Before planting must be considered soil type and groundwater location. If the site has a dense soil, and the groundwater is deep, then rather narrow trenches are dug out, 80 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter, and the bottom is covered with loose material. After the pit is filled with soil taken from the upper layer. After shrinking the ground, you can plant trees.
When laying groundwater close to the surface, it is necessary to make a bulk roll. For this, a hole is dug up about 40 cm. Drainage is filled in it and the soil returns to its place. Further, a mound is made of soil with the addition of organic fertilizers. The height of the shaft should be about 60 cm. Another way is to force the central root to branch horizontally. Before planting youngsters, broken bricks are laid out at the bottom of the planting pit, which will become an obstacle to the roots. In this case, the distance between the trees increases.
Choosing a healthy seedling
Before planting a plant, need to choose a good sapling. In order for the selected variety to successfully winter the winter and take root, it is necessary to acquire healthy planting material. For this you need to pay attention to the following nuances:
- there should be no mechanical damage on the roots,
- no rot
- dry root is an indicator of a weak and diseased plant,
- Before buying, you should familiarize yourself with the appearance of the bark of the desired variety and compare it with the proposed seedling,
- on the cut, the roots should be light and moist, without a brown tint,
- at least 4 shoots must be present on the seedling,
- absence of parasites and visible defects on the tree.
The process of planting a young plant in the spring
After all the preparatory work, you can proceed to the planting of fruit crops. Stages of young stockings:
- After the pit has been prepared and covered with drainage, it is covered with soil and trampled. Fertilizers can be added at this stage. A few days must wait for the soil to subside.
- Having carefully examined the root system, a small incision should be made on one of the roots. The cut should be light. If it has a different shade, then it is necessary to remove all such places with the help of clippers. After the procedure, the sections are powdered with crushed activated carbon. Also done with the barrel, but in this case, slices are covered with var.
- In the center of the planting pit we put a wooden rail, to which we will subsequently tie up a sapling. In the hole you need to pour 2 buckets of some warm water. Roots must be dipped in a mixture of clay and mullein. Now you can begin to plant the plant. We put a seedling next to the rail, evenly straighten the roots and fall asleep with soil. Be sure to ensure that the root neck of the plant is above the soil at a level of 4 - 5 cm. The top layer of soil must be tamped down with your hands, aligning the seedling. Planted young stock can now be tied to the rail. Use a soft cloth or twine for the garter.
- In the end, cut off part of the crown of the tree, adjusting it to the size of the root system. But if the gardener is inexperienced, this step is best omitted so as not to harm the plant.
- You need to start watering immediately after planting. If spring will be rainy further watering can be omitted.
- When the plant is planted, do not forget to care for him. In the spring the grass begins to grow rapidly. It is necessary to periodically weed the area around the apple tree and loosen the soil.
What sorts of apple trees are preferable for central Russia?
A variety of varieties of apples allows everyone to pick up and plant themselves apples, not only in taste, but also in the time of their fruiting.
For climate in the suburbs winter-hardy varieties with a short growing season are ideal. In order to enjoy fragrant fruits for a long time, it is advisable to select varieties with different ripening periods.
Early varieties of apple trees that are popular include “Medunitsa”, “Bely poured”, “Melba”.
Varieties of apple trees, bringing a stable harvest in the fall - "Zhigulevskoe", "Autumn joy".
Winter varieties of apple trees for the Moscow region: “Antonovka”, “Moscow Winter”, “Pepin Saffron”.
If it is right to plant, combine and place trees in the spring, this will help the grower grow healthy ones with a stable apple crop. When to plant trees: in spring or autumn, everyone will be able to choose based on their skills and conditions on the site.
Time and landing time
Apple trees can be planted in the spring and autumn. In the cold season it is done after all the leaves fall. In the spring, it is necessary to catch up to the bud break. The main thing is not to miss the right moment.
It is better, of course, to plant trees in the fall. В этом случае, если было повреждение корневой системы при выкапывании саженца, у него есть время восстановиться за осенне-зимний период. А уже в период вегетации хорошо напитаться полезными микроэлементами.
The most suitable period for planting seedlings in the fall is mid-October. In regions where winter can give -30 degrees, then the time of planting is better tolerated in the spring.
Preparing a place for landing
For an apple tree, the ideal soil is considered to be that in which there is a normal air circulation, while the occurrence of groundwater is observed at a level of two meters at a minimum. Soil with rubble or marshy is not entirely suitable.
A distance of about three meters is maintained between trees, and an interval of 6 meters is observed between rows. Somewhere 30 days before landing, the pit itself is prepared. To do this, dig a recess of 0.7 m, round shape, with sheer walls.
It is important not to mix the fertile layer with the bottom. A 5 centimeter-thick stake is constructed in the middle of the received pit, and the length is calculated so that 40 cm should look out of the pit.
In order for the soil to have a good fertility indicator, a mixture of a previously deposited top layer, peat, compost, humus, rotted manure and organic fertilizer is required. In cases where clay impregnations predominate in the soil, a small amount of sand is added to the same mixture. The created “cocktail” fills the hole to the top and so that a small hill can be seen. A mound is made on the basis that with time the ground will subside, and the planted apple trees will be in the funnel. That part of the land that remained from the lower excavated layers is scattered between the rows.
There are several features for the formation of the necessary pit, in order to later plant a seedling into it and correctly apply fertilizer:
- When the soil is dominated by clay components, the depth of the pit should be increased, and the dimensions themselves should be larger. A drainage layer is laid out on its bottom, which can be quite made out of cans (empty), stones, remnants or scraps of wood. The root system will develop well and receive the necessary amount of oxygen.
- If the drainage layer is not provided, then the pit should be made wider. It prevents stagnation. When watering water can dissolve and not provoke rotting of the root system.
- If the soil is sandy, then it is necessary to provide a layer that would hold water. This can be made from clay or silt.
- If at a depth of about 1.5 m ground water is deposited, then you shouldn’t dig a hole itself. They simply dig up the soil and, as a rule, this is quite enough. Then they make a slight indentation and it is important not to forget to apply fertilizer. After these procedures, plant a tree. The roots are evenly sprinkled with earth.
In the case when the groundwater is close enough to the surface (about 1.5 m), the dimple is not dug, on the contrary, the apple tree is placed on a mound.
Planting technology seedlings
Having dealt with the features of the landing site, you should consider the very technique of this process.
It is important to inspect it carefully before digging up the seedling. After all, if the cut-off points do not have a white tint, but are colored brown or brown, this indicates damage to the root system. Most likely, it was frozen or dried. All injured segments must be removed.
In the hole that was prepared a month before disembarkation, a small hole is formed, and a tubercle is made at its bottom. This is done to ensure that the root system does not suffer and burn when the fertilizers are applied.
The seedling itself is placed so that the planted log is located on the south side of the tree, and the root collar of the trunk itself rises five centimeters above the ground level. It is important not to deepen the boundary of the transition, this is the place where the light green bark turns into brown. As a rule, this place is clearly visible. Above this line, it is also not recommended to plant, because the root system may not receive the necessary moisture, especially on hot days.
It is very convenient when planting an apple tree to work in a pair. One person can hold the seedling at the desired height and spread the roots on an earthen hill, and the second one can fill the root system and lightly tamp the top layer of soil. So that all the voids are filled, when instilled in, the seedlings shake a little, if this is not done, the roots will begin to dry out.
In order for an apple tree planted in the fall to fall it is necessary to tie it to a peg, this is done with plastic twine on a free eight.
In the hole poured a few buckets of water and be sure to mulch the soil. This can be done using leftover earth or humus. Be sure to make fertilizer in the soil.
Watering is carried out once a week. Complete this process in August. In case of soil subsidence, the apple tree itself can be pulled up a bit and fixed at the border of the root collar.
There is nothing difficult when planting different varieties of apple in the fall, you just need to dig a hole correctly, taking into account the soil in which the tree is planted. Special care for the apple is not required, the irrigation process is very standard, as well as the used fertilizers.
Planting apple trees in the fall in the suburbs
Recommended for 3-4 summer seedlings, because the older the tree, the more time it takes for it to get used to the new conditions of life.
When it is planted in autumn, the apple tree will have time to settle in the new soil for it, and will quickly start growing in spring.
When to plant apple trees in the Moscow region in autumn identifies leaf fall, work starts after it starts.
At this time, the trees no longer give their strength to grow shoots, but they did not even have time to fall into a state of winter dormancy.
End of planting - 15-25 days before the onset of persistent frost. This time the tree is enough to take root.
The optimal time for landing is from mid-September to early October.
How to plant an apple tree in the fall in the Moscow region depends on the variety and soil.
Spring planting of apple trees
Allows them to get stronger for the next winter and not to freeze out during it.
She is preferred for seedlings 1-2 years of age. Young plants quickly adapt to the new conditions of "living", but are also more susceptible to winter freezing during autumn planting.
Produce a spring landing starting From the end of April to the middle of May.
How to choose a variety of apple for planting in the suburbs?
First you need to decide when you want to harvest from them.
Summer apple varieties.
By the time of ripening, all varieties of apple trees are divided into:
- Summer - ripen in early August, and very early varieties - at the end of July. Not stored longer than 2 weeks.
- Autumn. Rip in September, can be stored for 1-2 months.
- Winter Apple varieties ripen in October. They are stored for a long time, from 3 months to six months.
For the Moscow region it is better to choose winter hardy varieties - they better tolerate our cold and not always snowy winters.
How to plant an apple tree in autumn and spring?
- Decide on the landing site. One of the most common mistakes when choosing a place - close proximity to other trees. Apple trees on dwarf rootstock.
For an apple tree grown on a semi-dwarf stock (and these are mostly all modern saplings), the distance from other trees should be at least 3 meters. Tall varieties are planted no closer than 5 meters from other trees.
- honey solution. 1h l to 2 liters of water
- a solution of yeast 100 grams (small pack) on a bucket of water.
If the soil is poor, sandy, add black soil to it. If the soil is heavy, with a high clay content, or simply "packed" virgin, which has not been processed for a long time, add sand to it, 2-3 buckets for the entire landing pit.
- Insert a strong metal or wooden peg into the bottom of the pit before planting. It must be at least 1.5 meters long. 80 cm of them will remain in the pit, and the rest of the length - outside. You will tie your apple tree to it.
- estimate the depth of planting seedlings. The vaccination site should rise 5-8 centimeters above the ground.
- at the bottom of the pit pour the ground in a hill, place a seedling in the center. Spread apple tree roots in different directions and down, so that they are not located in one bundle. Fill the pit with prepared soil, slightly crushing it with your hands.
- pour 3-4 buckets of water on the plant.
- tie to a peg in 2 places: top and bottom.
The process of planting in the fall and spring is the same, it differs only in the choice of fertilizer.
Fertilizers for spring and autumn planting
When planting in autumn, potash phosphate fertilizer is applied.
These can be potassium humate, potassium chloride, superphosate, or the finished “autumn” mixture for fertilizer.
The main rule is not to introduce nitrogen-containing mixtures in autumn. (urea, azofoska, bird droppings, fresh manure)! This fertilizer causes the rapid growth of shoots that no longer have time to mature before winter, and only the nutrients are drawn from the root!
When spring planting, on the contrary, nitrogen fertilizer will help the tree to quickly grow and the roots and branches. Bring it when loosening the circle of the trunk, or dissolved in water.
Suitable drugs such as:
- Urea. 15-20 grams for one sapling,
- Dead manure, 1 bucket on a sapling. They mulch the top layer of soil at a distance of 10 cm from the stem of the plant.
- Infusion of bird droppings in the amount of half a bucket. They need to water the apple tree immediately after planting.
Planting and care for columnar apple trees in the Moscow region
The popularity of these apple trees is growing from year to year, thanks to the peculiarities of the species and its advantages:
- High precocity - bear fruit from the first or second year after planting.
- Compactness - instead of one classic apple tree, up to 10 seedlings can be planted, choosing different varieties and terms of crop ripening.
- Shallow root system - suitable for soil with high groundwater levels.
For all its virtues, columnar apple trees have one lack of low frost resistance. When choosing a variety, it is worth checking with the seller whether it is suitable for the Moscow region.
Saplings for planting sold annuals, rarely two-year. Annual seedlings take root better.
The care consists of watering, loosening the stem, removing weeds..
Spring pruning is performed if the tree gives side branches. They are cut with a sharp shears, and the cut is covered with garden pitch.
Watch the video from an experienced gardener about planting columnar apple trees:
Useful tips from experienced gardeners, if you have an apple tree in the suburbs
- Never buy seedlings grown in the southern regions! Under the conditions of the Moscow region, they will freeze out in the very first cold winter. The best choice is zoned planting material from the nursery.
- Do not buy tall, 4-5 year old trees, although the temptation and great. They take root poorly and adapt longer.
- Wrap the trunks of young seedlings for the winter! This will protect them from hares, peeling off the young bark of the plant. It is enough to tie one meter of the trunk, starting from the edge of the earth, the hares will not reach higher.
Care for a young garden
When growing young apples, you just need to remember about their needs:
- clean soil near the trunk,
- sanitary and formative pruning,
Caring for apple trees in the fall, immediately after planting, will not cause much trouble. Watering is usually enough that was done during planting. In dry autumn, seedlings are watered weekly, 2–3 buckets under the tree each. The apple-tree will not need additional feeding for 2–3 years if the landing pit is filled with a sufficient amount of fertilizers. Weed grass at this time is no longer growing.
With the onset of spring, seedlings need a standard set of agri-activities. Care begins with early pruning to bud break.
- In an annual seedling, the central conductor is cut into 2-3 buds to stimulate branching.
- In a two-year-old sapling, side branches are shortened by 1/3 or 2/3 of the length.
- The center conductor must be higher than any side branch.
The next need is loose and clean ground under the crown of the tree. Only an adult tree can safely carry planting lawn or flowers in pristvolnom circle. The roots of young trees are actively growing, they require a large amount of oxygen.
Care for young apple trees requires timely and abundant watering. Moscow summer is often unpredictable in terms of precipitation, and there is drought and endless rains. Recommendations refer to average weather conditions that need to be adjusted for specific conditions.
In the first month, the sapling is watered weekly, gradually pouring 2 buckets of water. Then they switch to abundant, but rare irrigation: 4–5 buckets in 3 weeks.
For an adult tree, 4 irrigations per season at the most crucial moments are enough. Flowering, fruit set, apple pouring and prewinter watering are the phases of obligatory moistening and feeding. But young apple trees can be watered more often. And the flowers before the age of 4 is better to cut off, not allowing the fruit to tie.
It is very easy to care for a young apple tree, there are few branches and leaves, everything is visible. In such conditions it is difficult to miss the onset of any disease of apple trees. When they appear, you should not use chemical means of protection. Numerous popular methods of protection, harmless to humans and plants, are quite suitable.
If the disease still overcomes the tree, despite the efforts of the gardener, you can try to use safe biological products based on the action of fungi or microorganisms: Fitover, Bitoxibacillin and others.
It is worth ensuring that the peg does not rub against the seedling's bark, and the garter does not crash into it. Damage to the cortex at a young age is very dangerous.
We can not allow the appearance of overgrown at the base of the tree. When it appears shoots cut out near the root, raking aside the ground.
Planting apple seedlings in the Moscow region in the autumn is the best time. Unlike a pear, which does not like autumn plantings, an apple tree is a plant of the middle belt and tolerates winter cold even at a young age. For a good survival, you need to choose the right place, correctly plant and provide proper care.
When is it better to plant an apple tree - in spring or autumn and on what does it depend
The fact that apple seedlings are planted in the spring, many people know firsthand, probably every gardener at least once engaged in this. But newcomers to gardening are concerned with the question of whether this procedure can be performed in the fall. And if you can plant apples in spring and autumn, then what time of year can be considered the best for planting seedlings.
Autumn planting of seedlings is frightening because winter comes after a while with bitter frosts. People fear that barely rooted seedlings may not survive in harsh conditions and die. These concerns have a basis, but experts consider planting fruit seedlings in the fall to be more effective.
Benefits of Autumn Planting
Planting apple saplings with the onset of autumn has several advantages over spring planting:
- A wide selection of seedlings. In the autumn season, nurseries and private individuals offer to sell a lot of seedlings of different varieties. It is easy to choose exactly the variety that best suits the climatic conditions of your region.
- Good survival rate. In the autumn, by the time the planting material is sold, all biological processes are suspended in saplings as they go into hibernation. Therefore, they painlessly tolerate transplantation, adapt well to new growing conditions and direct all forces to rooting.
- The gardener has a lot of free time. In the fall, gardeners are not as heavily loaded as in spring. In this regard, it is possible to carefully consider the whole technology of preparation of the site and the seedling, as well as its planting.
- Minor care. After an autumn planting of a sapling, caring for it before the onset of winter is not difficult. It should only be watered several times if precipitation is not observed in the autumn. In rainy autumn there is no need for watering.
- Early spring awakening. Saplings planted in the fall, when the temperature in the spring is + 4 degrees, begin to grow. A spring planting of seedlings produced 3 weeks later.
Disadvantages of planting apple trees in the fall
As you already know, it does not happen that a method has only advantages and is free from shortcomings. So the autumn planting has some drawbacks:
Having landed young saplings in the fall in a permanent place, one must be ready to repel the attacks of rodents throughout the winter. In the period of winter starvation, they will not fail to eat the young bark of your seedlings.
Apple tree lesions are so strong that they eventually die. With the help of a ruberoid or a grid, they make protection of the stacks of young apple trees.
Difficult to determine the optimal landing time
It is necessary to take a very serious approach to the choice of the term of the autumn planting, taking into account the arrival of the first frost. If we allow a mistake in the calculations and plant later than the recommended dates, the apple tree will not have time to take root in a new place and will die from frost in winter.
An earlier planting of a seedling can provoke an awakening and growth of vegetative buds in the autumn thaw, which will also end in tears.
A gardener who is tired by the autumn is set to go on to rest after a hard season, and then there is a need to engage in planting seedlings. Людям трудно настроиться на работу и заставить себя её выполнить.
Высаживать яблони осенью надо не позже, чем за 30 дней до прихода морозов, когда листья с деревца полностью опали. Даже лёгкие заморозки на почве могут сильно помешать укоренению саженцев.
Какие условия надо соблюсти для посадки осенью
When planting apple trees in the fall, saplings must observe a number of conditions in order for the plant to take root and survive in the winter season:
- After purchase, try to plant a seedling in the ground as soon as possible. Otherwise, its roots may dry out.
- Choose to plant biennial or annual saplings. They will take root better than those apple trees that are 3 or more years old.
- Planting seedlings only in a prepared place, in a hole dug in advance.
- Do not abuse fertilizers. Gentle roots can not withstand high concentrations of batteries and will be burned.
- After planting, water the seedlings abundantly with a watering can with a nozzle. This not only moistens the soil, but also contributes to its optimum compaction.
- Place apple trees on strong-growing rootstocks at a distance of 4 meters from each other. For dwarf trees, an interval of 3 meters is sufficient.
- When choosing a site for laying a garden, it is necessary to take into account the level of occurrence of groundwater. If it is less than 2.5 meters, then it is better to refuse planting fruit crops at this place.
- An obstacle to laying a garden can also be communications pipes. Above them, too, should not plant a garden. Tree roots should be developed in a comfortable environment.
- The best time to land is when the temperature during the day is +10 degrees, and at night the thermometer drops to +5 degrees. In such conditions, very well formed new roots.
Terms of planting an apple tree
Planting apple seedlings is a long-term investment. After a few years, the gardener gets mouth-watering fruits, and in winter you can make jam, jam or jam and use these products for a long time.
However, in order to obtain decent yields, it will be necessary to make some efforts to carry out care work in accordance with the rules. This concerns, among other things, the timing of planting apple seedlings in the fall, in determining which address the lunar calendar and are guided by the climatic features of the region where the fruit is cultivated.
By lunar calendar
If you determine the date of planting on the lunar calendar, then the best days for planting apple trees in the fall in 2018 will be the following days:
- in October - 2-5, 14-17, 20-22,
- in November - 16-18, 21, 22.
If you plant the seedlings on one of these days - this will guarantee a good rooting of the seedling.
Depending on the region
Climatic conditions of the growing region also influence the choice of the date of autumn planting. In different regions, the dates can move in one direction or another.
On average in Russia, this work is carried out from late September to October 15.
Now let's see when to plant apples in the fall in some areas of the country and neighboring countries.
In Moscow, the planting of apple seedlings starts from the twentieth of September and completes this work before the end of the second month of autumn. Tightening up with the procedure is not recommended, since the frost, which is destructive for the planted plants, begins in November.
In the Leningrad Region, the soils are poor in batteries, therefore, they plant quite a lot of fertilizers during planting. A planting of fruit seedlings in this area is carried out in September.
The time of arrival of the first autumn frosts is also taken into account when choosing a landing period in the Central zone. By years of testing it was determined that the planting of an apple tree in the fall in the Moscow region should be carried out from September 16 to October 15.
However, if the weather is inappropriate for the procedure, the landing should be postponed until spring.
In the southern areas of the country and in Ukraine, this period can be stretched to the first days of November, since the first frosts there begin in late November or early December. But you should always monitor the short-term weather forecast, because cooling may come even earlier than normal.
Siberia has a very strong winter frost. Young saplings to survive the cold winter is not easy. In the regions of Siberia, it is better to plant apple trees in the springtime. The same applies to the Ural region, where winters are not much milder than in Siberia.
For people who are accustomed to taking risks, we inform you that if you finally decided to plant the seedlings in the fall, it is better to do it from September 10 to October 5.
In the Volga region, apple trees are recommended to be planted from October 1 to 15. Those gardeners who are late with planting are at great risk - there is a high probability that the seedlings will not have time to settle down in a new place and prepare for the harsh conditions of winter existence.
Belarus has a relatively mild winter, but it is recommended that even there it should not be delayed with the time of autumn planting of apple trees. It is advisable to cope with this procedure until September 20.
How to choose seedlings
When choosing a seedling should first pay attention to his health. Buying planting material from an unknown person is always accompanied by a significant risk. In order not to be deceived, the purchase must be made in nurseries.
Gardeners without experience often ask which varieties should be preferred when choosing seedlings. You should buy only those early, middle or late varieties of apple trees that are zoned in your area. If you plant in the Urals a variety zoned in the Kuban, it is not a fact that this apple tree will survive the frosty winter.
Particular attention should be paid to the type of seedlings stock. Preference can be given to ordinary apple trees on high-growth rootstocks, but then it must be borne in mind that they are quite high and will require a larger area of nutrition.
Kolonovidnye apple, relatively recently available for sale, gained a very high popularity. Like any types of fruit trees, these seedlings are advised to be planted in the spring or with the onset of autumn. If in the fall - then you need to cope with this work before September expires.
How well dwarf apple trees will take root in the new place also depends on the time of planting. In autumn, similar apple trees should be replanted when their growth stops and some of the leaves have already fallen.
We have collected a number of recommendations that should be followed when choosing seedlings for planting apple trees in the fall.
- Buy apple trees between the ages of 1 and 3 years old that look strong and have managed to build up an excellent root system. The roots of the tree should be free from any damage, the presence of rotten areas, as well as traces of mold are unacceptable.
- The height of the seedlings should reach 1.2-2 meters. If the planting material will be even higher and have green leaves - this means that the plant has begun to grow due to an excess of nitrogen fertilizers and is not ready for winter.
- If the seedlings are excessively low, this means that they have been given the wrong care. Perhaps, during the cultivation, supplements were not carried out, or they are simply sick.
- The stalks of the seedling should be from top to bottom lignified, without shoots and green leaves.
- From the moment of purchase and until the day of planting, keep the roots of the plant in water or in a wet substrate.
- The bark should not have scratches, dents or other damage. Its color should be dark brown.
- A seedling should have more than 4 branches. The vaccination site must be above 5 cm from the root.
How to plant an apple tree in the fall
For the correct planting of an apple tree, it is necessary to carry out a certain sequence of actions. If the preparation for the procedure is carried out correctly, then the success of the enterprise will not take long.
Below we provide step by step instructions on how to plant an apple tree in the fall.
Selection and preparation of the site
When planting and transplanting tree saplings it is necessary to choose the right place and prepare it. Such work should be done in the spring.
For an apple tree, a plot is best suited to others where fruit trees did not grow before.
Of great importance for seedlings is the depth of the planting pit. If you overdo it and dig it deeper than desirable, then the root system will experience oxygen deficiency. This can even lead to decay of the roots. In too shallow a well, the roots will be partially exposed and suffer from frost.
How to prepare a pit for planting an apple tree in autumn:
- Remove the turf, and then the top layer of soil and put them in separate piles.
- Then we continue to deepen and remove another 25 cm of land deep into.
- The result should be a pit 50 cm deep and about a meter in diameter. When digging dimples, it is necessary to take into account that the distance between the trees is assumed to be 4 meters. The same interval must be maintained from the planted seedlings and fruit trees already growing in the garden.
- Lay the grass turf layer down on the bottom of the pit so that it will decompose and turn into humus, useful for a young seedling.
- Then mix the pre-prepared ingredients well:
- wood ash
- rotted manure of cattle,
- sheet compost.
- When laying the mixture in the pit, you need to mix it well with the ground, ensuring optimum soil looseness.
- At the site of the prepared holes for planting, place wooden pegs as marks so that in the autumn it would be easy to find them.
When digging holes, consider the composition of the soil. If it is clayey in texture, then the landing holes do not dig deeper than 30 cm, and the diameter, on the contrary, increase to 1.5 meters. In such a pit, it will be easier for roots to grow in breadth. Clay on such soil will need to be replaced with sand for better aeration of the roots.
If the depth is less than 2.5 meters, then it is necessary to choose an elevated place in the garden and plant a landing there. The elevation can be made artificially by pouring a mound of turf and topsoil.
The process of planting an apple in the fall
The day before planting the seedling at a permanent place it is placed in water. Carefully inspect the seedling bark below. A place where the color of the bark is a little darker - this is the root neck. When planting, it is sprinkled with soil a little, but when the soil settles, it should be about 6 cm above the soil level.
Land after the completion of the landing procedure is not strongly recommended to tamp. In dense ground, roots cannot breathe. After planting, tie an apple tree to a peg. This will protect it from damage.
Below we give the whole process of planting seedlings with an open root system in the desired sequence:
- In the prepared cavity, make a hole that coincides in diameter with the root system of the plant. Give plenty of water and wait until moisture is absorbed.
- Next, you need to inspect the roots of the seedling and shears all rotted and injured areas with shears.
- The seedling is placed in a recess near the support and the roots are filled with soil mixture, then slightly tamped.
- Tie the plant to the peg with a string to give it the desired position. To prevent damage from possible friction due to the wind on the bark, put a ruberoid between the twine and the bark.
- Very well water the seedling. Usually poured 20 liters of water.
- The area around the trunk of a seedling zamulchiruyte humus. So you can prevent the loss of moisture from the soil from evaporation.
Planting seedlings with a closed root system
Apple trees with a closed root system are those that grow in pots or containers. These plants require a slightly different attitude.
When planting seedlings with a root system of this type, the following rules should be followed:
- We dig the pit for planting as well as for seedlings with an open root system: 50 cm deep and 100 cm in diameter.
- We remove the lower infertile soil layer and fill the bottom of the pit with a mixture consisting of upper soil layers, fertilizers and ash.
- On the day of planting we make a hole in this pit with a diameter equal to the size of the pot.
- Water the potted soil to reduce the risk of injury to the roots when planting. Turn the pot upside down, carefully remove the pot.
- Place the seedling with the earthy clod in the pit so that the levels of the soil in the pot and in the pit coincide. The level of the pot is allowed to be slightly above ground level. Set the peg for the garter of a young tree.
- Fill all free space with soil and water the seedling abundantly. Then tamp the ground around the seedling a little.
- Planting apple trees, do not abuse nitrogen fertilizers. They need to be made with the arrival of spring. Overfilled manure is brought to the bottom of the pit.
- If the soil in the area is acidic, one of the following substances must be added before planting:
- hydrated lime
- dolomite flour,
- meadow marl.
Autumn care for a sapling
After planting an apple tree in the fall, seedlings before winter almost do not require care. Attention is paid only to watering, especially if the autumn will be without rain.
During the next watering, it is enough to spend 1 bucket of water on each seedling. Pour the liquid must be at the root. The frequency of irrigation - no more than 1 time per week.
Errors when planting fruit seedlings
No one is immune from mistakes, even gardeners with experience. If you violate the rules of planting, there is a negative impact of some factors on the development of a young apple tree.
To avoid typical mistakes made when planting an apple tree in the fall, you need to study them ahead of time:
- Some gardeners believe that it is better to plant seedlings that are 3 or more years old. But it is not. Younger seedlings are easier to adapt and take root in a new place.
- No need to strive to invest in the pit a lot of mineral fertilizers. Because of this, an aggressive environment occurs in the root zone of the soil, leading to the death of beneficial microflora.
- Do not use in the process of planting fresh manure. Decomposing, it releases gaseous substances: hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, which strongly inhibit the roots of the seedling.
- If you plant a sapling in a place that was recently dug up, and the soil has not settled on it - this can lead to excessive deepening of the root collar. The development of a young tree will be inhibited.
- No need to purchase seedlings in advance. Buy them in the planting season. In this case, there is confidence that they have already managed to go into a state of rest and are prepared for wintering.
Planting an apple tree in the fall with saplings can only be crowned with success, when the planting period is determined correctly, good planting material is planted, a good site is selected, holes for planting are correctly made and the planting is done skillfully. Then you can count on a high yield of apples in the garden.