Today, the assortment of blackberry seedlings in nurseries is very large. Among the modern varieties, one can find all the wonders of breeding - and remontant, and of different colors, and with orange or apple flavor, and unless they do not plant themselves. But not all gardeners rush to change the old proven varieties. One of them is the blackberry variety Agavam.
Characteristics of a variety
Let's start with the description of the blackberry variety Agaveam. It is possible that the birth of the proverb is connected with the ancient Agave variety: “There are only two problems with the blackberry: first, get it, then bring it out.” This century-old "grandfather" inherited from his ancestors, wild plants, an amazing will to live and the ability to quite aggressively seize adjacent territories.
Like many other varieties of blackberry, the Agave is from North America. There is no more accurate information about the history of its appearance, since it is a sort of popular selection. According to its shape, Agaves refers to the cumaníks - blackberries with erect shoots. Its varietal characteristics:
Leaf complex, studded along the veins. A characteristic feature of the Agave variety is that all leaf blades of a leaf come out from one point. The foliage does not drop for a long time, it can leave with the leaves under the snow.
These data allow to draw conclusions about the disadvantages and advantages of the blackberry variety Agaveam. The advantages include:
- excellent winter hardiness
- drought tolerance,
- shade tolerance
- resistance to wetting, which allows to plant the blackberry Agaves in the lowlands,
- disease resistance
- good fruit taste and versatility of use
- fruit transportability,
- prolonged fruiting.
Among the shortcomings can be noted only strong spiky shoots, which makes it difficult to leave. With regard to the propensity of the blackberry Agave to “scatter” around the site, this can be treated in two ways. On the one hand, this complicates the care of the plantings and requires constant monitoring. On the other hand, it makes it easy to reproduce blackberries. From one bush it is possible to breed a whole blackberry plantation for several years.
Growing blackberries agave
Blackberry seedlings Agave is best planted in the spring, so that the young plant has taken root. If you do this in the fall, it is better to place the seedling in the pit “lying down” and cover it. Otherwise, there is a risk of freezing of the shoots.
The ideal soil is light sandy loam, with a neutral reaction. If the soil is acidic, you will need liming. Plot is better to choose sunny. Despite the shade tolerance of the variety, it is more productive in the sun, and in cold regions in dense shade they may not have time to ripen up young shoots before winter.
A mullein is introduced into the planting pit, filled with humus, 150 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams of potash fertilizers are added. From above, everything is filled up with a layer of humus to half the volume of the pit and watered. Thus prepared planting pit will provide plant nutrition for the next three years. After that, in the spring under each bush will need to be buried in a bucket of well-rotted manure or mature compost.
After planting, saplings are immediately cut to a height of 20-25 cm from the ground. Pristvolny circle is useful to mulch. It retains moisture in the soil and protects against weeds. As a mulch, the blackberry likes forest floor with bark and conifer inclusions.
Plant blackberries can be in two ways: in rows or individual bushes. If there is no task to dissolve the bramble, under a bush you need to separate an area of 2 * 2 meters. The landing pattern in rows along the border is more interesting:
- 1 meter recede from the border and place seedlings with an interval of 1 meter from each other.
- Strong racks are instilled in at both ends of the row (from timber or thick reinforcement).
- Between them stretch three rows of wire: at a height of 40, 120 and 170 cm.
This way the trellis is formed. In summer, the shoots are tied to the top and middle wires - each separately, fan, with an interval of about 25 cm. This method, firstly, allows all vines to get enough sunlight and facilitates harvesting. Secondly, this creates a barbed green fence on the site.
In the fall, two-year-old ovle-bearing branches are cut, and the young ones are tied in a bundle, bend down to the bottom wire and are tied up. It is necessary to perform this procedure before the cold, while the shoots are not woody and still quite flexible.
Blackberry Agawam is quite capable of wintering without shelter. With severe frosts (-25⁰C and below), you only need to throw a lot of snow on the bushes.
If for some reason there is no certainty that the wintering will be good, you can make a shield cover for the blackberry: two rows of wooden boards with a height of 80 cm are installed above the bushes in the form of a tent and covered with foil. From the ends, the structure closes after the onset of frost.
In the early years, the blackberry agave does not require much effort to form. But when it comes into force, this variety begins to drive out too long vines that can turn the plantation into a jungle. Therefore, starting from the fourth year of life, Agaves need to be cut regularly.
Except for the autumn removal of the sprouting branches, Agaves are pruned twice per season. The first pruning is carried out in the spring. Releasing overwintered vines, they are carefully examined. Live shoots have shiny brown bark; they are resilient and strong, not fragile. The frozen ones must be cut out immediately. For a good harvest, 4-6 branches are enough.
The second pruning is performed in July on the young shoots substitute by pinching - pinching the tops of 7-10 cm. For cumaníks, this is a mandatory technique that stimulates fruiting the next year. On the second order shoots, when they grow, the procedure is repeated.
Bushes i blackberries Agaveam
Diseases and pests
Variety resistant to diseases and attacks of pests. However, if plant care is not organized properly, the culture may suffer from infectious diseases. Most often, they occur with improper fertilizing varieties. If a variety suffers a deficiency or excess of an element, it may experience a number of unpleasant symptoms.
The variety may suffer from attacks of a bear, a beetle. To scare off the parasite will help plants such as marigold and marigold. The roots of crops contain many essential oils, which are afraid of pests.
Caring for the Agave is no more difficult than for raspberries. Rich quality yields more than compensate for all the inconveniences associated with agricultural technology.
Blackberry Agaveam: variety description
For the first time this thorny berry shrub appeared in North America, as a result of the usual folk selection. That is why there is so little information about its origin. But there is an unequivocal fact: from their wild-growing “relatives” of the obtained variety, not only unpleasant spines were obtained, but also an incredible will to live. If you plant an Agave once, it will be difficult to get rid of it - the variety of berries can grow at the speed of the most harmful weeds. Some gardeners even jokingly notice that it is this shrub who is obliged to have the saying “there are only two problems with blackberry: first, get it, then bring it out.”
Agaves belong to the species of bushes Kumanikov with upright shoots. They grow quite sprawling and powerful, rising up from 1.5 to 3 meters and aggressively spreading through the site due to root shoots. A more detailed description of the appearance:
- thick branches with drooping tops stand erect, while thin ones can move along the ground,
- annual shoots of green shades, but as they mature they become reddish-purple or brown,
- spikes are medium, slightly curved and often planted,
- leaves are dark green, with a complex structure and small spikes along the veins.
The blackberry of the Agavas blooms with white flowers, gathering in racemes. One brush can contain up to 15–20 berries. But the first two years to wait for the harvest from the shrub is not worth it, flower buds appear only in late spring and only on adult shoots. In favorable conditions, they continue to bear fruit every year, up to 15 years.
The variety is mid-season, ripens by the beginning of autumn. Fruits are conical in shape and small, do not exceed 5 grams in weight. Until the time of ripening, the berries are distinguished neither by taste nor by structure: fresh-herbaceous with sourness. Only acquiring a bright black color with a glossy shine, they become sweet, but at the same time soft and unsuitable for transportation. But at the same time, the variety has good yields: from one bush up to 10 kg per season is collected.
Advantages and disadvantages
Black Agave is distinguished by cold tolerance, which is markedly higher than most other varieties of culture. Young shoots are able to calmly survive thirty degrees of frost without covering. And perhaps this is the most remarkable advantage of the variety: it is suitable for growing even in the northern regions and at the same time does not lose yield.
Berry bushes tolerate rare watering and drought. Not bad grow in a sunny location, and in the shade of garden trees. The maximum that they can face is chopping fruit. Braves Blackberry Agave and possible spring floods: the plant does not fall out, and the root system is resistant to rotting. Another important plus is that, along with unpretentiousness, this variety is rarely exposed to diseases or parasites. Is that with bad or complete lack of care.
The main disadvantages include pricklyness and excessive vitality. The first factor makes it difficult to collect fruits and care for the bushes, while the second can be a real disaster for a gardener who decides to say goodbye to the Agaves in favor of more preferred varieties.
So that the shrub does not grow, the number of young shoots and the density of the bush must be constantly adjusted. Attempts to limit the "seizure of the territory" slate or other fences are useless - blackberries easily overcome all obstacles.
Small soft fruits crumple and deteriorate with any careless manipulation. Stored, respectively, not for long. You can only transport them in an immature form, otherwise after the trip only the berry “mash” will remain in the boxes.
Principles of cultivation
It is best for Agave to plant the blackberry in the spring: at this time it is particularly well rooted and takes root. But autumn sowing is also possible., only in this case sprouts should not be put, but laid in a prepared well, sprinkling on top of a layer of earth. This will create additional protection from the winter cold.
The variety is unpretentious, but dismissive attitude can turn it into an annoying weed rather than a pleasing shrub. Choosing a place for planting, pay attention to the soil area: blackberry agavam will feel great in neutral sandy soil. Therefore, in the case of acidification, it is advisable to prelime the soil. And the place to choose lit so that the berries do not become shallowed due to lack of light. Moreover, in the shadows, the rate of maturation drops noticeably.
Do not neglect fertilizers! In the hole dug under the sapling, you need to bring a cowshed, and it is better to fill it with humus with a mixture of potash supplements, superphosphate and pour with settled water. As a result, half of the pit should be filled with humus - this will provide the blackberry with nutritional components for at least 3 years. Shoots are compounded with compost residues. To protect the Agaves from various weeds and to exclude frequent watering, the soil can be mulched with bark, coniferous branches or needles.
Professionals advise after planting to pruning: the tops of young shoots are cut so that their height does not exceed 20−25 centimeters.
They plant blackberries exclusively in two ways:
If the gardener does not have the goal of creating a whole plantation, then the first option is ideal, the only conditionality of which says that for the bush, the Agaves need to take place 2 by 2 meters in the garden.
But with the landing of blackberries in rows a little harder. From the edges of the selected area must retreat at least a meter. This distance should be maintained between the seedlings. And at the beginning and at the end of each strip it is necessary to dig up the racks, on which the wire must be tensioned: three times, at a height of 20, 120 and 170 cm. This will form a trellis, which will greatly simplify work with blackberries and the harvesting process. TThis way you can also form a so-called green fence..
First of all, it is timely pruning of the shoots. It is necessary to get rid of extra shoots on time and completely get rid of in order to prevent the growth. In those who have reached the age of two, as a rule, the tops of the stems are cut, while still young ones are tied with a bundle to the lower wire supporting the trellis. This should be done in the fall, before the onset of the first cold weather - during this period the branches of the shrub do not have time to "grow" and are quite elastic.
Agave does not necessarily insulate for the winter. Even in the case of extreme cold, it is enough just to cover the blackberry with a snowdrift. If the frosts in the growing region are very severe, then it makes sense to establish a kind of “shelter-hut”. For this fit any boards that are placed above the bushes, covered with film on top. The ends of the structure can be fixed a little later, as soon as the first frosts begin.
The blackberry variety Agawam was created in the middle of the 19th century. Little is known about its origin. It can be said for sure that the variety was created in the USA, and North American wild blackberry species were made as parent crops. Some sources claim that the Agawam has been known since 1865.
In 2006, the variety was included in the State Register and recommended for cultivation in all regions of Russia.
General idea of the variety
Agawam blackberry forms a powerful, compact shrub. This is a typical cumanica. Its thick pentahedral shoots with drooping tops are densely covered with brown, spikes bent down. The spines are of medium size, but very sharp and tough. Young shoots are green, by the end of the growing season darken, last year's whips are brown.
The leaves have a characteristic agave form - all the plates diverge from one point. They are corrugated, strongly pubescent, with a very narrowed tip. The central veins on the reverse side are covered with spines, although much smaller than the spikes on the shoots. The size of the leaves is medium, the color is green. To fasten they fasten firmly. Even in the winter, the blackberry Agaveam often leaves leafy.
The ability to form shoots in this variety is average. On the other hand, Agawam shoots form a lot, and it is difficult to fight it - neither a curb digging, nor covering the soil with slate or metal sheets helps.
Fruiting of this blackberry occurs at last year's growth.
Agawam blackberries have a medium size - from 4 to 5 g, slightly pubescent. They are painted black and have the shape of a truncated cone or oval. Fastening berries to a spiny short stalk is average. Each brush consists of 15-20 fruits of different degrees of maturity.
The taste of a ripe blackberry Agaveam is sweet and sour, with a delicate aroma, the fruit is dense and tolerates transportation well. Over-grown berries become soft, watery and fresh. In the stage of technical ripeness, their taste and aroma resembles grass, they are not even too sour. So gather the blackberries of the Agave variety on time.
Perhaps, therefore, the tasting of berries is low - only 3.5 points. Reviews gardeners about blackberries Agaveam vary. Some consider it a garbage variety and are advised to replace it with another, with large sweet berries and without thorns. Others, on the contrary, argue that if you collect the Agawam blackberry on time, then no capricious beshipnyh novelties are needed.
Before turning to the characteristics of the Agave blackberry, we recall that this is one of the first varieties, bred about 150 years ago. And still it is planted both on industrial plantations and in private households. If you wanted to close the tab and go to other varieties, first look at the video on the blackberry Agaves, grown without shelter in the south of Moscow region. Listen to what the hostess says about her, who does not want to get involved in beshipnyh novelties:
Blackberry Agawam - one of the most cold-resistant varieties. It really can be grown without shelter in Ukraine, Belarus and in central Russia. When creating modern varieties Agaveam is used as a frost resistance donor. He easily endures a short-term decrease in temperature to -25-30 ⁰ C. In contrast to the cultivars of the Polish selection, the flower buds of the Agave variety are frozen slightly.
But this blackberry does not like a strong heat - the berries can bake. In the southern regions it can be planted in partial shade - it will affect the harvest a little. Average drought resistance is a relative concept. Any blackberry should be watered regularly if you want to achieve a good harvest. For poor soil moisture, the Agawam variety will respond to you with a shallow berry.
This blackberry makes less demands on the soil than other varieties - it will grow even on the ground with a neutral reaction.
Transportability of berries is good in the stage of technical and full ripeness. You can not give it to ripen - then the fruits will be suitable only for processing, but the taste they will not be the best (just 3.5 points).
All problems in the care are reduced to the inconvenience delivered by sharp and curved spines. Это усложняет сбор урожая, а в тех регионах, где зима настолько суровая, что плети все же нужно укрывать, укрытие на зиму.
Период цветения и сроки созревания
Цветение ежевики Agawam происходит в мае. В южных регионах бутоны с белыми лепестками раскрываются на 7-10 дней раньше, чем на севере. During flowering the bush is completely covered with a white veil and looks very elegant.
Berries ripen unevenly. The bulk reaches ripeness by mid-August. For blackberry is the average time.
Yield indicators, terms of fructification
The average yield of blackberries Agavam is about 100 c / ha. And this despite the fact that 30 kg / ha is considered a good indicator! Such a harvest is achieved due to compacted plantings and the fact that the Agawam variety has good shade tolerance - even those berries that lack light are ripening.
From one bush they collect from 5 to 15 kg of berries. Fruiting stretched. To pick blackberries, Agave is better in the stage of full ripeness, as in the stage of technical maturity or overexposed, they have a mediocre taste.
Advantages and disadvantages
Of course, the newest varieties lack spikes, sweeter and more fragrant. Yes, and in the photo of the blackberry Agave, it is clear that its berries are not as beautiful as those of the Black Magic, Triple Crown or Karak Black. But it has several advantages:
- High yield.
- The bush grows fast.
- Agawam is one of the most resistant to cold (including flower buds). Even in the suburbs it can not cover for the winter.
- Unpretentious care.
- Resistant to soak.
- Shade tolerance (not to be confused with shade-loving).
- The variety Agaveam is undemanding on soils more than other blackberries.
- Resistance to diseases, pests.
- The versatility of the use of berries.
- Stretching fruiting.
- The bush grows and bears fruit in one place for 15 years and more.
- The Agawam variety is old and tried. We know exactly what to expect from it.
The disadvantages include:
- Studding shoots and leaves.
- Mediocre taste of overripe or unripe berries. It is necessary to adapt themselves to collect them on time.
- A huge number of root shoots. To deal with it is very difficult.
- In the northern regions, shelter for the winter is difficult.
- The size of the berries is small.
Oddly enough, an unpretentious variety Agaveam is poorly propagated by layering and pulverizing. And the point here is not that thick, erect lashes are difficult to bend down to the ground. They are poorly rooted! Only 1 out of 10 will survive well.
But the grade will give so much that you will not know where to put it.
Description of the blackberry variety Agaveam
The blackberry variety Agaveam was bred by American breeders more than a hundred years ago, but is still in great demand among gardeners. Shrub differs erect shoots and high yield. In addition, the variety inherited the endurance and unpretentiousness of its wild ancestors (Figure 1).
Among other features of a grade allocate:
- Height: adult specimens can grow up to three meters in height, so if you want to facilitate the care of the culture, it is recommended to carry out formative pruning regularly. In addition, the variety has a lush crown and a large number of root processes.
- Viability: the variety is remarkable for its stamina and vitality. Plants can withstand temperatures as low as -30 degrees. At the same time, the shrub tolerates drought well: with a prolonged absence of moisture, only a small decrease in the size of the fruit is possible.
- Resistance to adverse factors: Shrub normally tolerates increased soil moisture, normally develops in the shade and is resistant to most diseases.
In addition, representatives of the variety Agaveam have high yields. During the fruiting period, which reaches its maximum activity in mid-August, up to 20 fruits can form on each hand. At the same time, the duration of the fruiting of one shrub is about 15 years, with proper care of the plants.
Ripe fruits, it is desirable to immediately use or send for processing. Despite the fact that the pulp of the blackberry Agaveam is quite dense, it is easily damaged, therefore, for transportation, the fruits should be harvested before full maturation.
With a huge number of advantages, the variety Agaveam has some disadvantages. Firstly, the shoots of the shrub are covered with a large number of thorns, which significantly complicates the care of the crop. Secondly, adult shrubs form many root processes. If you do not control the growth of overgrowth, the culture will grow very quickly on the site.
Note: Attempts to prevent overgrowth with fences, dug into the ground, will not lead to a positive result, as the roots of the plant easily penetrate under them and spread throughout the site.
The formation of numerous root shoots can only be called a lack of variety. On the other hand, this feature of the shrub allows you to quickly and effortlessly propagate the culture.
Planting blackberries agave
Variety Agaveam, like any other garden culture, requires compliance with certain recommendations for planting. First of all, it should be borne in mind that young seedlings are better planted in the ground in spring, so that the plants have time to fully settle down and get stronger before the onset of winter cold (Figure 2). However, if you missed the right time for planting, you can put the seedlings in the ground in the fall. But in this case, when the first frost occurs, it is better to bend the shoots to the ground, fix and cover them with burlap or a layer of organic mulch. Without such shelter there is a high risk of freezing of the shoots in winter.
Blackberry Agawam is planted with the following recommendations in mind:
- The soil: It is best to choose light sandy soil with neutral acidity. Additionally, liming is carried out on acid soils.
- Plot selection: the bed should be well lit by the sun, although normal fruiting is possible in partial shade. However, if you live in a cold climate, it is better to choose a sunny site for the Agave. In cool climates and in the shade, fruiting retardation and growth of young fruiting shoots is possible.
- Preparation of holes: when planting, a mullein, humus, superphosphate (150 grams per bush) and 40 grams of potash fertilizers are introduced into each pit. Top this mixture to sprinkle with humus and pour. Only after that the seedling can be placed in the hole. Such training will not only ensure the rapid engraftment of the culture, but also provide the plant with all the necessary nutrients for the next three years.
- Landing: planting seedlings can be carried out both in rows and individual bushes. If you do not plan to multiply the plant in the near future, you will need a 2 x 2 meter platform for one bush. You can plant blackberries and rows, departing 1 meter from the border area and keeping the same distance between individual plants. However, when growing in rows, it should be borne in mind that plants will have to be tied up to the trellis.
After planting seedlings in open ground, they should be immediately cut so that the height of the shoots does not exceed 20-25 cm above the ground surface. The stem of each sapling is desirable to be mulched with a layer of bark or needles. This will prevent moisture loss and weed growth.
Care and reproduction
Caring for blackberries Agaves can not be called difficult. Most crops require regular feeding, watering and pruning. From this point of view, the blackberry of this type does not present any particular difficulties.
If we talk about fertilizing, then when a mixture of organic-mineral fertilizers is applied to the planting hole, the shrub will not require additional fertilizing during the first three years of cultivation. Further, in order to feed the plant with nutrients, in the spring, before the buds wake up, you need to dig a shallow trench around the shrub, put organic fertilizer in it and sprinkle it with soil.
Since the variety Agaveam is drought tolerant, there is no need to pay special attention to watering. The only exceptions are regions with a truly hot climate and little natural precipitation. In such regions, watering is carried out as needed, when the topsoil dries. It will be enough to pour a bucket of water under each bush. To prevent moisture loss, it is advisable to mulch the tree circles with organic matter.
In addition, when caring for blackberry planting, you need to periodically loosen the soil and remove weeds. It is better to carry out this procedure immediately after watering or rain. Firstly, weeds are pulled out of wet soil much easier, and secondly, such a procedure will ensure that moisture and air penetrate to the roots.
As for the reproduction of the blackberry Agavam, it does not present any difficulties. The fact is that the plants of this variety actively form root processes. In other words, the shrub will begin to multiply even without the participation of the gardener. But, if you want to cultivate a bed with blackberry, you should separate the root processes from the mother bush and transplant them to the chosen place. If you do not plan to propagate the shrub, all root shoots will have to be permanently removed so that the blackberry does not grow throughout the site.
Growing blackberries, do not forget about the preparation of plants for the winter. With the onset of the first autumn frosts, you need to bend the branches to the ground, fasten them with a hook and cover them with sacking, needles or dry leaves and bark. When snow falls, organic shelter additionally sprinkled with snow. In such conditions, the blackberry agave will tolerate even the strongest porosity.
Note: It is not recommended to use the film as a covering material, since it does not allow air to pass through, the plant will begin to sweep under such a cover and may die from fungal diseases even before the onset of spring.
Another step in caring for blackberries is pruning, but since it is this procedure that is considered the most important and difficult, we will focus on it in more detail.
In the first few years of growing special attention, from the point of view of pruning, blackberries, the Agaves are not required. But, starting from the fourth year of life, the shrub begins to grow very actively and throws out a huge number of young long shoots that thicken the plantings. That is why pruning should be a mandatory step in the care of adult blackberry shrubs Agaves (Figure 3).
Note: Despite the fact that in the first few years the crop does not require formative pruning, sanitary cleaning of the bushes should be carried out regularly. In the spring, after melting snow and removing the shelter, be sure to inspect the plants. There is a high probability that some of the young shoots are frozen. They need to be cut to healthy tissue or completely removed if a large part of the branch is damaged. Also removed all dry parts and shoots with signs of disease. If this is not done, the affected shrub can be a source of disease for other plants in the garden.
One of the features of cutting blackberries of any sort, including Agaves, is the annual pruning of the branches that have borne fruit in the current and previous year. The procedure is carried out in the spring, and the removal of such shoots is necessary because next season they will not bring the harvest, but will only consume the plant sap, weakening the shrub.
In general, the Agawam blackberry pruning is done according to the following rules:
- Remove extra branches should be twice per season: in spring and autumn. In the summer, pruning can be done only in extreme cases, for example, if signs of illness appear. At other times, shoots should be removed only during the period of vegetative rest of the plants, so that they do not experience the stress of the procedure.
- The first stage of pruning is carried out in the spring. At this time, you need to remove the shelter from the blackberry and carefully examine the shoots after the winter. Healthy branches can be identified by their appearance: their bark is shiny, has a uniform brown color, the shoots bend well, but are not fragile. All parts with signs of damage or frostbite are removed. You should not be afraid that the yield of shrubs will decrease from intensive spring pruning: to collect a bountiful harvest, it is enough to leave from 4 to 6 healthy fruit-bearing shoots.
- The second pruning is held in July. Since the pinning method is used to carry out the procedure, it cannot be called a full cut. In fact, the process simply pinches the top of each fruiting shoot. It should be removed only 7-10 cm branch. This procedure will stimulate the branching of fruit-bearing shoots and preserve their yield for the next year.
In the autumn, experienced gardeners recommend removing branches that have been bearing fruit for two years. The procedure should be carried out after harvest, at the beginning of leaf fall. Such pruning not only does not weaken the shrub, but also helps him to better move wintering.
Pest and disease control
In general, the Blackberry Agawam is resistant to diseases and pests. But, if the culture was improperly cared, signs of infectious diseases may appear on it. Most often, such pathologies are provoked by improper feeding, therefore fertilizers should be applied only in the dosage specified by the manufacturer.
Among blackberry pests can only damage large insects: May beetles or bears. They can be harvested by hand, and for prophylaxis next to blackberry bushes, it is advisable to plant marigolds and marigolds, the rich smell of which will deter pests.
Often in the non-infectious diseases of blackberry blame the gardener himself, who incorrectly makes fertilizer. Here is what can happen to a shrub with nutrient deficiency or an excess of nutrients:
- Nitrogen: with its shortage, the plant lags behind in growth, it blooms poorly and practically does not form fruits. If the soil contains too much nitrogen, brown spots will start to appear on the leaves.
- Phosphorus: the lack of this element causes blackening and abscission of leaves, and a strong overfeeding with fertilizers provokes a gradual lightening of the leaves, which is accompanied by their complete necrosis.
- Calcium: the deficit is accompanied by the drying up of the tips of young shoots, and with an excess of it, they begin to die off altogether.
Despite the fact that fertilizing plays an important role in the cultivation of blackberry, you need to remember that it is better to slightly reduce the dosage of fertilizers and feed the shrub only slightly than to cause an excess of nutrients in the soil.
In the video you will find additional information about the blackberry variety Agave.
Choosing the right place
Here we can afford more liberties than with other varieties. Blackberry Agave is not afraid of soaking, so it can be planted in the lowlands.
Soil can be not only slightly acidic, but also neutral. But if it is not a problem for you to buy a little red (high) peat, it is better to spend money on it. And then you will have to acquire chelates - the blackberry is prone to chlorosis, namely, the increased acidity of the soil helps to avoid it.
Variety Agaveam can be planted in partial shade. In this, he resembles his wild relatives, who often live in the undergrowth under the canopy of trees with an openwork crown. In the south, such planting is even preferable - the berry will be less baked. In cold regions, choose a place well lit and protected from the wind.
It is better to follow all the rules of planting and preparation of the soil, even for the blackberry variety Agaves. Then you will be easier to care for her. So, dig a planting hole with a depth and diameter of 50 cm. Mix the layer of earth taken from above with a bucket of humus, 50 g of potash and 120-150 g of phosphate fertilizers. If the ground:
- thick - add sand,
- sour - lime,
- carbonate - organic,
- alkaline or neutral - acid (red, high) peat.
Mix all well, fill the landing pit by 2/3 and fill with water.
Selection and preparation of seedlings
With the purchase of Agawam blackberry saplings there should be no problems - the variety is quite common. Make sure the root is well developed. Do not be lazy to smell it - it should smell like fresh earth.
But remember that the variety Agave is not among the most sought after. Seedlings can be stale. Make sure the shoots are flexible, without cracks, wrinkles or other damage.
On the eve of planting, pour the plant in a container and soak the bare root in water.
Algorithm and landing pattern
Single blackberry bushes agaves can be placed at a distance of 2 m from each other. For a large number of seedlings a compacted planting of 1.0-1.5 m is possible. The distance between the rows is 2-3 m.
Form a mound in the center of the planting pit, straighten the roots around it and fill it with nutrient soil. Seal the ground and pour a bucket of water. It remains to mulch the landing site with humus or peat.
Watering blackberries agaves need to be regular. Immediately after planting - twice a week, then - as the soil dries.
In the spring, the Agawam variety is fed with nitrogen, in the period when the buds open, with a complete mineral fertilizer, after harvesting with potassium monophosphate. During strong heat, rainy or cool summer, spraying with epin and zircon alternately every 2 weeks is helpful. It is good to add chelates to the balloon, especially if the leaves turned yellow and the veinlets remain green (this is a sign of chlorosis).
In spring and autumn, it is necessary to loosen the soil under the blackberry. In the period of flowering and fruiting, this procedure can be replaced by mulching - peat, humus, mowed grass. So the root will suffer less from the heat, weeds will become difficult to germinate, and the soil retains moisture longer.
Даже если вы не собираетесь укрывать ежевику Агавам на зиму, обязательно вырезайте закончившие плодоношение побеги до уровня грунта. Если у вас не хватило времени осенью, сделайте это весной! Так вы существенно увеличите урожай.
Первые 3 года сорт Agawam можно не формировать. Только на четвертый год жизни побеги начинают расти в полную силу. Удаляют только старые, подмерзшие, сухие и поломанные веточки. Be sure to cut out all the whips with signs of disease.
On an adult bush, 4-6 strong shoots are left for fruiting. As they grow, pincers are made - at the side shoots, 7-10 cm tops are cut off. So they will branch better and give more fruit brushes.
Unlike other varieties, blackberry Agaveam gives a lot of shoots. It cannot be limited to digging in a curb or laying around slate bushes, iron sheets or other material. Agawam variety is omnipresent! He will cope with any obstacle and still germinate. If you do not need seedlings, you will have to regularly cut the growth at ground level.
So blackberry trimming Agaveam - the procedure is mandatory and troublesome.
Preparing for the winter
In the southern regions and most of Central Russia, the blackberry Agaves can not be sheltered for the winter. Where insulation is still necessary, it is better to pay attention to other varieties. Exist a blackberry without Agave, it would have been difficult to cover it because of powerful upright shoots, but it is possible. But bending over prickly, badly bending lashes is problematic. And why, if there are more than 400 varieties, many of which either do not have thorns, or the shoots are pliable.
You can try to cover the Agawam blackberry right on the trellis. To do this, sprinkle the root with soil, and the shoots directly on the support are hung with sacking and agrofibre. It is important to firmly secure the covering material and prevent it from icing up.
Of course, the Agawam is an old variety. But it can not be harbor in most regions and in general it is considered one of the healthiest due to its close relationship with the wild-growing blackberry species. And its taste is not so bad, if you pick berries on time. That is why many experienced gardeners are in no hurry to part with the old proven blackberry variety Agaves.
History of the cultivation of a variety of blackberries Agave
Not for nothing, when I got acquainted with the variety, I had an association with the word "wigwam". As it turned out, the Indians really have to do with this sort of blackberry. More than one hundred and fifty years ago, the originator John Perkins (Ipswich, Massachusetts) named a blackberry variety in honor of the Indian tribe Aghavam. Since 1865, over eighty years old, the variety has been considered the best in productivity from the earliest blackberry varieties in the United States. Because of the simplicity, yield, balanced taste and composition of berries is widespread for production on an industrial scale. In Russia, the blackberry Agavam has been included in the State Register since 2006, and everything is listed as an access region - from the North to the Far East.
Video: about the benefits of the variety Agave
In the shadow of fruiting a little late in time. Plants suffer from heat worse. Have average drought tolerance. Of course, in a hot summer with limited watering the berries will be sweeter, but this will affect the size of the berries. However, during overmoistening and thickening of plantings, bushes can be affected by didymela (purple spot), and berries - by gray rot. Of the pests, the weevil (flower beetle) causes the greatest harm to the bushes of Agawam.
Features of planting and growing varieties
Blackberries are planted in autumn and spring. Planting holes 60x80 in size, 60 cm deep, are dug. Blackberries prefer well-fertilized soil, so they immediately put a bucket of humus or compost into the hole, two or three tablespoons of superphosphate, a half-liter jar of ashes, mix everything, plant a bush, water it, and mulch it from above. Later weeds are weeded and watered if necessary.
Video: about growing blackberry agavam
It is important to pay attention to the formation of the bush. It is necessary to limit the growth of shoots, pinch the tops. In this case, fructification is bigger, berries are larger, and harvesting is easier. Pruned bushes in the spring. When pruning in the fall, injured branches may overwinter worse. In the summer after harvesting, the branches that have been hatched are immediately cut, as a new crop will be formed on the replacement shoots.
Cold resistance is an indisputable advantage of the variety, thanks to which blackberry bushes without shelter hibernate safely. Small troubles deliver spring frosts, aggravated by the wind. But this is amenable to correction by further circumcision of the affected areas.
Blackberries are propagated by root suckers or grafting, dropping drooping twigs, later, as they are rooting, they are separated from the mother bush. In some cases it is necessary to limit the particularly rapid reproduction of Agawam.
Blackberry Agavam bred more than a hundred years ago. The origin of the variety is not known for certain. It is assumed that the variety obtained by hybridization between various wild American species. The berries of this variety, when fully matured, are very sweet, without acid. Immature grassy rather than sour. In the very name of the variety, there is an association with the sweet fruits of the agave.
Berry at Agave medium-sized. Its average weight is 3 g, as in most raspberry varieties. However, the yield is disproportionately higher. An adult five-year-old bush can produce more than 10 kg of berries. Bush plants upright. Shoots can reach a length of 2.5 m. Hanging shoots ends. If the size of the berries is inferior to other varieties of cultivated blackberry, then this is one of the most frost-resistant varieties. Its shoots endure up to –30 degrees C.
Black berry with a glossy shine. The shape of the team drupe in the form of a small elongated truncated cone. In the berry brush 10-12 berries. Replacement shoots powerful faceted. Adult shoot has a circular cross section. First, the shoots are light green, by the fall they become reddish, then dark brown. The spikes on the shoot are rare, but strong, slightly curved. There are spikes along the central vein of the leaf plates on the reverse side of the leaf.
The leaf of a plant is decorative. Sheet plates diverge five rays from a common point like a girl's leaf or chestnut horse. Each plate of the beam is rather large, in form resembles a boat with a rounded stern and a very sharp nose, formed from two arcs converging by concave sides.
The plant blooms with large milky white flowers, gathered in upright brushes. The bush blooms beautifully and wildly. The flowers in the brush diverge in all directions Christmas tree. Berries ripen together in early August.
Diseases of this blackberry is practically not affected. Unlike many blackberries, it gives offspring with which it breeds. It is also possible to multiply the apical layers if artificially bending down the shoots of substitution, but rooting is not important. Only ten percent of cuttings take root, and those subsequently grow poorly. The root system of offspring is usually undeveloped. To obtain a standard seedling, it is necessary to grow in the shkolka.
Yakimov. From: Samara
Caring for blackberries is almost the same as for raspberries. While the bushes are small and not yet fruiting, do not produce cuttings of shoots. When fruiting begins, the seed-bearing shoots are cut out every year after harvesting (the shoots from which were harvested). They are cut immediately after collection. Substitution shoots are left - i.e., that will bear fruit next year. Replacement shoots appear from the ground in May –June. Thus, the bush is updated every year. Fruiting has just begun on your bushes, a few berries are not a harvest, it is possible that there are still flower buds on the shoots, so try to leave for another summer.
It is necessary to cover the shoots remaining after cutting for the winter, regardless of frost resistance. Even if the variety is quite winter-hardy and the shoots do not freeze slightly, the flower buds are more sensitive to frost, that is, a rather developed bush ready for fruiting may not produce crops or produce several berries due to the freezing of flower buds. Judging by the fact that some of your bushes are powerful, they are ready for fruiting. No shelter of bushes for the winter, if November is without snow, and frost below -20 degrees C, can lead to freezing of the aerial part of some varieties.
Yakimov. From: Samara
Yes, Agave is prickly. Yes, the southern varieties will definitely be tastier, larger and almost all without thorns in their south. Just like apples, pears, grapes, apricots and everything. But for our conditions, while this is the only variety that can be thrown in the fall unopened and not fooling around, there will be a harvest next year or not. The harvest will be. Frosted tops and all. As for the taste of berries, then, as you know, tastes do not argue. My Agavam flies away. Children climb into the spines, do not stop.
Hare. Location: Moscow and Taldomsky district MO
My husband did not let Aghavam uproot: he loves more raspberries. I spit on the prickles. I read a lot of advertising and decided to replace it without a stud, I took it from my neighbor, since she got into the garden. She traded with me for a black raspberry and assured me that her blackberry was uncovered. This fall I specifically went to her site through a rabbit looked: all her blackberry under the slump. So I think early Agavam clean. Good is not looking for good.
oh la la. Location: Moscow
Among gardeners, hot debates about the advantage of raspberries over blackberries, about the preference of growing modern bonshipless blackberry varieties relative to prickly ones, do not fade. All this only pleases: it means that there is a plot, there is something to plant it, and there are those who are ready to consume what is grown on the plot. In season, everything is eaten, and even preparations - just swept away!
Blackberry Agawam - the pros and cons of the variety
For about 100 years, sprawling bushes of cumanías have been pleasing by the harvest of gardeners - the Agaveam variety has many attractive properties and undeniable advantages:
- unpretentiousness - high winter and drought tolerance, shade tolerance, not afraid of soaking up the roots and most diseases of berries,
- high yield and good taste of berries, which allows you to use the crop in both fresh and processed form,
- bush continuously bears fruit for at least 15 years.
There are only 2 flaws in the blackberry variety Agaveam - thorns on the branches and multiple root shoots. Disadvantages easily turn into advantages.
- a blackberry planted around the perimeter creates an impassable hedge,
- root shoots provide planting material.
Unpretentious berry bush Cumanica does not require special conditions. For planting bushes choose a place based on growth in the future. It must be remembered that at 2-3 years old, a sapling grows into a shrub with thorny branches up to 3 m in length.
Planted seedlings according to 2 schemes:
- single bushes - the area under each bush is at least 2 x 2 m.
- rows on the trellis - the interval in the row of at least 1 m.
For planting blackberries, it is preferable to choose light sandy soil. In a sunny place, the productivity of the bush is much higher, the berries are sweeter.
Blackberries are preferably planted in the spring. Autumn seedlings do not have time to fully take root, to save planting material until spring, seedlings are added dropwise with soil.
- On 1 bush in a hole 60 x 60 x 60 cm. 3… 4 kg are brought. humus, 150 g of superphosphate, 40 g of potassium salts,
- before planting, the sapling is cut into 3-4 buds - to a height of 30 ... 40 cm,
- Blackberries are planted in the landing pit with a small depth of 1 ... 2 cm,
- watered with plenty of water (20 ... 30 l.) and fill the hole to the top with nutrient soil,
- planting mulch leaves, straw, compost or other loose organic matter.
Stakes for a garter or a trellis with a wire should be installed in advance, until the thorny bush has grown strongly.
Cultivation and care
Growing unpretentious garden blackberries Agaveam does not cause difficulties. It is necessary to perform traditional operations for the care of berry bushes - watering, feeding, timely trimming. If you use mulch to cover the soil layer under the bushes, watering and loosening the soil becomes optional. Mulch not only protects against weeds, but also allows plants to economize soil moisture.
What you need to know about watering
Agave is a very undemanding variety of berries in water. With a lack of moisture, the berries become smaller and the yield drops. At the beginning of the growing season, the plant uses thawed winter water.
The greatest need for water comes in the period of tying and pouring berries. In the absence of precipitation, the blackberry must be watered once a week with separated hot water - 2-3 buckets per bush.
What you need to know about dressings
Violation of the diet leads to an excess of or deficiency of trace elements, which degrades the quality of the berries and weakens the plant - the hive can even get sick. A cumanica sapling planted according to the rules has been costing food from the root zone of the pit for a couple of years. When a plant enters a period of active fruiting, it needs additional food to build up green mass.
- the best option is mulching with organic matter (compost, humus) with a layer of at least 7 cm. Nitrogen compounds will evenly flow into the root zone throughout the season.
- in the absence of such a mulch layer, nitrogen fertilizing is applied at the beginning of the growing season (end of April - beginning of May) at the rate of 30 g (2 tablespoons) of urea per 1 bucket of water. Under each bush give 1-2 buckets of solution, then watered with the same amount of water.
For the introduction of trace elements in the natural ecological form, wood ash is used - evenly scatter 1 ... 2 l of ash under the bush. Under the influence of irrigation and precipitation, potassium and phosphorus will gradually be delivered to the roots in small doses.
How to prepare blackberries for winter
Winter-hardy blackberry Agave is not afraid of frost and does not require special preparation. Matured wood carries -30 degrees without damage. To bush prepared for winter (wood ripened) should follow a few simple rules.
- prevent thickening landings
- do not feed the bush with nitrogen fertilizers at the end of the season,
- Pruned branches cut immediately after harvest.
In regions with a harsh climate and little snow in winter, the blackberry is removed from the trellis, laid on the ground, pinned and covered with spanbond or sacking.
Unpretentious blackberry variety is most often propagated by vegetative means. To obtain planting material using root shoots and dividing the bush.
Blackberry seeds are also suitable for seedlings, but these plants begin to bear fruit for 3-4 years - much later, compared to the vegetative method.
This is my first and only blackberry. I didn’t plant any more varieties, and I don’t have such needs, as the current variety suits me completely. There are many berries, they are tasty, sweet, the variety multiplies quickly. In general, as far as reproduction is concerned, somewhere I read such a joke that there are 2 problems with a blackberry: it is to breed it and then bring it out. This is actually the case. If you do not remove the root processes in time, then you and your neighbors will have gardens only of Agaves. I used the example of raspberry to dig in slate to prevent the root system from spreading, so I still watch shoots appear, dug up slate in one place, study the root, and it first goes horizontally, then, as it reaches the barrier, dives down and goes around it. What miracles, with a raspberry such never met. I'll try another grandfather's method - to plant a sorrel around the planting of a blackberry. It seems like the culture does not like sour soil and should go to sorrel and turn around, but who knows, maybe with slate, something uchudit.
Very unpretentious variety. Does not freeze, does not get sick, is not affected by pests. Only one year I had a problem with the attack on the garden of a bear. I do not know what it was connected with, but I have never seen such amount before. My neighbor advised me to plant marigolds and calendula, as a result Medvedka disappeared. Then she began to study the issue in more detail, it turns out that the essential oils secreted by marigolds and calendula negatively affect pests and scare them away. Here's a tip on how to do without excess chemistry, but get rid of pests.
Difficulties reproduction of blackberry does not cause any. On the contrary, it is necessary in every way to limit the very active growth and spreading around the site. If you properly organize planting, to provide competent care - up to the very cold weather, thorny bushes will give delicious shiny blackberries to the Agaves.