Currant is not only a tasty berry, it also provides a source of vitamins and trace elements necessary for the human body. This shrub is familiar to all domestic gardeners who appreciate its fruitfulness. Many are planning his landing, and those who have already planted, are interested in issues of care. Currants bear fruit for a long time - more than 20 years, but in order to get a good harvest, a gardener needs to perform a number of activities, which include pruning. There are no difficulties, but novice gardeners may have a problem.
Tips for beginners
This is a procedure that is carried out not only to form the appearance of the shrub, but also to increase its yield, improve ventilation and lighting. Pruning begin to be carried out directly after planting currants, from this depends a lot its growth and development. At the same time gardeners are interested in how to cut the currants without harming them.
To conduct trimming bushes, you must purchase or prepare the necessary tools. As a rule, it is enough to buy a pruner (bypass or normal), scissors, hacksaw, pruning shears and brush cutter. Before using, all tools should be sharpened and disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate or alcohol, since beginning gardeners are often injured when cutting bushes.
A gardener must remember that his main task is to remove old branches. You need to leave only the young branches, whose age is not more than 6 years. The rest of the shoots must be removed, as it only uselessly uses nutrients derived from the root system.
The first haircut occurs immediately after planting, and its main task is to remove the shoots. Cut them need a little higher than the third kidney. This procedure does not harm the shrubs, and only helps to form the correct crown. And the next summer several more young branches will form on the bush.
In the second season after planting, zero sprouts and a few skeletal ones should be removed. This procedure is important in that it depends largely on the fruiting of currants. To avoid mistakes during pruning, it is necessary to leave at least 3 and not more than 5 branches, with the help of which the skeleton of the shrub is formed. However, they should not compete with each other and should be healthy, with no signs of weakening.
In July, it is necessary to prune the top of the bush so that its lateral branches grow, which give the bulk of the crop. The cut is made from the top of the germ under the second kidney. This is necessary for the growth of new fertile shoots.
Formation of a bush for 3-4 year
At the 3rd and 4th year of bush growth pruning occurs in the same manner as in the previous year. The main task of the gardener is to remove excess sprouts, because of which the crown becomes excessively thick, which leads to their competition among themselves. You can leave at least 5-7 central shoots. It is important to prevent the growth of branches from the inside of the crown, which are developing, lead to a darkening of the central part of the shrub.
It is also important to shorten the upper skeletal branches, the branches should not have more than 2 buds. If the works are performed correctly, the bush for 5 years of growth will acquire the correct spherical shape crown.
Pruning shrubs for 5 years and beyond
After the currant begins to form aging branches, a rejuvenating pruning is carried out, the essence of which is to remove non-viable branches and branches. At the same time, young shoots (tops) and creeping branches should be removed. They do not allow air and light to penetrate inside the bush, which is reflected in the yield of currants.
The removal of branches from a 5-year-old bush occurs similarly to pruning currants at the 4th year of growth. At the same time last year's branches are cut to the second kidney, and the older ones - to the 4th. New sprouts are also removed, only skeletal ones are left.
Processing previously uncircumcised bushes
In the event that pruning currants for several years was not made, it is necessary to perform the thinning of its crown. You can follow the following algorithm:
- the first thing to do is remove old, dried and broken branches,
- only a few strong, one-year shoots are left,
- the rest can be cut without regret.
Red currant pruning
This procedure for red currant occurs with minor differences than the black one. This is explained by the fact that she has the formation of bushes is somewhat different. The main features are as follows:
- for the first year after planting, redcurrant leaves 3 or 4 buds on each branch during cutting, which makes it possible to form growths for the next season more actively,
- for 2 years it is necessary to leave some (3 or 4) strong branches of red currant, all the rest should be cut off. It is necessary to ensure that they are evenly positioned relative to each other,
- in subsequent years, circumcision is carried out so that the shrub left 2 or 3 branches of different ages. Immediately before planting pruned shoots, focusing on the age of the shrub.
No other significant differences are observed. There are no difficulties in pruning red currants, you just need to remember about its features.
Black currant pruning
The one-year bush of black currant has no more than 4 branches. Planting it, it is necessary to prune each branch in such a way that no more than two or three buds remain on it.
In the second and third year, the bush already has 5-7 branches, of which only 2-3 are left, the strongest and most viable. That there was an active branching of the shrub, trimming the other tops occurs on 2 buds.
The complete formation of black currant occurs in the fourth year of growth. Therefore, in the future, the gardener can only produce support pruning in the spring. In other words, excess shoots neatly cleanedthat ensures the normal functioning of the plant.
Pruning currants in spring
Spring pruning of shrubs is good because at this time there is no active movement of the juice and there is no vegetation. This process should be started after the temperature becomes stably positive, without possible cooling. And also pruning is not recommended during the bud break.
If the trimming procedure is carried out later, it will lead to the following consequences:
- a shrub can get infectious diseases
- juice will flow out through the slices, and they will not drag on for a long time.
But it can also cause the currant to hurt for a long time, which is why the inflorescences of the fruit cannot form. It is important to properly and timely care for garden plants. Then they will bear fruit, delight the quality of the berries and the beauty of the external appearance.
Cut or not cut
Bushes of wild currant grow in the forests, covered with a huge amount of berries. No one prunes them, does not water them, does not feed them, but the berries live and bear fruit. In the same way, you can plant a shrub on your plot, don’t care for it and collect a poor small crop. In this case, better dig wild seedlings, they are more adapted to life in extreme situations. Breeders deduce varieties with different size fruits, taste. Cultural species require special conditions; without pruning and proper care, they run wild and lose their varietal characteristics.
The richest crop grows on last year's shoots. Older branches will give fewer berries and will eventually no longer bear fruit. Young sprouts need a lot of strength to grow large sweet berries. When the crown is too thick, sunlight does not get inside the bush, the air stagnates, and harmful microorganisms multiply in it. Perennial branches produce a poor harvest, and food requires a lot. The root system supplies the shrub with all the necessary components that are spent on maintaining sick, beginning to die branches.
Planting new plants is a difficult task, and in the early years of currant berries you will have few. Rejuvenate plants, and they will bear fruit for up to 50 years. So that the bush does not grow old any longer, remove the outdated branches in time. Nutrients rush through the trunk, awakening the leaves and buds. If the old process is cut, the juice is looking for another way, it fills the sleeping buds, from which young shoots develop. Next year they will give you a rich harvest of large berries, which will be poured with sweetness in the sun.
When is it better to cut the bushes?
The first pruning need to do immediately after planting bushes. Shorten all the shoots. On strong branches above the ground should be no more than 4 buds. The worse the shoot is developed, the lower the stump should be left. Do not worry that there is almost nothing left of the plant, in the spring you will still be surprised at how the crown will begin to actively develop. Experienced gardeners sometimes neglect this operation, but if you are just starting to plant a garden, learn to do everything right. When you begin to understand the needs of plants, you can skip some stage, but at the beginning of the development of the site it is better to follow all the recommendations.
In the spring you need to carefully inspect all the bushes. The snow could break the branches, some shoots died from the severe frosts. Arm yourself with a pruner and tidy up the bush before the buds swell. Remove the unviable and damaged fragments, until they were chosen by harmful insects. Treat all wounds with a garden barb. Look at the kidneys - if they have an unusual appearance, it means that a pest has settled inside. Cut and burn the infected parts until the larvae hatch out of the eggs.
In the autumn, you need to inspect the plant again and remove all damaged fragments. At this time, the rejuvenation of the old bush and thinning of the crown. The branches that grow near the ground, it is better to destroy: from dampness and poor lighting, they fall ill in the first place. Do not let the bush grow too thick. On an adult well-developed plant, leave about 15 branches, they will give you more yield than 30 weak shoots.
Do not rush to start work, in the active state, the currant is less tolerant of cutting. Wait until the bush falls into hibernation, then the autumn pruning will pass for him unnoticed.
Basic rules for currant trimming
If you want to shorten the escape, do it in the most gentle way. If the cut passes alongside the kidney, you can injure it during work - the embryo will dry out and will not release an escape. Step back about a centimeter and remove the extra piece. It is also undesirable to leave an overgrown process: it dries and will serve as a breeding ground for the infection.
Straight cut contributes to the decay of the branch. Place the knife at a 45⁰ angle to the shoot. The tool must be sharp, dull blades crush and injure the fabric. If the work is done correctly, smooth, smooth wood without roughness, cracks or chips can be seen at the site of the operation. Proper pruning of black currant minimally damages the plant, and it is quickly restored.
When shearing should take into account the type of plant. Red and white currants need more light than black. When pruning, remove the fragments that shade the bush. But the rejuvenation of white and red currants is less common. In the summer, watch the branches and in the fall, cut only those shoots that no longer bear fruit (usually these are branches older than 7 years).
Quality tools and materials
In order to take care of the berry bushes, the garden has benefited, and you are in a good mood, you need to stock up on a set of high-quality tools. A kitchen knife is not suitable for cutting shoots, its blade will not give an even cut without cracks and chips, and thin steel can break with great effort.
In the departments for gardeners you can find all sorts of tools, basically you will need 6 things:
- hacksaw with small teeth,
- lopper cutter
- garden knife
- brush cutter,
- garden pitch or special putty for processing cuts.
All cutting surfaces should be well sharpened. The sharpness of the pruner can be checked by cutting wet paper with it. A good tool will leave smooth edges without creased areas and dangling pieces.
Do not save on the purchase of equipment for garden work. Cheap knives and secateurs are usually made of bad steel, they are instantly dull, and you have to constantly interrupt work to sharpen the blades.
If the tools are never washed, both sick and healthy shoots are cut off with the same knife without disinfection, you can infect all the bushes from a single old branch in one season. After the diseased fragments have been removed, wash and disinfect all knives, sectors, saws, and at the same time gloves. It is better to carry out such a procedure after processing each plant: you may not see the infection that has appeared, and microorganisms will spread throughout the garden.
In some sources it is recommended to gloss over the cuts with oil paint, clay, and many other available materials. Perhaps, the operation will not harm the bush, but it is better not to impose means not intended for this purpose on open wounds. Buy garden pitch or special putty. These drugs include substances that prevent rotting and penetration into the tissue of infection. Under the protective layer the scar will quickly tighten and the bush will be healthy.
How to carry out the autumn pruning?
After you have sanitized the bush and saved it from the sick and dried fragments, proceed to clearing the crown. Black currant is desirable to remove all branches older than 3 years. If the young sprout developed poorly and grew not more than 20 cm over the summer, it is better to get rid of it, there will not be a good harvest. Red and white varieties of branches bear fruit longer - remove only those shoots that no longer give berries or strongly shade the crown.
The age of a branch can be determined by the color of the bark. In young shoots, the color is light, and every year it becomes darker.
For novice gardeners, such work sometimes seems very difficult, since beginners are confused about the sequence of operations. Properly organizing the process is not difficult, and you will not need to rush from bush to bush, remembering that some work was unfulfilled.
Cutting scheme is easy to remember, and everything will go in the right order, if you carry out the procedure step by step.
- Remove all diseased, broken and dried branches.
- Clean to the ground shoots that grew this year, leaving no more than 5 young branches.
- Cut down old shoots that are more than 5 years old, have black currant and more than 9 years - with red and white varieties.
- Cut the branches covering the middle of the bush from the sun.
- Shorten the tops and all branches about 15 cm, after this operation, new shoots will develop from the buds next year.
Do not throw the cut wood under a bush; it attracts pests and is affected by the infection. Do not leave fallen leaves under the plants - insect larvae have already settled in them for the winter. Collect all the garbage: broken stakes for garter plants, rotted fences shrubs. Immediately burn all waste, in this way you do 2 jobs at a time: you trim the bushes and clean up the area.
Pruning is necessary for all garden plants, otherwise in a few years impassable jungles, affected by pests and diseases, are formed on the site. Branches of black currant can live up to 15 years, although their fruiting stops in the sixth year, then the old fragments only shade the bush and take away the nutrients from the young shoots. Deprived of the sun and food fruits will be small and tasteless. Proper trimming of the currant will make the landing neat, new strong branches will form a good crown. Plantations will live comfortably, and they will be covered with a large number of large sweet berries.
The purpose of spring pruning currants
Spring pruning currant bushes is among the mandatory activities. This procedure is performed to achieve the following objectives:
- All broken mechanically (by wind, snow), dried out or damaged by insect pests branches are removed. The plant will not spend power on the treatment of diseased shoots.
- The bush is freed from the branches that have been completely frozen or frozen, which will in vain remove nutrients from the plant. Since flower buds form on the upper part of the shoot, no fruit is formed on them anyway.
- Old branches that had been badly fruited last year are carved. It is believed that each runaway, on average, bears fruit for about five years. The maximum yield will be observed in the third year of life, and then it gradually decreases. Therefore, periodically old shoots need to be replaced with new ones. Pruning stimulates the formation of young fresh twigs, which in the future will give a good harvest of berries.
- Shrub thinning is performed in order to ensure good ventilation and sunlight. Если этого не сделать, то риск поражения различными болезнями и вредителями существенно повышается. К тому же на загущённых кустах ягода будет мельче, а из-за плохой освещённости она обычно имеет худшие вкусовые качества.
Весеннюю обрезку смородины проводят, как только стает снег
Pruning, carried out in the spring, is considered sanitary, it is extremely important for the normal development of currant planting and obtaining a bountiful harvest.
The main formative pruning is most often carried out in the fall, when the plant goes into a dormant period. In the spring, badly wintered and spare shoots left in the fall are cut out, because not all the branches survive the winter equally well.
If buds have already begun to unfold on the currant, it is better to postpone pruning until autumn or until next spring.
Together with the purchase of the house, we inherited several currant bushes that grew along the fence. They were very big, old and sprawling. It was immediately noticeable that they were never cut off. In the very middle was full of dry dead and old twisted shoots with cracked bark. Plants bloomed a little, were sick and looked frankly bad. Berries were literally a few pieces and their taste left much to be desired. Therefore, the bushes had to leave. We did not try to bring them into a divine form, they looked very ancient. Autumn uprooted and burned.
How to trim a running bush
If you have to deal with a scrub that has been neglected and not cut out for a long time, then you can put it in order as follows:
- First, remove all dried, damaged, broken and weak thin shoots.
- Then pruned branches directed inside the bush, as well as those that spread along the ground.
- Cut out all the shoots that are older than two years.
- At the beginning of summer, new shoots begin to grow. When they grow up to 13-15 cm, they are thinned. Only 3-4 strongest are left, the rest are removed.
- If there is little fresh growth, 2–3 old shoots are removed. The remaining branches shorten and completely cut off the lateral processes on them.
- The following spring leaves no more than three of the strongest and strongest three-year shoots, the same two-year-olds and no more than 4–5 one-year-olds. Everything else is removed.
Excess branches need to be cut at the root
Overgrown and neglected bushes should not be pitied. It is better to immediately cut more branches, then the young growth will be strong and strong.
Features pruning different types of currants
Currants of other varieties (white, red and pink) develop and form a crown a little differently. Plants of these species more often produce skeletal basal shoots and give significantly less lateral processes. For this reason, the trimming technology will be different. The maximum number of berries is formed on five-year branches, therefore only shoots over 7–8 years old are considered old. Fruit buds are formed in the upper and middle parts of the branch, and at the very ends they are placed in dense groups. Trim the tops of red and white currants never do, otherwise the harvest will be very poor.
The structure of the bush black and red currants is different
The basic rules for pruning white and red currants are as follows:
- Shrub is cut only in early spring.
- All damaged (frozen, broken, etc.) branches are deleted.
- Removed all last year's weak growth. It is necessary to leave only 3-4 healthy and strong escapes.
- Cut very old and mature branches that have already reached eight years. Some strong shoots can be shortened to the first branching, it stimulates the formation of new lateral processes.
- Each bush should consist of approximately 20–25 branches of different ages (from 1 to 8 years).
- It is not necessary to shorten the tops of the shoots and pinch them.
When pruning the bushes of red and white currants remove excess and damaged branches, but do not shorten the shoots
The main principle of trimming a blackcurrant bush is that a fresh runaway replacement should be provided for every old seed removed.
Why cut currants
Currant bush grows and bears fruit for 15–20 years. But the branches for the first three years grow intensively, then for another 2 years they delight in the harvest, and then they grow old. Removing old shoots, gardener stimulates the emergence of new basal shoots. And cutting the tips of the branches improves the growth of the side branches and thus increases the yield. After all, the flower buds of the bush lays on the growth of the current year.
In addition, it is necessary to remove the sick, dry, damaged by the glass and broken branches. Pruning is also carried out at the thickening of the bush. Too many branches in the bush - bad. Leaves do not have enough light, berries in the shade are unsweetened.
When the currant bush thickens the leaves, there is not enough light, the berries in the shade are unsweetened.
You can cut currants in autumn and spring. At different times of the year, the objectives of this event are different:
- Autumn pruning provides a large number of young shoots for the next year,
- Spring pruning is needed in order to maintain the bushes in a state of active fruiting.
Start pruning immediately after the leaves on the currants begin to turn yellow. Bushes with green leaves can not be cut off - buds can bloom. It is also not worth putting off until the leaves fall, because along with the fallen leaves under the bushes there will remain eggs of pests and fungal spores. The procedure for pruning in the fall is:
- First, cut branches with black or cracked bark, drying out, curves.
- Then those whose buds are smaller than on the rest of the branches of the same bush.
- The next step is to remove the branches, on the bark at the base of which there is a gray-green growth of lichen.
- After that, check the branches for the presence of a kidney tick: it hides in the round, like balls, kidneys. Such buds can be nipped off if there are 1-3 pieces on a branch. With a strong infection branch cut out from the soil surface.
Kidney mite hides in currant buds, round like balls
All branches are cut, leaving no hemp, the cuts are immediately powdered with powdered coal - in tablets or from a fire (one tablet is enough for 6-7 branches).
All healthy stems in the bush are left in autumn, leaving thinning in early spring.
Usually they begin to carry out spring pruning, when the snow melted, but the soil is still frozen. After blooming buds, the bushes cannot be cut off, the wounds heal longer and the plants are defenseless against diseases and pests.
The old and the sick were removed in the fall, in the spring the ends that were frozen over the winter were cut and they removed the excess. The sequence of actions for spring pruning is as follows:
- While the snow has not completely melted (but thawed patches have already formed around the bush), the bush is spilled with boiling water from pests and diseases.
- Remove all fallen leaves from the bush.
- Cut the branches of the third year (with a large number of ramifications), which will no longer bear fruit.
- In the black currant bush leave 10–12 branches, of which 5–6 — the first year (without ramifications) and 5-6 — last year (with a small amount of branching on the side and on top).
Some gardeners leave 15 branches. The yield is slightly higher, but the size of the berries decreases. If for the red and white currants, which are collected with brushes, a compromise is possible, then for the black and golden, in which each berry is broken separately, thickening only to the detriment. In addition, on two-and three-year-old branches there are branchings, and the bush will suffer from a lack of light in the central part, and fruit buds should be laid only on the tops.
Features trimming white and red currants
The most fruitful branches of currants with light, transparent berries (red, white, pink) - five years. Fruit buds are located in the central and upper parts of the shoot, but at the ends they grow in large groups.
The most fruitful branches of white currant are five years old
Therefore, healthy, not damaged by frost tips do not prune. But if necessary - cut side branches. Branches set aside until the age of six.
Pruning seedlings when planting
Currant seedlings planted in the fall, pruned in the spring. For spring planting, it is more convenient to do this immediately before the procedure. At the same time no more than five buds are left above the ground. However, if they are only 6 or 7 on the seedling, then the top is not cut.
The first time the currant is cut in the spring: just before planting or before the bush wakes up, if it was planted in the fall
The frozen ends of the branches are removed with the capture of healthy wood by 1 cm.
Formation of young bushes
In the formation of young currant bushes have the following objectives:
- cause the growth of young shoots
- prevent contamination of cuts, their drying out or damage by pests,
- remove extra branches: old or weak.
In the second year after planting, currant bushes grow very actively, young branches reach a height of 80 cm or more, depending on the variety. In order to provoke the growth of lateral shoots, annual shoots coming from the root are pruned to 1/3 of the height.
Pruning of young shoots of currants stimulates the growth of new buds.
Branches from the shoots that have grown on the branches embedded in the soil during planting are not shortened. To distinguish them is simple: the gain on them is noticeably weaker.
It is important to properly trim the branch. If a large stump is left above the kidney, the cut will overgrow slowly and may rot. Trim too close to the kidney - it will suffer from a lack of moisture and nutrition, and pests will pounce on the growing from it. Cut the branch should be at an angle, 5 mm above the place of growth of the kidney.
It is important to properly cut the branch above the kidney: not too close to it and not too far
Cut at the level of the soil weak, broken branches. As well as growing close to the ground, if they are not planned to be used for cuttings.
Branches growing low and close to the ground, you need to clean, except for five year olds on red currants - after all, they are the most productive
In addition to pruning, spend plucking extra shoots at the beginning of growth.
Repair old and running bushes
Rejuvenate currants in different ways. Here is one way:
- The bush is mentally divided in half, and in one part all branches older than one year are cut, leaving 3-4 strongest young shoots.
- On the other side of the bush leave only the best of those who are 2-3 years old.
The age of the branches is determined by the color of the bark in the lower part of the stem - it is brown, not gray or black.
Take cuttings for rooting and the more to divide the currants into pieces and planting is not worth it. Another 4-5 years this bush will delight the harvest.
If you got heavily neglected, long-cut bushes, do this:
- In the first year in the spring, all branches older than two years are cut out, as well as those that are strongly inclined to the ground.
- In May, the active growth of young branches from the soil will begin. When they grow up to 12-15 cm, choose the 3-4 strongest escape.
- The rest of the shoots gently break out or cut out as low as possible.
- The following year, the three strongest three-year-old escapes are left on the bush, and the young are 4. The rest are cut out.
Waste - in the case
To cut cuttings for breeding need to strong, productive bushes. The branch must be one-year, without branches. From a two-year branch take a one-year gain. From three-year branches, even very strong ones, the cuttings are not cut.
In the fall, the cuttings are immediately planted in a school, where they will grow next year. Obtained during spring pruning cuttings rooted in a jar of water. After landing in the ground, they will require attention and timely watering, and sometimes shading.
During spring pruning, currant cuttings are rooted in a jar of water.
Special case: currant on shtambe
Some tall grades of currant, more often red, less often golden, form in the form of a tree. For this:
- In the spring, one strongly developed young shoot is selected in the bush, and the others are cut out.
- In late June - early July, pinch the top of the head. Shrub gives side branches, the ends of which are pruned next spring.
- Cut thickening and pest-damaged branches, trim the shape of the crown.
- All basal shoots are regularly removed.
Currants on the trunk requires mandatory attachment to the support
Currant shtambe very decorative. True, the harvest is noticeably inferior to the bush of the same variety during normal pruning. But there are more berries in the brush, the brushes themselves are longer, and the berries are larger and sweeter.
The disadvantage of such beauty is fragility: 4–5 years and the branch is aging. You can cut down the stem, and the next year again begin to form a tree from a young escape.
Pruning currants is troublesome, but necessary. Properly formed bushes will decorate the garden, will delight in high yields, will bear fruit longer than uncircumcised.
Advantages and disadvantages of pruning in the spring
Proper and timely pruning is necessary for all plants. Currant bushes are no exception. In the spring, this procedure is necessary to get rid of dead, damaged branches and to give the bushes the desired shape. Spring pruning, like autumn, has a number of advantages and disadvantages that must be taken into account in order to get a good final result.
Important! For the rejuvenation of the bushes suitable pruning in the autumn.
Large harvest in terms of volume and weight of berries is the result of a competent gardener's work
Experienced gardeners and specialists in the field of agricultural technologies highlight such advantages of spring pruning of currant bushes as:
- Elimination of broken, damaged branches - useful substances will only come to promising branches that can give a good harvest,
- The shrub will be able to form young shoots more quickly, which will increase yields already this season,
- Getting rid of the shoots, which in the previous year gave a small amount of berries or did not bear fruit at all, nutrients and trace elements valuable to the shrub will be redistributed to the young branches,
- Careful thinning of the planting is necessary in order to lighten their central part, since sunlight is important for the berries. Red currant receives from it a rich color, black - more actively formed and ripens faster,
- Removing the frozen branches during the winter will remove the load from the bush. No need to send nutrients to restore the branches, therefore, the crop will be of high quality, the berries are large.
In the event that special substances, such as chemical fungicides, were not treated in the fall, or no sanitary pruning of the shoots was carried out, insects belonging to pests could penetrate into the bark, which would decrease the health and strength of currants. In order to prevent their development, as well as to reduce the likelihood of the activation of bacteria, it is necessary to carry out spring pruning of the currants available in the area of a person.
Berry bushes in the spring
It is necessary to take into account the existing shortcomings. Spring pruning requires monitoring of weather conditions, since the optimal period for this type of work is from the moment of complete descent of snow to swelling of the buds and the appearance of the first young leaves. It is at this time that the bush is fully ready for pruning, the process will be moved without difficulty, the plant will not get sick. In the event that the currant bushes are pruned later, the likelihood that they will feel bad for a long time increases - the resulting wounds do not heal so quickly. This process may cause the young currant or the newly planted seedling to lag behind. Autumn makes it possible to carry out all the work without haste, but in spring time there is very little, pests and bacteria are also activated by the action of heat, which is a drawback of this method of pruning.
Rules for spring trimming currants
In order to trim the currants properly, you will need to observe the peculiarities of this process so that the bushes are quickly restored after the procedure. It is important to consult with a specialist before starting, as errors will lead to the fact that the crop will be lost completely.
The list of basic recommendations for novice gardeners:
- It is necessary to start the pruning at the moment when the danger of night frosts has passed, and the temperature has risen by more than +5 degrees during the day (snow, as an indicator of warming, should melt completely),
- If the buds are already formed by the time of pruning, then they need to retreat (0.5 cm) - this is necessary in order to save the leaves. If the branch is long, you can provoke a drying process,
- It is necessary to remove all the branches that grow inside the currant bush, since they create an additional shade, the harvest for this reason may be less, the berries are smaller,
- A large number of branches inside promotes the development of pathogens for the flora of microorganisms, bacteria, various pests on the danger presented. For planting the correct option - thinning the middle in the spring.
If you properly cut out the extra shoots, the formation of shrubs will go faster, their shape will be visually attractive. Young shoots will pick up the amount of nutrients necessary for development, without being deficient in them. Ripe berries will be large and sweet (in accordance with the characteristics of the selected variety).
Circumcision before kidney formation
Important! In order to form a good harvest each year, it is necessary to prune the upper buds (2-3 pieces) on each of the existing shoots.
Proper clipping will enhance the growth and development of sleeping side eyes. Весенняя обрезка красной или черной смородины, проведенная с учетом этих частей, поможет в формировании кустарника – он становится шире, но в высоту растет медленнее. Начинать обрезку нужно только после того, как будет проведен пошаговый урок, если ранее процедура не осуществлялась.
Обрезки молодой и старой смородины
Removal of old or damaged branches should be carried out at all stages of development of shrubs. There are some features that must be observed when working with a young or old plant. The first time pruning is done after planting. All shoots available in the sapling should be shortened so that they are 20 cm above the ground. The peculiarity of working with young plants is the fact that 3–4 healthy eyes should remain above the ground. A similar formation is required in order for more nutrients to go to the root system - the young plant must be strengthened. Further development and formation of shrubs occurs due to the fact that the shoots receive nutrients from the soil and from the hardened rhizomes.
Formed Currant Bush
If circumcision is to be done for the branches of an old shrub, then it should be borne in mind that the process will be long. At the very beginning, the thinning of the thickest part of the bush is carried out, then all shoots, including healthy ones, are cut off, which grow not outside, but inside the bushes. Also eliminated:
- weak (depending on age or disease),
- broken (as a result of weather conditions or under the weight of snow),
- not yielding yield (or it is significantly less than on other shoots).
Pruning exposed additional annual shoots that are not able for various reasons to bear fruit. It is also necessary to leave no more than 4 healthy and strong stems from the entire available branch volume, which will allow the currant to activate the growth function. If drying is observed, then these stems must be cut off completely; it will be necessary to remove dried tops from the stems in order to allow them to survive. The main condition for successful pruning of old currants (both red and black) is not to leave hemp from the shoots. This is necessary in order to prevent the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms that can move to healthy shoots.
Pruning shrubs of black, red and white currants
Currant varieties are divided into:
Black currant differs from other process of development and formation of fruits. That is why each species has its own specifics of pruning shoots in the spring. When conducting work, you need to remember that the fruits are formed and ripen in black currants on the branches of 1-3 years of age. Also to the features is the fact that the older the branch, the less it will be berries. The optimal age of branches for pruning is 5-7 years.
Red currant - good harvest after proper processing
Red and white currants show a good harvest on old branches. Completely remove the branches is not required, but will need to produce shortening. It is recommended to carry out the process of rejuvenation of a bush of white and red currants - this should be done 1 time in 7 years. The pruning procedure in this case should be carried out after harvest - in the fall. All stages that need to be carried out to remove the damaged branches of the red and white currants are carried out exclusively in the spring, when active sap flow begins in the stems, as this contributes to the rapid healing of wounds.
Currant pruning scheme in spring
Proper trimming of currants in the spring should be carried out according to a special scheme, so that the work efficiency is high. Landing should also be carried out according to certain rules - this will affect the yield. It is important to choose the site where the shrub will be planted. It is not recommended to land too close - it leads to space thickening.
In order to perform pruning, you should:
- prepare garden tools (knife, pruner, scissors),
- disinfect them (use potassium permanganate),
- use a pruning scheme suitable for the type of currant available.
For processing black currant in the spring, the following actions are carried out:
- in the first year pruning is not carried out, as the plant increases the root mass and strengthens the stems,
- in the second year after landing in the ground, the small shoots that have formed are eliminated, but 3-4 of the largest and strongest escapes remain,
- in the third and fourth years, all zero shoots, weak and dried, must be removed to prevent the growth of bacteria and microorganisms harmful to the shrub.
Starting from the fifth year, it is necessary to carry out thinning, remove young growth, monitor the formation of the crop.
Work done in the right period
Proper pruning of black, white or red currants in spring by beginning gardeners should be done as follows:
- every year all the extra branches are removed from the red and white currants (before the first buds swell and the juice is actively moving along the stems),
- after harvesting also need to pruning,
- removal of old shoots of white and red currants is made in the fourth year.
Important! The shrub must have good access to sunlight so that young shoots develop actively.
Care after spring pruning
In order to get a high yield, it is important to know not only how to cut black currants in spring, but also how to care for the shrubs after the main procedure. All actions should be started immediately after pruning to reduce the likelihood of disease. For this purpose, apply garden pitch, which must be applied to the place of cutting.
Error pruning procedure
You need to know not only how to cut the currant, taking into account the peculiarities of its type, but also to take into account possible errors. Shrub required to trim gently. Currants, starting the development of a new crop, should be processed. In 90% of cases, inexperienced gardeners make the following mistakes:
- violation of the timing of pruning branches - in this case, the bushes begin to form green mass instead of fruit,
- old branches remain and are not removed - the plant needs nutrients and vitamins to restore damaged branches, so the berries can be smaller and sour to taste, and the crop itself is smaller in volume,
- if pruning is done at the moment when the leaves have already blossomed, there will be a long release of the juice, the shoots will take longer to wound.
Interesting. That is why a good harvest largely depends on the gardener's attention to the characteristics of pruning.
High-quality pruning of any type of currant in spring is an obligatory agrotechnical procedure, which allows to get a good harvest volume. You need to know in advance how to cut the currants formed in order to reduce the likelihood of diseases, penetration of pests. All features and recommendations should be taken into account prior to the start of work, so that the presentation of the finished species of shrub is successful.
How to rejuvenate a bush by trimming
Shrubs over 10 years old must be rejuvenated. The technology is as follows:
- In the spring before the buds swell, you need to cut all the branches from 1/3 of the bush. Penkov do not leave, cut to the ground.
- Of the new shoots that have appeared this season, no more than 3-4 are chosen, the strongest and strongest. All the rest is removed.
- The next spring, the branches are cut from the other third of the bush. Of the young shoots, too, only a few are left.
- In the last pruning, it is necessary to remove all shoots from the remaining third and in the same way choose 3 young increments.
Old currant bushes need to periodically rejuvenate
Shrubs that have reached a respectable age (from 20 years), there is no sense to rejuvenate, they are simply uprooted.
Some gardeners use another method of currant rejuvenation:
- From a half of a bush, all branches older than one year are removed under the root. Only 3-4 young and strongest are left.
- On the other part of the bush, cut out all the shoots, except for a few that have reached 2-3 years. Choose the strongest.
- The following spring, only sanitary pruning is carried out, removing diseased and dried branches.
Approximately 4–5 years after the procedure of rejuvenation, the shrub will bear fruit well.
How to process a cut
Even if the trimming of the shrub was carried out on time (before the start of sap flow), it is necessary to process the cutoff area with special compositions. The damaged part must be closed. This is done in order to reduce the loss of juice to a minimum, as well as to prevent the penetration of various pathogenic bacteria and parasites into the shoot. The most suitable is considered a special garden water, it can be purchased at any specialized store selling goods for gardeners. If this is not possible, the composition is easy to prepare yourself. There are several recipes for making decoction for processing.
Places of cuts must be smeared with garden pitch.
For the preparation of a garden war with your own hands you will need the following components:
- pork fat melted (unsalted) - 125 g,
- Rosin - 200 g,
- turpentine - 225 g,
- wax - 200 g
First melt the wax over low heat, then add other substances in turn. All this time the mixture is constantly stirred, so that it does not stick to the bottom of the pot. When the composition becomes homogeneous, it is poured into a tin or glass jar and closed with a lid. Immediately before use, the heat should be heated and add a little pork fat to it.
Garden Var can be cooked with your own hands
There is another putty recipe for processing fresh slices. For its preparation will require:
- Rosin - 400–450 g,
- linseed oil - 25 ml,
- alcohol - 60 ml.
The rosin is melted on very low heat, stirring constantly. Remove from heat and allow to cool slightly. Then, continuing to stir, pour in alcohol and oil. The finished composition is poured into a glass jar and tightly sealed with an airtight lid. The container is opened only during the work, because this mixture hardens quickly when in contact with air.
There are ready-made compositions for putty slices on sale.
According to the third recipe, for the preparation of var it is necessary to take in equal parts: rosin, any vegetable oil (sunflower, linseed, etc.) and melted fat. All ingredients are simultaneously laid out in a metal dish and melted over low heat with constant stirring. The homogeneous mixture is cooled, then poured into a jar and tightly closed with a lid.
Garden tube from a tube to use more convenient
Purchased garden pitch can not be reheated before use. It becomes soft already from the heat of the hands. But it is better not to take it with bare hands, since then the mixture is very difficult to scrub from the fingers. We put putty with a wooden ice cream stick. But in the shops you can find garden compositions, which are packaged in tubes. They need to hold in warm water for several minutes, and then squeeze directly onto the treated section. To seal the wound more tightly, it is better then to smear the paste with your hands (with gloves) more carefully and carefully.
Preventive spring pruning of currant bushes is an agrotechnical procedure that allows you to increase crop yield, as well as protect the shrub from various infectious diseases and pests. To get a good result, you need to follow the rules and follow the recommendations of experienced gardeners.
Why carry out trimming currants
For many novice gardeners, pruning may seem like an extra procedure, which only reduces the number of fruit-bearing shoots and, consequently, worsens the harvest. However, in reality, if you do not carry out this procedure, then the shrub thickens, there are numerous diseases that adversely affect yields.
A healthy shrub should have a certain amount of healthy fruit-bearing shoots.. But with their increase, which occurs if the gardener does not care for plantings, the green mass increases, as a result, the bush requires more micronutrients. This adversely affects the yield, as the old, no longer fruiting shoots take away the vitality of the currants. It is possible to recommend to all the gardeners and gardeners, without exception, to trim the currants, which, if properly carried out, does not pose any difficulty.
When to pruning shrubs
This work is recommended in the autumn before the onset of the first frost. In central Russia, such a procedure is carried out in late October or early November. By this time, the shrub completely lose the leaves, the crop will be harvested, but the gardener will have another two or three weeks before the first cold weather.
Choose the right tool
Black currant, pruning and care in the fall for which is not difficult, it will be great to bear fruit, even with minimal attention from the gardener. Job can be done with a garden pruner. It is a safe, convenient and durable tool that will significantly simplify such work. But using a saw or a regular knife is not recommended, since the cut in this case will be loose, and such damaged shoots will subsequently grow poorly. This can lead not only to a subsequent deterioration in yields, but also to the death of adult plants.
In the autumn you need to do the following work:
- remove old non-bearing branches,
- cut off young shoots that can shade the shrub,
- remove fruit-bearing branches that are affected by insects or various diseases,
- trim weak and thin twigs.
Pruning currants in the fall for beginners
As mentioned above, such work is not particularly difficult. It is only necessary to act very carefully., correctly determining the optimal time for such pruning plantings in the garden.
Standard currant pruning in autumn, the scheme of which involves the following procedures:
- remove all shoots older than 5 years,
- they cut off young branches that appeared in the middle and at the end of summer,
- if necessary, cut off the shoots for subsequent grafting,
- remove all transverse and lateral branches that grow incorrectly and will subsequently obscure the main shoots,
- there is no need to prune the main branches, which will bear fruit and will bear fruit next year.
Should I spend spring pruning currants
Experienced gardeners recommend spring hold light sanitary pruningwhen they remove broken shoots over the winter. Such work is carried out in early spring before blooming buds. At the same time, the temperature should be stably positive, since frosts after performing such a procedure can significantly slow down the development of plants until their complete destruction.
Recommendations for the implementation of this work
- When planting a seedling should be cut off all the tops, leaving no more than 4 buds.
- In the second year after planting, all young shoots are cut, leaving only five or six strong branches.
- Any affected and improperly growing shoots are mercilessly removed.
- In the third and fourth year after planting, young shoots are removed again, as well as branches damaged by insects or diseases. Leave only five strong shoots, which must be at least 4 buds.
- Starting from the fifth year of bush life, such a procedure is carried out annually, removing all the old shoots that already bear fruit badly and only take away the vitality from the main plant. Such a rejuvenating pruning will significantly improve yields, warning planting thickening and the development of various fungal diseases.
Rejuvenating shrub pruning
Approximately 10 years after planting, some deterioration of currant yield may occur. The problem can be solved by the so-called anti-aging pruning, in which the old bush is trimmed under the stump, the old branches are completely removed. Also, with this procedure, young shoots that grow from the base of old hemp should be removed.
That is, gardeners, to rejuvenate the plant, on the shrub will need to leave no more than five young shootsfrom which a new skeleton will be formed in a year and a half. At the same time, such young branches will be excellent fruit, again restoring yields of black and red currants. With proper anti-aging procedures, the shrub will quickly restore the green mass, and its fruiting will improve in the second year after this procedure.