Ostrich bird is a kind of fern, which can often be found in garden plots. The plant is propagated vegetatively due to scaly creeping shoots.
The fern has two kinds of leaves:
- sterile: reach a length of one and a half to two meters, form a plumose funnel,
- sporiferous: two or three small leaves inside the funnel.
Large foliage in the fall disappears, only spore-bearing shoots remain for wintering. In the spring, their edges open, spores in the soil begin to germinate.
The first leaves appear in May, as soon as the weather is stable and warm. At first they are rolled inward. Summer frosts can destroy the shoots, but the plant is quickly restored.
With the growth of young foliage straightened and in the middle of summer forms a large funnel. Sporonosa leaves appear in August. These brown shoots look very unusual and are often used as dried flowers for decoration of flower arrangements.
There are two varieties of ostrichfish:
The first type is the most common. The plant grows quickly, tolerates frost well and requires special care. The branches are broad, feathery, have a light green color. In another way, this species is called "raznostnikom", sometimes because of the black color of the trunk and the dimorphism of the foliage - "black fern".
Eastern Ostrich Man has large branches, collected in bunches. In height reaches one and a half meters. Leaf plates are pinnate, feathers are folded and narrow. The stalks are covered with a brown film.
These species differ in the number of first-order leaves, which are smaller in the east, but larger in size.
What is different from other garden ferns
Ostrichfish looks like ferns-shielders or nomads. But it is distinguished by a more powerful “crown”: in favorable conditions it can grow up to 1.5–2 m in height.
It differs from other ferns in the shape of a bush. Its branches are located in a circle on top of the rhizome, having an onion shape. The shoots of this variety grow at the same time, so in summertime the shrub looks like a vase with an empty middle.
The main difference between the Ostrich and other species is that by the end of the summer it will have sporphos that look like ostrich feathers. They appear in the center of the funnel and rarely reach 50-60 cm. Sporonos have twisted lobules resembling "sausages".
This species of fern tolerates frost well and grows even on scanty soils. However, when planting is necessary and growing it is necessary to take into account that the earth should not remain dry for a long time. The place can be chosen shady or open.
Fern seated vayyami, ie, branches. After planting, they sprinkle with soil and water abundantly.
Both species of Ostrich is well tolerated to -10 ° C. Too high a temperature (above 25 ° C) is unacceptable - the plant will begin to wither and dry. Like other ferns, Ostrichfish do not like drought. In dry weather, the leaves should be sprayed, the soil should remain moist all the time.
The plant can be fed with mineral or organic fertilizers. This is not a prerequisite for care.
Ostrich is transplanted in the spring. For this purpose, dig a young bush. You can also plan a transplant at the end of summer - for this, part of the maternal rhizome with a bud is used.
Application in landscape design
Ostrichnik ordinary found wide application in landscape design. This plant is not intended for cultivation at home and is planted only in the summer cottages, parks, gardens, etc.
Ferns look good in group plantings with other plants, perfectly in harmony with boulders and stone fences. Bushes are planted in dark corners of the garden, on the northern slopes. Ostrichnik is used to design paths and front gardens.
Any ferns, including the Ostrichsus, are indispensable for decorating the shores of artificial reservoirs saturated with moisture from peat soils.
An ostrich bird looks great with large and bushy flowers:
Ostrich and rhododendron (Rhododendron Galathea)
In too shady terrain, a fern is well adjacent to the daylily, the host.
Ferns are often planted together with spring bulbous flowers, tulips, hazel grouses, daffodils: Ostrich's emerald foliage well hides the flowering bulbs.
It is better not to plant a fern along too narrow paths, as you can cut delicate and fragile foliage while walking. On the garden plot it is better to take the place between the home and the fence where they don’t walk very often, but the view from the window matters. Ostrichoper looks great between pines, thujas and large apple trees.
Ostrich and other types of ferns are actively used in the design of winter bouquets. Sporonosa retain their form for a long time and are used as a dry-colored material for various floristic compositions.
Due to its unpretentiousness, this fern has become one of the most sought-after beds in our beds and simply as a garden decoration in a single copy. The visiting card of the plant is noticeable elongated leaves, resembling ostrich feathers.
Hence the name of the species.
- The genus includes 4 species, but only a few are used in culture: ordinary and eastern. They belong to the Onokleev family. Habitat are areas with a temperate climate. Although you can meet an ostrich bird (another name) in the Caucasus, some regions of China and Japan, America and in European countries. Listed in the Red Book. He loves the shadow, so it is more common in the northern areas, where the light day is shorter. Occurs in wet forests of various types, in the thickets of wild herbs.
- This plant is famous not only for its original look, but also for its healing properties. Some leaves are decorated with dishes and used as spices.
- It has several names: Ostrich, Velemkuch, Disease and Black Fern. His open sheet is called frond.
- Rhizome creeping and long, black - brown and covered with scales. In nature, it reproduces with the help of its processes.
- Vayi, resembling ostrich feathers, are of 2 types: barren - green, with upturned leaves, located on short petioles, pinotus - dissected form: sporiferous - brownish - brown shade, with wrapping apices of leaves and sorus. They grow in the middle of the bush at the end of the summer. Width is 5 cm, and length is more than half meter. The leaves are collected in a funnel, resembling a glass. The width of the sheet varies within 20 cm.
- The height of the bush rarely reaches one and a half meters, and in most cases the diameter is only 1 m. A distinctive feature of the fern is a clear difference in the leaves: barren light green and tender, the structure is lanceolate and twice pinnate. And the leaves bearing the sporangia have less leaves of the 2nd and 3rd order, develop in the center and their structure is dense and leathery.
- The external similarity with ordinary ferns - nomads and shielders is complemented by strong and strong leaves and high growth of the aerial part.
Features of the structure of the bush
The upper part of the root system of a fern of this genus resembles an onion. Feature of the structure of the bush in the form of a funnel due to the fact that the leaves of the bulbs grow strictly in a circle and grow the same. Two types of leaves give the ostrich farmer originality.
The leaves that carry spores are perennial, and often visible during the winter. Late autumn spores enter the soil. And in early spring, when the soil moisture is suitable, the young shoots germinate. Such rapid growth distinguishes this genus of ferns from all others that do not possess such a feature.
Effectively look 2 types of leaves on one bush. Sporiferous shoots subsequently darken and stand out against the side of barren olive leaflets. Unfortunately, the fern does not bloom and the main highlight of it is the presence of two types of ostrich leaves.
Brown leaves with spores can be used in stylistically designed flower arrangements. They are able to stand for several years in a vase.
But they need to be collected only in the autumn period, since in the spring they crumble and crumble. Sporiferous leaves have one more peculiarity: the wet weather with sediments causes them to shrink, and dry and hot, on the contrary, contributes to the smoothing of the leaf.
Care and reproduction
Ostrichnik ordinary is characterized by very rapid growth and ease of cultivation. One of the important points of cultivation is the composition of the soil. The culture needs a fertile, moist, but well-drained and slightly acidic substrate. Place for landing choose a shady, sheltered from the wind. The culture tolerates light partial shade with good soil moisture. Especially important regular watering immediately after planting and during the growing season for the development of an extensive root system. Drying the soil can kill the plant.
To maintain adequate moisture and prevent overheating of the roots, the soil around the plantations is mulched with fallen leaves, humus or needles. Ostrich, planted in humus-enriched soil, usually does not need top dressing. Culture zimoustoychiva.
An adult plant is easily propagated by dividing the rhizome at the end of the summer or sowing spores in a tank with wet peat. Germination of spores takes about 3-4 weeks.
After planting delenok and young seedlings, young ferns grow very quickly, forming entire thickets of pinnate foliage and drowning out the plants planted nearby, therefore it is necessary to thin out plantings once every 2-3 years.
In landscape design, the ostrich is the ideal candidate for decorating the shady areas of a plot, garden in a naturalistic forest style, or rutarium. Well-growing ostrich fern near water. Looks great in a composition with decorative rhubarb, rogers, hosta, zhivuchka, arum.
Fern Ostrich bird is considered the most popular. It grows fast, not afraid of frost and does not require special care. The leaves are wide, the fronds are light green, broad and pinnate.
Ordinary Ostrich is also called a raznolefoznik or black fern due to the dimorphism of the leaves and the characteristic black color of the stem.
One of the copies of this subspecies in the photo below:
The Eastern Ostrich has large fronds that are bundled. The height of the fern can reach 1.5 meters. The leaves are pinnate, the feathers themselves are narrow and coiled. Leaf petioles are covered with brown films.
Unlike the common one, the Eastern Ostrich has larger feathers of the first order. But their number is somewhat less.East fern is more picky and requires regular moistening and protection from winds.
Looks like the Eastern subspecies in the photo below:
More photos of the Ostrichus fern look further:
Features care after purchase
Ostrich is resistant to low temperatures and is not picky about soil composition. But when buying it is worth considering that It will require strong moisture. The place can be both shaded and open.
The plant is not whimsical to sunlight. The fern grows well both in the shade and in bright light. But keep in mind that a plant growing in the sun, even with sufficient moisture will be small.
Ostrich is not afraid of lowering the temperature and therefore often used for decorating gardens in temperate latitudes.
Ostrich can carry temperatures up to - 10 degrees.
But for him, high temperatures from 25 degrees are unacceptable. Their plant does not tolerate well.
Like most types of ferns, The plant does not tolerate dry air. In dry weather it is necessary to spray the fern.
Ostrich - plant unpretentious, but needs a moist environment. In dry periods, it is necessary to provide him with sufficient watering.
As a fertilizer can be used as mineral compounds, and organic. You can use them at will, because the fern is not picky.
Fern transplant is worth in the spring. To do this, dig a young plant.
If necessary, you can transplant a fern at the end of the summer, using a segment of the maternal rhizome with a bud.
Ostrich bird multiplies by spores and leaves - wyayas
Reproduction by spores is akin to seed multiplication, but more complex and time consuming, but effective.
Disputes collected in late summer - early autumn.
Then they can be stored for a long time or sown immediately in a tank with disinfected bedding peat, covered with glass and moistened periodically.
After 3-5 weeks sprouts will start to appear. They are transplanted into a mixture of sand, heather land and peat crumb, where the fern grows for several years, after which it can be planted in selected areas.
For reproduction by vegetative means, the underground shoots of a plant with several buds are used. This type of breeding is applied in early spring or late summer.
The processes are planted at a distance of half a meter from each other.
The choice of location and soil
- Fern can be planted both in the sun and in the shade. It is equally well tolerated in completely different types of soil.
- On the southern, sunny side, the color of its barren wai becomes faded, and the shoots grow noticeably reduced to 60 - 80 cm. The leaves get a dull greenish tint, therefore, planted ostrich bird in the sun, it is recommended not only to water regularly under the bush, but also to irrigate .
- The most important requirement for the plant is high humidity and abundant watering.
- When planting an ostrich feather, remember that the root system is growing very strongly. Sprouts may appear in the spring in completely unexpected places, a few meters from the mother bush.
- To avoid surprises, it is recommended to dig around the curtain in order to avoid unwanted growth. Some gardeners remove unnecessary processes of the roots, and bury the root growth limiter to a depth of at least 30-40 cm.
Varieties and description
All species of this fern are very similar and have large leaves resembling ostrich feathers. There are only two species of ostrich, this is ordinary and eastern.
Fern ostrich bug
Very popular type of fern, which has good resistance to frost and completely unpretentious. He quickly grows up. It tolerates winter and grows absolutely in any soil. The most important thing is a sufficient amount of moisture. This species will grow under the scorching sun and in the shade if it is provided with intensive and regular watering.
This view looks very good at any cottage. They are decorated with paths, ponds or garden compositions. An ostrich bird very aggressively behaves with its neighbors in a flower bed, so it is better to plant it separately or make sure that it does not grow strongly, since the roots of this plant grow quite quickly.
Eastern Ostrich Man
It grows up to two meters. This species, in contrast to the ordinary, is quite whimsical. He is afraid of drafts, strong winds and needs constant watering. Does not tolerate frosts.
Distributed on Sakhalin, in China and in the north-east of Russia.
- Planting ostrich can be anywhere. It will grow beautifully in the shade and in the sun. Also does not matter the composition of the soil. Fern, like any other plant, you need to feed mineral and nitrogen fertilizers. Immediately after planting, the plant needs a lot of water, so it needs to be watered a lot and often the first time.
- In the shade, the ostrich will grow better than in the sun. With regular watering and spraying even in the sun, this plant will feel great.
- This fern tolerates temperatures up to minus twenty-five degrees Celsius.
- Ostrich is very fond of water. In the summer, it must be often sprayed.
- Fern transplanting is best in spring. To transplant, you need to separate the kidney with a small part of the rhizome and transplant to a new place.
- Cut the ostrich is not necessary. You can thin the plant three years after planting.
- A very big plus of this plant is its immunity to diseases and pests.
The benefits of the ostrich
Fern in the form of ostrich feathers are used for medical purposes. They can treat some diseases:
- A decoction of the roots will help get rid of worms.
- For pain in the bones, compresses from the leaves of the ostrich are used.
- A decoction of the roots helps with menstrual pain, as well as other female diseases.
- Tincture of the roots will help get rid of insomnia, pain in the stomach and has a calming effect on the nervous system.
- Tincture of the dispute will help relieve inflammation.
- Dried spores help with burns and small wounds.
The use of ferns in the economy
Fern is not only a landscape decoration of the site, but also a very useful plant in the economy.
В некоторых странах это растение употребляют в пищу и считается очень полезным
You can cut only the young leaves from the old plant, because if you cut the leaves from a young plant, it may die.
You can eat the leaves, which were cut no more than four hours before eating. After four hours it will become hard and unsuitable for food.
It is usually eaten boiled or salted. Raw fern has a bitter taste, and when boiled it is very similar to cabbage.
Landscaper in landscape design
These unusual plants are very often used by landscape designers in the design of gardens or parks. Due to its bright and unusual appearance, it looks great in almost any composition and even independently. It looks great fern among boulders or stone fence. Very often ferns adorn the shores of reservoirs.
Ostrich is great next to large flowers such as peonies or irises. But you should know that the fern grows very quickly and is quite aggressive towards other plants, suppressing them.
Very often the ostrich is used in winter bouquets. or creating compositions of dried flowers.
Description: varieties and varieties of ostrich
Ostrich is a fern belonging to the Onokleyev family. His native climate is temperate. The culture got its name because of the structure of the leaves, so it is sometimes called the ostrich feather, and also the black fern or German ostrich beetle. Specifications:
- height - up to 2 m,
- leaf arrangement is vertical,
- form - feathery fern,
- higher leaves form a funnel, in the middle of which there are low leaves with spores,
- the color is emerald green in large leaf plates and brown in spore-bearing,
- the size of the main leaves is 1.5 m long and about 30-40 cm wide,
- root system is vertical, powerful and long, underground creeping shoots depart from the roots.
Attention! Fern of any varieties inhibits all neighboring plants.
At the beginning of the growing season, all the leaves-fronds of the plant are tightly folded. Then they gradually turn around and form the very funnel for which this fern is valued. The most attractive ostrich is in June, as can be seen on the photo. Large leaves die off in the fall, and overwintering fronds with spores unfold and drop seeds in the spring.
As such, the division into varieties of the ostrich bird is not. Some botanists distinguish the Pennsylvanian variety, but only a specialist can distinguish it. An ordinary fern has a relative - the eastern one. It differs in the shape and size of the feathers of the first row. The root system of its varieties is less aggressive, but such a fern is more difficult to care for and reproduction.
Ostrich bird: planting
For planting in the open field suitable seedlings age 2-3 years. Pick a shaded place for them on the site. In the sun, the ostrich will grow, but will not be large. To plant a plant growers advise groups of 5-7 pieces.
Landing scheme - as close as possible to the natural. For example, irregular triangles. At the same time, keep a distance of 0.3-1 m. The advantage of this method is that in a couple of years the fern will independently increase its number by vegetative means. You will only have time to remove excess plants, and from all the others to form the green decoration of the site.
Plant care, fertilizer and fertilizing
Ostrich is a strong and viable plant. Therefore, its cultivation is a pleasure. First of all, care and protection are needed by neighboring garden, garden or ornamental crops, if any. Gardeners use artificial barriers. For example, a wide plastic tape dug around the perimeter of the planned area. For planting in a flower bed, you can use a spacious bucket without a bottom, with which the fern is buried.
Other aspects of caring for an ostrich bird in an open field:
- Control humidity. During a drought, the plant should be sprayed.
- For the winter, the ostrich must be covered only if prolonged frosts of -10 ° C and more are expected in your region.
- Fern does not tolerate heat from +25 ° C.
- Watering - moderate. With prolonged absence of rain, increase the dose of water.
This fern does not need fertilizers. But still flower growers sometimes use them. Any organic and mineral blend will do. Fertilizers should be applied approximately once a month during the first year of the plant’s life, at its discretion.
Ostrich bird: plant reproduction
Like other ferns, the ostrich is strong in spontaneous reproduction. Collected spore boxes - quite effective and at the same time troublesome way. Better time to collect a dispute - the end of summer-the beginning of autumn. They are suitable for storage in a dry place, and for immediate planting for breeding. In any case, to obtain seedlings suitable bedding of peat. Pre-disinfect it.
Deepen the spores in the substrate, then irrigate and cover with glass or plastic. From care measures, sowing needs only periodic moistening. Sprouts will appear in 25-40 days. Replant them immediately in a special soil for ferns, which can be purchased at the store. Further care and cultivation of the plant is to maintain a high level of humidity, if necessary - to transplant into a more spacious pot. In this mode, the young plants will live for several years before planting in open ground.
An alternative to spores is vegetative reproduction by root processes. To do this, find them in the top layer of soil. Work planning for early spring or August. The shoot must have 2-3 buds:
- Cut the shoots approximately 10 cm in length.
- Plant them in open ground at intervals of at least 50 cm.
Attention! At the first stage of development, fertilizers are not needed for ostrichlings planted in any way.
Diseases and pests of the ostrich
An ostrich bird can come to love Tarphina's marsupial mushroom. This parasitic organism causes leaf spotting. In addition, he sometimes touches the adjacent ornamental and fruit trees. Affected tissue must be cut and burned, the plant sprayed with a fungicide. As a preventive measure, spring treatment of plantations with copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture helps.
Ostrich: combination with other plants
Group planting of an ostrich bird is already in itself a beautiful combination. When choosing other companions, keep in mind that fern vegetation starts late. In the design of the sites, the ostrich's masking properties are used to hide early fading crops: crocuses, proleski, etc.
A fern in a company with moss, snags and stumps will create a forest composition on the site. This atmospheric installation for a photo will be complemented by a stone-saws, a primrose, a monkey-codling pin or a creeping tentacle. The combination of an ostrich bird with a bathing suit, daylilies, decorative varieties of cereals and irises looks interesting.
Temperature and watering
- An ostrich bird can often be found in flowerbeds and in a single landing in the middle lane precisely because of its resistance to low temperatures.
- If it is freezing outside to - 10 degrees, then for fern it is not at all scary.
- The fern does not tolerate too high temperatures above +25.
- When the climate is too dry and the weather is hot and hot, it is better to water the plant on such days abundantly and spray it with the rain method.
- If you want the fern to grow as much as possible, then more often moisten the soil around the bush and do not forget about the aboveground part.
The plant is very undemanding. It can be fed at will with mineral and organic fertilizers. Nitrogen-containing dressings contribute to the growth and active growth of leaves and root system.
Do I need to trim the fern
Pruning is usually not done. But once in 3 years it is necessary to thin the bush a little. The fern is a perennial plant and over time is able to grow strongly. Therefore, using it in group plantings, you need to take into account this feature.
There are 2 main ones. It is possible to use in floriculture any at will.
This method is reminiscent of seed, but only more laborious, although effective
- In August and before the first half of September, it is necessary to collect disputes. They can be stored or landed immediately.
- Put them in a container where the peat is poured into a litter. It must also be disinfected. Moisten the soil and cover with spores with a film or glass.
- In a month, shoots appear. They need to be transplanted to another soil. The mixture is prepared independently: in equal parts, take heather land, peat crumb and river sand. There are transplanted young shoots for several years.
- Subsequently, they are required to land on a previously prepared place in open ground.
The plant has a number of healing properties that help to overcome some ailments.
- Both ordinary and eastern ferns are able to heal wounds and cuts. For this, it is necessary to disinfect a part of the sheet and attach it to the sore spot.
- Those with dilated vessels, can prepare and use the tincture of the leaves. It is used twice a day and 1 tablespoon. After a while, the tissue of the vessels will return to normal.
- Antispasmodic quality can quickly relieve spasm. It is enough to make a decoction or tincture of the delicate parts of the leaves.
General description and types of plants
Ostrich can be often seen in the gardens. For its reproduction is often used vegetative method. An ostrich has two types of leaflets:
- sporiferous: 2−3 small leaves, located in the funnel,
- sterile: up to 1–2 meters long, form a plumose funnel.
The large leaves of the ostrich bird in the fall begin to fall off, that is, in winter, only sporone shoots remain on it. In early spring, they reveal their edges, and spores in the ground quickly germinate.
Leaves on the ostrich appear in May, with the arrival of the first stable heat. At first they are wrapped inside. A cold snap during the summer may adversely affect the shoots, but the culture rather quickly restores its former state.
The foliage of the ostrich is gradually cracked down and by July forms a large funnel. Sporiferous leaves appear closer to August. These shoots with brown coloring look extremely unusual and are often used as dried flowers when creating compositions of flowers. Ostrich can be of two types:
The latter species is considered the most common, although the description of the ostrich and the eastern is very similar. Ordinary culture has a very rapid growth and good resistance to frost. However, she needs a special care approach. The branches are pinnate and rather wide, have a light green color. Fern ostrich bug is popularly called “black plant” or “raznostnostnikom”.
The eastern variety is characterized by rather large branches that are assembled into compact bunches. The height of the plant sometimes reaches 1,5−1,7 m. Between themselves, these varieties differ in the number of leaflets of the first order. They are smaller in the Oriental, but they are large. It should be noted that the eastern fern needs special care. For him, in addition to full watering, requires reliable protection from the winds.
Differences from other ferns
In appearance, all ostrich guys look like nomads or shieldmen. However, they have more dense and massive vegetation. In addition, they differ in the shape of the bush itself. The branches of the ostrich are on the top of the onion-shaped rhizome in a circle. His shoots grow at the same time, for this reason, in summer the culture resembles a kind of vase.
Ostrich's sporonos are very similar to Emu feathers. They are formed in the central part of the funnel and reach a size of 55 cm. Inside the sporonos there are twisted slices that look like miniature “sausages”.
Planting and Care Rules
Ostrich bird copes with frost well and can grow and develop well even in the ground with a scanty composition. But when growing this crop it is necessary to take into accountthat the soil should never dry out too much. Land for landing, you can pick up an open or shady. In this regard, the plant is very unpretentious.
Fern taken to plant branches (vayyami). At the same time, it is necessary to sprinkle with earth and thoroughly moisten. Of course, the culture grows under the open sun, but in this case it will not be able to gain greater altitude, even with regular moisture.
Both the eastern and ordinary ostrich fish perfectly perceive temperature readings up to -12 degrees Celsius. It is not necessary to allow exceeding the values up to +25 or more, otherwise the flower will begin to dry out and wither. As with any member of the genus Ferns, drought is contraindicated for the ostrich. In the heat of the sheets must be periodically sprayed, the ground must also be constantly wet.
Organic and mineral compounds are suitable for culture fertilizer. Although feeding the plant is not required.
By transplanting the ostrich is best to turn in the spring. For this, a young shrub is pulled out. Permissible to replant the plant and at the end of August, but for this purpose you need to take part of the main root, on which there is a kidney.
Ferns are not taken to be pruned, but every 3 years it is desirable to thin out the culture, because it is actively growing. Therefore, it is better not to experiment with mass plantings.
Use in landscape design
You can buy healthy seedlings on the Internet or in a specialized nursery. The price of one seedling ranges from 300 to 1200 rubles. But you can find seed and cheaper through ads.
Ostrich garden is often used in the field of landscape design. This culture does not take root at home, so it is grown in gardens, parks and greenhouses.