Pine is beautiful evergreen treewhich happens different grades. This coniferous plant can decorate any area. It grows very quickly, remains green and fluffy all year round.
Among other things, this tree sprays a large amount of phytoncides that kill pathogens around the site.
But how to plant a pine tree?
The answer to this question can be found in this article.
Better seedling or seed?
First you need to decide which type of pine is best suited, here are the most popular ones,
- Marsh (long coniferous)
- Himalayan pine.
Some species get along well at very low temperatures and have a very thick trunk (for example, Angarsk), others are adapted for middle latitudes (for example, Weymouth, black). Different varieties are very different in appearance, dwarf pine - a shrub with lush long needles, but the marsh pine can grow to a height of 47 m.
After selecting the type, it is necessary to decide whether to plant a sapling or a seed. Seed growing is a rather difficult task, but interesting. Seeds easily available, they can be found in any forest. In order for them to germinate, it is not necessary to stratify (to withstand the seeds for a long time at a certain temperature), simply bury the seeds in the ground (to a depth of no more than 5 mm), put the pot in a well-lit place and water periodically.
You can soak the seeds in a fleece, in order so that they quickly swelled and sprouted (it is important not to block access of oxygen, otherwise the germ will die). After the seedling has risen, it should be transplanted from the pot to the plot.
Sapling can be found in stores for gardening, special nurseries or it can be taken from the forest. There is a big chance that there will be a bad, unviable sapling in the forest. The pine tree from the nursery is best suited; experienced specialists work there to help pick a variety, tell you how to plant a tree.
How to choose the seedling from the forest?
A young tree should reach a height of 40 to 80 cm (do not forget that large seedlings are very difficult to transport). Annuals or biennials better adapt to new conditionsmore than adults.
Before digging up a tree, it is important to check for brittleness. Yellow needles and breaking branches are a bad sign, such a tree is not suitable for the site, most likely it is sick or has already died (coniferous trees after death retain a presentable appearance for a long time, such as the New Year tree). It does not hurt to check the pine for the presence of harmful insects and worms.
When the tree is selected, it is time to start digging. In this process it is very important not to damage the roots, it is better to get the pine together with a lump of earth (which, moreover, will greatly help when landing on the plot). Worth considering that pine adventitious roots are located in breadth, and they are very easy to damage.
It is very important to bring along a piece of cloth and water. The roots of conifers quickly die in the fresh air. In order for the tree to survive, it is necessary to wrap the roots (together with a clod of earth) with a damp rag. If the fabric is thin cotton, then it can not be removed during planting, as it quickly rot and does not interfere with the growth of roots.
What land is suitable for planting?
Dense and heavy soil adversely affects pine. It is better to plant in light, sandy soil, on the upper the layers of which must be compost or manure (do not use compost California worms, as it is very dense and does not allow air). To facilitate the soil, drainage is used (20 centimeters of sand are poured into the pit).
Pine needs the following minerals
But it is worth considering that a large amount of nitrogen is extremely dangerous for coniferous plants. This trace element disrupts the formation of chlorophyll and can lead to the death of some parts of the tree.
Before planting a tree on a plot, some use containers. They save space and are easy to use, but it is worth considering that the pine is a fast-growing tree, it needs a large amount of land. Among other things, the containers are convenient if, due to the unfavorable time of year, it is impossible to plant pine.
When is the best time to plant a pine?
In no case should not plant a tree during active growth (this period begins from the beginning of the growth of the shoot, before stiffening), it can seriously harm him. At this time, a pine tree is required. maximum amount of water, and landing can lead to dehydration.
The best time is early autumn or mid spring. Over the summer, the tree will adapt to a new place and be ready for a cold winter. In autumn, all the vital processes of plants slow down greatly, which makes it easier for the tree to survive landing in a new place. If suddenly there was a need to transplant the pine in the winter, then it must be covered with a spanbond or lapnik (by the arrival of spring they can be removed).
Do not plant a tree in windy dry weather. The air temperature should not be higher than 30 degrees, it can adversely affect the tree.
What is the best way to prepare for planting?
These trees love sunny places, but young seedlings can die under strong bright rays. In the forest, young pines protect mature trees, they create shade. In order to solve this problem it is necessary to temporarily artificially shade the site, for example, put plywood (which will also serve as protection from small animals).
Or temporarily plant a tree in another place, and then transplant it back into the sun. This problem can also be solved by planting pine near other low plants. Sooner or later, the pine will outgrow its neighbors and begin to receive a large amount of sunlight. Whitewashing the trunk - another way to protect the trunk of a young plant from strong sunlight.
It is worth considering that some pines reach a very large size (up to 47 m in height), these trees need a sufficient amount of space for normal life. Do not plant a pine tree near the house, as the roots of a tree can seriously damage the foundation. And also you should not grow a tree near pipes and electrical wires.
The site must be cleaned of debris, stones and weeds. Other plants can interfere with the normal growth of the tree, and the stones will prevent the growth of the roots.
If the roots of the plant are tightly pressed to each other, then it is better to wash them a little with water and straighten. Due to this, the tree will start growing better in width, which is why it will quickly adapt to the new site.
How to plant a pine on the site?
The process of planting is the same for a nursery sapling as it is for a forest sapling. The pit for planting pine is best done in the form of a cone or an inverted pyramid. For a seedling of about 70 cm, a hole of 60 by 60 cm will fit (if it is necessary to drain, then there should be another 20-30 additional cm). Before planting, you must add mineral or organic fertilizer and moisten the earth with water (half a bucket of water).
Then the tree is planted in the hole. The root neck must be at ground level, otherwise the roots of the tree will begin to rot. It is easily regulated if the seedling is transplanted immediately with the ground.
The tree should be in a strictly vertical position, if strong winds began, it is better to support the trunk of the plant with a piece of wood or make a metal frame. When planting, you can make mulch, it will save the pine from weeds and drought.
When to plant
Any gardener knows that all trees are planted either in spring or autumn. The same applies to the pine. Many people prefer spring planting, so that the root system can get stronger by winter. But in this case, you need to guess the moment when it is not yet time for active growth, then you can cause damage to the seedling.
Most trees are planted in mid-autumn; this is the right time. All life processes slow down, the plants are preparing for winter rest. Here it is necessary to act. If you plant a pine in the middle or end of September, then by the winter its roots will have time to get stronger.
A dangerous but possible time for transplanting is summer. There is an active growth, the roots of a young tree are developing, absorbing nutrients from the soil. And here, imagine, we with our shovel, casually take out the roots from the ground and leave them in the hot sun. This is for the pine destructive.
What to plant - the choice of seedlings
An amazing pine tree, it can grow in very dry climates with harsh winters. Many species suffer dangerous environmental disasters associated with air pollution.
All these properties have made this type of conifers especially popular, seedlings can be purchased in many nurseries. It is there that they are advised to purchase them. Most often, a young tree brought from a forest does not survive and it happens that it dies in the same year.
It is best to come to the nursery by yourself and choose a seedling in a pot, with a closed root system. He must be between three and five years old. Such a tree, with proper planting and care, you will get accustomed completely.
If you do decide to independently dig up a tree, then you need to remove it from the soil as best as possible and transport it to the landing site. In this case, you need to leave a large lump of earth and cover the root system with something. Many dig up young pines growing on the slopes, with almost bare roots and not very straight trunks. Of course, for such trees, transplanting to a flat area with fertile soil and care will be a real salvation.
How to plant - site preparation and soil selection
You, of course, noticed that in the wild nature of the pine grow in any places, on a variety of soils. Where only the seed does not go, and how the tree adapts later.
You can meet the mighty tall pines in the coniferous forest, with a deep root system deep into the soil, and you can be amazed at how on the mountain slopes trees cling to stones and nevertheless continue to grow.
Choosing a place on the site for a new guest should be sunny, but know that the first summer you will need to plant a seedling, otherwise it can easily burn in the sun.
It is not necessary to choose lowland places for the pine, where there is stagnation of water, or underground groundwater is close. A small tree with a still undeveloped root system will not be afraid of the presence of groundwater, but during the growth of the roots, when they reach for moisture, they will surely start to rot and the tree will soon die.
A good place for planting will be a small hillock in a sunny place of your site with sandy or sandy sandy soil. You can plant pine not far from fruit trees, but not too close so as not to interfere with their roots.
I want to give good advice, many do not know about it, whether you are going to the forest for a sapling or have looked after it in the nearest nursery, prepare a planting hole in advance. So the plant will not wait with open roots, especially, of course, this applies to wild young.
The width and depth of the pit depends
- from where the sapling will be taken, for the forest you need a hole 60x60 cm and a depth of at least 80, since you will dig up the plant with a large lump of earth.
- the quality of the soil, heavy loam need to do drainage, it is still thirty centimeters deep to fill the sand.
Organic fertilizer in the form of well-rotted compost is added to the finished pit. Drainage requires clean river sand mixed with forest land, the upper fertile layer. Already in the pit everything is well mixed and left for shrinkage.
The choice of planting material - we go for a sapling
With trees from the nursery, everything is simple, there you will receive advice on planting and care. But still, pay attention to the state of the needles, it should not be yellow, and the twigs should be elastic and not break. It so happens that the tree has already died, but still retains the original attractive appearance and no one knows about his death.
To dig up pine forest, you need to prepare thoroughly, take a bucket, a shovel, some cloth, a rag or a piece of polyethylene.
Choosing a sapling do not chase the size. You shouldn’t dig more than a meter, it will have a longer root, and when digging it will most likely get damaged, it will get worse, and it’s not very convenient to transport it.
Choosing a suitable pine you need around, retreating from the trunk by thirty centimeters, dig it with a shovel and pour abundantly, wait until the water is absorbed. We need this manipulation in order for the wet earthy ball to hold well on the roots.
Then we gently let the shovel under the roots and as a lever, lift it up, taking the tree out of the ground. A piece of polyethylene or other material should be spread nearby. We unload the tree together with the earthy clod on it and wind it up tightly. The pine root system in the open air dies very quickly, so we follow all the precautions.
We brought a seedling to the site and now we need to correctly estimate the size of the pit, so that it is not too small or large. If necessary, adjust the depth and pour water there, somewhere on the floor of the pit. Immediately we place our pine in the water, so the roots will spread faster and better.
After we fall asleep a hole, we crush the soil a little around and once again we spill the water well, so the soil will consolidate better and there will be no voids.
When planting look, the basal neck should be flush with the soil.
After planting, ideally, you need to prune the trunk circle so that the moisture evaporates less, and free yourself from weeding. As mulch, you can make straw or the same pine needles brought from the forest.
If you have several seedlings, then plant them at a distance not closer than four meters from each other, keep in mind that the trees will soon become adult pines.
Pine care after planting
All care for a young tree is reduced to watering, removal of weeds. If a pine tree is planted in May, then in the summer in hot hours it should be shaded, it can be covered with a non-woven cloth.
By winter, a young tree, in spite of its winter hardiness, is also better to warm, pour humus and cover it with spruce branches.
For reproduction using three methods:
Most often seedlings in nurseries are obtained precisely by reproduction with seeds. Although this process is not fast, but with this method, the strongest seedlings are obtained.
Seeds are planted in special boxes with loose soil at a distance of five cm from each other, sprinkled with peat and germinated. Only a year later, saplings are obtained, which can already be planted.
When to plant pine
In order to see the coniferous plant in all its glory, you need to choose the most favorable time for its planting. Pine can be planted in spring and autumn. In the spring it is the end of April - the beginning of May, and in the fall - the end of August - the beginning of September. It is very important during the autumn planting that the tree has time to take root before the onset of frost, then the seedling can survive the winter without complications.
Buying a pine seedling in the nursery, you can get advice from experienced professionals. They will talk in detail about the planting procedure, the conditions of detention and the rules for the care of coniferous trees, as well as advise the most suitable variety for the available land. For example, fast-growing varieties are best suited for planting near the house.
Where to get a sapling
There are three ways to produce a seedling: grow seeds, buy in any forest nursery, dig in the forest or in any other area of wildlife. Growing seeds is work, of course, fascinating, but time consuming. Have to wait from two to three years.
If there is a nursery nearby, it is best to take a sapling there. First, you get a sapling of the required age. Secondly, they will give you the necessary advice. It would seem that the easiest option is to dig in the forest, because this method requires minimal costs.
On the other hand, you need to choose the right sapling. It is better to dig a seedling that will die in nature due to the environment. Also, the tree must be very carefully dig along with a lump in order not to damage the roots of the tree.
Where better to plant
Pines - sun-loving plants. However, they need a shaded area for growth. Pines do not grow in a bare field, but they are given a shade by a number of growing plants. Pines grow well on soft soils. If the soil is solid, it is better to use drainage.
Under natural circumstances, pines grow on any soil, in virtually any environment. The main part of the root system is located in the upper layers of the earth.
Before buying or digging a seedling, it is worthwhile to pre-dig a hole in order to plant a tree immediately. The pit should be the size of a clod around the roots. For seedlings up to 70 cm, the hole will be about 60 × 60 cm, from 70 cm - about 80 × 80 cm. It is better if the hole is in the shape of a pyramid or a cone.
Having delivered the sapling to the planting pit, the question will arise: “How to plant a pine tree?”. Everything is very simple. Fill the pit with half a bucket of water, then drop a ball into the hole. If necessary, trim the hole to the size of a coma.
Be careful with the root neck. Место, где ствол расходится на корни, должно быть выше уровня земли, иначе дерево погибнет. После посадки стоит замульчировать саженец. И, наконец, полейте его. Поливать лучше из лейки, чтобы не размывать землю.
If you have plans to grow more than one pine tree, plant them four meters apart so that in the future they do not interfere with the "neighbors" growing.
Leaving Special care tree does not require. The main thing is to mulch the soil in the near-stem circle, remove high weeds, water in dry time and cut off diseased branches.
Pines grow to enormous size, and will always delight the eye with an evergreen robe.
WHEN AND HOW TO PLANT
Planting conifers should be according to the following rules:
- Immediately after digging up, the root system of the plant must be wrapped in a damp cloth, which will keep a significant part of the roots alive,
- the earthy lump should be wide and deep, due to the presence of a very powerful and well-developed root system in the plant,
- damage to the main taproot, which can negatively affect the survival rate of the coniferous plant, should be avoided.
Most often, in terms of landscape design, mountain pine and cedar and weymouth pine are grown. Virtually all types of pines have miniature or dwarf varieties and hybrid forms, so the choice of plants for home gardening is quite large.
Most often in terms of landscape design is the cultivation of mountain pine.
LANDING AND TRANSFER
Pine is a tree of light-loving, so the plot for planting should be distinguished by a good level of illumination during the entire time of cultivation. When planting several plants at the same time, planting pits should be prepared at a distance of at least 3-4 m. The dimensions of the pit should be somewhat larger than the root system of a plant with an earthy ball.
In order for the young coniferous plant to transfer grafting as easily as possible, a small amount of fertilizer should be poured at the bottom of the planting pit. Then it is necessary to lay a layer of fertile soil and make abundant watering of the soil before sinking the root system of the plant. The average water consumption is about a bucket of water per plant.
Young plants with a height of no more than 0.3-0.6 m best take root. For a successful planting, it is necessary to immerse the root system of a pine tree in the planting pit without the root of the neck being dug. Immediately after planting, it is recommended to priten plants, as well as to conduct abundant watering and subsequent mulching of the soil in pristvolny circles. After the autumn planting, it is recommended to warm the root system with foliage or fir spruce branches.
Most often pine cottage plots are grown, widely distributed in the forests of our country. Proper and timely pruning of pines is very important when growing conifers in home gardening.
The rules for crown formation are as follows:
- to conduct formative pruning should begin about a year after planting pine to a permanent place,
- if it is necessary to preserve the natural shape of the pine, only sanitary pruning of the plant is carried out, which consists in removing old and diseased branches, and also allows the plant to maintain a healthy appearance,
- When using pine in landscape design and to create a hedge, it is not recommended to stimulate significant tree height,
- Standard pruning begins when the plant reaches a height of 1.3-1.5 m.
Pruning is carried out when young shoots appear on a pine tree, called shoots or candles.
Proper pruning must be done in accordance with the following basic requirements of agricultural engineering:
- the procedure is performed when young shoots appear on the pine tree, called shoots or candles,
- it is necessary to remove gains when their length is maximum and the needles have not yet begun the process of active fluffing,
- hvoyniki wake up after the winter period of rest rather late, and the active development of new shoots will begin in the last spring month, so pruning is carried out in June,
- pruning is done with a simple long-blade shears,
- The treatment should be started from the top of the plant, and the skeletal branches should be cut separately and leave hemp no more than 4-5 cm high,
- plots of slices need to be treated with copper sulfate and garden pitch, which will prevent the growth and development of the pathogenic microflora,
- the first pruning should be carried out in the spring, and if necessary it is allowed to carry out additional correction of the crown.
All tools used in pruning must be disinfected and sharply sharpened. For one pruning, you must remove no more than a third of the green mass.
The pruning is done with a simple long-blade shears.
Important to remember, that improperly pruning very often causes coniferous crops serious damage, which is quite difficult to fix in a short time.
TERMS AND RULES FOR THE FERTILIZATION
Currently, a large number of special fertilizers for feeding coniferous crops. The use of ordinary garden mixtures, as well as complex fertilizers is impractical when growing evergreens, including pine. Also, it is not allowed to apply manure, bird droppings and herbal infusions to the top dressing of conifer branches, which cause active growth and subsequent yellowing of the needles.
High-quality fertilizers for feeding coniferous plants must necessarily contain a sufficiently large amount of magnesium.
The introduction of nutrients must necessarily be made according to the following technology:
- high-quality fertilizers for feeding coniferous plants must necessarily contain a sufficiently large amount of magnesium,
- you can not use nutrient compounds with high nitrogen content, stimulating too intensive growth of green shoots and their freezing,
- in order to fully feed the coniferous crops, it is recommended to use mineral fertilizers, well-rotted compost and biohumus.
FERTILIZERS FOR BULBS (VIDEO)
Feeding is carried out twice during the garden season. The first is carried out at the stage of active growing season growing points, which falls on the first half of May. The second feeding is carried out in late August. The best way to feed is considered to be the use of liquid forms of fertilizer. Properly performed procedure is the key to plant health.
Choosing a landing site
Pines love sunny areas, but young trees should be pruneed for the first time - in natural conditions, trees do not grow from scratch, they are accompanied by shade.
Best of all pines grow on light soils - sandy and sandy. If the soil is heavy (loamy and clayey), additional drainage should be provided. To do this, a 20-cm layer of sand or expanded clay is added to the landing pit (finely broken brick or gravel can be added).
In nature, pine grows in a variety of soil and hydrological conditions, actively adapting to them. The root system can have a deeply penetrating and well-developed taproot if the groundwater lies deep or can be superficial. However, the bulk of the roots in any case is located in the upper soil layer, at a depth of 50-60 cm.
We decided to plant a pine in a distant unused corner of the plot. There our site passes into a rather high hill - we have close groundwater, and the hill provides some margin for root growth, perhaps this is an extra reinsurance, but we would not want the pine to die in a couple of years from root decay. Apple-wilds growing around will play the role of nursery trees - protect the seedling from the scorching sun. When the pine gets stronger and grows, it will outgrow the surrounding trees and bushes and will receive a lot of sunlight.
Choosing a place to land
Landing pit preparation
If you are going to transplant a pine tree dug in the forest or in other “wild conditions”, then first of all you should prepare a planting pit in order to immediately plant the brought seedling. The landing pit should correspond approximately to the size and shape of a clod of earth with which the tree will be transplanted. The more this lump will be, the less damage will be received by the root system. Calculate your strengths - what size you can dig and deliver to the landing site. For saplings up to 70 cm, a pit (and coma) size of at least 60 × 60 cm, height of more than 70 cm is recommended - at least 80 × 80 cm. The shape is a pyramid or a cone (you are unlikely to be able to dig a different shape).
We dig a landing hole
As already mentioned, additional drainage is required on heavy soils. Taking into account the drainage, we made a landing pit a little deeper and poured about 30 cm of sand mixed with the ground extracted from the pit to the bottom.
Fall asleep drainage layer
Pure sand (taken in a pine forest) we diluted with fertile soil, which will serve as fertilizer for our pine. For the same reason, we did not add mineral or organic fertilizers to the pit, the land here was good black soil, and the place for planting pine was virgin, so there was enough mineral matter for the pine and so on.
If you wish to fertilize, use mature compost or buy special fertilizer for conifers.
Selection and preparation of seedlings
Choosing a young tree for transplanting, check it for brittleness. If the needles are yellowed and the tips of the branches break easily, the tree may be damaged and start to die. The dead tree retains its “commodity” look for quite a long time, remember the New Year trees, the needles from which are not showered, even though the tree has absolutely no roots.
Going to dig up a sapling, take with you water and a large enough piece of cloth to wrap a dug clod of earth with its roots. When exposed, the main root of a pine tree dies in air in 15-20 minutes. This is another reason why pines should be dug out with a fairly large basal lump.
Choosing a seedling, cut the turf around the perimeter with a shovel, penetrating the shovel as deep as possible into the soil. After that, use the shovel as a lever to tear off and lift a clod of earth with roots.
We dig a pine
Put a wet cloth under the spade, straighten it and put a com on it. Wrap the cloth tightly around the coma and, holding it, pull out the pine.
First of all, you can remove the clod of earth without damaging it. Secondly, tightly wrapped and tied fabric will not allow anyone to fall apart during transport. And, finally, it will avoid the drying of the root. If you use a thin cotton sheet, then the seedling can be lowered into the planting hole right in it - the fabric will quickly rot and will not interfere with the growth of the roots.
Digged tree ready for transport
Having brought the tree to the landing site, we pour out a half-bucket of water into the landing pit and simply drop the seedling there. If the size of the coma is different from the landing pit, add or remove the required amount of land.
We water a landing hole
Note: the root neck cannot be buried (i.e. the place where the trunk of the tree begins to branch and passes into the roots), it should be at ground level. Otherwise, it rots, and the tree dies. If you transplant a tree with a dense, unbroken clod of earth, the problem with determining the depth at which the root neck should be located is automatically eliminated.
After landing, we gurgle the earth around the trunk. Mulch, as you probably know, helps retain moisture, prevents weed germination and, slowly rotting, works as a soft fertilizer. For mulching, we collected fallen pine needles.
We mulch the earth around
Finally, water the seedling, even if the ground is wet. Watering not only provides a reserve of water, but also improves the contact of the roots with the soil, which means that it creates more favorable conditions for feeding and restoring damage. Watering preferably watering with a nozzle, so as not to erode the soil.
If you want to plant several pines, place the following approximately four meters from the first one. If you plant trees too close, they will interfere with each other when they grow up.
Departure after landing
Special care for pine planted on your site is not required. Warm the tree before winter, if planted in late autumn, close from the bright spring sun, mulch the tree trunk, clean large grass around, water during particularly dry periods (mulch will help fight the drought), clean dried and sick branches.
Properly planted pines will long please you with their evergreen outfit.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 4.2. Transfer
- 4.3. Pests and diseases
- 5. Reproduction
- 5.1. How to multiply
- 5.2. Growing from seed
- 5.3. Cuttings
- 5.4. Graft
- 6. Pine in winter on the plot
- 6.1. Autumn care
- 6.2. Wintering
- 7. Types and varieties
Planting and maintenance of pine (in short)
- Landing: from late August to mid-September or from late April to early May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: To fill the planting pit, a mixture of 2 parts of soil from the upper fertile layer, 2 parts of sod land, one part of sand or clay, 100 g of Kemira-station wagon and 50 g of Nitrophoska is prepared. 200-300 g of hydrated lime are added to the acidic soil.
- Watering: An adult pine tree does not need artificial moistening, and for the first two years after planting it is necessary to arrange water-recharge irrigation for seedlings in the first two years. Only Rumelian pine requires 2-3 waterings per season at a rate of 15-20 liters of water for each plant.
- Top dressing: the first two years after planting, a solution of complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 40 g per m² is applied once a season into the root circle. In the future, food will occur due to coniferous litter.
- Reproduction: seeds, cuttings and grafting.
- Pests: aphids, Hermes, coniferous mealybugs, pine scale insects, pine podkornye bugs, spider mites, red pine sawflies, pine moth rhyacionia, caterpillars pine moth and pine leaf-mining moth, Shishkov moth, Shishkov campion, large and small beetle, long-horned beetles, borers, elephants and point points.
- Diseases: rust, pinworm, rust (pitch) cancer, snow shutte, scleroderriosis (umbrella disease), necrosis of the cortex.
Pine Tree - Description
Pines are evergreen monoecious trees with a pyramidal crown at a young age, which by old age becomes umbrella-shaped or spherical. Pines can be trees, shrubs, or creeping bushes. The height of the pine can be 2, and 20, and 50 m. The root system of the pines is developed - rod or anchor type. The pine bark on the trunk is deep-cracked, reddish-brown, and on the branches reddish or yellowish, thinly flaky.
Pines - plants with whorled branching and shoots of two types: shortened (brachyblasts) and elongated (auxiblasts). The needles are located only on brachyblasts. By the number of needles on the shoot, pine plants are divided into three types: two-coniferous trees (they are represented by pine and maritime pine), three-coniferous (Bunge pine) and five-coniferous (Siberian and Japanese white pine). Pine needles reach a length of 5-9 cm and sit in bunches of 2-5 pieces surrounded by membranous sheaths. On long shoots pine leaves are brown and scaly. Sometimes as a result of mechanical damage on a pine, rosette shoots can be formed - short, with bunches of wide and short needles.
Male strobila form spikes at the base of young branches, female strobila - symmetric oblong or ovate-conical drooping cones located in the upper part of the plant. After the seeds ripen, the buds fall off. Pine cones consist of a tiled-folded leathery or woody fruit scales with thickenings in the form of a faceted flap at the ends. Pine seeds are usually winged, but there are species with wingless seeds. Pollinated by the wind. Seed germination lasts up to 4 years.
Pines - long-lived. There are among them instances whose age is not in the hundreds, but in thousands of years.
How to plant a pine.
The pit for the pine is dug about a meter deep. If the soil on the site is heavy, it is necessary to lay a layer of expanded clay or broken brick with a thickness of 20 cm in the landing pit for drainage and pour it with sand. An earthen mixture is prepared in advance: 2 parts of a fertile topsoil are mixed with 2 parts of sod land and 1 part of sand or clay. In the soil mixture, add 50 g of Nitrophoska or 100 g of Kemira-station wagon and mix everything thoroughly. In addition, 200-300 g of hydrated lime are added to the acidic soil.
Pour the soil mixture into the pit, then very carefully remove the seedling from the container, trying not to destroy the earthen room, lower the tree into the pit and fill the remaining space with soil mixture, gradually pouring it and then lightly tamping it. After planting, an earthen heap is made around the tree so that the water does not spread when watering, and 2 buckets of water are poured under the seedling. After the water is absorbed and the ground settles, the root neck of the seedling should be at the level of the surface. If you plant a large-sized one, its neck should be 10 cm above ground level: over time, it will be where it should be.
Высаживая на участке несколько деревьев, соблюдайте между ними расстояние не менее 4 м, хотя низкорослым соснам достаточно интервала в 1,5 м.
Как вырастить сосну.
Растение сосна удивительно засухоустойчиво, ему вполне достаточно естественных осадков, и только деревца, высаженные в текущем или прошлом сезоне, нуждаются в осеннем влагозарядковом поливе, который осуществляют после листопада: влажная почва не так промерзает в период сильных морозов. Застой воды в корнях для сосны губителен. Only the plant Rumelian pine, which is watered 2-3 times per season, spending 15-20 liters of water at a time, does not have drought tolerance.
The first two years after planting, the young pines need to be fed, bringing in their basal circle once a season a solution of complex mineral fertilizer at the rate of 40 g per 1 m². In the future, the pine tree will be enough of the organic matter that accumulates in the coniferous litter.
The pine does not need pruning, but the crown can be made thicker, while at the same time slowing down its growth if the young (light) branches of the pine tree are broken by a third length.
Replanting any coniferous plant is better in spring: from mid-April to early May. The fact is that conifers take root in comparison with deciduous species is much lower, their roots develop more slowly, and they need a longer period of heat to adapt to a new place.
Forest pine, which you are going to transplant to your plot, must be properly excavated: first, it is digged along the crown perimeter projection, gradually exposing the roots of the tree and trying not to damage them. The depth of the circular trench should be at least 60 cm, and the width - 30-40 cm. Then the pine tree is carefully removed along with the earthy clod and quickly delivered to the landing site. Keep in mind that the roots of the pine must always be immersed in the soil.
The plant is lowered into a prepared pit, in which a drainage layer and half a kilogram of manure have already been laid, and a layer of not ordinary garden soil, but forest soil mixed with fertilizers and coniferous litter, is poured on top. The size of the pit should be one and a half times larger than the root system of the pine along with the earthy clod. The free space is filled with forest land with fertilizers, after which the pine is watered abundantly. In the first 2-3 weeks it will need frequent and abundant watering: at least 2 times a week.
Pests and diseases of pine.
Like other conifers, pines often suffer not from infections, but from improper or inadequate care. Sometimes we receive complaints from readers that, for example, for no reason at all the well-developed pine grows yellow or that the seedling that was planted last year died with the onset of spring. And the reason is untimely or improper planting or mistakes in the care of the plant. The health of your garden is solely in your hands, and our task is only to equip you with the necessary information.
Pines suffer from fungal diseases, which arise primarily due to too tight planting, lack of light and excess moisture.
Rust - the most common disease of pine, signs of which are orange bubbles filled with spores, which form on the lower part of the crown. To avoid pine infestation with rust, do not grow it close to currants or gooseberries and carry out preventive wood treatments with copper-containing preparations.
Pine chopper manifested education on the young shoots of pine golden-yellow oblong blistering. With the development of the disease, the shoots are bent in the shape of the letter S and wounds appear in them in which the pine resin is collected. Destroy the infectious agents with fungicides, while applying immunostimulants and micronutrient fertilizers. The needles that fell from the diseased trees should be burned.
Rust cancer (resin cancer) - A dangerous disease that usually leads to the death of pine. You can recognize it by orange-yellow bubbles emerging from suddenly formed cracks in the bark. At the initial stage of the disease, the plant can be saved by clearing the wound on the trunk to healthy tissue, treating the wood with a three to five percent solution of blue vitriol and imposing a protective compound on the damaged area - Rannet paste or garden pitch with fungicide added. It is better to cut diseased branches, and to disinfect sawn cuts as well as wounds on the trunk. Plant residues must be burned.
With scleroderriosis, or umbrella disease, on the shoots of pine, the apical bud dies, the needles die, and the disease covers the entire branch. The disease progresses in wet seasons and in warm autumn, most often affecting cedar and mountain pines. In order to prevent the spread of infection, it is necessary to carry out sanitary pruning of dead shoots to a healthy kidney throughout the season.
Snowy shyutte it appears on young pines (younger than eight years old) immediately after the snow melts: their needles take on a red-brown color, black spore points of the fungus appear on the needles, and then white bloom, which is why they called Schutte snow. With a massive defeat, death of seedlings and cuttings is possible. The source of infection is the fallen needles of diseased plants, which were not collected and burned in a timely manner. Seedlings are treated with copper-containing drugs twice per season - in May and in the second half of summer.
With necrosis of the cortex the bark and branches of the pine grow yellow, dry out and die. This disease develops most often on a plant weakened by droughts, frosts and mechanical damage. Sick pine trees are treated with fungicides at least three times per season - in spring, early summer and autumn, but before spraying, pathogenic formations with a swab dipped in fungicide must be removed from the bark, and cut off dead branches and shoots to a living kidney.
Pine pests can be divided into four groups:
- sucking pests: aphids, hermes, pine worms, pine scale insects, pine subcortical bugs and spider mites,
- pine needles: red pine sawflies, pine silkworms, shoots, caterpillars of the pine moth and pine mining moth,
- pests of cones: cone flagellates, cone cones,
- podkorny and stem pests: large and small bark beetles, barbel, zlatki, elephants and Smolevka point.
From this army of pests, you can be saved by the proper farming techniques, the conscientious care of the pines, especially in the first years of life, and regular preventive treatments with insecticides and acaricides.
How to propagate a pine.
Plants of the genus Pine propagate in the seed way and vegetative - by grafting and grafting. Usually, vegetative breeding methods are more reliable, and results can be expected from them earlier, but the main breeding method of pine is not vegetative, but generative, that is, seed.
Growing pine from seeds.
Seeds for reproduction need mature, fresh. Pine cones are harvested at the end of October or at the beginning of November: at this time, the seeds in them are already ripe and ready for sowing. Cones should not be lifted from the ground, and removed from the tree. Houses are laid out on a cloth or paper closer to the heating device and waiting for them to dry out and you can easily get seeds from them. The seeds are stored in a cool place in tightly closed glass jars, and two or three months before sowing, they are sorted and lowered into a container of water for a while. It is better not to count on the seeds that remain floating on the surface, and the seeds that have sunk to the bottom are stratified: they are lowered for half an hour into a weak (pink) solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection, then washed and soaked for 24 hours in water for swelling, after which mixed with wet sand, placed in a nylon stocking and kept in the refrigerator for at least a month.
In the second decade of April, seeds are sown in light and not necessarily fertile soil, for example, in river baked in an oven calcined for 20 minutes at a temperature of 200 ºC. A layer of sawdust 2 cm thick is laid on the sand placed in a container, seeds are laid out with a pointed end down, lightly pressing each seed, and the seeds are sprinkled with a layer of fallen needles 1-1.5 cm thick, sprayed abundantly from the sprayer and sown in the greenhouse under the film. Seeds can germinate for a long time, but usually by April the first shoots appear. Do not forget to air crops, moisten the substrate and remove condensate from the film.
As soon as sprouts appear, they are placed in a bright warm place, protected from drafts, and at the stage of formation of seedlings of the second pair of needles, they are transplanted into real soil for pines. After 2-3 years, the seedlings are planted in the spring in the open ground at a distance of 30-50 cm from each other, trying not to injure and not bare their roots, and not to shake off mycorrhiza, which is necessary for coniferous crops for growth and development. It is necessary to carefully cut the spine of the seedling, put it in a talker of garden soil (2 parts) and humus (1 part), diluted with water to the consistency of thick cream, and then put in a prefab well. On a school bed, pine trees are watered once a week, after watering, the soil around the seedlings is loosened, weeds are removed, and in the second year before spring sowing, rotted manure (500 g per m²) and superphosphate (25 g per m²) and potash fertilizer are introduced into the soil saltpeter (10 g per m²), followed by embedding to a depth of 10 cm. Pine trees are planted in a permanent place in spring or early autumn 4 years after disembarking to school.
Reproduction of pine cuttings.
Cutting pine better in the fall. Cuttings need to take woody, 8-12 cm long, with a heel (with a piece of wood from the branch on which the cutting grew). Cuttings are harvested in cloudy weather from the apical lateral shoots of the middle part of the crown facing north. To get the correct cutting, you need not to cut, but in a sharp movement down and to the side tear off the shoot with a piece of wood and bark on it. When preparing the cuttings for planting, the heels are slightly trimmed of needles and burrs, after which the segments are placed for 4-6 hours in a two-percent solution of Fundazol, Captan or in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate, and just before planting, the bottom edge with the heel is treated with Kornevin, Epin or Heteroauxin .
The cuttings are planted in a substrate consisting of equal parts of leafy soil, humus and sand, under an inclination and covered them to create greenhouse conditions with a transparent cap. Daily coating from cuttings removed for ventilation and removal of condensate from the film. In winter, a box with cuttings can be kept in the basement, and in the spring - in the open air. Rooting lasts from one and a half to four and a half months, moreover, both roots and new shoots grow at the same time in the cuttings. The following spring, in May, the soil in which the cuttings grow is watered with a solution of Epin or Kornevin, and they are planted in open ground a year later.
Reproduction of pine graft.
This method of breeding pine for experienced gardeners, but they say that newcomers in such matters are lucky. In the end, this is exactly how experience is earned: people do what they have never done before.
The advantage of inoculation is that this method ensures that the graft cutting inherits all the properties and characteristics of the mother plant. As a rootstock, you can use plants aged 4-5 years, and the graft is cut with a growth age from one to three years. The needles are removed from the cuttings, leaving needles only near the bud located in the upper part. From the rootstock remove all long shoots and lateral buds. Vaccination is carried out at the very beginning of spring sap flow or in the middle of summer. Spring vaccination is carried out on the last year's escape, and the summer one - on the escape of the current year.
Pine in the fall.
All types of pine, except Thunberg pine, are winter-hardy. Even with the onset of cold weather, the processes in the trees do not stop, but only slow down their flow. On this basis, it is necessary to prepare coniferous plants for the winter. Around the end of November, before the onset of frost, you need to conduct water recharge irrigation: 2 buckets of water are poured for each pine below one meter, and if the tree is higher, the water consumption rate rises to 3-5 liters. So that the water goes into the soil and does not spread over the surface, an earthen heap is made along the perimeter of the boundary of the near-stem circle. Especially important podzimny irrigation for yearling and biennial seedlings, in which the root system is still underdeveloped. Breeds with low winter hardiness, as well as plants that have undergone formative pruning this year, also need it.
Starting from August, nitrogen fertilization should be stopped in the soil: nitrogen stimulates the formation of green mass, and you need to grow up already formed shoots during the autumn months, otherwise they will die in the winter. To speed up the process of lignification and at the same time strengthen the pine root system, the tree in September is fed with a potash-phosphorus complex.
An important point in preparing young pines for winter is the mulching of the tree trunk. As mulch, it is best to use chopped wood bark: it allows oxygen to penetrate to the roots of plants, and when the thaw begins, this mulch does not prevent the evaporation, so under the bark neither the roots nor the neck are left, as happens sometimes under the mulch from sawdust.
Wintering in the garden.
In winter, after heavy snowfall, wet heavy snow can be the reason for breaking off thin branches and fractures on skeletal branches of pine. No need to shake the tree and pull it off the branches: plants in the winter are so fragile that the branches crack from any effort. Snow from the branches, to which you can reach, you need to shake off a broom or a brush with a long handle in the direction from the tips to the trunk, and to get the branches higher, wrap the end of the board or stick with a cloth, pry the branch with it and swing it up and down.
During a period of sudden thaw or fluctuations between positive day and negative night temperatures, the pine can become covered with a crust of ice, the severity of which can also lead to fractures. So that the branches do not suffer, support them, as you did with fruit trees, when too many fruits were formed on them.
Bristol pine (Pinus aristata),
orSpinous pine - American species, native to Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, the dry regions of Utah, California and Nevada. This is a bushy tree up to 15 m high, which grows much lower in Europe. Sometimes it is a low-growing shrub with a green and smooth bark at a young age, which eventually becomes scaly. Twigs of a pine spine are raised, short and hard, needles are dark green, five-coniferous type, tightly lying, 2 to 4 cm long. Cylindrical-ovate cones appear in the twentieth year of life reach a length of 4-9 cm. Plants of this species are light-requiring, undemanding to the soil, drought-resistant, but poorly tolerate smoky urban air. Known such garden forms of pine Bristol:
- Bashful - with a rounded crown,
- Jose best - with a conical crown,
- Rasec Doll - with a conical loose crown,
- Sherwood Compact - A small tree with a dense conical crown.
Pine flexible (Pinus flexilis)
also come from North America. This plant reaches a height of 26 cm. In his youth, his crown is narrowly cone-shaped, later it takes the form of a ball. The bark of pine flexible dark brown, at first smooth and thin, and later rough, finely combed. The branches are slightly curved, hanging in adult pines at an acute angle to the trunk. Young shoots dim reddish-brown shade, grooved, glabrous or covered with light curly hairs. Triangular, rigid, curved dark green needles 3-7 cm long are collected in bundles of 5 pieces. On the tree, they persist up to 5-6 years. Egg-cylindrical, hanging, shiny, light brown or yellowish cones reach a length of 15 cm. In Europe, the plant has been grown since 1861 and has several decorative forms:
- Glenmore - a tree with longer-gray-blue needles than the main species,
- Nana - dwarf shrub form with needles up to 3 cm long,
- Pendula - pine just under 2 m tall with hanging boughs,
- Tayne Temple - very undersized form with dark green from the outside and gray-blue from the inside with needles 6-7 cm long.
European pine (Pinus cembra),
orEuropean cedar In the wild form is found in central Europe. Cedar pine reaches a height of 10-15 m. It has brown or rust-red shoots, needles on one side are green, on the other are gray or bluish, covered with stomatal stripes. Cones spherical-ovoid, 5-8 in length and 4-6 cm wide. The species is winter-hardy, shade tolerant and durable. It has a number of decorative forms:
- univalent - dwarf shrub with needles, collected in bunches of 5 pieces,
- green - with bright green needles,
- golden - with shiny yellow needles,
- motley - with golden-motley needles,
- Aureovariate - with more or less yellow needles,
- Glauka - pine with pyramidal crown and silver-blue needles,
- Globe - dwarf form up to 2 m high,
- Pygmea or Nana - compact forms with a height of 40-60 cm with thin and short branches and needles, like elfin needles,
- Stricta - pine with a columnar crown, almost vertical boughs, looking up, and tightly pressed branches.
Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis),
orKorean Cedargrows on the coasts of the Amur, in Northeast Korea and Japan. The tree reaches a height of 40 m, and its diameter is from 1 to 1.5 m. The branches of the pine are prostrate or ascending, the bark is smooth, thick, gray-brown or dark gray. Young shoots are light brown, slightly pubescent, triangular. Green on one side and gray or bluish with oyster strips on the other needles are collected in bunches of 5 pieces. Cones are cylindrical, 10–15 long, and 5–9 cm wide. View in culture since 1846. Сосна корейская теневынослива, устойчива в условиях города, декоративна. Посадка сосны корейской должна производиться в свежую, плодородную, но переувлажненную землю. Декоративные формы сосны корейской:
- пестрая – часть хвои светло-золотистого оттенка, часть золотисто-пятнистая или золотисто-окаймленная,
- изогнутая – хвоя спирально изогнута, особенно на концах ветвей,
- Глаука – сосна высотой до 10 м с красивой конической кроной диаметром от 3 до 5 м. Хвоя плотная, серо-голубая, в пучках по 5 иголок. Male spikelets are yellow, cones 10-15 cm long, first reddish, then purple, and brown in maturity,
- Silvery - variety with long silver-blue needles,
- Anna - pine with a wide oval crown,
- Winton - dwarf form up to 2 m in height with a crown diameter of about 4 m,
- Variegata - pine with light yellow or yellow-spotted needles with a yellow edge.
Cedar Pine Stone (Pinus pumila)
distributed throughout Eastern Siberia, the Far East, Korea, Northeast China and Japan. For the original appearance, cedar pine elfin is called a lying forest, northern cedar forest, northern jungle. The species is a tree with a height of not more than 5 m, intertwining with each other crowns, pressed to the ground and forming dense thickets. The branches of elfin are notched, the shoots are short, greenish, with age gray-brown with red pubescence. Thin blue-green needles up to 10 cm long are collected in a bunch of 5 pieces. The cones are red-purple, but with maturation they turn brown. The species was introduced into culture in 1807. Pine stanlic winter-hardy, light-requiring, undemanding to soils, resistant to diseases and pests and has the following decorative forms:
- Glauka - shrub up to 1.5 m with a crown up to 3 m in diameter, powerful ascending shoots and gray-blue needles,
- Chlorocapra - the plant is as large as the main species, with gray-green needles and yellow-green buds at a young age,
- Drayers Dwarf - compact plant with a wide funnel-shaped crown and blue needles,
- Dwarf Blue - a wide low pine with white-bluish needles 3-4 cm long,
- Globe - a relatively fast-growing form with a height and crown diameter up to 2 m, with thin beautiful needles of a bluish-green shade,
- Yedello - pine with a broad-spreading flat crown with a nest-like recess in the middle and needles, green from the upper side and bluish-white from the bottom, pressed to the shoots,
- Nana - shrub with a dense crown, red spikelets and twisted, bright gray-green needles,
- Sapphire - an unevenly growing form with short blue needles.
Pine (Pinus sylvestris)
common in Europe and Siberia. The height of the plants of this species reach from 20 to 40 m. The trunk is straight, with a high, naturally shaped stem. The crown at a young age is cone-shaped, towards old age is broad, rounded, and sometimes umbrella-shaped. Two flat, rigid, slightly curved needles up to 6 cm long are collected in bundles of gray-green color. Symmetric ovate-conical cones with a thickness of up to 3.5 cm reach a length of 7 cm. The species is light-requiring, winter-hardy, but sensitive to air pollution. It grows quickly, which is a rare advantage for pines. It has the following garden forms:
- Alba - pine up to 20 cm high with a crown in the form of a wide umbrella and blue-gray needles,
- Albins - dwarf plant with gray-green needles,
- Aurea - shrub up to 1 m high with a rounded crown, yellow-green in young and golden-yellow in mature age, needles,
- Compress - dwarf plant up to 2 m high with columnar crown and pressed needles,
- Fastgijata - pine up to 15 m high with a strictly column-shaped crown, tightly pressed branches and twigs and bluish-green needles,
- Glauka - a powerful plant with a wide-pinion crown and blue needles,
- Globoza Viridiz - dwarf form up to half a meter with a rounded or ovate crown and long, hard dark green needles,
- Repanda - pine wide, flat and spread wide with powerful shoots and gray-green needles up to 8 cm long,
- Yaponika - a straight, very slowly growing tree with a crown like that of a spruce, with obliquely rising branches and short green needles,
- Kaemon Blue - a medium-sized tree with a pin-shaped crown, dense branches and rounded needles of intensely blue color.
In addition to the described species, Koch, hooked, few-flowered, dense-flowered, Murray, Pallas (Crimean), funerary, twisted, resinous, Sosnowski, flattened (Chinese), Friesa (Laplandian), black, Balkan (Rumelian), Blacks, Pines, Wallich (Himalayan), Virginia, Geldreyha, mountain, hill (Western white), yellow (Oregon), Pinia (Italian), Siberian cedar (Siberian cedar) and others.