Drainage is used to drain the water that appears on the site after the snow melts. Its installation should be handled by experts, but if there is no possibility to hire people, you can do everything yourself. However, you should not hurry with the installation, first you need to get all the necessary knowledge, and then get down to work. The first step is to determine the types and methods of installation of drainage, for this you can find and study the necessary schemes on the Internet. If the entire installation goes right, the drainage will protect the house from high humidity. Otherwise, flooding of the basement and leaching of the building foundation may occur.
Types of systems for water drainage
For proper and proper installation of the drainage system should be familiar with its varieties. And also you need to understand the ways in which water will be discharged from the site.
Drainage can be divided into two types: surface and underground.
To create a surface drainage is not very difficult and for this it is not necessary to involve specialists. But underground drainage is recommended to be installed during the construction of the house.
A private house requires protection, since the increased water content in the ground can cause flooding of rooms that are below ground level. And also drainage system can protect the backyard plot from flooding.
To install it, various containers are used to collect and discharge sediments. Drainage is called superficial due to the fact that all its elements are on the surface of the earth. This type of drainage can cope not only with heavy rain, but also with water, which is formed during the thaw.
Surface drainage can also be divided into two types:
- Spot - consists of several tanks for collecting rainwater. It is usually installed near the basement of the house and is connected directly to the sewer.
- Linear - it is made with the help of special channels through which water flows directly into the well.
There is no particular drainage that would be better than the rest. Basically, all types are used together to more effectively divert water from the site. And also all kinds of structures need to be periodically cleaned of fallen leaves and accumulated dirt, which will allow the device to function properly. Properly installed drainage can perfectly serve more than a dozen years.
The first step is to install trays under all drain pipes that drain water from the roof of the house. If this is not done, the increased humidity can adversely affect the foundation. In addition, all tanks must be underground. It is necessary for the water to flow not only from the roof, but also from the surface of the earth. The tanks should be covered with a grate and interconnected by pipes leading to the sewage system, which will be responsible for the discharge of water. This type of drainage can be used in places where fast rainwater drainage is required.
This type of tap was used in ancient Egypt and Babylon, but the technique of its use remained the same, only the materials changed.
This type of drainage is installed using plastic or reinforced concrete tanks. A metal grate is also installed on top, and for ease of maintenance, it has special filters for garbage collection.
Use such a system of withdrawal should be only in certain cases:
- if protection of the foundation of the building from excessive moisture is required,
- to protect the soil from erosion,
- it is required to divert water from buildings that are located in the valley,
- to protect brick or tile paths from blurring.
It is recommended to install all types of linear drainage on a concrete base, which will increase its service life. If all features of the installation are clear, then even a beginner can install such do it yourself drainage in my area.
Installation of this type The challenge is the hardest. Without any skills in this area, it will be problematic to make such drainage.
Basically, both surface and underground drainage are installed immediately at the sites. This method allows you to more efficiently divert water from buildings.
Before you install the structure, you should calculate the direction of the water. This can be done in the rain, and this is the main task. If the calculations are wrong, then all the work will be wasted. For more confidence, wait for the precipitation and see the direction of the water.
After the water direction is established, you should purchase drainage pipes and geomaterial, which should pass water well. For laying of pipes should dig a ditch of the type "Christmas trees". In order for the system to work properly in summer, the trench depth must be at least half a meter. For the winter period you should make a depth of not less than a meter.
Then you should make sure that the direction of the water is calculated correctly, since at the installation stage you can easily redo everything. If the test was carried out accurately, then precipitation will go in the right direction. If water accumulates inside the ditch, it means that the angle of inclination was incorrectly calculated and in this case you will have to redo everything.
After testing, you can begin the installation of pipes. To do this, they need to be cut to the required length, fasten together and put in trenches. Before that, they should be wrapped in geomaterial, which will save the design from clogging and improve the quality of the outflow of water. And also on the site you need to install wells for collecting precipitation. If everything is done correctly, then even the simplest design will be able to effectively protect the building from excess water.
To make the water easily reach the pipes, the grooves should be filled with small gravel. The entire procedure for the installation of underground drainage should follow the instructions. And attention should be paid to every detail. Installed in the ground pipe should be brought to the wells or trenches. The whole point is that the installation of drainage is individual for each site, although its basis consists of three elements: a well, pipes and a collection of water.
As well as the complexity of the installation of the design will depend on the landscape. It will not be possible to use the same scheme in different areas, because for some the simplest construction is quite suitable, others will need to do some serious work..
To determine the nature of the landscape of your site, you can use the map of the area, however, the whole structure must be tested in practice. There are moments when it is not possible to create the desired slope, and for these purposes you should use embankments. And also solve problems with the slope will help drainage pump, which is used if it is impossible to create a natural slope.
Installation of drainage on clay soil
The clay earth is very bad for water and because of this the surface of the earth has an excess of moisture. Because of this, the right amount of liquid does not enter the soil, which is very bad for growing plants. Too dense ground will also have a detrimental effect on plants.
If you have a desire to decorate your If the site is beautiful with plants and trees, however, clay soil interferes with this, then a drainage construction will help. And also she will allow to process the soil right after thawing of snow.
If you want to build do-it-yourself surface drainage on a small area of land, it is important to consider the functions of a moisture removal system before starting work:
- spacing between rows
- manhole construction.
If the plot of land with a slope, then it will work better drainage structure.
Soil for drainage system
The drainage structure is much easier to install on a sloping site. At a minimum, a person will have to spend less time and energy on its construction. The main thing in this situation is to correctly combine open and closed drainage types. And further in the article we will talk about useful ways of laying the drainage system.
The soil that has a large amount of clay is heavy and difficult to dig up. For this reason, the soil is recommended to loosen. And also should not carry out the system where often drive cars.
The peat type soil has an excess of moisture, since it is usually located shallowly under the ground, and closer to the surface. For this reason, to grow a plant on these soils It is unlikely to succeed, as its roots simply rot.
To reduce the level of groundwater, you can use option drying the soil. However, this procedure should be done only when necessary. Determination of the need for drainage is easy, and if it is not required, the site will not stagnate water after snow melt. And also should not perform drainage plot drainage, if during the flood period the water does not rise higher than one and a half meters.
This state of the land can be met only if the land has already been cultivated by someone. On a greater degree on peatlands, water rises strongly to the surface, this is especially strong in spring. It also happens that in summer time peat land dries out from the heat, and in this case watering may even be required. From this many plants can suffer. For this reason, you should be attentive to garden crops on peat land.
Large amount of water in the soil
Do not be upset if you have a peat land, as it can be dried. To do this, do the following: if groundwater is at a depth of less than one and a half meters, then birch or other plants that absorb moisture well can be planted next to the site. This is the easiest way to dry the site, however, you should know that such trees collect moisture from the ground at a distance of 30 meters around them.
If it is not possible to plant trees or water is above this level, then you will have to build drainage. Before building it is necessary to divide the site into several zones. From the top of these zones and will have to drain water. To collect water, you can use not only a special well, but also an artificial pond. The water accumulated over time can be used to water the beds. And also around the well you can plant plants that are very fond of moisture.
The drainage system layout for the beds should look something like this. A pair of main trenches should pass from two edges of the land plot and be about 45 centimeters deep. For a plot of six hectares you can make two trenches located across. When digging a ditch, the upper part of the ground should be dropped onto the edges of future beds.
If a piece of land is highly swamped, then an open type of drainage can be used, just remember that all trenches should be covered with a grid. However, it is best to use closed drainage. About the features of its installation will be written below.
If you have a small plot of land, then you should not allow water to accumulate on it after rain or snow melting, especially since it is easy to do. If the water still accumulates, then in such places you need to pour earth and sand. All drainage trenches should go to the same water collector.
If you have a peat land, then all the beds can be located above ground level. The same applies to other plants, all shrubs and trees are better planted on artificial elevations. And also if in the summertime the peat bog dries out, it should be constantly watered.
The main mistakes include the fact that a person poorly performs all the calculations, without which it is impossible to build a high-quality drainage system. Also, people often neglect the rules that are associated with the type of soil. Before you begin to install drainage pipes, you should definitely understand all the details. And also do not need to forget about such characteristics as the slope and depth of groundwater.
Designing a system of water drainage should be dealt with at the stage of building a house. If you start to do this after the construction of the house, then the lower rooms can flood. Yes, and the smallest impact of groundwater can adversely affect the foundation of the house, especially at a time when the building has not had time to settle.
People make mistakes even when they are trying to build a complex system without obtaining the necessary knowledge and skills.. Excessive rush may result to a problem situation, the result of which will be moisture ingress into the room. For this reason, for the construction of complex structures is recommended to seek the help of specialists.
Prerequisites for the construction of drainage
A drainage system that collects and disposes excess groundwater is necessary in the following cases:
- The plot is flat, i.e. there are no conditions for spontaneous movement of water on a slope.
- Groundwater is marked at a level close to the surface of the earth.
- The site is located in a valley, a valley of a river or in a swampy drained area.
- The soil and vegetation layer develops on clay soils with low filtration properties.
- The cottage is built on a slope, not far from its foot, which is why water accumulates and stagnates during precipitation in and around the site.
Installation of drainage is almost always necessary in areas with underlying clay soil: sandy loam, loam. During the period of abundant precipitation, melting snow, this type of rock too slowly passes water through its thickness or does not allow it to pass.
The water stagnation at the level of soil development is associated with its waterlogging. In a humid environment, fungus actively reproduces, infections, pests (slugs, snails, etc.) appear, which leads to diseases of vegetable crops, rotting of the roots of bushes, perennial flowers and trees.
If you do not solve the problem with the overmoistening of the soil, then over time the erosion of the earth may occur. In the frosty time, the ground layers containing water will get swollen, which can damage the foundation, paved paths and other land improvement facilities.
To check whether drainage is necessary, one needs to know the carrying capacity of the soil layers on the site. To do this, dig a small hole 60 cm deep and pour water into it to the limit.
If water is absorbed in a day, then the underlying soils have acceptable filtration properties. In this case, there is no need for drainage. If after two days the water does not go away, it means that clayey rocks lie under the soil layer, and there is a risk of overmoistening.
If the drainage system is not implemented in a timely manner, the following problems threaten the country estates:
- the flooding of cellars, basements, additional buildings located below the ground level - this subsequently leads to deterioration of wall materials, mold and fungi, rotting furniture, stairs and other wooden structures,
- waterlogging of the soil due to its satiation with moisture, which leads to low yields, rotting of the roots of vegetable crops, plants, the death of trees and other plantations,
- Dips, depressions, pits may form at the site, as a result of which paved paths and tiles are destroyed - all this negatively affects the landscape of the homestead territory.
During the winter period, during the freezing of the IRS and the underlying heaving soils lying above the seasonal freezing level, the water contained in the pores of the earth will expand. The increase in the volume of soil threatens with the destruction of structures buried in it and resting on the ground.
The organization of the drainage system will allow the simplest and most accessible way to solve the following tasks:
Consider the types of drainage systems and their features.
Main types of soil drainage systems
Before you start developing a work plan, purchasing equipment and materials, you need to determine which system should be implemented so that it works as efficiently as possible.
There are three types of drainage systems:
- surface (open) - is a ditch on the surface of the earth, is used to remove excess moisture, formed due to private rain or melting snow,
- deep (closed) - water is diverted through a system of pipes, wells, the system is used in case of the risk of flooding the garden with sediments and / or groundwater,
- backfilling - the principle of its construction is the same as the depth, only the drainage material without pipes is used, it is suitable for drainage of areas during precipitation.
Each of the above technologies has its advantages and disadvantages.
Surface drainage network is often combined with storm sewers that collect and remove precipitation. The drainage valve is equipped with two types of water collectors: point and linear.
Torrential as an effective supplement
Storm sewage system - a set of drain pipes with a well for accumulation of moisture, through which it is transferred to the receiving water. Перед входом воды в колодец располагается специальная сифонная перегородка (решетка), созданная для очистки поступающей жидкости от мусора, в результате чего система не засоряется, в ней не появляется неприятный запах.
Storm sewage system with linear-type water collectors is a series of trays located under an incline towards the place of moisture collection. Tanks are installed in ditches with a layer of gravel on the bottom. The technology is used when the slope of the surface of the site does not exceed 30 degrees relative to the horizon.
The main difference between a point system and a linear system is that the point system uses a pipe system located underground. Water collection occurs through the so-called "points" - special rainwater flows, equipped with a permeable grid. This solution makes the design almost invisible in the area.
Sometimes systems of the same type are not enough for a territory, so they can be combined to maintain an optimal level of moisture.
It is necessary to select the type of system individually, taking into account landscape, geological features. For example, if the house is located away from the reservoir, then we can confine ourselves to open drainage. If the mansion is located on a landslide-prone slope in the river valley, then it is better to use several systems at the same time.
Closed drainage device
The closed type system is a network of trenches into which pipes and drainage material are laid. Drainage can be laid throughout the area, and in a certain area in need of drainage.
The deep drainage system consists of the following elements:
- drainage pipes
- well (drainage),
- pump for pumping water.
To implement the system, it is necessary to dig trenches, install pipes, construct drainage systems.
For arrangement of water supply in the trench will need:
The system is effectively used in case of flooding the site with groundwater.
Standard structural components of the drainage system are:
Drawing up the layout of elements
Before carrying out work it is necessary to draw up a plan of the site, noting the objects of housing, household and household purposes, as well as shrubs, trees, flower beds.
Next, you must determine the place for the well, taking into account the location of the drainage system. Sewerage, a well or any other natural source of water can act as a drainage system.
Then you need to make a map of the location of the trenches. There are 4 main types of schemes:
- snake location,
- parallel device
- Laid herringbone,
- trapezium location.
The scheme can be chosen independently, but most often used markup "herringbone".
Ditches can be positioned around the perimeter of the territory and along the contour of the house. On the site where vegetable crops and flowers will grow, a network is built taking into account the requirements, which will be discussed below.
When constructing a trench, the following requirements should be considered:
- depth should be 1-1.2 m, and width - 35-40 cm,
- near the trees, a trench is dug to a depth of 1.2-1.5 m, near forest stands - by 70-90 cm, near flower beds - by 60-80 cm,
- if at the level of the IRS of the site peat soil prevails, then, given that it quickly settles down, the trench depth should not be less than a meter,
- if the area is embossed, then the depth can reach a meter, if it is gently sloping or with a slight slope, then digging a trench with a depth of less than 1.5 m is inefficient,
- on clay soils: sandy loams, loams, trenches are dug at a distance of 7-10 m from each other, on well drained sands, gravel and gravel sediments - by 15-20 m,
- the drainage system must be located more than 1 meter from the foundation of the house, and the minimum allowable distance to the fence is 50 cm.
For the construction of an open drainage system should pick up a special pipe with a grid. Their diameter can vary from 0.15 to 0.5 cm. It is better to refuse the use of asbestos-cement or ceramic drains, as they are impractical, require preliminary preparation, frequent washing, quickly clog up.
For the device of closed drainage branches it is recommended to give preference to perforated pipes made of polymeric or composite materials. Some modifications are equipped with a special filter sheath (geotextile), which prevents clogging of the system.
The diameter of the collector must be greater than the diameter of the pipe. If the area of the equipped area is more than 0.5 hectares, then the diameters can be equal.
The slope of the system in the direction of the collector should be 2-3 cm for each meter of a pipe with a diameter of 5-10 cm. If the use of a pipe of a larger diameter is planned, then the slope should be smaller.
Owners of land in a lowland or on a steep slope face a problem when water stagnates at the lowest point, when as a water intake it can be located higher. In this case, in the lower part of the territory, it is necessary to build an accumulation well, into which it is necessary to introduce a drainage pump. With it, there is a pumping of water upward with discharge into a ditch, ravine or other water receiver.
If for disposal of collected water it is planned to build an absorption well on the site, then the construction works are carried out in the following sequence:
Progress in the construction of the system
The first thing to do before digging a trench is to build a drainage well. Its depth should be 2-3 m, and the diameter - up to 1 meter.
The most reliable well - concrete. However, installing concrete rings by hand is not always possible, so you have to resort to using lifting equipment. In addition, the high cost and fragility are the disadvantages of concrete structures.
Plastic well - a special design made of polyethylene, polypropylene or polyvinyl chloride, is practical and high quality, it effectively withstands the pressure of the soil. The advantage of the reservoir well is that it provides for pipe bends, and in the configuration are rubber cuffs that ensure the tightness of the connections.
You can also pave your own brick wells, make the design of rubber and other scrap materials.
A drainage pump is subsequently installed in the well, which pumps water into the drainage system — sewage, a well, or another natural intake reservoir.
Then you can begin to dig trenches according to the scheme with the technical requirements.
To protect against clogging of conventional plastic pipes, so-called “external” filters made of straw, fibrous peat, and weaving waste are used.
After digging trenches perform the following steps.
- The trench is covered with sand by 10 cm, after which they settle the geotextile layer so that the edges of the canvas are above the groove.
- Geotextiles are filled up with 20 cm of rubble.
- Stacked drainage pipes.
- The pipes are covered with gravel or rubble of sedimentary rocks to a height of 30-40 cm, then - by 30 cm thick or gravel sand.
- Geotextiles are collapsed - it will hold small particles and allow the system to become clogged.
- Geotextiles are sprinkled on top of a fertile layer of earth - soil.
- The pipes are connected to the well.
The design technology of the backfill drainage system differs from the deep one in that it does not include pipes. Trenches are filled with large gravel or broken brick, covered with fine stone or gravel.
Implementation of the open version
To create surface systems, the same trench construction rules are used as for the implementation of a deep trench.
For an open system, it is enough to build ditches with a depth of 0.7 m and a thickness of 0.5 m. The walls are made with a slope, the bevel angle is 30 degrees. The ditch is led to a sewer, which is common to the plots or to any other receiving water.
The walls of the open drainage ditches are compacted, sometimes reinforced with cobblestone or rubble stone, laid out with concrete tiles.
Extend drainage life
The drainage system of the backfill type is able to function effectively for 5-7 years, while deep and open drainage structures with high-quality pipes make it possible to forget about the problem of waterlogging for 50 years. But this is possible subject to periodic network maintenance.
There are 4 rules for the care of the system.
- On the site where the pipes are located, there should not be a large-sized equipment passing - the road for it should be laid separately.
- Regular loosening of the earth will improve its water permeability, which will ensure good system performance.
- Once every 2-3 years, the pipes should be washed with a strong pressure of water, clearing them of clay particles and rust.
- Earthworks on installation should be carried out on the wet earth.
By following simple tips, you can extend the life of the equipment and avoid repairs.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video tells about all the nuances of the private drainage system:
Installing drainage into the ground saves land owners from many problems. Having installed a drainage system, you do not have to worry about the condition of the crops, the general appearance of the site with increasing humidity.
When do you need a drainage system
Drainage is a technology for collecting and discharging groundwater, thawed snow, and stormwater from a site, technical and residential buildings. The drainage system prevents leaching, swelling and waterlogging of the soil, which occurs due to saturation with moisture.
Arrangement of the drainage system is not necessary at every site. In order to determine how much your site needs drainage, a visual inspection will be required. Pay attention to whether the site melts after the snow melts, how quickly water is absorbed after watering the plants, whether there are puddles after heavy rain and rain. If you have repeatedly observed these signs, then drainage is required.
The drainage system helps to remove water stagnation from the site.
If there is little visual confirmation, then a simple experiment can be carried out - a hole 70–100 cm deep should be dug using a hand drill or a regular shovel. It is better to do this in several places on the site. If after 24–36 hours, water accumulates at the bottom of the pit and water does not go away, then this is direct evidence of oversaturation of soil with moisture.
Soil drainage is carried out under the following conditions:
- high occurrence of groundwater
- the site is located in an area with clay soil,
- the site is located in a valley or vice versa - on a slope,
- at the location of the site falls a large amount of precipitation.
The presence of drainage contributes to the preservation of finishing and facing materials used for laying garden paths, finishing the basement and the facade of the building.
Surface drainage is the simplest and most effective system. The main task is the drainage of the soil, by diverting water formed as a result of rainfall and uneven melting of snow.
The grilles protect the open drainage system from large debris.
The surface drainage system is constructed on the area of the plot, around the house and the buildings adjacent to it, near the garage structures, warehouses and the courtyard. Surface drainage is divided into two subspecies:
- Spot - in some sources denoted as local drainage. Used to collect and discharge water from a certain place on the site. The main area of application is the drainage of sites under the gutters, near the entrance doors and gates, in the area of the location of tanks and taps for irrigation. Often used as an emergency system if another type of drainage is overloaded.
- Linear - used to drain the entire area. It is a system consisting of receiving trays and channels arranged at a certain angle, ensuring a constant flow of water. The drainage system is equipped with filter grids and sand traps. Trays and drains are made of PVC, polypropylene, HDPE or polymer concrete.
When constructing a surface drainage system, it is recommended to combine point and linear drainage. This will ensure the most efficient operation of the system. If necessary, point and linear drainage can be combined with the system, which is described below.
Deep drainage is carried out in the form of a pipeline laid in places where it is necessary to constantly drain the soil or lower the level of groundwater. The drains are laid in compliance with the slope in the direction of the flow of water that enters the collector, a well or a reservoir located outside the site.
The process of building deep drainage in a suburban area
To lower the level of groundwater, pipes are laid along the perimeter of the site to a depth of 80-150 cm. In the case when it is necessary to divert water from the foundation of the structure, the pipes must be laid below the depth of its location. And also drainage pipes can be laid over the entire area of the site with a certain step. The distance between drains depends on the depth of their embedding and the mechanical composition of the soil.
For example, with a drainage system, when the drains are laid to a depth of 0.9–1 m, the recommended distance between it is not less than 9–11 m. On loamy soil under the same conditions, the step between drains decreases to 7–9 m, and clay to 4–5.5 m. More detailed data for different depths can be seen in the table below. The information was taken from the book “Drainage of Land for Gardens” by A. Dumblyauskas.
When laying the pipe, the features of the terrain are observed. According to the technology drains are stacked from the highest to the lowest point on the site. If the area is relatively flat, then to tilt the slope is formed on the bottom of the trench. The minimum slope level is 2 cm per 1 pm of drainage pipe when building drainage in clay and loamy soil. For sandy soil, a slope of 3 cm by 1 m is observed.
Diagram of the device for deep drainage
When constructing a drainage system of a great length, observe the minimum slope along the entire length of the drainage route. For example, for a drainage system with a length of 15 m, the minimum level difference between the starting and ending point of the route will be at least 30 cm.
If possible, it is recommended to exceed the stated norms of slope. This will provide faster drainage, reduce the risk of silting and clogging of the drain. Moreover, it is much easier to dig a trench with a large slope than to measure 1–2 cm.
Drainage of the site with deep drainage
Depth drainage is a standard solution for draining summer cottages and country plots. The system of deep drainage can be installed even when there is a protective blind area around the building, concrete or slab paths. If necessary, they can be partially dismantled, but in general the construction will not suffer.
Sample project of a drainage system in a suburban area
Work on the construction of deep drainage include the following:
- According to the project plan of the site, it is necessary to chart the location of the drainage pipes and determine the point of water discharge, that is, the place from which the collected water will flow into the sewer pipes leading to the drainage well. The depth of the pipeline should be below the level of soil freezing. For the North-West region, this value is about 60–80 cm.
Preparation of trenches in the construction of deep drainage
The pit for the drainage well must be dug at the lowest point on the site.
On top of a layer of gravel is laid a wide canvas of geotextiles.
Inspection drainage well is installed in places where the drainage pipe rotates.
Ways to drain the area without drainage
Excess moisture in the soil and water stagnation at the site are not always associated with high groundwater levels. Sometimes this is due to abnormal low temperatures and heavy precipitation. The combination of these factors leads to the fact that moisture does not have time to evaporate, puddles and mold are formed on the soil surface.
Sanding clayey soil is one way to drain a plot without drainage.
If, due to certain circumstances, a drainage system is impossible, then there are several effective ways to drain the land:
- Sanding the soil - based on the type of soil, sand is mixed in a certain proportion. The result is an improvement in the physical and thermal properties of the soil. This improves the absorption and moisture distribution on the top layer of soil, and also contributes to an increase in yield. For clay and peat soil, it is recommended to take at least 30 kg of sand per 1 m 2.
- The opening of the trench - around the perimeter of the site and in especially flooded areas, trenches are built up to a depth of 30 cm with a slight slope. Gradually, the water gets into the ditches, from where, due to the slope, it flows down into the drain hole or reservoir. In many ways, the method resembles a drainage device with the only difference that ditches quickly fall off and do not have such a capacity.
An open trench filled with large gravel is a simple way to drain storm water from wet areas.
Of the above methods of draining the site, the most effective are the addition of a sufficient amount of fertile soil and the arrangement of trenches along the perimeter. On average, 1 m 3 of soil will cost 550–600 rubles. 10–12 m 3 of soil is sufficient for an area of 6 acres.
The easiest way to drain the soil on the site
Construction of shallow trenches filled with rubble is the easiest way to drain the suburban area. Несмотря на общую простоту, этот способ весьма эффективен и способен справиться с большим количеством воды, образовавшейся во время таяния снега.
Работы по обустройству траншей по периметру и площади участка включают в себя следующее:
- Необходимо составить план-схему, на которой будут изображены линии отвода воды к сточной яме, оврагу или накопительному колодцу. The pit for receiving water should be a depth and a diameter of at least 100 cm. If the plot has an area of more than 6 acres, it would be desirable to arrange an accumulation well Ø 150 cm and a depth of 2 m.
- Taking into account the plan, it will be necessary to dig trenches with a depth of 30 cm with a slope towards the drainage pit. Optimally, if for every 2 m of the trench there will be a slope of 5 cm. The trench width is at least 30 cm.
Preparation of trenches, which after will be filled with large gravel or gravel
If desired, the second layer of rubble can be reduced, and the remaining space sprinkled with soil from the site. This will hide the drainage under the turf. It is not recommended to plant flowers and greens above the drainage trench. This is fraught with their death due to high humidity in this place.
How to clear the blockage in the drain pipe
Non-compliance with the technology of laying drainage pipes is the main cause of stagnation and poor drainage of water from distribution wells. Moreover, very often water stagnation is not associated with blockage at all. Insufficient bias does not provide a constant and uniform discharge of accumulated water in the direction of the drainage pit.
For cleaning small blockages, a steel cable or a hose with strong water pressure is used.
The easiest way to clean the drainage pipes is to use a steel cable to clean the sewers. At one end of the cable is a spiral nozzle, on the other - a handle with which you can rotate the cable, creating a mechanical load at the site of blockage.
For cleaning pipes Ø110 mm and more, it is recommended to use a cable with a steel brush of the appropriate size. During the cleaning process, it is necessary to lower the cable into the drain pipe until its end reaches the blockage. Further, with the help of the rotation of the cable clockwise, you should try to punch a blockage or move it towards the water discharge. Usually, small accumulations of silt and foliage are pushed through without much difficulty.
If it was not possible to eliminate the blockage, you will need to call in specialists who, using a pneumatic installation and other equipment, will not only clear the blockage, but also carry out preventive cleaning of the entire surface of the drainage pipes.
Video: do-it-yourself site drainage
Glutinization of soil and water stagnation at the site is a big problem that affects not only the growth of fruit bearing crops, but also reduces the life of the residential structure. But it is worth remembering that with a surplus of water can be managed with the help of the drainage system. Much worse, if fresh water and moisture pick up, and the arrangement of the well is impossible due to certain circumstances.
Surface waters accumulate during the thawing of snow and heavy rains, can also be formed from abundant watering.
The source of the formation of such waters is not difficult to establish, and the simplest device for storm sewers, which consists of an open system of pipes and branches to the gutters or, in some cases, to open ground, is best suited for their removal.
Groundwater accumulates under the surface of the earth mainly in areas with sandy soil. The volume of such savings varies depending on the season. They can be found by digging wells and holes.
Watching the open water pits, you can take note of seasonal features and determine the maximum water level.
As a rule, the most groundwater occurs in the spring after the flood. For proper drainage design, you also need to know where the water comes from and where it is diverted during a drop in the level or drying of the pit.
In case the groundwater level is less than 50 cm below the basement of the building, measures should be taken to waterproof or restructure the building.
The diversion of water from capital buildings has many architectural solutions that must be determined after consulting with experts.
To drain the land plot from the excess groundwater, a system of underground drainage pipes is created, which are installed at low levels and due to this water move in the direction of their natural flow.
Verkhovka - this accumulation of groundwater on soils with boards of impermeable clay, a layer which interferes with absorption.
Long drying puddles, the accumulation of water in the dug grooves, the formation of water droplets on the walls of buildings indicate this problem.
In case of construction errors, it will be necessary to backfill or rebuild the foundation, to exclude the presence of pockets in which water is held, to make a blind area and retraction for rain and snow.
For drainage on the clay area, depending on the particular location, terraces and retaining walls with drainage channels are arranged, additional grounding is carried out.
Drainage without drainage
Before you conceive and make drainage on the site, you can apply more simple methods of water drainage, such as the construction of storm sewers and the blind area of the building. On inclined surfaces, you can build a moat along the upper perimeter of the site.
An additional external waterproofing of the basement and basements can also be a solution to the problem.
Ways to install drainage system
An open drainage system is a system of ditches that break along the perimeter of the site or in its lowest zone. The depth of the grooves is calculated depending on the maximum amount of accumulated water.
To prevent the collapse of the walls of earthen channels give a slope of 30 degrees. Such drainage can be constructed in the form of stone or concrete trays, the surface of which is covered with decorative grids from clogging.
Closed drainage systems are used on sandy soils. These are underground pipelines of various configurations, which divert excess volumes of water into special accumulation tanks, into nearby natural reservoirs or into a centralized drainage system.
Filling drainage system is being built on clay and loamy soils. In the dug-out ditches, sand and gravel filling is made, which facilitates the collection of water. The photo of the drainage carried out on the area with clay soil shows the structure of such a ditch with backfill and diverting pipes.
Schemes and configurations of drainage systems are compiled depending on the location of the site itself, the buildings on it, the presence of slopes and the composition of the soil.
Pipelines may be:
- ring, that is, closed in a solid line,
- wall, to divert water from the walls of buildings or along the perimeter of the marked area,
- ray and systematic with the pipeline scheme in the form of Christmas trees or cells,
- reservoir, with special waterproofing layers in ditches for removal of upper water.
For drainage systems, you need to select special pipes of suitable diameter and thickness. In large systems, in addition to the main tank, concrete revision wells are installed for drainage, which help control the drainage system and clean it if necessary.
When assembling the system, it is necessary to provide also a bias towards the runoff of water.
In the system of drainage of a site with a high groundwater level, due to seasonal changes, stagnation of water may form, which forms an unpleasant and clogging system.
To ensure dryness of the ditches, sumps are made on their sides, and the bottom is covered with rubble.
So, how to make drainage on the site? Some craftsmen who decide to do drainage in the country with their own hands, simply dig ditches (popularly called “drains”) around the perimeter of the site. This is the simplest, budget and common way to remove excess moisture from the surface. And this sometimes solves the problem.
Unfortunately, if the territory is below the lateral adjacent to it, such a drainage arrangement will not help, only the general level of the ground will save here. For this you need to bring and pour the land level. But what if the neighbors also decide to raise the level? Nevertheless, it is better to close this question once and for all, and initially qualitatively carry out the drainage of the summer cottage with your own hands, so as not to return to this question anymore. Therefore, many people prefer to carefully understand how to drain the area to forget about the problem, as a bad dream.
First of all - the plan!
First of all, holding the device of the drainage system, draw a diagram of the future drainage. At this stage it is important not to make a mistake and take into account all the features of your landscape. Each territory is unique. For example, drainage of a site on a slope is also necessary, as well as on an absolutely level. Streams of water wash away the fertile layer and unevenly erode the soil. If you allow gross miscalculations, it can get the opposite effect and the situation will not only not change, but worsen. This can be avoided by exploring the possible options, rules and principles of installation, and then draw your project site drainage.
First, determine what type of drainage system you will use: surface or deep drainage of the site (pipes for drainage of the site will be required).
Virtually anyone, even if he is not an expert, is able to do the drainage of the garden plot with his own hands. It is only necessary to get acquainted with the relevant theory and practice. Drainage is a very important step in creating your beautiful garden. Neither the lawn, nor the plants, nor the buildings can not stand a long stagnant moisture. Down with the puddles and rubber boots!
Now you generally know how to properly drain the site and what types of drainage systems are. You can determine for yourself how best to drain the wet area, knowing what kind of soil you have and what level of groundwater.
Drainage is the whole system designed to ensure the outflow from surface waters. But before proceeding to its arrangement, it is necessary to consider the following factors:
- The terrain.
- The level at which the ground water is located.
- Communication plan
- Accommodation (if any) cellars, basement or other buried buildings.
- The structure, composition of the soil.
- The presence of shrubs, trees and their number.
Now it remains to choose the version of the system that is suitable for the site.
Types of systems
Drain the soil in two ways - by equipping the deep or surface drainage. Although both options are designed to remove excess moisture, their laying and work are done completely differently.
Thus, the main purpose of surface drainage is removal of water from the topsoil, which collects after floods, rain and accumulates around the building, terraces, paths and other objects of the site.
Maintenance of drainage systems
Although the deep and surface systems with proper arrangement do not require frequent maintenance, it is still necessary:
- Inspect the wells and collectors regularly. If necessary, clean them.
- To remove deposits from the walls of drainage pipes, it is necessary to do their capital washing. It is not necessary to do this often - once in 8-10 years.
To design and lay drainage on the site, be sure to watch the video with the materials, instructions on the features of the work. If everything is done correctly, drainage will work for more than half a century, ensuring that all this time the excess moisture from the site is drained.