The function that the trees perform is difficult to overestimate. A huge number of their species every second pass through an incredible amount of air, cleaning it from carbon dioxide and other harmful impurities, being the lungs of our planet. From each other, different types of trees are easy to distinguish if you know what form of foliage and crown a particular tree species.
As of 2015, there were more than three trillion trees worldwide. In this case, the first place in their number is Russia. However, due to deforestation and forest fires, the number of trees is inexorably decreasing.
Systematics of plants
A species in botany is a collection of individuals with similar traits and descended from the seeds of a single plant, the properties of which are inherited. Types of trees, in turn, are divided into subspecies, forms and varieties.
Any plant has the name consisting of two words. The first indicates its genus, and the second determines its species name. For example, common spruce or European larch.
All plant names have Latin names and are also double. Such names are accepted in all countries and are international. In the first Latin word, which always begins with a capital letter, the affiliation of a plant to a particular genus is indicated, and in the second, affiliation to a species. For example, Larix decidua (European larch).
In turn, plant varieties can be divided into groups or breeds. The biggest ones are:
Types of Russian trees
In addition to Russia, far from all countries can boast with the abundance and diversity of forests. Perhaps only Brazil and Canada are the only closest competitors.
The most famous trees of central Russia have long been sung in songs, poems are written about them and prose is written. Birch, aspen, pine, oak, willow and other species from ancient times entered the folklore. It is worth noting that conifers are the most numerous of their species in Russia.
The main names of coniferous trees in Russia:
- Common fir,
- Norway spruce,
- Cedar pine,
- European larch.
Mostly fir grows in the European part of Russia. However, it is found in Siberia and the Caucasus. Plant height can reach up to 50 meters, with a meter thickness of the trunk. The life span of this powerful evergreen tree ranges from 500 to 700 years.
Common fir has a sharp and clearly defined cone of the crown, and shiny needles with a dark shade are decorated with white stripes in the stomata on the reverse side. The color of the bark of this plant is light gray, but you can find trunks with a reddish tint.
At the age of about 40-50 years, the fir begins to bear fruit. Fir cones, bark and needles are widely used in traditional medicine for the preparation of various infusions and decoctions.
In Russia, spruce is a forest-forming species and grows throughout the country. The height of this plant reaches 35 meters, but there are giants up to 50 meters.
The crown is eaten in the shape of a regular cone, which goes down to the ground. The upper part of the crown is always sharp and never changes its shape.
The needles of spruce are tetrahedral oblate, shiny and with a dark green tint, having a needle-like shape. The length of such needles reaches 2-3 centimeters and more.. The ground diameter of the trunk of an adult spruce ranges from 80 to 120 cm. Spruce grows throughout its life, sometimes reaching 300 years of age.
Siberian cedar, or pine-cedar, is a plant with a trunk width of up to one and a half meters and a height of up to 45 m. The needles of cedar pine are triangular, growing in small bunches. Among the family of pine cedar is one of the most ancient of its representatives. The tree lives up to 500 - 600 years, and under favorable conditions - up to 800.
In the Urals in the last century, according to some information, it was possible to meet cedar pines with a trunk up to two meters wide. Now it is impossible to meet such giants. They have long been gone, not only in the Urals, but even in Siberia.
The trunk is slender, branching begins at a height of 1.5-2 meters. Bark in small cracks of gray or brownish-red hue. The needles are triangular, collected in bunches of 5 needles. The crown of the cedar has a pyramidal shape of a dark green color with a gray tinge.
European larch is the most common species among all the others from its family. Its height can reach 50 meters, but most often it is 25–40 m. The crown of larch does not always have the shape of a regular cone. The bark is scaly and thin, and in adult trees - with cracks.
The needles of the larch are light green in color, sometimes you can see the coloring with a bluish coating. On short shoots the needles grow in bunches.
The tree grows in the European part of the country and in the Urals, and the maximum age of life reaches 500 years.
The most numerous representatives of hardwood in Russia:
- Common Birch,
- Small-leaved linden,
- English oak,
- Common Aspen,
- Norway maple.
The famous birch grows in central Russia, and its habitat extends from hot subtropics to areas with very harsh climates. An adult tree reaches 40 meters in height and up to one and a half meters in width.
The color of the tree bark is white or pink with a brown tinge, sometimes you can find birch trees with a yellowish-white trunk. Young birch branches of red-brown color with characteristic dark warts.
From the west of Russia to the Urals this tree grows. The height of the trunk ranges from 20 to 30 meters, and the crown, which has a spherical shape, gives it a majestic appearance. The diameter of the crown can reach from 15 to 20 meters. The tree lives up to 600 years.
Lipa is known for its beneficial properties due to which its leaves are actively used in cooking. Many recipes of traditional medicine based on leaves, bark and even small-leaved linden roots.
The tree is a great honey plant. Its persistent aroma actively attracts bees, and honey turns out to be viscous, healing and tasty, with the highest quality.
Beech tree family. Another name is common oak. The krone is a tree with broad-pyramid or spherical shape with large massive branches.
In young trees, the bark is gray, and in mature trees it is dark in color, with large cracks. The height of the tree is 50 meters, and the width is up to 2 m. The average lifespan of this plant is 500 years.
The leaves of the oak lobed with a characteristic jagged-rounded edge of simple form. By mid-autumn, the oak trees begin to ripen the fruits - acorns.
The habitat of this plant is a place with a cold and temperate climate throughout Russia. The trunk of an aspen, having a wedge-shaped form, reaches a height of up to 35 meters, with a diameter of 1 meter.
The tree lives only up to 90 years and only in rare cases up to 150. Young trees differ in greenish-gray smooth bark, and in adults it becomes darker and cracks.
Aspen is very rich in beneficial properties. For a long time, the bark of this tree was added to food, pre-dried and ground. She relieved fatigue, which was especially true for taiga residents.
The plant known for a peculiar form of leaves, reaching 30 meters in height. In good conditions, maple can live up to 200 years. A reddish-gray shade and smooth bark distinguishes young trees from older ones, whose bark has a darker color and cracks.
Maple leaves up to 20 cm in diameter with pronounced veins and five lobes, and the lower two - small, and the top three - large. In autumn, the maple becomes especially beautiful when its leaves begin to turn brown, red, yellow.
The most common maple in the European part of Russia and the Caucasus, in broadleaf and mixed forests. Juice, leaves and maple shoots are widely used in traditional medicine.
In the parks of the capital can be found even those species that are not characteristic of the area, some of which were planted and grown specifically.
The main botanical garden of Moscow and the arboretum literally abound with many varieties of trees. Among them, the most common are: mountain ash, poplar, chestnut, aspen, pear, apple, oak, elm, ash, willow, willow, lilac, yellow acacia, white acacia, viburnum, wild rose.
If in the parks of Moscow you can meet exotic species of plants, then in the courtyards and on the streets of the city, species that usually grow in the European part of Russia are planted. Every year, scheduled events are held to plant new young seedlings throughout Moscow and the region.
Anastasia, you are well done!
And before going to the forest, I look through this page from the Darwinian Museum.
I do not know which of you has a richer description :))))))
A selection of chic! thank)
Anastasia, thank you very much))) for almost three years I became interested in trees and shrubs, we walk from tree to tree - I am learning to determine where ash, elm and hornbeam are. Your materials helped a lot!
It's funny, but I also walked past elm trees for a long time and remembered what kind of a tree it was (as a child it grew at my grandmother's house).
Merci) we just discussed the tree yesterday, thanks to you now we know its name, unexpectedly - it is an elm, only here it is small-leaved. Differs in the fact that its seeds are collected in inflorescences-roses)))) it is incredibly beautiful and gives a dense shadow in the summer.
Elm 'New Horizon'
Elm 'New Horizon' ..
65 000.00 p. Without tax: 65 000.00 p.
Deciduous trees in Moscow
During the design of the backyard territory, mature trees are especially pleasing to the eye. But it is not always possible to save the existing plants, and sometimes the desired trees are simply not on the site. Then you can choose suitable adult seedlings that will immediately look attractive and complement the design of the site. There are different types and varieties deciduous trees in Moscowwhich ways to create a cozy shadow area.
Popular species of hardwood
Large trees are mature trees with a developed crown, root system. Their height varies, depending on the variety of the plant itself. Larger individuals are selected for large areas, creating the necessary comfort and shade.
For small areas preferred small instances. There are also flowering, fruitful individuals. Choosing beautiful hardwoodYou should pay attention to such instances:
- Birch is a tree that prefers bright, sunny areas, but copes well with exposure to low temperatures. They are very unpretentious, there are many varieties, where the most sought-after are Karelian, hanging, small-leaved trees.
- Elm - is distinguished by an unusual crown, thin branches, dark leaves, acquiring a brownish-golden hue by autumn. Well cope with frost, grow on almost any type of soil. A great option for single landings.
- Oak - represented by different varieties used in gardening. Special care is not required, the tree is unpretentious. There is a red, pyramidal, pedunculate variety.
- Rowan - different small, openwork leaves. Trees are especially beautiful in the autumn period, when they acquire yellow-red shades. These are small individuals with thin trunks, compact crown. The fruits are medicinal.
- Maple - beautiful and most common seedlings of deciduous trees in Moscow. They are pleased with the lush foliage from the beginning of spring to the end of autumn, when the leaves become yellow, red, and brown. Grows in almost any areas, although fertile, well-lit soils are preferable.
- Linden - a tree, often found in gardens and in areas where mostly large-leaved and small-leaved species are planted. It grows in shaded areas, withstands cold.
Breeds of deciduous trees
In groups deciduous trees names incoming specimens can often differ depending on the breed. For example, a linden tree can be represented by a small-leaf, large-leaved breed, and birch is found warty, paper, bush, drooping, fluffy, with different names.
Such specimens may differ in the size of the foliage, the shape of the crown, certain requirements when selecting a place for planting, other indicators. All this must be considered if you want buy deciduous treesthat will decorate the area.
1. Coniferous (evergreen) - these trees belong to the domain - eukaryotes, the kingdom - plants, the department - coniferous. They grow in the temperate climate zone, as they love the moderately warm climate and sufficient moisture. The largest number of species found in the northern hemisphere. Their sizes can be from dwarf to giant.
In the modern world, conifers include woody plants with a single trunk and side branches located on it. These are araucaria, pine and cypress trees such as spruce, cypress, juniper, sequoia, yew, kauri, fir, cedar, pine and larch. If a plant has cones in which seeds develop, and the leaves look like long needles, then it can be safely called coniferous.
Evergreen trees grow in temperate climates and with moderate humidity. Most common in the northern hemisphere. Among conifers, the oldest and highest specimens are recorded. They are classified according to the following features:
- one trunk with side branches,
- leaves look like needles,
- the fruit is the cones in which the seeds are formed.
The oldest representative, recorded by man, is located in the protected forest in the state of California. The age of pine is about 4900 years. The tallest tree grows in the same area, its height is 115 m, and the diameter of the trunk is 4.84 m.
You can meet this tree in the European part of Russia, in Siberia and in the Caucasus. The average lifespan of a species is 500-700 years. The maximum height can reach 50 m, and the trunk grows up to 1 m thick.
Characteristic features of fir is the conical shape of the crown. Glossy needles are inherent in a dark green shade with white stripes in the stomata. Flat needles are located in 2 rows. The color of the bark is mostly gray, but there are also species with a reddish tinge.
Coniferous plant begins to bear fruit in 40−50 years. All parts of the fir are widely used in medicine, and wood is valued in the furniture industry.
European spruce (ordinary)
For Russia, this breed is forest forming. You can meet her in all parts of the state. The average height of the tree is 35 m, but giants are found up to 50 m. The crown - in the form of a cone, begins almost at the base. The upper part always has a pointed end. The thickness of the trunk - up to 1.2 m, and the age reaches 300 years. Needles from spruce from 3 cm long, tetrahedral and flattened. They are characterized by dark green color.
The tree tolerates penumbra well. If it grows in an open area, then starts branching at the base. In the forest, the trunk is bare, and the crown is present at the top.
Siberian cedar is a long-liver among conifers, its life expectancy reaches 800 years. Pine grows up to 45 m in height, and the trunk reaches 0.5 m. In the last century, specimens up to several meters thick were found in the Urals. Slender trunk begins to branch at a level of 1.5−2 m from the base.
The bark has a gray or red-brown tone, covered with cracks. The crown has a pyramidal shape, you can often find several peaks. On the branches are bunches of 5 needles up to 14 cm in length in green. Young purple cones gradually become brown in color, their size is up to 13 cm long and 5-8 cm wide. They are valued for the seeds - pine nuts, which have a pleasant taste and healing properties. In the mature fruit contains from 30 to 150 seeds.
The tops of an ordinary pine reach 40 m above the ground. Bark - red-brown color. In young trees, the shape of the crown is cone-shaped, and in adults it expands and becomes rounded. Much depends on the conditions of growth.
In folk medicine, needles and unopened buds are used. They contain a lot of tannins, essential oils, vitamins. These substances give the pine antiseptic and antimicrobial properties.
European larch - the most common representative of the family. You can meet the forest beauty in the Urals and in the moderately continental part of the country. Differs in height to 50 m. The krone has the correct cone-shaped form. In young trees, the bark is smooth and thin, with age cracked. You can specimens living about 500 years. Light green needles can be grayish-coated, and on short branches grows in bunches.
Evolutionarily, they formed after conifers. Hardwoods can form forests from members of this species only or grow in mixed zones. What are the names of trees - depends on many indicators. They are classified according to the following features:
- evergreens - change greens throughout the year,
- листопадные — сбрасывают на зимний период листья, а весной выпускают почки и формируют новые.
Один из знаменитых видов — каштан на востоке Сицилии. Дерево вошло в книгу рекордов Гиннеса как самое толстое. Установлено, что в 1780 году его окружность была равной 57,9 м. Согласно легенде, неаполитанская королева Арагонская смогла укрыться под его кроной вместе со свитой из 100 путников от дождя.
Это дерево — один из символов России. Ареал его произрастания — от субтропиков до районов с суровыми климатическими условиями. Различают несколько видов берёзы:
They all share common signs. The root system is branched but superficial. It grows up to 40 m in height and up to 1.5 m in width. The bark is usually white, maybe with a pink, yellowish and brown tinge. On the young branches are dark warts. Lives birch to 120 years.
The small leaves have an ovoid shape, their edge is pointed. The length is up to 7 cm, and the width is about 3 cm. At the end of spring flowers are formed - male catkins. They are located on the pubescent legs. Initially, they have a green color, but gradually it turns into a brown tint. The fruits have the form of oblate nut. Light seeds quickly spread by the wind. In medicine, use the buds, juice and leaves.
Deciduous tree grows in the European part of the country and extends to the Urals. The height of the linden reaches 38 m. The spherical crown reaches 20 m in diameter and gives the tree majesty.
Small leaves are arranged in a regular manner on long petioles. The edges of the sheet plate are serrated, the top has a green tint, and the bottom is gray. Oboepolevye yellow-white flowers are collected in inflorescences up to 11 pieces. Appear in early July, flowering lasts several weeks.
Flowers, leaves, bark and even roots are widely used in medicine and perfumery. Honey collected from flower stalks has healing properties.
Belongs to the family of beeches. The common name of a tree in Russia is pedunculate or summer. The crown can be spherical or pyramidal. Young members of the species have a gray bark, over time it thickens and becomes dark in color, wide cracks appear on it. The life expectancy is on average 500 years (long-livers are known by the age of 2000 years) with a height of 50 m and a trunk width of 2 m.
The root system is pivotal, the lateral roots are formed at the age of 7–8 and go deep into the ground. Oak leaves - with 4−8 blades and a carved rounded edge, have another location. Flowering begins at the age of 40−60 years in May. At the end of September, the acorns begin to ripen.
Its second name is common aspen. Places of growth - the middle strip of Russia, Europe and Asia. Aspen stem - columnar shape up to 1 m in diameter and up to 35 m in height. Trees do not have a long lifespan. It is about 90 years old, and under favorable conditions it can increase to 150 years.
Smooth gray-green bark is inherent in young trees and gradually darkens and cracks. Rhombic or rounded leaves reach 7 cm in length, their top may be sharp or dull. Veins are well expressed, have a feathery pattern. Flowering begins in April, after maturation, the fruit looks in the form of a box. In the spring, glue is released from the kidneys, which is processed into valuable propolis.
Aspen is famous for its good qualities. - It is considered a natural energy for the people of taiga. There it is crushed and added to food. Mediums attribute a poplar property to drive away evil spirits.
Distributed throughout the continental zone. The tree grows to 30 m, and its life span reaches 200 years. In the winter the leaves fall. Smooth bark has a gray-brown hue, cracks appear in adult specimens.
Attracts the appearance of large leaves up to 20 cm wide, bright streaks and 5 carved blades. Located on the branches opposite on small petioles. In autumn, the green gets red, yellow and brown tones. Shoots, juice and leaves are used by traditional healers for various diseases.
Willow - a small conical tree from 5 to 25 m tall. In adult species, the crown acquires a rounded shape, up to 5 m wide. Glossy shiny leaves grow up to 13 cm. The leaf plate is oblong. Pink flowers appear in May and gradually turn red. The breed loves loose and wet soils. Habitat - the coast of water bodies in the temperate zone, and most often you can find weeping and white willow.
The list of trees that are less and less common in the open spaces of Russia is constantly growing. This is due to illegal logging and fires. The rare species include white acacia, berry yew, juniper and hornbeam.
Trees growing in the forest: pine, spruce and larch
Such names of Russian trees as pine, spruce and larch are familiar even to preschoolers, they are among the most common in our country.
Forest tree pine ordinary(Pinus silvestris L.) distributed in the European part of Russia, in the Urals, in Siberia, as well as in other areas.
Pine reaches 20-40 meters in height. The trees have slender trunks covered with red-brown bark. The crown of young trees is cone-shaped, the old ones are wide, rounded.
For trees growing in the forest, the crown is highly elevated, and for those growing in open places, the crown is lowered low.
In medicine, use the undiscovered spring buds of pine, pine needles, sap. They contain essential oils, resins, starch, tannins, vitamins. Pine oil has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, general stimulating properties.
Norway spruce(Picea abies Karst) distributed almost throughout the territory of Russia. Suitable breed.
Spruce reaches 30-35 m, there are trees 50 m in height and up to 1 m in diameter. Spruce grows all life, the maximum age ate 300 years.
This is an evergreen coniferous tree with a shallow root system.
Shade-tolerant, in dense forest the crown is preserved in the upper part of the tree, and in trees growing in open places, the crown starts from the ground itself.
European larch(Larix decidua) distributed in Siberia and the Far East of Russia.
Larch grows up to 50 m in height and up to 1 m in diameter. Lives 300-400 years.
This type of forest trees has a cone-shaped crown. The root system is deep. Does not tolerate waterlogging.
The needles are one-year, soft. Oblate, bright green, located on elongated shoots spirally, and on the shortened shoots - bunches.
Cones ovate 1.5-3.5 cm long, ripen in autumn in the year of flowering. Mature cones open either immediately or, after overwintering, in early spring. Seeds are small, ovate, with tightly attached wings. Fruiting begins at the age of about 15 years.
Larch wood is elastic, durable, resinous, very resistant to rotting.
What trees grow in the forest: fir, cedar and juniper
The following photos and names of Russian trees, not inferior in their significance to pine, spruce and larch, are fir, cedar and juniper.
Common Fir(Abies) distributed in the European part of Russia, in Siberia, in the Caucasus.
The tree is 40–50 m tall, the trunk diameter is about 1 m. It lives 500–700 years.
Pyramid crown. The bark is light gray, sometimes with a reddish tint.
The needles are flat, located two rows, comb. The upper side is dark green, the bottom - with white stripes.
Fruits in the 25-30 year.
Siberian cedar(Pinus sibirica) - an evergreen tree 30–44 m in height, trunk diameter about 1.5 m. Lives up to 500 years.
Crohn mnogovershinnaya thick.
The needles are dark green with a bluish bloom, 6-14 cm long, soft, triangular in section, growing in bunches, five needles per bundle.
Mature cones are large, elongated, egg-shaped, first purple and then brown, 5-8 cm wide, up to 13 cm long.
Each cone of this forest tree species contains from 30 to 150 seeds - pine "nuts".
Juniper ordinary(Juniperus communis) found almost throughout the territory of Russia.
Evergreen coniferous multi-trunk tree or shrub 2-6 m in height.
Crohn mnogovershinnaya thick.
The needles are sharp-needle, arranged in whorls of three needles, which are pressed to the shoot and stick out to the sides.
The "fruits" of juniper, cones, initially green, in the second year blue-black with a bluish bloom and resinous flesh.
Shishkoagod use in cooking as a seasoning and for the production of tinctures. Pine needles and lumps are used for smoking fish and meat.
Forest trees of central Russia with photos and names: oak, birch and linden
Of course, everyone knows such names of trees in central Russia as oak, birch and linden.
Pedunculate oak(Quercus robur) reaches a height of 20-40 m. It can live up to 2000 years, but usually it lasts 300-400 years.
The name of such a tree in Russia as common birch(Betula pubescens), strongly associated with our country. Birch grows throughout the European part of Russia, in Western and Eastern Siberia, in the mountains of the Caucasus, is one of the symbols of the state.
Reaches 25-30 m in height and up to 80 cm in diameter. The bark of young trees is brownish-brown, and from 8-10 years old it whitens. Lives up to 120 years.
The birch root system is highly developed, but penetrates the soil superficially.
The leaves are ovate or rhombic-ovate, 3.5-7 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide.
The tree is monoecious, but the earrings are dioecious. Fruitful earrings 2.5–3 cm long, on pubescent legs, seed scales 3-5 mm wide, ciliate along the edge.
Leaves and buds are used in traditional medicine.
Heart-shaped linden or small-leaved linden(Tilia cordata) common in the European part of Russia, especially in the Urals.
Deciduous tree 20-38 m tall with a tent-shaped crown.
The bark is dark, furrowed on old trees.
Leaves alternate, heart-shaped, long-petiolate, jagged, green above, glaucous below.
The flowers are regular, bisexual, with a double, five-part perianth, up to 1-1.5 cm in diameter, yellowish-white, fragrant, clustered in hanging silver-headed inflorescences of 3-11 pieces. It blooms from the beginning of July 10-15 days.
The fruits of this tree of the forests of Russia are spherical, pubescent, thin-walled, single or double seed nuts. The fruits ripen in August - September.
Linden color is used as a flavoring in perfumes, in the production of brandies and liqueurs, as well as a substitute for tea.
Medonos. By taste and healing qualities, lime honey has long been considered the best.
What trees are found in the forest: aspen, maple, elm and beech
The following photos and names of central Russia, which are not inferior to the others in their significance, are aspen, maple and beech.
Common Aspen or Trembling Poplar(Populus tremula) widely distributed in areas with a temperate and cold climate in Europe and Asia.
Aspen has a columnar trunk, up to 35 m in height and up to 1 m in diameter.
Lives 80-90, rarely up to 150 years.
The bark of young trees is smooth, light green or greenish-gray, cracks and darkens with age.
The leaves are rounded or rhombic, 3–7 cm long, sharp or blunt at the top, with a rounded base, crested edges, pinnate venation.
The fruit is a very small box.
In April, bees collect pollen from aspen flowers, and glue from dissolved buds, which is processed into propolis.
Aspen is attributed property to drive away evil spirits.
Norway maple or platanove maple(Acer platanoides) - Deciduous tree with a height of 12-28 m with a dense spherical crown.
The bark of young trees is smooth, gray-brown, darkens and cracks with age.
The leaves are simple, palmate, opposite, with 5-7 serrated, large-toothed lobes, pointed at the ends of the blades, bare, up to 18 cm in length.
Elm or elm(Ulmus) - mainly deciduous plant. The height reaches 40 m with a trunk diameter of 2 m, some species grow in the form of a shrub. The crown is wide-cylindrical with a rounded tip to a compact spherical.
Life expectancy of 80-120 years, live to 400 years.
European beech, or European beech (Fagus sylvatica)
Deciduous tree up to 30-50 m tall with a slender columnar trunk with a diameter of up to 1.5 m (centuries-old trees up to 3 m), egg-shaped or wide-crown.
Lives 500 years, sometimes up to 950 years.
The leaves are elliptical, widely pointed to the base and to the apex, 4–10 cm long, 2.5–7 cm wide.
Autumn leaves are yellow, then brown, fall in late October.
Nuts are used in food: in their raw form, they are harmful in large quantities, it is better to eat them roasted.
Common Hornbeam, or European (Carpinus betulus)
The tree height is 7-12 m, sometimes up to 25 m. The trunk diameter is up to 40 cm, ribbed. The krone is dense, cylindrical. The bark of young trees is silver-gray, deeply cracking with age.
The leaves are oval, pointed, up to 15 cm long, 5 cm wide, dark green above.
Musical instruments, veneer, instrument handles, parquet are made of hornbeam.
A genus of fast-growing willow tree family. Large trees 40–45 m high and trunk diameter up to 1 meter.
The genus includes about 90 species.
Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)
Distributed in the European part of Russia.
The tree is 20–30 m high and the trunk diameter is up to 1 m. The crown is highly raised, openwork.
The bark is gray. Leaves are pinnate, consist of 7-15 leaflets. The leaves are lanceolate, bright green above and light green below. The flowers are small, bisexual.
Species of willow and alder forest trees
Speaking of which trees are found in the forest, of course, it is worth mentioning willow and alder.
Willow(Salix) represents a tree up to 15 m or less tall shrub. There are about 170 species of willows.
Due to the ability to give adventitious willow roots easily propagated by cuttings.
Leaves alternate, pedunculate.
Branched stalk, branches thin, twig-shaped, flexible, brittle, with matte or shiny bark.
Flowers dioecious, small, collected in dense inflorescences. Bloom before the leaves bloom.
The fruit is a box, opened by two doors.
The willow bark and twigs of some shrub willows are used to make wicker products.
Alder measured, or alder sticky(Alnus glutinosa) - tree up to 35 m high, with a trunk up to 90 cm in diameter. Pyramid crown.
Lives up to 80-100 years.
The root system is superficial.
The leaves are opposite, simple, rounded, 4–9 cm long, 6–7 cm wide.
It blooms in early spring, before the appearance of foliage. The fruit is a bump 2 cm long and 2-2.5 cm wide.
Forest bushes volcheyagodnik, heather, wild rosemary and hazel
Wolfberry or wolf's bast(Daphne mezereum) - deciduous, little-branched, 60-120 cm tall, shrub growing in the form of a small tree.
Fruits - red oval drupes with spherical shiny seeds. Fruits in late July - August.
All parts of the plant, especially fruits, contain poisonous juice.
Ling(Calluna vulgaris) grows in the European part of Russia in Western and Eastern Siberia.
Evergreen, strongly branched shrub with small trihedral leaves.
Medonos. Heather honey is a good antiseptic.
Rosemary(Ledum) - an evergreen shrub, in Russia there are about ten species.
The leaves and branches of the wild rosemary emit a sharp intoxicating odor, cause dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes loss of consciousness.
Common hazel or hazel(Corylus avellana) - deciduous, woody shrub, 2-7 m tall. The crown is ovoid or flat-spherical. The bark of the trunks is smooth, light, brownish gray.
The leaves are rounded, 6–12 cm long, 5–9 cm wide, usually at the apex narrowed at the tip.
Stamen earrings up to 5 cm long, thickly covered body scales, bare anthers, with a top of a tuft of hairs.
The nut is almost spherical or somewhat elongated, 1.8 cm long, 1.3-1.5 cm in diameter.