Cultivated peanuts are annuals, which reach a height of 0.7 m. Its shoots are highly branched. Stem root is also branchy. Bare or pubescent erect shoots slightly faceted, side branches directed upwards or lying. On the surface of the alternately paired-pinned leaf plates there is pubescence, they reach a length of 3–11 centimeters, the petiole is grooved and there are two pairs of pointed elliptical leaflets. Short axillary inflorescences consist of 4–7 flowers of red-yellow or whitish color. The life of each individual flower is only about 24 hours, but the peanut bloom is long, its beginning falls on the last days of June or the first - in July, and it ends in the deep autumn. The fruits are swollen two-chetyresemye beans oval, in length they reach 15-60 mm, and on their surface there is a spiderweb pattern. During ripening, the fruit bends towards the ground surface, after which they are immersed in it. It is in the ground that their ripening takes place. The seeds of this plant are the size of a bean, they are oblong in shape, and on top they are covered with pinkish, dark red, yellow-gray or cream-colored skin. Fruit ripening is observed in September or October.
Peanuts need to be planted in warm soil, seed germination occurs at a temperature of +12 +14 ° C, the ideal temperature will be +25 +30 ° C, frosting for peanuts is destructive, so wait for stable warm weather. This is usually the middle of May after the planting of melon crops.
Peanuts like intense lighting and good ventilation, choose to plant open areas without a shadow.
When growing peanuts in the country, it is necessary to ensure crop rotation, it should be planted after cabbage, cucumbers or potatoes fertilized with organic matter. Can not be planted after legumes.
It responds well to phosphate fertilizers, this should be taken into account when preparing the soil in the spring and make a nitrophosphate at the rate of 50g per 1 m².
Sowing crops with purified seeds improves germination. Choose large seeds for planting, it will also improve germination and, as a result, yield.
Sow peanuts in open ground need wide rows of 60 cm - 70 cm wide, with a distance between the bushes of 15 cm - 20 cm, to a depth of 6 cm - 8 cm.
Care of crops
It is not at all superfluous to keep the soil loose and moist; before germination, you can harrow with light harrows. Further care is hilling plants, the first hilling should be carried out 10 days after the start of flowering, to a height of 5 cm - 7 cm. In the future, pile another 2 to 3 times every 10 days, gradually falling asleep plant stem. Each hilling is best done after rain or watering.
We grow peanuts without using watering at all, in central Ukraine there is enough moisture for good growth of this crop. Watering can increase yields with a lack of natural rainfall. In arid regions, water can be watered throughout the growing season, every 10 to 12 days (including rain), and after flowering during the formation of fruits, watering can be increased. Ensure that the soil is moistened, but not flooded. The best solution would be drip irrigation, or the use of water warmed to the sun. A month before cleaning, watering is stopped.
When to remove peanuts
When the leaves of the plant turn yellow, and the seeds are easily husked from the beans, it is time to harvest. But be careful, do not tighten with cleaning the peanuts until the cold, because when you freeze the seeds lose their germination and gain bitterness, becoming unsuitable for food.
Cleaning takes place in two stages, first peanuts are dug to the surface, folded into rolls and allowed to dry, after the beans are separated from the roots and sent for drying and storage. Peanuts can be dried at a temperature not higher than 40 ° C with ventilation. It is better to store peanuts in beans at a low temperature of +8 ° C +10 ° C, in a well-ventilated room, on racks with a layer of no more than 10 cm or in rag bags.
As you can see, the cultivation of peanuts is not at all tricky and, with due desire, you can get a good harvest of this seemingly exotic plant on your plot in Ukraine. The main conditions for success: high-quality seeds and following technology.
If you have any questions or you want to order peanut seeds, please contact us at the contact numbers listed on the order page.
Peanut Growth Features
For the cultivation of peanuts are suitable only open and sunny areas where there is not even a small shadow from other plants or buildings. The growth of this culture is observed only at temperatures above 20 degrees. If the temperature is less than the recommended at least a couple of degrees, then there is a cessation of the growth of bushes. As a rule, peanuts in open ground are grown in areas with a warm climate, while sowing seeds in the soil is produced during the period when acacia blooms are observed. On the territory of Russia, especially in regions with a relatively cool climate, it is recommended to use a seedling method for growing peanuts.
What time to plant in open ground
Peanuts should be planted in springtime in well-warmed soil (about 12–14 degrees), and they should be made after sowing of melon crops. This time, as a rule, falls on the middle of May or later. It should be remembered that the return frost can ruin this culture. Peanuts for sowing can be purchased on the market or at the grocery store, but we must remember that it should not be candied, fried or salted.
Crop rotation rules
When cultivating peanuts, it is important how you observe crop rotation. This crop grows very well after cucumbers, potatoes, cabbage and tomatoes, especially if organic matter was introduced into the soil during their cultivation. And the area where legumes were grown (peas, lentils, beans and beans) is not suitable for sowing, as there is a high probability of root rot.
A suitable soil should be light, moist and neutral, with a relatively high content of magnesium, humus and calcium. Sandy loam or black soil is best suited. Salted soil is not suitable for peanuts, while the acidic soil before sowing is necessary to lime. Under the sowing of this culture, the plot must be prepared in advance. To do this, the ground must be dug up in the fall to a depth of 0.25 to 0.3 m, adding humus to it (1–3 kilograms per 1 square meter). In springtime, the area is re-digging, but to a shallower depth, with Nitrophoska (50 grams per 1 square meter of the site).
For planting this culture should prepare the holes of 10 centimeters depth, which must be placed in a checkerboard pattern, the distance between them should be equal to half a meter. Row spacing should be 0.25–0.3 m. When sowing peanuts in the garden, the square-nested method is used according to the scheme of 0.7 x 0.7 m or 0.6 x 0.6 m. rows need to leave a distance of about 0.6–0.7 m, and between copies in a row - from 15 to 20 centimeters.
In one hole must be placed 3 large seeds, as small seeds very often do not germinate. When the seeds are planted, it is necessary to water the crops very well, using a hose with a shower head for this, so as not to wash the seeds, the pressure should be made quite weak.
Growing peanuts in the garden
Peanut care is quite simple. In the dry season, it must be watered in a timely manner, and the site must be weeded in time and loosen its surface, and do not forget about dressings. Particular attention to weeding should be paid at a time when the seedlings are still very young and short. While removing the grass, it is also possible to loosen the soil, and vice versa. After 6–8 weeks after sowing, flowering should end. At this time, the ovaries will begin to grow and bend down to the surface of the site, after which they will germinate in the ground, where the fruits ripen. After the ovaries begin to bend down to the ground, hilting of the bushes should be done with loose and moist soil (like potatoes), in which case the receptacle will reach the medium much faster. Hilling can be replaced by mulching the surface of the area with sawdust, peat, humus or sand, and the layer thickness should not be less than 50 mm. On average, 30–50 fruits form under each plant, and in each of them there are 1–7 seeds.
How to water
This culture needs a moistened soil, but it should not be too wet. Watering should be done after drying the top layer of soil. When the bushes begin to bloom, they will need abundant watering, which is arranged 1-2 times in 7 days in the morning. When the bushes ottsvetut, paramount importance will not be watering, but the moistening of the plants from the spray gun, which is produced in the evening 1 time in 1-2 days. If rainy weather is observed during fruit ripening, then the surface of the plot should be covered with plastic wrap. And during the period of a long dry period, this crop is recommended to sprinkle, if it is not possible to arrange it, then the bushes should be watered along furrows located between the rows. During the season, the plant will need 4 or 5 waterings.
After the height of the seedlings reaches 10 centimeters, they will need fertilizing, for this the following nutritional mixture is used: 45 grams of potassium salt, 20 grams of ammonium nitrate and 70 grams of superphosphate are taken for 1 bucket of water. At the beginning of fruiting, it is recommended to re-feed the bushes, but this feeding is not mandatory.
Growing peanuts at home
Select healthy and strong seeds, which should be poured overnight with water, after adding one drop of Epin to it. Already in the morning, you can see small sprouts of white color on the seeds. Take a wide container and fill it with loose soil in which seeds are sown. Seedlings seem pretty quickly, and when the bushes ottsvetut, then hypophores will form at the place of the flowers, they bend and go to the substrate, in which the development of the fruit takes place.
Seedlings should be protected from any drafts, they should be put on the window of the southern orientation. In the midday hours bushes need to pritenyat. Watering should be systematic, but do not let the liquid stagnate in the substrate. On hot days, the bushes must be moistened with a spray gun, in which case spider mites will not be able to settle on them. 10–12 weeks after the seedlings appeared, the leaf plates begin to change color to red, and this indicates that the beans in the substrate have fully matured.
At the initial stage of development of powdery mildew, single spots of powdery powder are formed on both surfaces of the leaf plates. Over time, they become more and more, until they completely cover the entire plate, as a result the sheet turns yellow and dies. Not only leaves are affected, but also shoots as well as buds. If the bushes are very affected, they should be sprayed with a solution of a fungicidal drug, for example: Quadrice, Switch, Topaz, Bravo, Ridomila, Skor or Horus.
Leaf spotting (phyllostiktosis) is less dangerous than powdery mildew, but you still need to treat peanuts. The affected bush appears small specks of brown color, which grow to a diameter of up to 0.6 cm. Over time, the middle of the spots fades, and the fabric in them dies off, while the border turns to a purple-brown color. This disease develops most actively when the air humidity is high. It is recommended to fight this disease by spraying with broad-spectrum fungicidal agents.
Black spot foliage (Alternaria) develops in those years when at the end of the growing season there is a long warm and wet weather. In the affected bushes on the edges of the leaf plates appear specks of black color, reaching about 15 centimeters in diameter. Over time, small spots become more and merge with each other, because of which there is a die-off of the edges of the leaf plates. On the surface of the spots there is a dense bloom of black color. In order to prevent the need to follow the rules of this crop culture, thanks to this, the bushes become more resistant to pathogenic bacteria.
If the shrub is affected by fusarial wilt, then root rot appears. The plant itself stops growing and developing, its above-ground parts turn yellow and die off rather quickly. This disease is dangerous because it subsides for a while, but during flowering and the laying of the beans, its more rapid development is observed, as a result the bush dies before the crop is harvested. In order to prevent the need to comply with the rules of this crop, and also need time to harvest.
The development of gray rot is usually observed at the end of flowering bushes. Spots of rusty brown color appear in the affected plants, and they pass from leaf plates along the petioles to shoots. Because of this, the upper part of the stems fade and die off. On the affected bushes is not observed the formation of beans. And if the fruits are already formed, then their deformation occurs. The disease develops very quickly in the last weeks of the summer period if the weather is warm and humid. In order to prevent the development of gray mold, it is necessary to grow such a crop on a high agricultural background.
More rarely, peanuts fall ill with dry rot, cercosporosis, dwarfism or ramulariasis.
Aphids, thrips or caterpillars can live on this culture. To get rid of such pests, the surface of the site must be covered with a layer of tobacco dust or wood ash. To get rid of thrips, bushes must be sprayed with insecticide acaricide.
It is much more difficult to get rid of the wireworm (larvae of the beetle beetle), which lives in the soil. Despite the fact that the fruit covers the shell, such pests easily gnaw through it moves and eat away the seeds. You can get rid of such a pest with the help of traps. To do this, dig holes in several places on the plot; put carrot, beet or potato pieces in them. The pits on top should be covered with a piece of slate, board or metal. After some time, the trap should be opened and destroyed pieces of vegetables, along with the pests in them. In order to prevent, it is necessary to adhere to the rules of agrotechnology of this crop, observe crop rotation, and also make weeding in a timely manner.
Collection and storage conditions
After the peanut leaf plates turn yellow, 2 fruits must be removed from the ground. If you can seed the seeds very easily from them, then it is time to start harvesting. As a rule, cleaning is carried out at a time when the outside temperature is kept within 10 degrees. However, it is not worthwhile to delay the harvesting of fruits, because if the ground freezes, the seeds will become bitter and cannot be eaten. Fruit should be harvested on a dry and cloudless day. To extract the beans from the soil, you should use a fork.
Dug out the fruit must be freed from escapes. They are laid out in a shaded place in the fresh air to dry. After their shells dry properly, the fruits are poured into tissue bags that are stored in a cool (about 10 degrees) dry room that has good ventilation.
Types and varieties of peanuts
The family Bean contains about 70 types of a peanut. In South America, several species of this plant are cultivated, and outside this continent, only 2 species of rachis are grown, namely Pinto peanuts and cultivated peanuts. There are many cultivated varieties of peanuts, which are conventionally divided into 4 groups:
- Group Spanish (Spanish varieties). This small peanut is grown in the south-west and south-east of the United States, as well as in South Africa. Compared to other varieties, this contains more oil. In such a plant a small kernel covers a brown-pink shell. As a rule, these fruits are used to make peanut butter, salted and candied nuts. The largest suppliers of this sort of peanuts are Oklahoma and Texas. The best varieties of this group are Dixie Spanish, Spantex, Argentinean, Spanet, Natal ordinary, Star, Comet, Spanhoma, Florispen, Spankromm, Tamspan 90, O’Lin, Spanco, Wilco, White Core, Shafers Spanish, etc.
- Group Valencia. Most varieties of this group have large nuclei. The height of a strong-growing bush is about 1.25 m, smooth fruits are three-seeded. The oval-shaped seeds are covered with a rich red shell, so they are often called redskin (redskins). This group is considered a subgroup of Spanish.
- Группа Раннер. Сорта, включенные в данную группу, являются более высокоурожайными, вкусовые качества у них более высокие, чем у испанских сортов, а также такие плоды намного лучше прожариваются. Продолговатой формы плоды обладают большим размером. Их применяют для изготовления арахисового масла, а также соленого арахиса к пиву.The best varieties of this group are: Dixie Runner, Early Runner, Virginia Bunch 67, Bradford Runner, Egyptian Giant, Runner North Carolina 56-15, Georgia Green, Runner Fragrant 458, Southeast Runner 56-15, etc.
- Virginia Group. In these varieties of peanuts, the fruits are large and selective, they are fried in the shell and used for the preparation of confectionery. Top grades: Shulamit, Hull, Wilson, Gregory, Virginia 98R, Perry, Virginia 92R, North Carolina 7, North Carolina 9, etc.
The beneficial properties of peanuts
Peanut fruits contain linoleic, pantothenic and folic acids, vegetable fats, glutenins, easily digestible proteins, starch, sugars, vitamins A, E, D, PP, B1 and B2, iron, macro elements magnesium, phosphorus and potassium. The beans contain antioxidants, which are considered the most effective preventive means of cardiovascular diseases. Such antioxidants are still found in pomegranate, red wine, strawberries and blackberries. In proteins of this plant, an optimal ratio of amino acids is observed, thanks to which they are perfectly absorbed by the human body.
Fats that make up the fruit, have a slight choleretic effect, so they are recommended for ulcerative diseases of the stomach and gastritis. Folic acid is involved in the renewal of human cells. And antioxidants, of which there are a lot of peanuts, help protect cells from free radicals, and are also excellent prevention of heart disease, atherosclerosis, vascular ischemia, premature aging and the formation of cancer cells.
The fruits of this plant have a sedative effect on a person with increased excitability, assist in the rapid recovery of strength, help improve memory, increase potency, enhance sexual desire and eliminate insomnia. Since a large amount of protein is present in peanuts, it helps to increase the feeling of satiety, and therefore, nutritionists often use it as a basis for weight-loss diets. And it is also known that there is no cholesterol in such fruits.
If there are peanuts in excessively large quantities, then it can harm even a relatively healthy person. In this regard, in its use it is necessary to know the measure, especially for people suffering from excess weight. If a person is prone to allergies, peanuts can be very harmful to him, especially if the kernels are eaten together with the skin, which contains strong allergens. They can not be eaten with arthritis and arthritis. You also need to remember that eating rancid or moldy fruits can cause poisoning.
Despite the fact that peanuts are considered a nut, in fact it is a distant relative of the beans. This is a one-year-old legume crop with a height of about 0.5-0.6 m, having a taproot, which, in turn, goes deeper by 1.5 m. The diameter of the upper part of the rhizome can reach 1 m, which, in fact, explains the resistance of peanuts to droughts.
Leaves are pinoperous, have a dark green shade. Flowers are collected in inflorescences in the leaf sinuses and are orange or yellow. One flower develops in the inflorescence, due to which the flowering phase lasts from the last days of June until the onset of autumn cold weather. Flowers open at about 7 am and bloom until noon.
Note! Each bush produces an average of 30-70 beans and about 2,000 flowers.
A few days after flowering at the site of each flower, a young ovary begins to develop, which is a kind of aerial "root", bending and heading towards the ground. In the language of science, these ovaries are called ginofors and are intended to protect offspring from drought and heat. The upper part of the ginofora after penetration into the ground quickly grows and forms a bean, which has the shape of a cocoon or cylinder (for this reason, when cultivating a crop, soil looseness is so important). From 1 to 4 pink seeds of an oval form are formed in each such bean.
Basic requirements for growing peanuts on the site
Consider what conditions should be provided for the normal development of culture.
- If peanuts are grown in large quantities in order to obtain butter, then it should be borne in mind that the color depends directly on the soil. The oil obtained from the beans planted in the light soil will be light, and in the dark - respectively, dark.
- Nuts are formed in the ground, so it must be loose. As for a specific type, black earth, neutral or sandy soil is most suitable for peanuts.
Soil should be loose
Do not let water stagnate
Peanuts grow well in sunny places
If at least one of the above conditions is violated, then the culture will start to hurt - spots are formed on its sheets, indicating the development of root rot.
Stage one. Preparing the plot
Start preparing the beds in the fall. Dig the selected area to the depth of a bayonet spade, then apply organic fertilizer - compost, humus or wood ash at the rate of 2-3 kg / m². In the spring, cultivate the plot (to a depth of no more than 10 cm) and remove the weeds together with the roots. It is also advisable to add a nitrophosphate (approximately 50 g / m²).
Stage Two. Choosing and preparing planting material
To get the greatest yield, give preference to zoned varieties. Buy them in a reliable gardening shop or, as an option, from friends or neighbors. As seeds can be used not only beans (crushed / whole), but also husked seeds.
The most common varieties of peanuts in temperate climates include the following:
Note! When buying, show utmost care so that you do not slip on fried or something processed grains. Otherwise, time and money will be wasted.
Preparing Peanut Planting Material
Ground nuts can be grown either by sowing in open soil or through seedlings. If you prefer the first option, then use only those seeds that were collected no more than 2 years ago (germination is lost over the years). Regardless of the method chosen, the grain must be germinated around the last days of April. To do this, follow the instructions below.
Step one. Take the seeds and put them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes to disinfect.
Step two. Rinse seeds with running water and soak for germination. After 10 days, the first shoots are formed.
Step Three. Harden the resulting sprouts. To do this, keep them in the afternoon in a room with a temperature of about 3 ° C for several days, but at night, transfer to where the room temperature is.
Method one. Planting in open soil
When the temperature regime is set at a minimum of 20 ° C (for the forest-steppe, as a rule, it is mid-May), and the earth at 10 centimeters warms to at least 15 ° C, you can begin sowing the germinated seeds. If the temperature is lower, the seeds simply rot, not having time to give shoots.
Prepare a plot for sowing, acting on one of two possible schemes:
- square-breeding (0.7x0.7 m or 0.6x0.6 m), in which 5-6 grains should be placed in the well,
- wide-row (the distance between the bushes - 15-20 cm, between the rows about 60 cm).
Peanut Peanut: Cultivation
Both in the first and in the second method, the sowing depth should be 6-8 cm. Take only large grains, since small or damaged seedlings may not give. After sowing, cover the wells with earth, slightly condense. It is worth noting that the shell of the nut contains many useful microorganisms, so many gardeners chop it and put it in the wells during planting.
Note! At first, protect the landing from birds (such as magpies, crows, etc.), because they can destroy not only young shoots, but also seed.
How to protect peanuts
To protect against a bear, you can make one simple bait: collect the grain and clean it, stick it all up on the garden bed, and then cover it with a piece of roofing material. Top with manure or plant litter. Make a few of these baits and from time to time look at them, collecting Medvedka.
Growing peanuts on the field
The second way. Growing seedlings
As noted earlier, peanuts can also be grown with seedlings. In this case, proceed according to the following algorithm.
Planting peanuts in a cup
Table. How to grow peanuts seedlings
A bit of history
Peanuts, or as they call it peanut is an earthen culture belonging to the genus of legumes. Few people know that peanuts are not a nut at all, namely bean grass. According to history, the birthplace of the plant is South America.
It is believed that peanuts had value even when the mainland was not discovered by Christopher Columbus. Spanish conquistadors brought peanuts to Europe. A few years later, the Portuguese brought nutritious nuts to Africa, where their useful properties were immediately appreciated. After some time, the Portuguese sailors also brought peanuts to India. Then the culture was brought to China, where in its time it became a real salvation from hunger for the locals.
At the beginning of the 19th century, industrial cultivation of the plant began in one of the American states. There is information that it was this culture that fed the two armies during the period of hostilities. An interesting fact is that peanuts have long been considered the food of the poor, and therefore few of the farmers were engaged in growing it.
In 1903, the agricultural chemist George Carver from America invented more than 300 products from this plant culture.
It was all kinds of drinks, cosmetics, medicines, soap, the most unusual - means to fight insects. It was Carver who was able to persuade local farmers to alternate the cultivation of cotton with the cultivation of peanuts. Thus, the plant became almost the main commercial crop in the southern states. In one of the cities of the state of Alabama, there is even a monument in honor of the smart agrochemist George Carver.
Today in Ukraine, the Caucasus and other regions of the former USSR with a warm climate, peanuts are grown on an industrial scale.
Features of culture
Peanuts - Annual Bean Culture average height of 0.5 meters. The leaves of the plant have a rich dark green shade, pinnate. Peanuts bloom, usually in June only one day.
Peanut flowers have a yellow shade, a few days after the beginning of flowering a young ovary develops. It represents the air root, which bends and goes to the ground. Such ovaries in science are called ginoforah, they are intended primarily to protect legumes from heat and drought. The tip of the gynofora penetrates deep into the ground, quickly grows and forms a bean in the shape of a cocoon. In each such cocoon grows from 2 to 4 oval nuts.
The main nuances of planting plants
Peanuts - heat-loving plant culture. It can only be grown in open areas with intense illumination. The main condition is no shadow. The active growth of peanuts occurs at temperatures above 20 degrees, in that case if it drops even to the minimum value, the growth will stop.
It is best to plant in warm regions, sowing seeds during the flowering period of acacia. Growing peanuts in regions with a cold climate is possible, but best of all by seedlings. Consider the main features of planting this culture:
- If you plan to grow peanuts in large quantities in order to further produce peanut butter, you need to consider that the color of the finished oil depends on the color of the soil. Thus, the oil from beans grown in dark soil will be dark, and oil from beans grown in light soil, respectively, light,
- the earth must be loose, because it is the formation of nuts. Experienced gardeners recommend using chernozem or neutral soil,
- interesting feature: peanuts grow remarkably in the ground, where cucumbers, tomatoes or potatoes grew before. At the same time, it is not recommended to plant the plant in the soil where legumes have been before.
- If you are interested in growing peanuts, please note: optimal temperature for active growth considered to be 20–25 degrees
- during the flowering period and the direct formation of the beans, the plant should be watered regularly. During the ripening of beans, on the contrary, excess moisture can only slow down the process,
- growing crops requires constant airing of the beds.
Planting peanuts should not be carried out near plants that can shade it. Compliance with all the above features contributes to the abundant harvest of tasty and healthy nuts, and their violation will lead to a disease of culture.
The first stage of planting - thorough site preparation. Experts recommend starting preparing the beds early in the fall. To do this, you will need to dig up the selected area, as well as fertilize with compost. You can also use other organic fertilizers wood ash or humus. The calculation should be carried out on the basis of the formula: about 2-3 kg per square meter of land. In the spring, it is necessary to perform cultivation, it is also important to remove all weeds with roots. In the same period, many experts advise to make a nitrophoska.
The second stage of landing is selection and preparation of planting material. There are a few basic rules:
- if you want to get a big crop of crops - choose zoned varieties,
- it is best to buy planting material in reliable and proven gardening shops, in extreme cases, the seeds can be purchased from friends,
- When buying, be extremely vigilant, pay attention to the fact that you do not sell roasted or processed anything beans. In this case, you will spend your own time and money in vain.
- as planting material can be used not only directly beans (both crushed and whole) but also husked seeds,
- peanut kernels must remain in the peel until planting. Otherwise, they quickly wither and do not germinate.
As a planting material can also be used the usual uncooked nuts, which today can be purchased at any grocery store. In this case, keep in mind that working with seeds purchased from gardeners will be much easier.
If you are interested in how to plant peanuts, you should also know main varieties that grow well in temperate climates. These include: Klinsky, Stepnyak, Valencia-433 and Krasnodar-14. Planting can be done not only by planting in open ground, but also by seedlings.
No matter which way you choose, start germinate seeds should be in late April. To do this, it is initially recommended to place them in a solution of potassium permanganate for 10-15 minutes in order to disinfect. Next, the seeds must be washed under running water and soaked for 10-12 days before the formation of the first shoots. Then, the sprouts should be hardened, for this, they should be kept at a temperature of 3-5 degrees during the day and left at room temperature for several days at night.
Germinated seeds of peanuts can be sown in the soil or grown on seedlings. As with the first, and the second method is best to start landing in mid-May, the earth should be already well warmed. Consider the fact that at temperatures below 20 degrees, seeds can rot. Seeds for planting is best to take a large, experienced gardeners say that small and damaged legumes can not ascend. After sowing, it is best to cover the ground and compact it well. At first, it is necessary to very carefully protect planted seeds from birds that can destroy young shoots.
How to protect peanuts?
In addition to birds, squirrels, as well as other small animals, can be a threat to the crop planted in the garden. To reliably protect the plant, it is necessary to install a mesh fence. It must be pressed 5-10 centimeters under the ground, because peanuts grow down.
Many animals will try to dig up the formed nuts, if you do not push the fence, it is quite possible that they will succeed. Also damage may be harvested by a large bear digging insect. You can protect the peanuts from it by making a special bait. To do this, it will be necessary to collect the grain, prikopat it directly on the garden bed, cover with roofing felt, and put some garbage, waste, manure on top.
Proper care of the culture
Proper care is also a very important step in home-grown peanuts. At the end of spring, the soil is still sufficiently wetted, therefore, it is necessary to water the plant only after seedlings appear. Experts recommend watering no more than twice a month, using only water heated by the sun. You can apply drip irrigation.
Another very important condition for the proper care of peanuts - hilling. It is necessary to carry out such a process several times a season. It is necessary to fertilize peanuts when the leaves appear, when setting the buds, and also during the setting of the beans themselves. The main condition is not to overdo it. Используйте в равных количествах:
Плоды на вашем огороде созреют осенью, как правило, урожай приходится на середину октября. Выкапывать кусты необходимо исключительно в сухую погоду. Каждый куст нужно тщательно отряхнуть от земли, разложить на земле корневой системой вверх и дать плодам немного просохнуть.
Continue drying should be indoors for 5-7 days. Remember that insufficiently dry nuts can later become covered with mold. Dried fruit is best stored in cardboard boxes, boxes or canvas bags. Storage should be as dry as possible.
If you want to speed up the process of drying nuts, you can use the oven. But at the same time, the temperature should in no case exceed 30-40 degrees.
Useful properties of walnut
Peanut beans can be safely attributed to valuable, nutritious foods. In their composition, they contain beneficial carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, necessary for the human body. American scientists have proven that eating peanut in food allows you to maintain sugar at a normal level, which makes it indispensable for people with diabetes.
Undoubtedly, due to the high content of proteins and fats, this is an ideal alternative to animal food for vegetarians. It is also proved that the use of nuts strengthens the human immune system and helps to fight infections. Today, peanut butter, which children adore, enjoys great popularity. That is why you should definitely try to independently grow healthy and incredibly tasty nuts.
Growing peanuts in Ukraine
It is worth paying attention to the following:
- The leaves are completely dry.
- Stems have become dark brown.
- The air temperature drops to 0 ° C at night.
It's time to take a shovel and, preferably on a sunny day, carry out digging:
- Shovel to undermine a peanut bush.
- While holding, gently pull the bush out of the soil.
- Shake the ground and lay next to the hole.
- To make such manipulations with the rest of peanut bushes.
- Bean pods that remained in the ground - to collect in a bucket.
- All dug out bushes leave to lie down for a few hours to dry.
Preparations for the storage of peanuts
All plants tie several pieces in small sheaves. Suspend in a well-ventilated area or under a canopy, rooted down for two weeks. The main thing that the temperature was not below zero degrees. During this period, peanuts will gain weight and finally ripen. Now you can tear the beans, place them in nets and rinse under running water.
An important step on the way to storage is the drying of this legume representative. If you do not do this, then very quickly all the pods will be covered with mold and the crop will be spoiled.
Peanuts can be dried in three ways:
- In electric dryers (if available). To do this, put the pods on the grill, but so that the layer is not more than 10 cm. Set the temperature to 60 ° С. Dry for two days. After that, check the pods: if they break well - with a crunch, and the nuts themselves are dry, then it's done. You can still trot the pod itself: you hear a thud of nuts inside - you can complete the drying.
- Near the heat source. In a large bowl or baking tray, place the peanuts, a layer no thicker than 15 cm. Put near the battery or the firebox. Dry for at least two weeks, stirring regularly.
- In the oven. Place the peanuts on a baking sheet with a layer of about 5 cm. Send to the oven, setting the temperature to no more than 60 ° C. Periodically stirring and checking the status. The process will take two days, several hours a day. This is necessary in order to give "reach" to the desired state in normal conditions, so as not to overdry the beans.
- You can store in two ways: In the pods, dumping them in canvas bags, peanuts are stored longer. In dry, ventilated areas, the pods can easily lie for a year, or even more.
Advice: so that the mole does not get through the bags and not spoil the nuts, you need to hold the bags in very salty water for half an hour before falling asleep the pods. Squeeze and dry them. And then fall asleep harvest for storage.
2. The nuts themselves, without the shell can be stored for six months. But there are some nuances:
- Store in a dry container (but not plastic) with a lid. Suitable glass jars, ceramic containers.
- You can use bags, processed as for the previous method.
- Plastic bags are not suitable for long-term storage: there is bitterness with time.
Harvesting peanuts is not difficult, you just need to know all the rules of harvesting and the time of ripening. Dry and store properly. By following the recommendations and tips described in this article, you can be sure that everything will work out.
How to grow peanuts?
It was always believed that this type of legumes can grow only in hot countries, so almost no one in Russia has ever tried to grow peanuts. However, modern possibilities of gardening allow us to successfully grow exotic plants, even in our difficult climate. There are brave farmers who even know how to grow peanuts in the Urals! But in this article we will grow it in mid-latitudes.
Planting and care for peanuts
It all starts with the right choice of soil - it should be loose and permeable. To grow peanuts in the open field, it is best to live in the south of the country, but in the middle lane you can succeed.
So, how and where to grow peanuts in the country? The main thing is to always be sunny at the planting site. Sow need to spring, but not too early - the weather should be steadily warm. Therefore, the middle of May is best for us.
The temperature of the earth should not be lower than 12 ° C. Prepare the holes in advance, placing them in a checkerboard pattern. The depth of the holes is 10 cm, and between them there should be about 0.5 meters, between the rows - 25 cm. Put 3 seeds into each well, it is not necessary to water it.
Peanut grows a month after planting. The height of the stems reaches 50-70 cm. When the stem fades, it leans to the ground and grows into it. And it is in the ground that nuts ripen, which for this they received the second name - earthen. When the foot has sunk into the ground, the bush should be tucked up like potatoes and not watered (only in cases of prolonged drought, you can slightly irrigate it).
It is time to harvest when the leaves have turned yellow. The bushes are broken in with pitchfork, the beans are separated and dried (but not in the open sun). From one bush you can collect about 0.5 kg of peanut nuts.
How to grow kiwi?
It is believed that the cultivation of kiwi fruit is possible only in countries with very warm climates. Meanwhile, many gardening enthusiasts in the middle lane successfully cultivate this fruit at home. How to grow kiwi with their own hands, read our article.
Chinese cucumber varieties
Chinese breeders continually surprise gardeners with novelties. They didn’t get around with their attention and cucumbers - new varieties of Chinese selection are surprising in yield, size of fruits and very strong aroma. Read more about the varieties of Chinese cucumbers, read the article.
How to grow persimmon?
Cultivation of exotic plants at home is an actively developing section of amateur gardening. Increasingly, in apartments and houses you can find lemons, bananas, papayas, avocados ... In our article we will tell you how to grow persimmon at home or in the country.
Ornamental cabbage - growing and care
If you think that cabbage is a very practical plant, and its place in the garden, you are deeply mistaken. Magnificent color coaches and semi-cabbage ornamental cabbage can become a real decoration of any flower bed. Read more about growing and caring for decorative cabbage - in the article.
Even for beginners from the first time it will be clear how to plant peanuts at home. The plant is not whimsical and does not require special attention and care. In the agricultural industry it is cultivated in hot countries with a tropical climate. Freshly harvested fruits can be obtained at home, even in indoor conditions. In the fall, get your own harvest - a handful of these peanuts nuts.
It is recommended to buy peanut seeds for planting in a specialty store. Selection of quality planting material from the fresh crop is allowed. In the choice of kernels, it is better to give preference to whole and not small nuts. Moreover, they should not be subjected to heat treatment. The optimum time for sowing is considered mid-April.
Seeds before planting must first be prepared:
- The kernels are removed from the shell.
- Fold the gauze well moistened with water in a few layers on a saucer and place the seeds in it.
- In order for the seeds to sprout faster, a few drops of a special solution that stimulates growth should be added to the water.
- When the spine hesitates and reaches 1-1.5 mm, it's time to plant in the ground.
- For the best effect, seeds are planted in peat tablets. In this case, in the future they need transplanting. You can land immediately on the planned permanent place.
Gardeners are often interested in planting peanuts in open ground. To do this, you must follow some rules:
- To get peanuts as a result of planting, the plant must be grown in an open area. It loves the sun's rays and not a drop of shadow. Buildings or other plants nearby are not acceptable.
- The optimal temperature regime should not fall to the limit of 20 degrees, even for a couple of positions. This may be the reason for the cessation of growth.
- You need to pay attention to where they grow peanuts most often. In the Ukrainian lands and other warm areas it can be sown in the ground during the flowering of acacia. In cooler areas, if desired, still achieve results, it is recommended to grow from seedlings.
Before you plant peanuts in the garden, the soil must be prepared in advance. In the autumn digging is to make 1-3 kg of humus per 1 sq. M. A depth of at least 25-30 cm is recommended. In the springtime, the garden is again dug up and the nitropho is added in the same way, 50 g per 1 sq. M.
Gardeners know how to grow peanuts at home and what should be the soil when planting. It is important that it is moist, neutral and light, containing a large amount of magnesium, calcium and humus. The best options are sandy or black soil. Saline soils should be avoided. If the soil is acidic, before planting it should be lime.
If we say whether it is possible to grow peanuts at home after any crops at the landing site, then definitely not. Crop rotation is an important condition. After cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes and potatoes, peanuts grow well, growing at home with this plant goes even better if organic-type fertilizers are added to the growth of these crops. Planting peanuts in the country after growing beans, peas, lentils or other legumes is not recommended. This can lead to the fact that the roots will rot.
Knowing how to plant peanuts in the garden correctly, there is a guarantee to get the highest quality crop in the end. And this is done as follows:
- The depth of the holes should be at least 10 cm.
- The holes are better placed in a staggered manner.
The distance between them is about 50 cm.
After reviewing how to grow peanuts in the garden, it is worth noting that peanuts can be grown in a room. To properly grow peanuts on the window, you must:
- Choose seeds.
- Prepare a pot with drainage holes, about 17-20 cm in diameter.
- Buy ready-made soil or make a mixture of sand with high-quality garden soil.
- Soak 3 nucleoli in warm water until they swell.
- Place a drain on the bottom of the pot.
- Fill the pot with soil, leaving 3 cm above the soil.
- Spread the seeds in a uniform triangle and cover with soil.
- Water in such a way that all the soil is soaked with water.
Now it is clear that there are different ways to grow peanuts at home. The potted plant must also be maintained at a temperature of + 20 + 25 degrees. It is better to maintain the soil in a slightly wet, but not wet condition. For a plant like peanuts, planting and care must be followed according to all rules.
How to grow peanuts in your garden
Then shoots appear on the 5th day. After that, the plant needs a constant sunny place and moderate watering. After 45 days you can expect flowering.
Usually, if peanuts are grown for the plant in the middle lane, it is taken and bears fruit.
To know how to grow peanuts in the country is not enough, you need to be able and properly care for the plant. Watering is carried out as drying. Only during the period of the formation of flowers and fruits watering is carried out more often. Hilling is necessary after the ovary has formed. Top dressing is carried out 3 times: during the period of formation of leaves, when budding and when the fruits are fastened. Weeding is obligatory after each watering and rain. Peanut crops are harvested most often after 4 months after sowing. A plant is considered ripe when its leaves turn yellow. During harvest time, the air temperature should be constant, not lower than +10 degrees. Bushes should be pulled out of the ground completely. Better that at this time the earth was dry. Fruits in the ground should not remain.
The plant has the appearance of a bush with oviform foliage, the twigs of which are directed upwards or spread along the ground. The bush is powerful, with a developed green mass. The height of cultural peanuts reaches an average of 25 - 45 cm (sometimes up to 70 cm). Grow it in the open field and in greenhouses, greenhouses.
In the "groundnut" small yellow flowers, collected in inflorescences and are located in the leaf axils. The life of a single flower is one day, but there are up to two hundred inflorescences. A new bud is blooming every day, and the brush blooms for several months.
After flowering, the ovary is formed, which, falling to the ground, grows into the soil. Further development of peanut fruit occurs in the ground. September and October are the months of the harvest of the earthen bean. But, in order to grow this crop on your plot you need to know a few agricultural practices.
The homeland of cultural peanuts is South America. The plant is demanding on temperature and humidity. But farmers have learned to grow this crop in the climate of the middle zone, for example in Ukraine. Our scientists have bred varieties: Stepnyak, Valencia Ukrainian, Virginia, Klinsky and others.
Site selection and planting
Gardeners and gardeners of Ukraine grow groundnuts by sowing planting material directly into the ground. For a good harvest, it is necessary that the soil be loose, light and neutral, with a high content of humus and trace elements. Digging the ground under the peanuts, in the autumn they bring humus into the soil. If the soil is acidic - lime. In the spring, phosphate fertilizers are applied, as the plant gives the best result when available.
The timing of planting this plant can be determined quite accurately. This is the middle of May, when the danger of return frost is over, and the air has warmed to 20 - 25 ° C. The earth at this time has a temperature of 15 ° C. Acacia blooms during this period, and sprouts of melon crops are shown. The forerunners of peanuts should be cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers or potatoes. It should not be planted after the culture of its relatives - legumes (beans, peas, beans, lentils), due to the fact that infection is possible diseases.
For the cultivation of this southern plant in the open field, areas without shade are available that are accessible to the sun all day long. Landings should be protected from drafts and strong winds.
Choose a large, strong and healthy seeds. Selected nuts are peeled from the shell. Then in the prepared ground every 20 cm make holes 8-8 cm deep. Three nuts are lowered into the hole. The next row begins, departing from the previous 60 cm. The square-nested method is also relevant here. In this case, the seeds are sown according to the scheme 70 for 70. The number of nuts increases to six. When the seeds are planted in the ground, sprinkling is carried out from a hose or sprinkler to eliminate soil erosion.
In order to accelerate the emergence of the seedlings of peanuts, the culture must be germinated. Planting material is soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for twenty minutes to destroy spores and diseases. Then the beans are soaked for ten days in water (preferably rain or thawed) at room temperature. When the nut kernels are full, they begin to harden the plant. For this, peeled peanuts are placed in conditions with a temperature of +2 ° C for 18 hours, then for 6 hours at +20 ° C. This procedure is done for three days. After that, peanut kernels with white sprouts are planted in the soil.
Peanuts planted in open ground, provided that the soil is well warmed, germinates fairly quickly. After 50 - 60 days after planting the seeds in the soil, the first ovaries appear on the peanut bushes. Gradually, the ovaries sink to the ground and burrow into the soil. Hypophores are formed, in which the ground nuts are formed.
There comes an important point for farmers. The plant must spud in order to cover the ovary, otherwise it dries. You can sprinkle the composition of peat, sand, sawdust and humus. За сезон куст нужно окучить не менее 4-х раз. Ведь чем больше земли будет у стебля, тем больше будет ярусов завязи, а значит и орехов. Растение с одного куста может дать до 35 – 50 земляных орехов.
Еще куст арахиса нуждается в подкормке (нитроаммофоска, суперфосфат, калийная соль), прополках и поливе. Полоть нужно по мере необходимости, удаляя сорняки, разрыхлять землю. Peanuts prefer a slightly damp ground, but not wet. Abundant watering is needed only during flowering. After the flowering of the bush, light sprinkling is necessary. If natural rainfall is enough, you can do without irrigation. Somewhere a month before the harvest, the watering of the plantation is stopped.
Diseases and pests
But, creating favorable conditions for plant growth, it is necessary to take care of its protection from diseases and pests. The main enemies of peanuts are insect larvae, thrips, wireworms and aphids. Crop rotation is a good prevention. If folk methods - wood ash and tobacco, do not help, use insecticides. Peanut diseases: leaf spot, powdery mildew, gray mold and others. They fight diseases by treating bushes with broad-spectrum fungicides.
Useful properties and contraindications
Peanut is a very nutritious and valuable product. It consists of many useful acids, fats, proteins, minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The antioxidants included in the bean helps the body to fight premature aging, heart disease. This highly dietary product is able to protect the body's cells from cancer. It does not contain cholesterol and quickly eliminates the feeling of hunger. Peanut restores strength, improves sleep and memory.
But everything must be within reasonable limits. The use of this product in salty, fried form in large quantities can cause allergies or disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.
Peanut Plant - Description
Cultivated peanuts are an annual plant up to 70 cm in height with strongly branched shoots. The root of it is also branched, rod, erect stems, pubescent or bare, slightly faceted, with lateral or upward-directed lateral branches. Peanut leaves are pubescent, alternate, 3 to 11 cm long, paired pinnate, with a grooved petiole and two pairs of pointed elliptical leaflets. Peanuts bloom whitish or yellow-red flowers, collected on 4-7 pieces in short axillary inflorescences. Despite the fact that each peanut flower blooms only one day, and fades in the evening, the flowering of the whole plant lasts from the end of June or the beginning of July until late autumn. Peanut fruits are oval, swollen two-four-seed beans, one and a half to six centimeters long, with a cobweb pattern. As they mature, they bend down to the ground, sink into it and get to sleep there. Peanut seeds, oblong, the size of a bean, covered with dark red, light pink, cream or grayish-yellow skin. Peanut fruits ripen in September-October.
How peanuts grow.
Growing peanuts is carried out in open areas with intense illumination without the slightest hint of the shadow of buildings or other plants. Peanuts grow at temperatures above 20 ºC - if the temperature drops by literally two degrees, the plant growth stops. The easiest way to carry out the cultivation of peanuts in Ukraine and in other warm regions, sowing its seeds in the ground at a time when the acacia blooms. Peanuts in Russia, especially in areas with a cool climate, are best grown by seedling.
When planting peanuts in the ground.
Since it is possible to plant peanuts only in warm soil, they do it after sowing of melon crops, when the earth warms to 12-14 ºC, and therefore, not before mid-May. Keep in mind that returnable spring frosts are detrimental to peanuts. As a seed, you can use peanuts, bought in a store or on the market, just not fried, not candied or salted.
Then you can plant peanuts.
Growing peanuts, it is very important to observe crop rotation. It grows best after crops such as cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes and potatoes, especially if organic fertilizers are applied to these crops. But after legumes (beans, peas, beans, lentils), peanuts are not grown, because the plant can develop root rot.
Ground for peanuts.
Ground for peanuts should be moist, light and neutral, with a high content of humus, magnesium and calcium - black soil or sandy loam. Culture does not tolerate saline soils, and acidic soils need to lime before planting peanuts.
A site for planting peanuts is prepared in advance: under the autumn digging of the soil to a depth of 25-30 cm, from 1 to 3 kg of humus is applied to each m ² of area. In spring, they dig up the soil again, but not so deeply, and adding 50 g of Nitrophoska to the ground for each m² of land.
How to plant peanuts.
How to plant peanuts? Landing peanuts is carried out in wells 10 cm deep, located in a checkerboard pattern at a distance of 50 cm from one another. The gap between rows is left in the range of 25-30 cm. Peanuts can be sown in the garden in the square-nested manner according to the scheme 60x60 or 70x70 cm. Peanuts can be planted using the wide-row method, keeping the spacing between rows 60-70 cm and the distance between the plants in the row 15- 20 cm. 3 large seeds are placed in each well, as small ones may not germinate. After planting seeds, a bed is plentifully poured from a hose through a shower head under low pressure in order not to erode the soil.
How to grow peanuts.
How to grow peanuts in the garden? Caring for peanuts is watering the beds during the drought, weeding, loosening the soil and feeding. Young low shoots need to be protected from weeds. Weeding can be combined with soil loosening, and vice versa. At the end of flowering, a month after 1.5-2 after sowing, the expanding ovaries will begin to descend to the ground and grow into the soil, where peanuts will ripen. As soon as the ovaries begin to bend down to the ground, the bushes are spudding with moist loose soil, like potatoes, so that the receptacle can quickly reach the nutrient medium. Instead of hilling, a layer of humus from sawdust, sawdust, sand or peat no less than 5 cm thick can be added to the bed. On average, 30-50 beans, each from 1 to 7 seeds, grow under each bush.
Ground peanuts like moist, but not wet soil. It should be watered when the top layer of soil dries out. During flowering, it is watered plentifully, once or twice a week in the morning, after flowering, it does not need watering as much as spraying in the evening a day or two. If it rains during the ripening period, cover the bed with polyethylene. And in a drought it is best to sprinkle peanuts, but if this is not possible, then water the peanuts through the furrows between the rows. Total for the season spend 4-5 waterings.
Peanuts at home.
Choose strong and healthy peanut seeds and soak them overnight in a bowl with water and a drop of Epin. In the morning they should have small white sprouts. Plant the seeds in loose soil, placed in a wide bowl. Peanuts germinate very quickly, and immediately after flowering in place of flowers, hypophores are formed, which, curving, go into the ground, where peanut beans develop. You knew that the fruits of peanuts are developing underground? They contain peanut crops away from the drafts, on the southern window-sill, but in the midday hours the plant needs shading. Water the peanuts regularly, trying, however, to prevent water from stagnating in the roots. Spray peanuts on hot days so that spider mites do not settle on it. Two and a half or three months after the emergence of shoots, the peanut leaves begin to turn red, and this is a sign to you that the peanut fruit in the soil has already ripened.
Peanut pests and diseases
Peanuts can be contaminated with powdery mildew, phyllossticosis, Alternaria, fusarium wilt and gray mold.
Mealy dew - the first signs of this disease look like single spots of powdery plaque on both sides of the leaves, which grow over the course of the disease and cover the whole leaf, from which it turns yellow and dries. It affects the disease and the stems, and even embryos. With a strong infection in the fight against powdery mildew, they resort to the treatment of peanuts with systemic fungicides - Bravo, Quadris, Ridomil, Switche, Early, Topaz or Horus.
Phyllosticosis, or leaf spot, not so harmful disease, but to fight it is necessary. Recognize the onset of the disease can be on small brown spots, expanding to 6 mm in diameter. Gradually their middle fades, the fabric dies in it, and the border becomes brownish-violet. Phyllossticosis is progressing in the period of high humidity. Effective in combating disease treatment plants with broad-spectrum fungicides.
Alternaria, or black leaf spot, manifests itself in years when at the end of the growing season wet and warm weather sets in for a long time. At the edges of the leaves, black spots are formed up to 15 cm in diameter, which grow and merge with the development of the disease, causing the edges of the leaves to die. On the spots you can see the dense black bloom of the fungus. In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to observe the agricultural engineering of the species, which serves to increase the resistance of the plant to the pathogen.
Fusarium wilt manifests itself as root rot, causing the plant to stop growing and developing, yellowing its ground parts and rapid death. The danger of the disease is that it can subside for a while, but during the period of flowering and fruit laying it develops with a new force, which leads to the death of the plants even before harvesting. Preventing Fusarium wilt will help compliance with agricultural engineering and timely harvesting.
Gray rot usually occurs at the end of flowering of peanuts and appears rusty-brown spots, which pass from the leaves along the petioles to the stems, causing their upper part to wither and die. Fruits do not form on the affected plants, and those that have already formed are deformed. The active development of the disease is observed at the end of summer in the conditions of wet and warm weather. To prevent the occurrence of gray rot can only be growing peanuts on a high agricultural background.
Sometimes peanuts can also be affected by dwarfism, dry rot, Ramulariasis and Cercospora.
Thrips, aphids, and caterpillars can annoy peanuts from pests, and you can get rid of them by sprinkling a bed with a mixture of wood ash and tobacco dust, and peanuts are treated with thrips with insecto-acaricides. Worst of all, if the peanuts begin to eat wireworms - living in the ground larvae of the beetle beetle. Their destructive activity is not hampered even by the fact that peanuts are in shell - they easily gnaw it and feed on the seeds of peanuts. For the destruction of wireworms in several places dig holes, traps, which put pieces of beets, carrots or potatoes. Traps are covered with boards, pieces of slate or metal, and after a while the crawled larvae open and destroy.
In order to minimize the risk of occurrence of pests on a bed, observe crop rotation and the agrotechnology of the species, promptly remove weed grass from the site.
Cleaning and storage of peanuts
As soon as the peanut leaves turn yellow, dig a couple of beans, and if the seeds are easily husked, be ready to harvest. Usually, peanuts are removed when the temperature of the air is stable at around 10 ºC. Do not overtighten with harvesting before the cold, because after the soil freezes, the seeds get bitter and become unsuitable for food. Wait for a nice sunny day and start cleaning. For digging fruits use forks. After extraction from the ground, the beans are separated from the stalks and dried in the fresh air in the shade. When the shell dries, pour the beans into cloth bags and store in a dry room with good ventilation and a temperature not exceeding 10 ºC.
Group Spanish (Spanish varieties)
- This small peanuts are grown in South Africa, as well as in the south-east and south-west of the United States. The Spanish type of peanut is characterized by a higher oil content than in other types of varieties. Peanut Spanish has medium-sized kernels in a pink-brown shell, which are mainly used for the production of peanut butter, candied and salted nuts. The largest suppliers of Spanish peanuts are Texas and Oklahoma. The best types of Spanish peanuts include Dixie Spanish, Spantex, Argentinean, Spanet, Natal ordinary, Star, Comet, Spanhoma, Florispen, Spankromm, Tamspan 90, O'Lin, Spanco, Wilco, White Core, Schaefers Spanish and others.
represents varieties for the most part with large kernels. These are tall plants, reaching a height of 125 cm, with three-seed smooth fruits. The seeds are oval, in a bright red shell, for which they are often called redskins (redskin). This group is a subgroup of Spanish.
- The varieties of this group surpass the varieties of the Spanish type in taste, besides, Runner is better roasted and produces higher yields. The kernels of the Ranner varieties are large and oblong. They are used for the production of peanut butter and salted nuts for beer. The best varieties of the Runner group are Dixie Runner, Early Runner, Virginia Bunch 67, Bradford Runner, Egyptian Giant, North Carolina Runner 56-15, Georgia Green, Ranner Aromatic 458, Southeast Runner 56-15 and others.
Peanuts - contraindications.
Any, even the most useful product, if used in exorbitant amounts, can be harmful, therefore, in the use of peanuts, it is necessary to observe the measure, especially those who suffer from excess weight. Harm of peanuts can affect people who are prone to allergies, especially if you use its kernels with skins containing strong allergens.
Arthritis and arthrosis are also contraindicated for eating peanuts. We recommend that you monitor the quality of the product, as moldy or rancid peanuts can lead to poisoning.