In addition to flowering plants, there are also decorative leafy. They do not bloom at all or bloom is not very beautiful, and are grown by people for their unusual decorative foliage. This group includes ferns - one of the oldest plants on Earth. Today it has more than 11 thousand species, but only a few are used in home gardening and gardening. Most often they are used for shaded areas. Among the popular species of this plant can be called adiantum, nephrolepis, asplenium, platiteritum, pelley, pteris, etc.
Ferns are interesting in that they reproduce in nature with the help of spores, like horsetails and moss. Spores are seeds, only very small ones, which at the same time makes artificial reproduction difficult for people and makes it fascinating, even gambling: will it work or will it not? So let's look at how this process happens.
Characteristic features of ferns are large long leaves that grow very slowly. Spores, or seeds, are formed on the leaf plate, with the help of which the fern breeds.
Fern Breeding Methods
Artificial reproduction of ferns involves 2 ways:
- Spores breeding. The spores of these plants are in the sporangia located on each leaf. Outwardly, they resemble brown or brown spots. To learn in practice how ferns breed, cut a leaf with traces of brown dust from a plant and place it in a plastic bag. It must be shaken well, so that the spores are separated from the leaf and crumbled to the bottom of the bag in the form of a brown powder. It is better to do this in a few tricks, periodically shaking the package. Then the seeds need to be sown in the prepared substrate. As it is usually used a mixture of sand and peat, sometimes with the addition of leafy ground. In extreme cases, it is allowed to take and ready substrate for Saintpaulia. The prepared mixture should be steamed for 4 hours to get rid of possible pests and weeds. Then a shallow container is filled with moist soil about 3-4 cm thick and spores are distributed over its surface (there is no need to sprinkle them). The container is covered with glass to maintain constant humidity. For sprouting fern spores, it is necessary to provide a temperature in the region of + 25 ° С. First, sprouts appear from the spores - small plants without roots. Unlike other asexual plants, they have male and female organs, where sex cells are formed. Sprays should be carefully sprayed with a spray, because only in the presence of a wet film will fertilization occur.
- Vegetative type of reproduction. It is much simpler and applies to plants that have several points of growth. It is better to do this in the fall, during the annual transplant, or in the spring time, after the start of active growth. To do this, divide the bush into several parts or disassemble into separate sockets. In this case, you need to pay attention to the number of growth points (meristem) on the rhizomes. The vegetative method also includes the reproduction by processes and brood buds that form along the edges of leaves in some species of fern (for example, asplenium). But nephrolepis can be propagated thanks to thin climbing shoots that spread along the ground like a strawberry mustache. Separate such a shoot and plant it in a small pot. Other types of nephrolepis have tubers, in large quantities formed on underground shoots. They can also be used for breeding.
For those ferns that have only one growth point, reproduction using root division is used. The root system of the plant should be carefully cut with a sharp knife between the rosettes. Then each plant with a part of the root system is planted in the ground, well watered and sprayed. What to make such a procedure is desirable in cool weather.
Fern - the oldest plant on the planet
Ferns on Earth existed 40 million years ago. Of course, initially they were very different from the evolved specimens that now grow on our blue planet. The ancient ferns were gigantic in size and looked more like trees than plants. But even now the species that we call ferns are so diverse that only the shape of the leaf and the mode of breeding keep them together. In our time, botanist scientists number over 10 thousand species of this exotic plant.
The growing area of ferns is huge. Most species prefer forests and moorland. Some plant species are found high in the mountains, where their roots cling to the crevices of the rocks. There are ferns that can survive in waterless deserts.
Observed and such that grow right on the trees. For such a long period of existence, the plant has adapted to life in the most extreme conditions.
How is the reproduction of plants in nature
To find out how a fern breeds, you need to examine its leaf under a microscope.
If you look closely, you can see dark-colored tubercles in rows in the bottom of the sheet. They contain small bags in which spores mature. With the help of the dispute and multiplies it is a plant preserved from ancient times. Now you know how fern breeds. To see this plant, releasing flower spike, in nature is impossible - this only exists in folk tales.
The name "eagle" in this species of ferns did not arise by chance - its leaves are too similar to huge eagle wings. Brack leaves can reach up to 1.5 m wide and up to 1 meter in height. The plant has healing substances for health - it contains catechins, flavonoids, phytosterols, carotene, riboflavin and nicotinic acid. Therefore, it is widely used in cooking and pharmaceuticals.
Do you want to know how to grow the bracken fern in order to grow it? The easiest way to do this in a vegetative way is by digging or purchasing a plant along with thin cord-like rhizomes. For transplantation, the early spring is most favorable, but a fern transplanted in the late summer can get along well.
Also the bracken fern reproduces by spores. Their maturation occurs at the end of July and the beginning of September. In this period of time, you can try to wring the spores from an adult plant and dispel them in a wet place on your site.
Bracken fern is unpretentious in care - does not require fertilizing, easily tolerates frost and lack of moisture.
Knowing how fern breeds bracken, it can be easily grown on your garden plot. The plant is very decorative, unpretentious and has the ability to grow rapidly, which won the hearts of gardeners.
How to breed ferns Vyatka forests
Vyatka forests. The nature here is so pristine and poorly understood that, according to local residents, there is a “snow man”. Particularly attractive is the left bank of the Vyatka River, which is not affected by agricultural farming, where the entire territory is occupied by floodplain meadows and forests. The grass cover of this parcel of land is multi-tiered and quite diverse. Not the last place in it belongs to ferns.
Most often in the Vyatka forests there are such types of fern as the bovine, roach and common bracken.
On plots of land with constantly wet soil, whole fern spruce forests are found. It is amazing how the ferns of the Vyatka forest breed: the open leaves of the fern are attached to the spruce forest and grow without touching the ground. Especially this spectacle is beautiful in the autumn when the leaves of the fern turn yellow and form fancy laces woven by nature against the background of green firs.
Reproduction methods of ferns
By fern are not only ferns. This group of plants includes the horsetail and leporiform species. Outwardly, they are significantly different from each other, but all have vegetative organs: sprout (leaves and stem) and root. They are united by the fact that ferns, horsetails and moss multiply vegetatively, by spores and sexually.
If reproduction by vegetative means and spores is well known and understandable, then not everyone knows the sexual way of plant reproduction. The development of ferns occurs in circulation: asexual grows from the sexual generation, which in turn gives birth to the sexual generation.
The asexual generation is a powerful plant with developed feathery leaves, and the genital is a small growth that exists only for a short time. The moor and the horsetail reproduces in the same way that the fern reproduces: asexual and hollow.
Asexual generation of ferns
Ferns are the highest spore plants that grow mainly in moist, shaded areas. They have leaves, stems and roots. In the stems of ferns, horsetails and moss there is a special conductive tissue resembling blood vessels.
Asexual generation - when a sporophyte is a leafy plant, in which spores are formed in special organs located on the leaves (sporangia). In the moor of the moss and the horsetail the spores ripen in peculiar spikelets formed on the tops of the shoots, and in the fern in sacks located on the back side of the leaf.
Sexual generation of ferns
Once in favorable conditions, spores grow and form an outgrowth - a small plant that represents the sexual generation, the so-called gametophyte. Zarostok has the appearance of a small green plate, reaching 1 cm in diameter. In the lower part of the outgrowth there are rhizoids, with the help of which a tiny plant is fixed in the soil. In the outgrowth, female and male genital organs are formed (archegonies and anteridia), in which eggs and spermatozoa develop. Since the outgrowth is tightly pressed to the ground, drops of dew or rain linger beneath it. On this water, sperm cells "swim up" to the eggs. When they merge, fertilization occurs, and a new plant subsequently develops from the formed zygote, which immediately grows, turning into a powerful fern.
Fern is a tall and bulky perennial plant. Its height reaches 1 meter, and the size of the leaves can be about 6 meters. It grows everywhere, it can be found absolutely in all countries, thanks to its ability to adapt to weather conditions. In Russia, the plant prefers raw coniferous forests, but it can be seen in an ordinary garden.
The plant has a strong root, a huge cap of foliage and does not have a stem. Its upper shoots can hardly be called ordinary leaves, rather, it looks like small branches framed with carved leaves. The plant does not bloom, although it is believed that once a year it still happens. In fact, it simply cannot bloom, because something by which ferns multiply does not ripen in buds. The spores — namely, the culture propagates with them — ripen on the lower part of the leaves (fronds), which means that the plant simply does not need flowering.
But not only disputes can help in the emergence of a new life: There are other ways of breeding ferns:
- adventitious buds.
All three methods relate to the vegetative method and are applied to many species of domestic plants. In vivo fern breeds spores.
Natural breeding method
Natural habitat for ferns is an area with high humidity and soft diffused light. It is water that is the main condition for the favorable development of the bush. Reproduction of ferns spores is as follows:
- collection of material
- waiting for ripening
It looks simple, but in fact everything is somewhat more complicated. To achieve the germination of crops, certain conditions are required, failure to comply with which will lead to the death of the dispute:
- only fresh seed germinates,
- spores are scattered over the soil surface, they do not germinate in the ground,
- the land must contain peat and charcoal,
- it must always be wet, spores die during any drying out,
- temperature conditions should exceed 25 degrees Celsius,
- the air must also have a high humidity - at least 60%.
This method can also be used at home, while you need to create greenhouse conditions and not to lift the container lid once again. Watering is carried out using a sprayer so as not to wash the spores and not to damage the young shoots.
Additional home methods
The spore breeding method is rather complicated for inexperienced florists, so you have to look for other options. The easiest way is to divide an adult plant into several pots. To do this, prepare the work surface and tools. The table is covered to avoid contamination. Also need:
- several tanks for seating,
- Activated carbon,
The plant is removed from the pot, the roots are freed from the old soil. If the fern has a rosette bush form, then it is simply divided into separate units. With a common root, cut off part of it with small roots and a pair of buds above. The damaged area is rubbed with activated carbon. After that, drainage is laid in pots, a layer of soil is about 5 cm and the plant is placed, and empty areas are covered with soil and tamped. The final step will be abundant watering. Usually the plant is well acclimatized and does not cause trouble.
Another way is breeding shoots. After wintering, the fern can release arrows, which are crowned by a miniature fellow of a large plant, but without a root system. For rooting, a container with wet moss is placed under the shoot and pressed to the surface. With regular wetting of the moss clump, the plant quickly gives roots. After it is well established, the arrow can be cut off.
The last variant is brood buds, but they appear only in single ferns, for example, such as polynorotnik or Kostinets. They produce daughter plants on the cliffs, which can be carefully separated from the main one and placed in a germination container. It is best to use moss instead of soil, and you will also need to cover the jar with a lid and place it in a shady warm place. Children give root shoots for 2−3 weeks. About a month later, they can already be seated in flower pots.
Fern has a very picky character, otherwise he simply could not survive more than 400 million years. And the most resistant is an ostrich, which is very common in the territory of the Russian Federation. He perfectly tolerates the harsh Russian winters and is able to safely grow at home in a pot.
The most important condition for successful development is regular watering, which is somewhat reduced in the winter. Spraying the leaves with water at least once a week. Fern feed is required once a year, in spring. The culture can quietly grow at a distance from the window, because it does not like bright sunlight.
Repot the plant every 1-2 yearsas soon as it becomes crowded in the pot. This can be understood by raising the pot (often the roots begin to grow into the drainage holes) or by piercing the ground with a long wooden stick with a diameter of 5-7 mm: if it clings strongly, then it is probably time to change the capacity.
Fern - an unusual plant that attracts flower growers with its unusual foliage, unpretentious nature and history. In the world there are more than 10 thousand species of ferns, among which finding the appropriate option is not difficult.
Features of the structure of fern leaves
Ferns belong to the group of higher spore plants. Their leaves are actively involved in the process of photosynthesis. The spores of a fern are formed on the lower part of the leaves, with the help of which the sporophytes multiply safely. There are species in which spores form on certain spore-bearing leaves or at the very top of the frond.
Depending on the species, the shape and structure of the leaves, as well as their size, differ. There are pinnately cut forms, but there are whole ones. Leaves can also be curly, up to thirty meters long, but this is in species found in natural conditions.
However, regardless of the species, they all belong to extraordinarily beautiful plants, which are very popular among gardeners.
Fern, regardless of the variety, grown under room conditions can multiply in the following ways:
- dividing the bush
- adventitious buds.
Consider the above marked methods in order.
Reproduction of fern spores refers to the most time-consuming and long-term method of reproduction. It can be divided into several stages:
- seed preparation,
- landing dispute
- growing seedlings and caring for her.
Споры папоротника можно приобрести в специализированном магазине или же попробовать собрать их самостоятельно на взрослом растении, вместе со спорангиями, в которых они и образуются. Спорангии срезают тогда, когда они приобретут слегка коричневый цвет. Для полных дозреваний их убирают в бумажный конверт. After some time, the spores ripen and spill out. This will be the seed to be planted.
The next moment is the preparation of the soil. Best suited special soil substrate for violets. It should be mixed with one part of sand and three parts of peat. The resulting articulation must be brought to a uniform state, remove large parts of the soil and sift well several times. Then the land for sowing the dispute must be disinfected. To do this, it is sent to the oven for four hours, where it is kept at a temperature of one hundred twenty - one hundred and sixty degrees.
As a landing tank, you can use wooden, glass or plastic containers. The main thing in them is to provide openings for drainage of excess fluid. Now prepared substrate poured into boxes for planting. The thickness of the soil should not exceed four centimeters. The soil is lightly tamped down and well moistened, after which sow spores and cover with glass. The air temperature at which shoots should appear should be constant, about twenty-three degrees. During the spore germination period, the soil is moistened exclusively through the pallet. The landing should also be regularly aired and removed condensate from the inside of the glass.
With proper care, fern spores germinate within a month. Visually, you can see that the surface of the substrate is covered with a green patina, resembling moss. These are spores that have sprouted, but since they do not yet have a root system and are attached to the soil solely by hair-rhizoids, they need to be well cared for. It should maintain the air temperature of about twenty-two degrees and the humidity of the soil. Sprouted spores before leaves and rooting are left under glass. The process of formation of the roots and the appearance of the first leaves takes about two months. Now the seedlings need to harden. To do this, they need to open every day for a couple of hours. After the fern grows up to five centimeters can be replaced by watering through the pan to spray from the spray. It should be carried out at least once a week, as the rearing of seedlings should be carried out in a humid environment.
Note that fern saplings need space for growth. Therefore, they should dive. It is recommended that the first picking be carried out before the formation of roots. The second, and necessarily the third, as the seedlings grow. After transplantation, the seedlings need to be sprayed frequently so that it adapts faster and settles. This should be done several times a week.
At the age of five or six months, seedlings can be transplanted into individual flowerpots. And after a couple of months you will admire a beautiful decorative flower with elegant greenery.
Processes, division of the bush, adnexal buds are all methods that relate to vegetative reproduction. All, without exception, species of indoor ferns have this ability. Any florist will be able to handle it, having previously read the necessary information.
The next moment is the reproduction of fern by dividing the bush. There are certain requirements. First, they start this type of reproduction only in spring. Secondly, only adult, well-developed fern flowers are used. Technically, this happens as follows:
- the adult fern is plentifully watered and after the soil softens, it is removed from the pot,
- the roots are neatly cleaned from the ground,
- a sharp knife separates the roots between the sockets,
- the resulting delenki are planted in pre-prepared fertile and light soil,
- further care is the same as for the adult plant.
Adventitious buds are formed on formed petioles. They can also be used for self-propagation of the fern at home. But, adventitious buds are formed not in all varieties of indoor fern. Therefore, to apply this method to all, without exception. Renal reproduction technique is as follows:
- the kidneys are carefully separated from the stalks,
- planted in a nutrient soil under the glass,
- maintain a constant high humidity in the germination tank,
- when the roots are formed, the kidney is carefully transplanted together with a clod of earth into an individual pot.
The processes are long downy arrows, which periodically form on the fern bush. They are also used for breeding. For this you need to bend the process to the soil, pin it and provide good moisture. If possible, it is best to use moss for rooting. Within a month, the processes will form the roots and begin to form the ground part. A month later, it can be separated from the parent bush and planted in a pot.
Note that vegetative breeding methods are carried out in early spring.
How and when to divide the bush?
The division of the bush is one of the effective ways to get a full-fledged plant. It should be borne in mind that it is not suitable for all ferns. It is possible to divide only those in which several growth points are formed (nephrolepis, adiantum, pteris). In addition, each delenka should have its own roots.
Better and easier ferns endure the spring division. You can also replant and propagate plants at the end of August.
How do ferns breed by spores?
Spores in ferns serve as a kind of seed substitute. They are formed on the back of the leaves. On the wrong side of the frond, there are small sacs - sori, in which there are sporangia with spores. When they are ripe, sori should be cut with a particle of frond. They are stored in tightly closed paper bags until seeding. Fern spores are very small, powder-like. They easily fly away from the slightest whiff of the wind and even breath.
It is possible to determine whether the “seeds” have ripened, according to the color of the sorus - they turn brown.
Sow spores should be in a shallow container, pouring a thin layer of soil (up to 5 cm thick). It is better to use sand and peat mixture or substrate for violets. Spores must be sown directly on top of the wet ground and do not sprinkle. Cover with glass. When green moss appears on the ground surface, these will be sprouted spores. They do not have roots yet, and seedlings receive nutrition through rhizoids (hairs with which spores sprouted). Two months after sowing, roots and leaves begin to form. Growing seedlings is better in an aquarium where there is a high level of humidity. Over time, it dives into pots.
How to root side shoots?
Most species of ferns produce shoots. They grow on leaves and look like a long green arrow. To get a bush from a scion, it needs to be rooted. To do this, you should put a container with nutrient soil and fix an escape in it.
Within 1-2 months the arrow will increase its roots. Then it can be cut off from the parent bush.
How to reproduce fern brood buds?
Individual ferns have the property to form lateral buds on the leaf stalks. This is how the onion bladder reproduces. Over time, the bud grows roots. Then it is removed and placed in a glass container with a lid. It should be warm and humid. When leaves appear on the kidney, you can plant it in the ground.
Types and varieties of ferns
There are a huge number of groups and varieties of ferns.
Known for his love of rocky surfaces. Forms a separate family. Description of the following: round, leathery leaf blades on thin twigs. The most famous are two types: fasting and northern. The first one is often found on the walls of old stone buildings. Grows predominantly in stone crevices. North loves the rocky places of northern Europe and Asia.
Belongs to the family of aspenia. An undersized fern, characterized by "fluffy" foliage - thin leaves grow from a small root, from which smaller leaves spread out on two sides. It has several varieties (Elbe, multi-row), which differ in the size and density of leaflets.
Also belongs to the Asplenium family. This variety has about 200 varieties. Of these, the most famous are female, Chinese-reddish (with red veins). Description: tall shrub with openwork, light leaf feathers.
Like the previous groups, it belongs to the Asplenium family. Differs from the previous width of leaf branches, love for the thick shade of a wooded area. The following varieties are known: Brown multigrape, tripartite, setae.
It belongs to the family of cyate. Popular for its unpretentiousness - varieties of this group are found on all continents of our planet: tundra, heathland, wooded thickets. It is not only in the desert and steppes. It differs from other varieties by the huge size of leaf branches - up to one and a half meters.
Forms your own family. One of the most ancient species of fern. In ancient times, grew on all continents, but today they are found only in the Caucasus, in the forests of East Asia and North America. The varieties are known as: Asian, Clayton, Royal. Loves a little shadow and marshland.
It belongs to the Asphenium family. Its distinctive feature is a unique family love for land and lots of light. The leaves are leathery, dense, unlike congeners. Prefers limestone cliffs.
Common varieties of ferns include Ostrich (leaves resemble ostrich feathers), Telipteris (distinguished by the lush fluffiness of greenery), Fegopteris, Schitovnik, Onkolay.
Fact. Many thousands of years ago, ferns had a variety of woody plants of their kind. The trees eventually died off, and their wood went deep into the soil, compressed and lived to this day in the form of coal.
Features of the structure of the sporophyte:
- not long roots extending from the main elongated rhizome. The primary root dies quickly, and small roots grow stronger, buds are formed on them,
- shoots - formed from the buds on the roots, are the main way of fern breeding,
- leaves - grow from the root,
- sporangia, collected in small bundles called "sori" - small green plate with spores - the second method of reproduction of the fern.
- Asexual plant. The full-fledged fern bush making seeds.
- Controversy. Seeds from the box, trapped in the soil.
- Zarostok. A small green plant attached to the soil, producing immediately male and female cells.
- Gametes Stage of reproduction, confluence of different sex cells.
- Germ. The formation of a new asexual plant.
On a note. The green mass of the fern is not called leaves, because the structure is completely different from the usual foliage of flowering shrub plants.
Scheme and description of plant breeding
Fern breeding occurs with the help of seeds.
The fern breeding pattern is as follows: there are sori on the lower side of the fern leaf, which, when mature, are separated from the leaf plate. The sporangia in the sorus ring are broken, scattering the fern spores around themselves. Then a small green plate sprouts from the spores and sprouts into the soil. This seed is fastened to the soil with rizodami; it has male and female plant genitals. As soon as water gets on the plate, for example, after rain, fertilization occurs: in the female organs (archegonias) there is an egg, to which spermatozoids move dropwise from the male organs (antherides) and fertilize it. It turns out a full-fledged embryo attached to the outgrowth, from which it feeds during development. Then the plant grows over time.
Sexual reproduction and its features
In order to reproduce the fern at home, it is necessary to collect the spores, freed from the shell, and sow in the right place. This area should be well hydrated. The condition for the successful conception of a new plant is a high level of humidity.
For cultivation, it is recommended to use a mixture of peat, sterilized soil and charcoal in the ratio of 8: 2: 1, respectively. The resulting mixture is filled with a small pot almost to the top, then it is thoroughly tamped, sprinkled with brick chips. Stones are thrown into this crumb. On top of the pot tightly covered with clear glass. The whole structure is placed in a pan with separated water. Cultivation temperature 21 degrees. The place should be darkened.
The first outgrowths appear in a month, in another two - the fertilized small ferns start the first leaflets.
The breeding cycle is divided into two epochs:
- Asexual generation. The starting point is the zygote from which the young sporophyte grows. Then it develops into a full-fledged adult plant, on the leaves of which sporangia are formed.
- Sexual generation. It comes at the time of disclosure of sporangia and hitting the dispute in the ground. Mature spores germinate in small “legs” into the soil, forming into a mature gametophyte. At this stage, the female and male cells are ready to merge. Then, under convenient conditions, they merge, and the cycle again passes to the stage of asexual generation.
Fern is a fairly common plant in the design of the garden plot. It does not have to buy in the store - you can dig in the wooded thickets. The main thing: the bushes need to be taken at the site where the ferns multiplied well, that is, formed extensive thickets. The petioles must have at least one socket, a kidney, a more or less developed root system, so that the plant can adapt to a new place. Landing should be wet, without access to direct sunlight.
How to breed fern
Since the fern does not bloom, he has no seed is formed. Like mushrooms and algae, fern breeding can also be vegetatively controversial.
Leaves play an active role here. They are formed on them disputes. In some species, they are located at the bottom of the leaf or on certain spore-bearing leaves in their upper half.
Fern Breeding Methods are:
- The division of the bush.
- Brood buds.
Fern life cycle
Plant spores are formed in sporangiawhere there are several thousand of them. In the event of their spontaneous release, the transfer by wind carries them over long distances from the main bush. If the dispute has landed on fertile ground, it will germinate. The size of the resulting growths does not exceed 5 mm. Externally, they have a green color. Some growths are female, others are male. After the merger, the growth of a new fern begins.
The plant is very unpretentious to the habitat conditions, but an important condition for their vital activity is soil moisture. Spores can only germinate in a soil saturated with vlog. The process of merging the male and female shoots will not occur if the ground is dry.
For such breeding it is most convenient to use an overgrown bush, which has many outlets. In early spring, it is divided in such a way that there are 3 sockets on each part and there is a root part. As a result, such a fern can be divided into 3 or 4 new bushes. To divide the plant into more parts with one outlet does not make sense, since it may not settle down.
Divided fragments of the bush are planted in separate pots. The soil is well moistened. Careful care is required before the appearance of young leaves. The interval of maintained temperatures is -18-22 degrees.
In the process of growth, the fern is the formation of not only the leaves, but also the whiskers, which are called lateral shoots. They supply the main plant with nutrients, as well as the root system. When they fall into wet soil, there is an ingrowth and the formation of a new fern.
You can artificially place the mustache in a moist soil and lightly sprinkle with earth. The temperature of the soil should be at least 18 degrees. The rooting process takes up to four weeks. After that, it can not be separated from the mother bush, because it can die. He can begin an independent existence after the appearance of the third leaf.
In this way, only some species of ferns can breed. Buds are formed on the leaves. If the growth of fern passes spontaneously, then they fall away and, falling into a wet soil, germinate. If the process is at home, then the separation of brood buds is not required. When it was formed in the upper part of the sheet, a branch with a sheet is bent to the ground and added dropwise. After germination and the appearance of the third leaf, the young fern can be separated from the mother.
Of all the breeding species of ferns, the most difficult is the sowing of spores. The process is time-consuming and requires constant attention at home. Therefore, it is used only in cases where the plant does not produce lateral processes.