Many gardeners love vervain for its simplicity in the care and elegance of bright flowers. The rulers and officials of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire wore wreaths from this plant, and the Egyptians appreciated its healing properties. Verbena is often mentioned in many cultures and histories of various nations. It is considered a talisman against dark forces and detractors, a symbol of family hearth and wealth.
On the basis of this herb they made love drinks, as people believed that the flower was able to help in the search for a life partner. Today, verbena is grown in flower beds, in rock gardens and rabatka, where it is perfectly combined with other types of plants.
Verbena is a member of the Verbenov family and grows as a herb or shrub. Homeland plants are tropical and subtropical regions of America. The people of the flower received the name "pigeon", "iron", "iron grass", "blood of Mercury", "tears of Juno", "veins of Venus."
Verbena is grown as an annual or perennial plant: it depends on the climatic zone in which the rhizomal shrub or herbaceous species is cultivated. Room culture can reach a height of half a meter, the smallest varieties grow no more than 10 cm.
Smooth or rough stems are erect, creeping or prostrate. Dark green leaves are located opposite, in some species the leaf plates have alternate or whorled arrangement. Hairy leaves can be pinnose, dissected or toothed. The inflorescences are paniculate, racemose, spike-shaped or corymbovoid, and consist of several dozen small flowers 1.5–3 cm in diameter.
Flowers can be white, yellow, cream, apricot, red, blue or blue color. Flowers of some species and varieties may have a central eye, different in color from the main tone of the petals. Fruits are represented by light brown or greenish assorted nuts, which fall into 4 parts.
Flowering of vervain starts in June and ends in October. The flower is grown in gardens and greenhouses, on terraces and verandas. Often, growers grow a plant at home.
There are 124 species of vervain in the world, but only some species of the representative of subtropics are suitable for cultivation in culture:
- Verbena Buenos Airesca, or Bonar. Under natural conditions, an erect shrub reaches a height of 1.2 m. A heat-loving plant is characterized by a pronounced main stem with lateral shoots extending from it. The elongated leaves are located opposite. The plates have a lanceolate form with jagged edges. Small flowers of amethyst shade are collected spikelets in umbrella-like inflorescences. The variety is characterized by long and abundant flowering.
- Verbena hybrid. It is the most common type of vervain, which is characterized by strong branching. Stems can be erect or creeping. In height, the bush grows up to half a meter, but sometimes does not exceed even 20 cm. Leaves have an elongated-triangular or oblong shape. The surface of the plates is trimmed with colorless setae. The color of fragrant flowers can be white, pink, purple or dark purple, but there are varieties and other shades. The hybrid variety is large-flowered and low compact.
- Verbena tough. Branched stems can be creeping or ascending. Hard sheet plates, similar to wedges, are characterized by convex veins and short hairs on the underside. The diameter of lilac or purple flowers is only 1 cm. The flowers are collected in complex inflorescences with a diameter of 3-4 cm. Seed material does not lose its germination for about 5 years.
- Canadian Verbena. The heat-loving perennial plant releases thin stems 15–20 cm long. The deep leafy plates have an oval shape and sharp tips. Umbrella inflorescences consist of white, pink, purple or lilac flowers. Abundant flowering and reproduction by self-seeding are characteristic of the species. Preservation of germination of collected seeds - 3 years.
- Verbena straight. Only this variety is grown in the middle lane. Shrub reaches 1.5 m in height. Sessile leaves have a grayish-green tint. Oval-shaped plates have jagged edges and grow to a length of 8–9 cm. Flowers of violet-blue color are located on inflorescences of length 40 cm. Verbena direct differs short-flowering.
Many varieties of vervain are afraid of frost. The only frost-resistant species is verbena straight, which maintains a low rate of -3 degrees.
Verbena: growing from seed at home
Growing verbena from seed to seedlings is the best solution, since seeds planted directly in open ground have a low germination rate. The dense seed coat may prevent seedlings from appearing quickly. Cultivation of vervain starts at home. Usually, seedlings are planted in March, so seed should be prepared as early as January.
Planting seeds for seedlings
Seeds need pretreatment a week before sowing. In order to increase seed germination, stratification is applied, i.e. cold treatment. The seed is wrapped in a damp cloth, which is placed in a plastic bag, and then refrigerated. Seeds are stored in the department for vegetables for five to six days.
By spring, shallow boxes or containers for verbena are prepared, in which well-drained soil is poured, which is a mixture of equal parts of turf, peat and sand, as well as a small amount of wood ash. The substrate is disinfected with fungicides so that future seedlings can resist diseases and pests.
Planting of seed material for seedlings made as follows:
- The seeds are laid out over the surface of the earth, rather than deepen into it.
- Material can be powdered a thin layer of sand or perlite.
- The boxes are covered film material and placed in a room with a temperature of about + 22-25 degrees.
- Verbena germinates for three to four weeks. At this time, the greenhouse is regularly ventilated, removing condensate from the polyethylene.
- With the advent of sprouts the container is transferred to a well-lit window sill of a cooler room.
Verbena seedlings are not so difficult to care for. While the material is at home, it needs to maintain a moisture balance in the soil. The plant suffers from over-irrigation, so the tanks in which the seeds are planted must be equipped with drainage holes. Excess water will flow through them, so the stagnation of liquid in the ground can not be afraid. Moisturizing the substrate is carried out by spraying. Water the seedlings should be only after the complete drying of the soil.
After 1–1.5 weeks, the first leaflets appear on the shoots. Seedlings are transplanted into individual cups or other containers. After 2 weeks, young vervains begin to feed in the form of mineral fertilizers.
Germs of ampelous varieties pinch the main points of growth under the fifth leaf, as a result of which they form new shoots that will give a lush and abundant flowering. For compact types of culture, such a procedure is not used, since they perfectly branch independently.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Although verbena seedlings can even withstand temperatures as low as -3 degrees, experienced gardeners do not recommend planting young bushes before the onset of warm weather, as frosts can destroy them. Planting in open ground is made with the establishment of a positive temperature outside the window. For plants should choose a well-lit area. From the direct rays of the summer sun, bushes will have to be covered with protective material so that they do not get burned.
Verbena grows best in fertile and loamy soil. Heavy soil will have to be lightened with the addition of sand. Before planting, the substrate is dug up by adding fertilizer to it:
- Humus - 1/2 buckets,
- Ammonium Nitrosphate - 50 g,
- Wood ash - 1 cup.
How to plant seedlings of vervain in the ground:
- For each bush dig a hole small. The distance between the holes for compact varieties makes about 20 cm, for creeping species - 35–40 cm.
- In the grooves add drainage layer of rubble or broken brick.
- Dry soil should be moistened, pouring 2–3 glasses of water into each hole. In rainy weather this is not necessary.
- Container soil pre-moistened with seedlings so that the plants can be easily pulled along with the ground without damaging the roots.
- Verbena planted in prepared ground. Plants are covered with earth, gently tamping it around the stems.
To facilitate future plant care, the soil around each seedling is mulched.
Vervain make minimal care. With vigorous growth and flowering, watering is moderate and regular. If there is a strong heat, the flower is poured abundantly, and after wetting the soil must be loosened. You should also remove weeds and excess grass that appears next to the bushes. When young plants grow, there will be no more weeds between them and you will no longer have to do this procedure. Mulching will help to avoid frequent loosening of the soil and removal of weeds.
Verbena needs a certain amount of fertilizer. Organic supplements are made only once per season. An excess of organic matter that contains nitrogen can lead to a lack of flowering in the plant. Mineral fertilizers are added 3-4 times per season.
With the right care, which even a beginning florist can do, verbena will grow healthy and please with the timely appearance of beautiful inflorescences, which thin the pleasant aroma. To bloom lasted until the first cold weather, you should cut faded flowers in time.
In regions with severe winters, only straight vervain is grown, which will need to organize winter dormancy. Before the cold season, the stalks of the bush are cut to the surface of the soil, and the rest of the plant is covered with spruce branches.
Some gardeners love to make a carpet of this plant. Shoots bend to the ground and fixed in several places with wire or other fasteners. The root system develops in the place where the branches come into contact with the soil. After the rooting of the plant, a dramatic rug grows.
Collecting seeds after flowering
The collection of seeds from cultivated vervains is made after the fruit-bolls dry out and become brown in color. Inflorescences with boxes cut, laid out on paper and periodically turned over by different sides so that they are not moldy. Then the fruits are opened, removing seed from them. Seeds are stored in a paper bag or box. We must remember that the collected material will give life to plants that do not inherit maternal characteristics: future flowers may have a different shape and color.
Diseases and pests
Subject to the rules of care, verbena rarely gets sick. Emerging diseases are usually associated with excessive watering. Congestion in the soil can lead to infection of the flower:
- Powdery mildew,
- Black leg,
Fundazol and Saprol help to get rid of fungi. Before using the fungicides, remove the affected parts from the plant. So that the root system of vervain does not suffer from different types of rot, it is necessary to monitor the degree of watering and the condition of the flower at low temperatures.
Verbena can inhabit insect parasites. Aphids and spider mites appear due to excessive soil moisture. They can be fought with the help of special chemicals. Thrips tolerate Tospoviruses, which deform the leaves and slow the growth of flowers. In this case, the plant can not be cured, so you have to get rid of it.
Verbena - growing from seed
Having decided on the terms when to plant the material in containers, we start growing verbena from seeds at home from the most important stage - the preparation of the nutrient substrate. Do not forget to disinfect it on the eve of sowing with the help of fungicides (“Maxim”), biofungicides (“Fitosporin”), or by roasting in the oven. Store formulations do not always have a suitable density and acidity, quality soil can be made independently by mixing the available ingredients in the following proportions:
- 2 parts lowland peat,
- 1 piece of sifted leaf land,
- 0.5 parts of washed sand,
- 0.5 cups of wood ash per 2 liters of substrate.
Sowing verbena seedlings - time
When growing verbena, it takes an average of 2 months from germination to flowering. This plant is able to withstand cold temperatures down to -3 ° C frost, but it is undesirable to risk quality seedlings. In an open flower bed, it is recommended to plant the seeds at the end of spring, when steady heat is established outside. Beginning gardeners are always interested in the question: “When is it best to plant verbena on seedlings in order to get abundant blooms in June?” For this purpose, it is more convenient to plant seeds in boxes from mid-March. When sowing verbena in February, one cannot do without the illumination of seedlings with lamps.
How to sow verbena on seedlings?
There is a long list of questions that newcomers need to consider when they want to breed vervain: growing from seed, when to plant, to what depth to dredge material into the ground, to water and dive plants. The first and most important step in this business is the sowing of seeds. It is strictly forbidden to break the technology here, in order to achieve good results it is important to strictly follow the instructions.
Planting vervain seeds on seedlings:
- We start growing from seeds by filling the container with the prepared substrate.
- Level the ground.
- Toothpick, fingers or with a piece of paper evenly distribute the seeds on the surface.
- It is impossible to bury or sprinkle the material with soil.
- It is undesirable to water the land with a watering can with large holes, it is better to use a spray gun.
- Moisten the seeds with water from the sprayer.
- Create a greenhouse, covering the box with a plastic lid or a piece of polyethylene.
- With the appearance of condensate on the lid produce airing.
- Growing from seed gives the best results if the container is kept warm at a temperature not lower than 25 ° C until the sprouts appear.
Verbena: description and variations
Verbena is considered a herbaceous plant, but can also grow a bush. Depending on the variety, it is can grow from 8 to 50 cm. Green thin leaves of the plant have a lanceolate form. They are located on both sides of the stems. Verbena flowers are small. They consist of five petals and can be purple, apricot, red, mauve, pink or white.
Verbena is popular as an annual garden plant, which is used in rock gardens, on curbs and rabatkah. The bushes planted in hanging baskets are ideal for vertical gardening.
Verbena growing in the wild is used in folk medicine to treat nervous disorders and fever, it is used to make perfumes and relaxing tea.
Of the approximately 250 varieties of vervaina, not so many species are used for decorative purposes.
Types of Vervain
Verbena tough differs creeping or ascending branched stems. On its wedge-shaped hard leaves convex veins are located. Complicated inflorescences are collected from lilac and lilac flowers and have a diameter of 3.5 cm. The collected seeds of the plant do not lose their germination for five years.
Canadian Verbena is a heat-loving perennial, growing to 15-20 cm. On its thin stems there are oval deeply divided leaves with sharp tips. Umbrella inflorescence consists of a variety of flowers of pink, white, purple or lilac color. The plant reproduces by itself. The collected seeds remain viable for three years.
Verbena Buenos Aireskaya - this heat-loving bush plantgrows up to 120 cm. It has a pronounced main stem, from which lateral shoots grow. Elongated lanceolate leaves have jagged edges. Small amethyst flowers collected in spikelets form umbrella-like inflorescences. The vervain of Buenos Airesskaya blooms for a long time and abundantly.
Verbena straight is the only perennial of all types of vervain, which is grown in the middle lane. It grows up to one and a half meters and is distinguished by grayish-green sessile leaves 9 cm long. Purple-blue flowers are gathered on the inflorescence 40 cm long. This type of vervain blooms for a long time.
Verbena hybrid is the most popular type of vervain among gardeners. The plant grows up to 20-50 cm, and has upright or creeping heavily branched stems. Oblong or elongated triangular leaves pubescent bristles. The fragrant flowers collected in umbrella-shaped inflorescences can be purple, dark-violet, white, pink and other color. Verbena hybrid can be large-flowered or low compact. The most popular varieties of plants:
- Мун Ривер – ампельное растение с побегами до 45 см. Соцветия густо усыпаны лавандового оттенка цветками.
- Имэджинейшн отличается ветвящимися побегами, вырастающими до 150 см. Фиолетово-лиловые цветки образуют соцветия в виде шара. Используется как почвопокровное и ампельное растение.
- Спектрум Рот относится к низким, компактным видам вербены. It grows up to 25-30 cm, and has dark scarlet velvet flowers. Dense inflorescences in diameter can be up to 6 cm.
- Ruby - a plant that is a hemispherical shrubs, growing to 20-25 cm. Dense inflorescences are collected from purple-red flowers up to two centimeters in diameter.
- Etna refers to the grandiflora or mammoth species of vervain. It grows up to 40-45 cm, and blooms with scarlet-red flowers with cream-colored eyes. One inflorescence may consist of about 50 flowers.
- Cyclops differs in dark blue flowers with a white eye. The height of the inflorescence is about 7 cm, and the bush itself grows to 30-40 cm.
Some gardeners are advised to grow seedlings from seed as early as January. For landing in the ground, it will be ready in March, that is, when there is still snow in the yard. Therefore, in most regions of our country it is recommended to plant verbena seeds in March or April.
For sowing seeds need to prepare a shallow container and light humus soil. Some seeds of vervaina are covered with a very dense shell, so before sowing they are recommended to be treated with cold, that is, they should be stratified. For this, the seeds wrapped in a damp cloth and a plastic bag are placed for four days in the vegetable section of the refrigerator.
Ready for planting seeds are sown in a moist soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of earth. Boxes on top are covered with glass or polyethylene. As a result, greenhouse conditions are obtained for seed germination, in which they will grow together. Razadnye boxes are placed in a shaded place with air temperature in the range of 18-25 degrees.
When the first seedlings sprout, the containers will need to be moved to a cooler, but well-lit place without direct sunlight.
Growing and caring for seedlings
Seedlings care is in timely watering and top dressing. The first time you need to fertilize the seedlings two weeks after emergence. For this purpose, special complex fertilizers are used.
When the first pair of true leaves appears on the seedlings, they will need to be planted in separate pots and sprayed with Epin solution for best adaptation. A few days after transplantation, the seedlings are fed with mineral fertilizers.
In order to plant well bush, their tops pinch over the fifth leaf. It is not necessary to pinch undersized varieties.
With the onset of warm days, grown seedlings need to begin to harden, bringing to this the pots with flowers in the open air. From direct sunlight they need pritenyat.
Planting seedlings in open ground
After the warm weather is established, the seedlings can be planted in open ground. The plant loves well lit areas. Fortified bushes withstand even direct sunlight.
In preparing the site for growing vervain, the soil needs to be dug up and fertilizer added to it. On 1 square. The meter of land is added:
- ½ bucket of humus,
- 50 g of ammonium nitrosphate,
- 1 cup of ash.
The distance between the holes depends on the plant variety planted. It should be at least 25 cm. You need to plant bushes with a clod of earth. The planted plant is watered, and the earth around it is covered with mulch.
Growing Verbena from cuttings
Since the plant is a perennial, it may bloom next year. However, the cold winters verbena transfers poorly so to save the plant, the bushes are dug out.
The plant dug out together with a lump of earth is kept in the room with air temperature up to +10 degrees until the spring itself. In the spring of the bushes cuttings are cut. To do this, cut the tops of the shoots, which must be at least four pairs of leaves. The lower leaves break off, and the cuts powdered with crushed coal.
Prepared cuttings are planted in containers filled with a mixture of peat and sand. Rows drawers are wrapped in foil and placed in a warm room in a well-lit place. After the seedlings take root, they need to be transplanted into separate pots. Overgrown bushes in late May, planted in open ground.
Flowers dug out in autumn can be kept at room temperature, while not forgetting to water and feed them. In this case, grafting can be done at any time of the year.
Cultivation of vervain in open ground
Care for verbena is easy, but its cultivation involves compliance Some simple rules:
- During flowering and active growth, the plant is watered regularly.
- After abundant watering during strong heat, the soil under the bushes should be loosened, while removing weeds.
- Between the plants grown by a group of weeds are removed only the first time. After the bushes grow, there will be practically no weeds between them.
- Once a season you need to make organic fertilizer. More often it is impossible to feed with organic matter, since an excess of nitrogen leads to the growth of leaves, and the cessation of flowering.
- With complex mineral fertilizers, the bushes are fed three or four times per season.
- Faded and wilted flowers should be regularly removed. This will help to prolong the flowering of the plant, which will last until frost.
To get in my garden a carpet of vervain, shoots plants need to bend down, and using wire or pins to fix in several places. Where the escape will come into contact with the ground, the root system will begin to develop. Over time, the plant will take root and grow into a spectacular mat.
Pests and diseases
Verbena practically does not suffer from pests and viral diseases. but with improper care, problems can still arise:
- Aphids or spider mites infect the plant due to improper watering or fertilizer. When they appear, the bushes need to be sprayed with special chemicals.
- Powdery mildew in the form of white spots on the leaves appears with excessive watering. Shrubs are best removed completely so that they do not infect other plants.
- Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips. The leaves are deformed, the flowers slow down growth. In this case, the plant is also better to remove, because this disease is practically useless to treat.
Following the proposed guidelines for growing and care for vervain, it is not difficult to grow a plant. And the presence of heat, sunlight and the lack of excess moisture in the soil will help get a beautiful bush covered with flowers, which will decorate the garden for a long time.
Verbena in peat tablets
When growing vervain, sowing seeds for seedlings, modern gardeners use a variety of tricks. Many people prefer to use cheap and practical peat cups. They are convenient in working with a small amount of material and have significant advantages - the plant gets good natural drainage, useful trace elements, sprouts are minimally injured during the picking process.
How many days does the verbena grow from the seeds?
In good conditions, the shoots of vervain can be observed already for 5-7 days, but with poor quality or old seeds it takes up to 20 days. Accelerates the process of spitting material processing stimulants ("Appin", "Bud" or their analogs). It is noticed that when planted in February, the seeds sleep longer, and in March sprouts appear faster. Increases the germination of seed stratification (cold treatment). The material for this purpose is placed on a damp cloth and kept in a bag for up to 5 days in a refrigerator at a temperature of 1-5 ° C on a shelf for vegetables.
Gallery: Verbena (25 photos)
Variety of species and varieties
As a result of many years of breeding, a large number of verbena species were obtained. The most popular are:
- Hybrid These plants are decorative, with branching forms, lush flowers of various white, purple, cream, orange, rich pink shades. Grow from 25 to 50 cm in height.
- Straight. It is considered the only multi-year view. Plant height reaches one and a half meters, inflorescences are purple-blue. Feature - sessile grayish-green leaves of 9 cm in length.
- Verbena tough - plants that have creeping stems and inflorescences with shades from pale blue to bright purple.
- Buenos Airesca. This meter plants with abundant purple-pink bloom. Shrubs are thermophilic, with pronounced main stems and lateral processes from them.
- Canadian. Miniature variety with pink, white, purple bloom.
Of all the species, hybrid plants are considered the most popular. Among them, the large-flowered vervain is common. A vivid example of such a variety is the ethna variety. In addition to the large-flowered, it is also referred to as mammoth species. In one such inflorescence can be up to 50 red flowers with cream eyes. The height of the variety is approximately 45 cm.
Another type of hybrids is short stubble. Low-growing Verbena Lady's dream is best suited for decorating decorative garden flower beds. The height of the bush - 30 cm. Bright pink bloom with a pleasant smell. Compactness, good branching distinguish this plant from others. Lady's dream blooms until frost.
Variety Spectrum mouth is compact, grows to a height of 25 - 30 cm, and dense inflorescences, with a dark velvet shade. Moon River also belongs to low-growing varieties - ampelous plants with dense inflorescences. Verbena Rubin - hemispherical shrubs, compact, with purple-red flowers.
Seed growing technology
To successfully grow high-quality and beautiful vervain in the garden or at home, you must select the seeds. Excellent suppliers of planting material have proven themselves in the market, such as:
In the open field, verbena plants can multiply by self-sowing, but to collect their own planting crop, they remove boxes of brown seeds from dried-out shoots, dry them, and carefully remove the oblong seeds. Germination of harvested material lasts up to 5 years.
Terms of sowing and soil selection
To germinate seeds of vervain, choose the second decade of March. Earlier crops will require additional intense illumination. Late planting of seeds will lead to good shoots only in July.
For optimal cultivation of vervain, you need shallow pots with drainage, which you can gently cover with glass lids or polyethylene in the future. The soil is chosen with a loose structure, but not too fertile and with good water permeability, as an excess of moisture in the soil and stagnation in the cultivation of verbena is contraindicated.
Often use is already ready universal soil mixture for plants, which is composed of the addition of sand. Independently, the optimum soil is kneaded from equal parts of peat, sand, garden soil, adding a little wood ash. This soil is necessarily steamed before its direct application, treated with a fungicide, thus preventing the spread of future seedlings with a black leg.
Preparation of planting material
Before proceeding to the germination of vervain seedlings, it is necessary to engage in the preparation of planting material. It is worth considering that the seeds of plants germinate unevenly, so it is necessary to carry out their treatment with a growth stimulator. Another quenching option is to stratify, that is, to act on the seeds with cold. To do this, the entire planting material is laid out on a damp cloth, packed tightly in polyethylene, placed for 4 or 5 days in the lower section of the refrigerator.
Well-hardened seeds spread without buried in a moist soil. Carefully seeded container tightly closed with polyethylene, and then placed in heat (should be +25 degrees). Illumination should not be intense. So create a greenhouse effect for plants.
Features care for seedlings
A few days later, oblong sunflower seeds germinate in warm conditions. When this happens, the containers are immediately transported to places with good lighting where it is cooler (should be about +17 degrees). In this case, the film should be regularly lifted, carrying out maintenance in the form of aeration, and carefully remove the excess moisture from the polyethylene surface.
Spray the soil from the spray very carefully. The earliest sprouts begin to form after a week or 10 days, and some shoots will appear only after three weeks. When paired leaflets of seedlings appear, the covering can already be removed.
Dive and rearing
One of the stages of care is planting the plants in separate pots, when the seedlings appear 2 or 3 leaves. In the tanks, there must be a drainage hole in the bottom, a layer of pebbles or expanded clay is laid, the soil is optimal for the seedlings. They deepen sprouts to cotyledon leaves, gently compact the soil layer, make moderate watering.
The first feeding after diving is carried out after 14 days. Make complex mineral fertilizers. Further care of the plants provides for approximately two feedings for 30 days.
Landing on a permanent place
Due to fairly compact rhizomes, verbena can be grown both in open ground and in containers or pots at home. For plants during container planting, spacious containers with a drainage hole are selected. At the bottom is laid a layer of small pebbles or expanded clay, then the main layer of soil. The seedling is carefully transferred to such a pot, keeping a clod of earth on the plants, then the necessary amount of soil is poured, tamped, watered in moderation.
Vervaina maintains its decorative effect in rooms up to 10 years old, while regular transplantation of crops is required (every year). You can propagate the plant by dividing the rhizome. Only grown and well-developed seedlings grown from verbena seeds should be planted in open ground. Provided that the frosts have passed, start planting the beds. This is done only at the end of May.
Place for landing choose a well-lit, windless. The soil for cultivation is suitable with a neutral environment. You should not choose soil with an excess of peat, humus. The acidic soil environment is neutralized using dolomite flour or wood ash. Planting pits are placed every 25 cm. A drainage of brick chips, a layer of pebbles, must be laid on the bottom. Water is poured into each hole to make a gruel, and only then plants are planted. Cultures moderately watered, and then mulch foliage or decorative materials.
Vervain Breeding Rules
With any method of cultivation of vervaina - at home or in the garden, you must carefully monitor the degree of watering. It is important not to overdo it and avoid stagnating water. When a crust is formed on the ground, the care of plants consists in loosening the soil. Single crops need weeding.
Frequent feeding is not recommended. It is enough to make one or two times in 30 days mineral fertilizers. The main thing is that the complex of nutrients does not have a large amount of nitrogen, otherwise the foliage will grow to the detriment of beautiful flowering.
To stimulate the formation of new buds, it is necessary to remove dried inflorescences. With the onset of frosts, plants are removed, carefully digging up bushes with a lump of soil, transfer cultures to a room where the temperature is no more than +10 degrees.
In early spring, verbena can be propagated by cuttings. At the plant the apical processes are cut, so that they have 4 or 5 pairs of young leaves. The cuts are processed from the charcoal crumbs, removing the lower leaves. Planting cuttings do in a wet peat-sand mixture (in equal proportions), deepening to the first node. Care of such plantings is in the following procedures:
- film cover
- content at a temperature of +20 degrees.
During the month, the plants develop strong roots. Varietal characteristics of the daughter plants are preserved from the original culture.
In order to grow beautiful vervain from seeds, it is necessary to provide the plants with good lighting, not to allow stagnation of moisture during irrigation. Verbena, obtained from oblong seeds, provides planting material for new crops. Plants can be grown in open ground or at home. With high-quality care, verbena will become a bright decorative ornament of garden plots or room verandahs.
Why does not verbena rise?
Care should be taken to study how the beauty of verbena grows, growing out of seeds, when planting, diving, watering and fertilizing a plant. Neglect of small nuances leads to the death of sprouts even at the stage of spitting. You can give a list of reasons that lead to poor germination of seeds of this plant:
- The use of stitched material - for verbena it is 1-2 years.
- It must be borne in mind that many hybrids initially have poor germination of no more than 30%.
- Paper bags of seeds were stored in poor conditions.
- Verbena often does not sprout due to the strong penetration of seeds into the soil.
- Drying the soil in the container.
- Comfortable temperature for germination of vervain is from 20 ° C to 25 ° C, in a cold place they will peck up to 20 days.
Verbena - care for seedlings
After sowing, the ground in the boxes should be watered and kept covered with polyethylene or plastic lids in order to artificially maintain the greenhouse effect. Care for seedlings of vervain after germination has its own characteristics. Например, при массовом появлении ростков нужно немедленно перенести контейнеры на свет и снизить температуру среды до 15-17°C. Новички часто губят слабые посевы, неосторожно заливая почву со всходами. Опрыскивание рассады водой осуществляем после пересыхания субстрата.
Вербена - пикировка рассады
If you have learned correctly, when and how best to plant these ornamental flowers, then the seedlings will soon grow up and the next important stage will come - picking the vervain. It is made after the formation of 2 pairs of these sheets, it under normal conditions of cultivation takes up to 1 month. For work, you should purchase plastic cups or cassettes, in the tank we will surely drill a drain hole.
How to perform a verbena pickup:
- At the bottom of the glass put pieces of crushed foam.
- Fill the capacity of the substrate.
- Before planting sprouts, spill the ground in glasses with a solution of potassium permanganate.
- We take a glass with the ground in our hands and perform a hole in the soil to the depth of the seedling with the root.
- Go to the container with seedlings.
- Poddevay ground with a shovel.
- Separate the plant from the total mass.
- We try to capture a seedling with a lump of soil.
- We transfer a sapling to a glass.
- We deepen the vervain when picking up to the first leaves.
- Carefully water the seedlings.
- We transfer cups to the window or put them under the lamp.
- The first fertilizing with universal fertilizers for flowering plants is produced after 14 days, the next - with an interval of two weeks.
After picking when growing ampel varieties of verbena, nipping of the bushes over a 5-6 leaf is used. Low-growing hybrids and verbena varieties do not need this operation, they branch on their own without additional stimulation. It is recommended to plant seedlings of compact species in the open ground after 20 cm, medium-strength and vigorous varieties - after 25-30 cm.
Verbena: description of varieties (photo of flowers)
Verbena is a perennial or perennial plant, herbaceous or semi-shrub, rhizomatous. Stems creeping or erect (from 15 to 60 cm), often with a rough surface. The leaves are staggered, have a variety of shapes: dentate, dissected or incised. Flowers of small diameter, similar to the clove, color varies from white to deep purple, blue or burgundy. Collected in inflorescences of 35-60 pieces. The fruit in the form of a nut, will break up into 4 chambers. Verbena seeds are small (350 grams per 1 g), germination persists for 2 years. Breeders brought about 250 varieties of vervain, all of them can be divided into three groups: short, medium tall.
Verbena schematic view
Verbena Canadian. Perennial plant, thermophilic. Height up to 25 cm, oval leaves with a pointed tip. Blooms profusely, color from pale pink to deep lilac.
Verbena Etna. Height is up to 45 cm, flowers large 6-7 cm, form dense inflorescences. Color varies in shades of red with a light beige or snow-white heart.
Verbena Hybrid. Erect or creeping, reaches a height of 55-60 cm. The flowers are collected in large inflorescences, the color is varied (purple, lilac, rich scarlet). Includes compact vervain low and mammoth.
Verbena Rubin. Low-growing plant (up to 30 cm), massive inflorescences of red or purple color.
Verbena Spectrum Roth. A small plant (up to 30 cm), forms small inflorescences with velvety flowers (up to 3 cm).
Verbena Spectrum Mouth
Verbena Cyclops. It reaches a height of 40 cm, color in shades of blue, the heart of the flowers is often white or cream.
Verbena Direct. It grows up to one and a half meters, the leaves are gray-green, toothed. The flowers are blue-violet color.
When to plant vervain on seedlings and in open ground
Significantly for the term of landing verbena affect weather conditions. Based on the fact that verbena begins to actively bloom 60 days after the appearance of the first shoots, it is necessary to adjust the schedule of planting in open ground and growing through seedlings.
Let us turn to the lunar calendar for 2018, which shows the favorable and unfavorable days of planting flowers.
When to plant a verbena in 2018: favorable and forbidden days according to the lunar calendar:
What are the methods of breeding verbena
Verbena, like most plants, has three breeding methods:
- Cutting - seedless varieties of verbena propagate in this way. To do this, branches with 4-6 paired leaves are cut from the bush, remove all leaves, except the crown, and place the cuttings in the prepared soil. Suitable primer for flower plants or wet sand. On top of the cuttings covered with a package or cut a plastic bottle. Verbena propagated in this way will bloom earlier and will bloom longer than the seedlings grown.
- The division of the bush - thus multiplying the verbena officinalis. The bush is divided into 2-3 parts with a sharp knife, the slices are disinfected with crushed coal, placed in separate pots filled with light nutrient soil or directly on the garden bed. Moderately watered to thicken the soil. A few days the plants pritenyayut from hitting the bright sunlight.
- Sowing seeds is the most common method, practicing early planting on seedlings, later sowing seeds of vervain directly into the ground.
The stage of seed preparation for planting seedlings begins with the purchase of seeds. Before you buy seeds, be sure to pay attention to the shelf life. The best germination will provide only those who are not more than two years old. Verbena hybrid needs it especially, the germination of which is already reduced by 30% in the second year. From the acquisition of stale planting material is better to refuse.
Now you need to calculate the time when sowing verbena seedlings. Flowering begins two months after germination.
- wanting to admire the flowering bushes at the end of spring, the seeds plan to sow from the 20th of February,
- in order to plant vervain instead of early-flowering plant species, it is sown in mid-March.
Although the seedling method is considered more practical, providing better germination, verbena tolerates sowing in open ground. For safety net worth using a larger number of seeds.
For the seeds to grow comfortably, it is more important for verbena not the fertility of the substrate, but its structure:
- water permeability
- pH neutrality.
To prepare the soil yourself, you need to take 2 parts of peat, 1 part of garden soil, 1 part of turfy land, 0.5 parts of sand, add wood ash, mix everything and moisten. Perlite added to it at the rate of 0.5 glass per 1 liter of soil mixture will help to keep the substrate moisture.
When the seedlings of vervaina reach the age of 3-4 true leaves, proceed to its placement in separate cups. Before diving a vervain, the soil in the box is moistened, then the roots will be less injured when sampling.
They try to choose the tallest plants and plant them in cups with a hole filled with drainage and nutritious soil. Planting vervain made with the depth of the cotyledon leaves. The remaining seedlings are watered and left to grow for another week or two.
The transplanted vervains are watered moderately along the edge of the cups, placed in the lightest place with a temperature of 18-20 degrees.
Care of young plants before planting in the ground
The first dressing is done a couple of weeks after the picking, so that the seedlings have time to get stronger and take root:
- Prepare according to the instructions a solution of mineral fertilizers for seedlings.
- Water the plants with clean warm water, then fertilize.
- The following feeding is carried out in a couple of weeks.
Around this time, you should pinch the tops between 5 and 6 sheets of ampel varieties of verbena. This procedure will stimulate the growth of additional shoots, as a result you will get lush, actively flowering plants.
To grow strong, cold-resistant vervains, they begin to harden when the daily positive temperature is established. Seedlings are taken out on the street at first for a short time, gradually increasing its exposure to the air.
2-3 days before the time when you need to plant flowers at a permanent place, seedlings are left on the street around the clock. To improve the stress resistance of plants, they are shedded with potassium sulfate before planting.
It will be useful to read:
Choosing a place to land verbena
The plant comes from tropical and subtropical regions of South America, on open ground in our area prefers sunny, protected from the cold wind areas. Vervains do not need too fertilized soil, otherwise the green leaf mass will grow wildly to the detriment of flowering.
Good loam with the addition of a small amount of organic fertilizer. Planting flowers in clay soil, in addition to organics, add sand and lime.
Planting seedlings on the garden
How to plant verbena seedlings on the garden bed? Verbena, when grown from seeds at home with subsequent picking, easily withstands transplanting.
Having distributed exactly where the flowers will grow, they try to create favorable conditions for their growth:
- Dig pits at the rate of 20-25 cm between them.
- A layer of expanded clay or broken bricks is poured on the bottom of the landing holes (a drainage layer is created).
- Pour a thin layer of nutrient soil.
- The wells are spilled with water and allowed to soak completely.
Now the flowers, together with a lump of earth, are taken out of the pots and placed on the pits, the voids are filled with earth. It is watered only on the condition that the weather is dry. When planting after a rainy day, water landing is not required.
Creeping varieties require large areas for their growth, they must be planted at a distance of 30 cm between the bushes.
The photograph, of course, cannot convey all the beauty and beauty of the plant, but it will help to get an idea of how the flowerbeds, rockeries, corners for rest, planted with vervain will look like.
Further care: dressing, watering, loosening
Unpretentious plants will not take away a lot of precious time gardener. Before planting a verbena, optimal conditions were created for it, it remains only to water and fertilize the flowers in time.
Verbena tolerates easy drying of the soil, and abundant watering has a negative effect on its development. The increased need of the plant for water appears only during the flowering period, but since the middle of July the watering is reduced again.
When the plants begin the phase of active flowering, they require additional feeding. Water-soluble mineral fertilizers are used, which contain a reduced nitrogen content, as its high doses will lead to active leaf growth.
In hot, dry summer, from time to time they loosen the soil around the bushes, pursuing these two goals:
- allow air access to the root system
- thus preserve the soil moisture, producing "dry watering".
To free themselves from this work, some gardeners planted plants mulch decorative garden materials, then there is no need to weed the land often between the bushes.
Seed collection for planting next year
If verbena is grown from seeds collected at home, its germination will certainly be high. The best time to collect is when the boxes on the inflorescences dry out and turn brown.
The inflorescence is cut, laid out on the fabric under a canopy, allow it to dry well, and ripen the seeds. From time to time the seeds ted, so they are not moldy.
Dried boxes grind, the extracted seeds are poured into paper bags, signed, stored until spring. It should be noted that the planting material collected in this way does not retain the characteristics of the mother plant. It is completely unknown what the grown specimen will be. It is quite possible that a new variety will appear that will decorate the garden plot.
You can learn more about this culture here.