Admit it honestly, do you treat people who think that pineapple grows on palm trees? If yes, then this article will completely change the concept of fruit! You will not only discover an exotic fruit from the new side, but also learn how to plant a pineapple and grow it at home.
Pineapple is an annual plant of the bromeliad family. Contrary to the prevailing stereotype, the fruits do not grow on trees, but on grassy shrubs, no more than 90 cm high. In the center of the spiral of thick and long leaves there is an inflorescence, from which one new fruit appears. Immediately after ripening, lateral shoots are formed, and the parent outlet dies off. Thanks to a similar life cycle, pineapple can be grown from the top of the purchased fruit at home.
Also, you can grow pineapple seeds. We will have to try hard and find a wild-growing, “not domesticated” plant - all cultivated varieties of pineapple are fruitless.
Is it possible to grow pineapple at home
After learning how to grow pineapple at home, you can easily cope with this long, but not difficult process, especially if you have experience in floriculture. To taste the sweet homemade fruit, you need to correctly take the following steps:
- Choose planting material
- Set the stage
- Sprout a green tip,
- Root pineapple tuft into the container,
- Provide appropriate care
If you step by step follow the instructions for growing pineapple, after 2.5-3 years it is likely to eat fruit. Of course, the grown pineapple will be less than purchased in size, but it will fully preserve the unique taste and magical aroma.
Pineapple selection for planting
It is impossible to grow a fruiting pineapple, if it is careless to approach the choice of planting material. When selecting carefully inspect the selected fruit. It should be mature, an attractive yellow-brown skin color will tell about it. Hard skin means immaturity, and softness with pressure, on the contrary, indicates over-singing of the fruit.
Do not trust the information that the green pineapple matures at home, if you hold the fruit top down for a couple of days or put it in an apple sack. Without a doubt, the pulp itself, due to the processes occurring in it, will become sweeter. Starch goes into sugar and is evenly distributed throughout the fruit. However, the outlet needed to grow a pineapple will die off.
Choose a pineapple with juicy, green, whole leaves with slightly dried edges. Gray spots indicate damage by worms, such a fetus is better not to acquire. A small sprout can be found in the socket - a guarantee of future flowering that allows you to grow a home-grown fruit.
Smell is one of the main landmarks. To grow a delicious pineapple, smell at its base. Suitable specimens attract sweet aroma. Sour smell means overripe.
Buy pineapple in spring or summer, it increases the chances of growing fruit. To be safe, purchase and root two fruits, but in different stores. It is very likely that at least one of them will take root.
Before you grow a pineapple at home, you need to prepare it for germination. For further reproduction will require only the tip of the leaves, resembling a green crown. It can be separated from two ways:
- Grab the leaves with your hand and gently twist them out as if unscrewing the bottle cap. You will have a deciduous tip with a small dense stem.
- Cut the green outlet along with 1-2 cm of the fruit and remove the remnants of the pulp with a knife to prevent rotting of the planting material.
In both cases, there is a "tail", ready for landing. If white dots are seen at the base, do not damage them - these are the beginnings of future roots. Clean the bottom of the rosette from the leaves by 1-2 cm. Tear off the leaves perpendicular to the stem, so as not to injure the small roots. Treat all sections with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate, epine, or milled charcoal, which will reduce the risk of decay and accelerate root germination.
Leave the tip for a couple of days to dry and prevent pineapple rotting. It is advisable to hang the planting material so that it does not touch anything. This is believed to increase the likelihood of growing pineapple.
Next, the tuft is placed in a transparent glass container with water so that the liquid covers the bare stem. Secure the outlet at the desired level with a toothpick or cardboard circle.
It is unlikely to grow a pineapple without the formation of roots. Have patience, put the dishes with a seedling in a bright place and change the water every 2-3 days. After 2-4 weeks, the roots will sprout and the pineapple can be transplanted into the pot, after drying the outlet for 2-3 hours on a paper towel.
Capacity and soil
Selection of soil mixture and capacity - an important condition for growing pineapple. Choose a pot that exceeds the diameter of the cut-off of the landing tip by 2 cm. The flowerpots of 15 cm in diameter and 3-4 liters in volume will go. The plant has a weak, superficial root system, so choose a capacity that is not too deep. To drain water to the bottom, a drainage layer of expanded clay or pebbles, 3-4 cm wide, is laid. This will protect the root system from rotting.
A universal mixture that does not require additional fertilizer, or a special soil for palm trees or tropical (bromeliad) plants can be used as a soil for pineapple. To grow pineapple, you can prepare a substrate for planting yourself by mixing peat and river sand in a 1: 1 ratio. The main thing is that the soil is permeable, both for moisture and for oxygen.
To grow and protect a healthy pineapple, you need to disinfect or prepare the ground. Spill it with boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate. After a day, dried green rosette can be planted in a pot. For pineapple, slightly moist soil is considered optimal.
Gradually we got to the main stage, where we learn how to properly plant and grow pineapple. After the seedlings and the future “place of residence” are ready, make a hole 5–6 cm deep, considering the dimensions of the cutting. It is not advisable to sit in the ground the bottom layer of leaves. The soil around the young plants gently crush, trying not to damage the poorly developed root system. A pit for planting can be sprinkled with a small amount of ash or crushed coal.
After planting, water the pineapple with separated water at room temperature and provide it with a suitable microclimate. To grow a tropical seedling, a temperature in the range of 20-25 ° C is required. To do this, build a mini-greenhouse made of polyethylene, glass jars or plastic bottles and place the pot in a well-lit place, avoiding direct sunlight.
Homemade pineapple is rooted and takes root for about 2-3 months. At temperatures above 25 degrees, the process will be reduced to 1.5-2 months. The appearance of new leaves is a sure signal of development and growth. The leaves of the outlet will dry out and be replaced by new ones. Try to carefully cut and clean the dead parts of the plant.
In order to grow fruit, during the rooting period it is important:
- Protect the crest from condensation, provoking decay and mold,
- Water the soil once a week,
- To air the greenhouse,
- Protect the plant from temperature drops and cooling,
- In the daytime, move the pot from direct sunlight so that the pineapple does not suffocate
Often experienced growers argue about the nature and capriciousness of home pineapple. One side believes that the plant is capricious and requires a lot of attention. On the other side there is a completely opposite opinion. It will work out as soon as you decide to grow a pineapple yourself. And we will tell you how to care for him.
The main rules of care include watering, compliance with temperature and light conditions, timely feeding and transplanting. In addition to meeting these conditions, it is necessary to ensure the right place in the apartment, depending on the season. For example, in the summer the pot can be taken out on the balcony. When it rains, it is better to bring the pineapple into the apartment, protecting it from excess moisture.
In autumn and winter, the pineapple will be perfectly placed on the window sill by the window. Make sure that the fruit does not fall under the draft and is located at a sufficient distance from the hot battery. If the leaves began to dry and curl, it means that the pineapple is in a draft, and it needs to be moved to another place.
As you already understood, temperature is one of the decisive factors in pineapple care at home. The plant is very afraid of cold (at 18 degrees it hibernates), at the same time, it tolerates heat. The optimum temperature conditions are as follows:
- In spring and summer from 22 to 30 ° C,
- In autumn and winter from 18 to 21 ° C. The maximum mark in winter is 27 ° C
Fruit lives in the tropics, so it feels good in arid soil. On the contrary, excessive moisture can cause weakness, and possibly death. It is necessary to water a plant when the soil in the tank becomes dry. The earth should not dry out completely, but it is better to avoid fluid stagnation. Moisten the substrate 1 time per week with distilled or filtered water at room temperature.
In summer, a tropical guest needs more moisture (up to 3 times a week). In winter, watering can be reduced to once every two weeks. Unfortunately, growing a healthy pineapple will not work if you don’t “feel” the plant. For example, drying leaves will indicate a lack of water, and an unpleasant odor in the tank, or, even worse, the appearance of mold, is a sure sign of excessive watering. If mold is found, it is better to move the pineapple to another pot, otherwise it may die. If the trunk is rotting, stop watering until it stabilizes.
If a new household resides in an open and ventilated area, you can lightly spray greens. The leaves will absorb moisture, and the excess will just evaporate. In other cases, it is good to irrigate the soil with a spray bottle, and wipe the leaves with a damp cloth. So you protect the outlet from the accumulation of moisture and decay.
6-8 hours - the minimum necessary for proper development. In the summer, put the pot on the window or carry it out on the balcony or in the garden, a little shading. It is optimal to place the plant on the warm, sunny, south side, however, the eastern and western windowsill will also work. In winter, you need to remember about a short daylight, it can be extended with fluorescent lamps.
Pale leaves speak of insufficient light - the pineapple needs to be moved to another place and highlighted with a lamp.
Of course, to grow pineapple fruit in a pot, you need to apply fertilizer to the soil. The plant itself can not be called excessively demanding to feed, but during the growing season (from April to October), nutritional support is needed. Enrich the soil with organic fertilizer 2 times a month. As a make-up, special flower mixtures, a 0.01% solution of ferrous sulfate or humus from cow manure are suitable. If you intend to grow fruits without chemicals, then use natural fertilizer. Read the information on the composition of the mixture on the package, alkali and wood ash have a negative effect on the growth of pineapple.
In winter, fertilizing is not necessary.
A year after planting, move the pineapple to a larger pot. It is advisable to carry out this procedure at the beginning of the summer. About a third of the new capacity should occupy the drainage layer. Fill the rest of the volume with soil: peat, river sand and fertile soil at a ratio of 2: 1: 3.
An annual transplant and an increase in capacity will help grow a healthy pineapple. Gently move the earth ball with the roots into the new pot by way of handling.
Along with how to grow, many beginning flower growers are concerned about how to make a pineapple blossom. In nature, the first flowers appear at 26 months of plant life. At home, this happens after 1.5-2, most often for 3 years.
The green rosette of leaves begins to grow and forms small root buds, which can later be used to grow a new fruit. Within a few months, a bud forms, and a flowering period begins, lasting about two weeks. Numerous bright blue-violet flowers open for just one day. At the end of flowering, remove the dried leaves, and the pineapple will move to the stage of development of the fruit.
It is possible that the flowering period will not come, even if all the conditions for proper development were met. Do not despair and throw an attempt to grow a homemade pineapple. To stimulate flowering, you can fumigate or treatment with an aqueous solution of acetylene and ethylene. In the latter version, ordinary apples that produce ethylene during storage will come to the rescue. Just put a couple of fruit in a pot to a house plant.
If these measures did not work, it means that the pineapple has not reached the right age or is susceptible to any disease that prevents flowering.
Ripens the fruit for 3-7 months, depending on the conditions of care and varieties of pineapple. If, in an attempt to grow pineapple, you followed all the instructions, you can enjoy the sweet homemade fruit. Since the plant is herbaceous, it will die immediately after fruiting, leaving small side shoots suitable for breeding.
Keep in mind that pineapple is affected by pests:
- The shield feeder feeds on plant sap, which leads to the formation of yellow or brown spots. You can get rid of it by treatment with ethyl alcohol, soapy water or an insecticide,
- The mealybug also eats the sap of the leaves, covering them with white bloom, resembling cotton wool. Fungi and honeydew, which cause additional damage, appear at the lesion sites. It is possible to corrode a pest with a soap solution or with special preparations (“Karbofos”, “Aktellik”, “Fitoverm”, etc.),
- The root worm destroys the root system and causes the entire plant to die. Externally, the parasite resembles the usual mold. When it is found, place the roots in hot water (up to 55 degrees), wash them with soap, remove the affected areas, process with the “Aktarid” solution and dry. The pot is better to change or disinfect. After that, transplant the plant into a new soil, pre-sprayed with insecticides,
- Spider mite sucks the juice from the leaves, leaving them dry areas covered with thin cobwebs. To cope with an uninvited guest, wash the foliage with soapy water and spray on it with an infusion of onion peel, garlic or tobacco. Effectively affect the drugs "Karbofos", "Aktellik" or "Appolo",
- Orchid aphid feeds on plant sap, while poisoning it with poisonous waste products. "Actellic" successfully fights with the pest,
- The fungus is often formed after feeding with nitrogen-containing fertilizers. To save the plant, use a fungicide suitable for the specific type and degree of fungal infection.
Step 1. How to choose pineapple
In order for your venture to be successful, you need to choose the right planting material. The fruit must be healthy and ripe, it should be noted that the unripe or opposite the ripe pineapple for this purpose will not work. You should also pay special attention to the stems, and more precisely, the leaves. In the right fruit, suitable for planting, the stem should be dark green in color, healthy, and very firm to the touch. In the case when yellowness appeared on the leaves or they acquired a brown tint, such a fruit should certainly be put aside. If you go to the market for a pineapple in the cold time, then be extremely careful, as it can be frozen and definitely not alike.
The central part of the fruit should be yellow and not be too hard. By the way, if suddenly you notice that pineapple is damaged, then it is better not to purchase it. You can also smell this fruit, and it should have a quite pleasant smell. If you have any doubts about your chosen fruit, then buy two at once, but only in different stores in order to increase the chances.
Step 3. Root the apex
In order for the tip to take root, it must be placed in a container with water at room temperature. It should be immersed in the liquid for 3 or 4 centimeters. Any container is suitable for this purpose. For rooting the top is placed in a well-lit place, at the same time, so that the sun's rays do not fall on it. Also, there should not be a draft or a sharp change in temperature. After 4-6 days, the roots will begin to grow.
Step 4. Planting and growing
To plant a pineapple, it is better to immediately take a bigger pot, or rather, it should be 20–30 centimeters high, and 30–35 centimeters in diameter. However, in the event that there is no such sized pot at hand, the top of the fruit can be planted in a pot with a diameter of 10–15 centimeters. Но после того как растение станет больше, его в обязательном порядке надо пересадить в более объемный цветочный горшок. В противном случае начнется засыхание листочков, а цветение не будет. Опытные цветоводы советуют пересаживать данное растение по мере его роста.
В цветочном горшке в обязательном порядке должны быть отверстия, чтобы сквозь них могла вытечь лишняя жидкость. Then you need to make a three-centimeter drainage layer. For planting you need a loose and very nutritious soil. It is necessary to dig up the prepared pineapple to 3 centimeters. Within six months, fertilizer will have to be applied to the soil, or rather, mullein. Fertilizer is carried out 1 time in 1-2 months. Put the flower pot in a warm and bright place.
Do not forget about systematic moderate watering. For this purpose, exclusively separated water is used, and, if possible, rainwater. In that case, if watering is too abundant, then rot can form on the roots. And when watering too scanty - the leaves of the plant will begin to dry (dried ends should be trimmed carefully). As a rule, watering is done after the top layer of soil dries out a little. It is also systematically necessary to moisten the leaves with warm water, and also, as necessary, wipe them with a damp cloth (for hygienic purposes).
Growing pineapple at home is not so difficult. And if you take care of him properly, then after only 2-2.5 years, flowering will come, and after a while you will be able to enjoy a tasty and fragrant fruit grown with your own hands.