Tomatoes are the most common crop grown all over the world. Seedlings breeding allows you to accelerate fruiting. In addition, it allows you to grow tomatoes in almost any climatic conditions.
Growing tomato seedlings does not require special skills, but sometimes novice gardeners make mistakes, after which they refuse this idea. To grow strong seedlings you need to know a few subtleties.
Conditions for growing seedlings of tomatoes at home
The main requirement for growing seedlings at home is considered a good illumination of the room. The best place for a tomato is considered a window sill or a loggia on the south side. In case of lack of natural lighting, special fitolamps are used.
Young seedlings also need to provide the necessary amount of moisture. To do this, use a watering can without nozzles, spray with warm water or a humidifier. Watering is carried out once a week, spraying - daily.
Variety selection by region
Tomatoes can grow in many climatic zones, but most varieties are adapted to the characteristics of a particular area and in other conditions they can simply die or give a bad harvest.
In accordance with the varietal characteristics of planting time, the tomato is distributed by region.
- In the south of Russia, tomato seedlings are sown from February 20 to early April.
- In the Moscow region - from March 15 to April 10.
- In the Urals and Siberia - from April 1 to April 20.
Based on this selected varieties.
Varieties for the South
- Bull heart - late ripe determinant variety. The fruits ripen on 120-130 day after sowing. The bush reaches 1.5-1.9 meters in height. Fruits are red or pink, heart-shaped. Weight - 300-900 grams. The variety is popular throughout Russia.
- Apple Russia - late ripe determinant variety. Plant height reaches meter. The ripening period is 118-135 days. Fruits weighing 100 grams.
- Adeline - early high-yielding low-growing variety. Tomato ripening period - 80 days. Fruits are oval. The color is red. Tomato weight - 60-100 grams. The variety is resistant to heat, disease.
- Maestro - high-yield productive crop. Fruits weigh 100 grams. The color is red. Disease resistance is high.
- Asterix - hybrid high-yielding variety. Tomatoes are cylindrical. Weight - 85-100 grams. The taste is pleasant. The resistance of the variety to disease and heat is high.
Also, in the southern climatic conditions it is possible to grow such varieties and hybrids: Gazpacho, Babylon, Alcazar, Chelbas, Fantomas, Ramses, Portland, Verlioka plus and others.
Varieties for the Moscow region
- Abakansky pink - large-fruited determinant variety of average maturity. Tomato ripening period is 109-120 days. Weight - 300-800 grams. Plant height in unprotected soil is 80 centimeters, in greenhouse conditions - 150 centimeters.
- Golden domes - determinant mid-season variety. The bush is tall, with a height of 0.9 -1.5 meters. Tomato ripening period is 100-115 days. Weight - 200-800 grams. The color is orange. The flesh is pleasant to the taste, fleshy, sweet.
- Eagle heart - large-fruited determinant variety of average maturity. Tomato weight - 600-800 grams. The color is pinkish crimson. The flesh is tasty, sugary, sweet. In greenhouse conditions, the bush grows to 1.7 meters, in unprotected soil - 1.5 meters.
- De barao - late indeterminantny grade. Tomato ripening period - 109-130 days from the date of planting. The height of the bush is 2 meters or more. Tomato weight - 100 grams. Cold-resistant, shade-tolerant and productive variety. It is grown in greenhouses, greenhouses and unprotected soil. Fruiting varieties have stretched.
- Eagle's beak - semi-determinant mid-season variety. Tomato ripening period - 110-116 days. The height of the bush - 120-150 centimeters. Fruits weigh 200-800 grams. Pulp sweetish on taste, dense, juicy.
- Monomakh's hat - medium early indeterminate variety. Fruiting occurs in 90-110 days. Tomato weight - 400-900 grams. The flesh is delicious.
- Iceberg - early cold-resistant high-yielding variety. The bush is not high, up to 80 centimeters in height. The fruits are red. Tomato weight - 200 grams. The variety is resistant to cold, temperature changes.
Also here you can sow the following varieties: Snow Queen, Penguin, Upstart, Snowdrop, Moskvich, Die Hard, Chibis, Crimson Giant, Big Brother, Spasskaya Tower and others.
In greenhouse conditions are most often grown: Snowfall, Perseus, Teremok, Viscount, Parrot, Dolphin, Ivanhoe, Druzhok, Farmer, Sprinter, Sketch, Overture, Sweet Cluster.
How Tomatoes Grow
These annual plants are extremely popular all over the world. Under the cultivation of tomatoes huge areas are allocated, it is difficult to even compare which of the vegetables is so hugely popular.
To grow as large a crop of tomatoes as possible, first of all to decide on a grade. The fact is that this southern vegetable loves heat and not all varieties are suitable for planting in the middle lane.
The most successful will be the cultivation of early varieties. They are less susceptible to late blight, which occurs during wet and cool weather, and also have time to ripen to the first frost.
Agronomists advise pay attention to the following varieties: Record holder, Siskin, Gigantella, Royal, Forward and Cleopatra. According to experts, they are the most resistant to fungal diseases, they do not crack and can tolerate both drought and prolonged rains.
Fruits of this vegetable rich in vitamins and trace elements. There are tomato folic acid, nicotinic, fiber and pectins. It contains a lot of vitamin C and K. Tomato juice is prescribed to drink for anemia, frequent colds and vascular diseases. Regular consumption of tomatoes significantly reduces the risk of falling ill with cancer.
Appearance and cultivation features:
- Tomatoes have a developed root system, which produces stepchildren. Thus, tomatoes can multiply not only by seed, but also with the help of roots,
- these vegetables easily produce lateral roots from the stem as needed, and the root itself can grow up to one meter deep,
- the stem is very branched and upright. Its height can reach two meters
- the seeds are flat and slightly pointed. They may not lose their properties for seven years,
- fruits grow in the form of berries of various shapes and sizes. Sometimes they reach eight hundred grams of weight. Their color depends on the variety. There are besides red tomatoes, yellow, orange, pink and even violet shades,
- Flowers are collected in inflorescences resembling potato ones. The color of the flowers is white with a yellowish tint.
- tomato leaves are also reminiscent of potato ones. Usually they are cut into slices.
How to grow tomatoes
There are three ways of planting and growing tomatoes: in the greenhouse, in the ground, upside down. In the greenhouse you can grow a good crop of ripe tomatoes. These thermophilic vegetables feel great in greenhouse conditions, and most importantly it allows them to fully ripen to harvest.
When grown in a greenhouse should crop rotation, that is, do not constantly plant tomatoes in the same place. Thus, you can protect them from fungus and various pests. Wet and warm microclimate, which is created in greenhouses, favorable for insect pests and microbes.
For cultivation in the open field is very important choose the right gradethat best suits your climate. Tomatoes are heat-loving vegetables, which means the place for planting should be well protected from drafts and be in the open area so that the plants get enough sunny color.
Darkening leads to attacks of the fungus. For the same reason, the plants necessarily weed, otherwise the shade from the weeds will not allow the fruits to fully develop.
Landing upside down carry out as follows: put a tomato in a pot and suspend. This method is very good and effective. You do not have to weed the beds, and it will be enough just to water and occasionally feed the tomatoes. And also there will be a lot of free space for planting the rest of vegetables.
How to prepare the soil for planting
The following mixtures are prepared for tomatoes:
- one part of parkland and five parts of peat,
- on one part of peat and humus, half of mullein,
- six parts of peat, three - humus, one part of river sand.
Soil mixture is collected in advance and stored in the winter outside. With the onset of spring it is distributed in pots pre-steaming.
Steaming is as follows. In a metal container with holes poured the soil mixture and add a little water. Evaporate on the fire for an hour. Phosphate fertilizers and ammonium nitrate are added to this soil.
Already after planting seeds make potash fertilizers. A plot where tomatoes will grow in the spring they dig in the fall. In the spring it is also loosened, but with the introduction of ash.
How to plant tomato seedlings
Get seedlings in two ways. You can grow it yourself from seeds, or you can buy it ready. The best seedlings for prizhivlyaemost considered low with a powerful root.
- Sow seedlings in the wells, followed by crushing after they dig a hole. Bushes plentifully watered. Be sure to make small grooves, which later will be useful for watering seedlings.
- It happens that seedlings outgrow. This happens with self-growing seeds. For example, if the timely landing prevented spring frosts. In this case, plant the seedlings so that it is tilted to the north side, and bury the stem in the ground to the fifth leaf. The bush will release additional roots from the stem, which will strengthen it.
- Do not forget to water the seedlings plentifully after disembarkation. The soil in the garden with tomatoes should only be loose. Even small cracks can damage the delicate roots. Loosen the soil usually every five days, as well as be sure to remove the weeds that appear.
- If the variety is tall, place pegs next to the bush. Between each plant should be a distance of at least thirty centimeters, and between rows - sixty. Thus, tall tomatoes will be four shrubs per square meter, and the determinant - eight.
If the seedlings that have already been planted have been subjected to frosts, then it will most likely die. More resistant will be the bushes that did not grow at home, but in the greenhouse. Such plants will be able to withstand fluctuations in temperature to minus two degrees.
If in your climate zone the probability of frosts even in early summer is high, then plant seedlings. after june ten. Under the film, you can plant tomatoes in May.
Watering and feeding
Agronomists brought the most successful irrigation formula for growing tomatoes. Humidity should be about fifty percent, while humidity under the bush is ninety. Seedlings are watered on the day of planting, after which they do not water for three days. Water the tomatoes profusely and twice a week.
A tomato planted in a greenhouse watered in the morningthen immediately open part of the film for airing. It is not recommended to water the tomatoes in the evening, as there will be high humidity during the night. Because of this, gray rot is often formed on the bushes.
Determine how much tomato bushes need water can be on the lump of earth, taken from the base of the stem. If after squeezing him in a fist, the palm is wet, then you should not water it. The soil scattered in the hand indicates that the bushes need watering.
Sometimes some varieties of tomatoes form stepchildren. This phenomenon can be observed both in determinant varieties and in tall, indeterminate ones. In the first case, they are formed after the second sheet, and in the second - after the fourth.
Such shoots should be removed. They do not produce fruits, but they consume a lot of nutrients. It is important to consider that the sooner you get rid of them, the less juice will lose the bush.
How to prepare seeds for planting
Many people prefer to grow their own seedlings. Any favorite tomato, bought on the market, can give a lot of seeds, which can later be germinated on seedlings. Still, it is best to buy the seeds in the package from trusted suppliers.
Acquire several varieties, so you will select with time those varieties that are most favorable to your area and soil composition. Unpacking the seed packaging, check them with salt solution. It will take sixty grams of salt per liter of water. Seeds are poured with saline and those that float are withdrawn.
Now follows carry out a disinfecting procedure. For this, seeds are poured with acetic acid, and after five minutes they are transferred to a weak solution of manganese. After all procedures, the seeds are thoroughly washed under running water.
To seed well germinated, their warm in a thermos with hot water for three hours. And you can soak in a solution of copper sulfate and ammonium sulphate.
Now the seeds are placed in a wet cloth for germination. Occasionally it is moistened so that it does not dry out completely. It is very useful to harden the seeds. For that their put in the fridge for two days. Thanks to hardening, the future seedlings will be able to survive the frosts more enduringly.
Try to unroll the container with seedlings every day, otherwise it will be pulled in one direction. In warm weather, take the seedlings to the balcony for quenching. The temperature should be at least fifteen degrees. Seedlings pre-watered.
Within a month, the rapid growth of green mass begins, but sometimes it is worth stopping it. To do this, reduce the temperature to eighteen degrees and reduce watering. Water in such cases have to once a weekand the water temperature should not be above twenty degrees. The last watering is carried out three hours before transplanting.
Before planting it in the greenhouse, spray the seedlings boric acid solution. To do this, one gram is diluted in a liter of water. Thus, the development of inflorescences, and hence the future harvest, is stimulated.
How to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse
Ten days before planting seedlings prepare the beds. They introduce humus, peat and sawdust. If desired, you can add potassium and superphosphate.
Usually the beds do up to eighty centimeters wide, with a height of forty centimeters. Seedlings must be at least twenty-five centimeters tall. Before planting, cut off the three bottom sheets to avoid rotting.
Tomatoes are inherently tropical plants, which means they love moisture and heat. Therefore, in the greenhouse often condensation occurs on the walls at high humidity.
To seedlings did not rot, air the greenhouse every time after watering. It is desirable that it had vents on both sides. In order for tomatoes to grow strong and healthy, take care of good lighting.
How to achieve a good harvest of tomatoes
Many experienced growers know many secrets of a good harvest. With some of them they are happy to share. So, in order to get as many juicy ripe fruits as possible, you need the following:
- follow the rules of crop rotation. After the Solanaceae family, you cannot plant tomatoes. Keep potatoes away from the tomato beds. Usually withstand a period of not less than three years, otherwise the risk of infection of the whole bed with late blight is very high,
- remove weeds. Garden beds should be completely clean from the rest of the plants. Seedlings in the open field grows slowly, and the shade from high weeds makes the fruit small and ripening for a long time,
- dig the soil should be at a depth of not less than thirty centimeters with the obligatory instillation of organic fertilizers. Mineral fertilizers are applied in the form of irrigation. Use phosphate, potash and nitrogenous fertilizers,
- When planting, use the ordinary method with a distance of sixty centimeters between the rows. Thus, it is possible to land on one square meter up to six tall bushes, and therefore increase the landing area,
- weak seedlings are planted under an inclination, some of the leaves below are removed, and the stem is buried in a heap. Thus, additional roots will form from the stem. It is advisable to tie the bush itself over time,
- in the hole before planting the seedlings poured water and sow ash. If you plant seedlings together with a pot, then bury it deep and pour it abundantly,
- water the bushes in the morning or in the evening after the sun sets,
- the first feeding is carried out only two weeks after planting the seedlings, and the second - with the formation of already small tomatoes. If tomatoes were planted with seeds, and not with seedlings, then after the appearance of five leaves on the stem, ammonium nitrate with superphosphate is added at the root,
- if your climate zone is cool at the end of summer, the tomato harvest season ends early. In August, remove the branches with small fruits, as they do not have time to ripen, and the strength for their maturation will require a lot. Thus, you save and increase the size of the already existing tomatoes,
- The so-called suckers, which are formed between the branches of the bush consume a lot of nutrients, but little sense from them. Fruits that grow on suckers are small and often do not ripen to the end. They should be removed immediately and without regret,
- то же самое относится и к соцветиям. Прореживая цветки можно добиться увеличения плодов и их полного созревания.
Какие проблемы наиболее распространены среди томатов
Помидоры любят тепло, но засушливая жаркая погода может им повредить. Селекционеры вывели устойчивые к засухе сорта. К ним относятся Хитмастер и Солар Файер.
При устойчивой жаркой погоде кусты помидоров cover the sheds of matter. It is important to bear in mind that during hot and arid weather, the fruits stop their growth and spice up with small sizes. Some varieties do not even have time to ripen and freeze completely.
For wet and cool climate there are varieties such as Fantasia, Freleyne and Legend. For other varieties is very important maintain moisture in the greenhouse no more than eighty percent.
Often, beds with tomatoes annoy birds. You can protect yourself from them with the help of self-made large cells. They are put on several bushes, and on top tethering red ribbons. Birds confuse fruits with ribbons and peck them.
Homemade ducks and chickens can save you from slugs that harm tomatoes. In the event that you live in a rural area, breeding domestic birds will be most welcome.
Often, growers are faced with the phenomenon of peak rot. This disease can destroy most of the crop. If you notice that the base of the fruit of the tomato has become black, then immediately remove this shrub. Unfortunately, vertex rot is not amenable to treatment.
After the diseased plant is removed, carry out the prevention of neighboring bushes. To do this, the following mixture is prepared: dissolve one tablespoon of citric acid and five tablespoons of bone meal in four liters of water. The solution should be boiled for half an hour. Cooled solution spray the leaves and the rest of the plant. Repeat treatment twice more after five days.
When to sow tomatoes for seedlings?
Approximately tomato seeds need to be sown 55-65 days before planting in open ground or greenhouse. Seeds germinate pretty quickly - 5-10 days after sowing. Therefore, the average time of keeping seedlings on the windowsill (from the emergence of shoots) is 45-60 days.
It is important to correctly determine the timing, so as not to overdo the seedlings on the windowsill. This is fraught with the oppression of the growth of an adult bush and a decrease in yield.
Average tomato sowing time:
- in the southern regions of Russia and in Ukraine - from the 20th of February to March 15 (disembarkation in the OG - from April 15 to May 20),
- in the central regions of Russia - from March 15 to April 1 (disembarkation in the FG - from May 10 to the first of June),
- in the northern regions (Siberia, the Urals) - from April 1 to April 15 (disembarkation in the OG - from May 25 to June 15).
To accurately answer the question when to plant tomato seedlings, you need to know about the end of the spring frosts in your area. Counting from this period 55-65 days ago, you can accurately determine the date of the desired landing.
If you plan to plant seedlings of tomatoes not in open ground, but in a greenhouse or on a glazed balcony, then you can start planting 2-3 weeks earlier.
Conditions for growing seedlings of tomatoes
When growing tomato seedlings on a windowsill, create conditions for seedlings with:
- plenty of light - it is desirable that the windows face south, not shaded by trees (with a lack of natural lighting, artificial lighting with lamps is required),
- high humidity - spray tomato seedlings 1-2 times a day, use humidifiers, etc.,
- warm - in the afternoon the optimum temperature for tomato seedlings is 18-25 ° C, at night - 12-15 ° C.
Step 1. Preparatory work
Preparatory work may include:
- seed disinfection,
- soil preparation and disinfection.
Prepacked seeds of well-known manufacturers do not need additional presowing treatment. They have already undergone the necessary disinfection at the plant. It is quite another thing if the used tomato seeds were collected by hand or bought by weight in the market. Such material can be infected by pathogens of various bacterial, viral and fungal diseases.
To eliminate the infection, use one of the following disinfecting solutions:
- 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 100 ml of water). Wrap the seeds in cheesecloth and incubate in this solution for 15-20 minutes. Longer hold is not recommended - reduced germination of seeds. After treatment, rinse the seeds with water.
- 0.5% soda solution (0.5 g per 100 ml of water). In it, soak tomato seeds for 24 hours. In addition to disinfection, soda solution promotes earlier fruiting.
- Aloe juice solution (1: 1). Ready aloe juice can be purchased at the pharmacy or squeezed out of the leaves on their own (they are first kept in the refrigerator for 5-6 days). Soak seeds in aloe diluted in water for 12-24 hours. Tomatoes from seeds that have undergone such processing are distinguished by an increased immunity, improved yield and fruit quality.
- Phytosporin solution. When using liquid Fitosporin (in a bottle), prepare the solution as follows: Dilute 1 drop of liquid in 100 ml of water. Prepare a solution of Fitosporin powder in the calculation of 0.5 tsp. per 100 ml of water. Seeds are kept in the solution for 1-2 hours.
The soil can also be contaminated, especially if it has been dug out of the garden. Safer soil, pre-packaged in flower shops, is safer. But here too there can be unpleasant "surprises", therefore the best way to protect oneself (and seedlings!) From surprises is a hand-made tillage.
The most popular ways to disinfect the soil for seedlings:
- roasting in the oven (10-15 minutes at 180-200 ° C),
- heating in the microwave (1-2 minutes at a power of 850),
- boiling water disinfection (put a primer in a pot with drainage holes and spill it in small portions of boiling water),
- disinfection with potassium permanganate (spill with a strong solution of potassium permanganate).
All these methods can be combined with each other to get the most sterile and safe soil for seedlings.
Start planting tomatoes on seedlings immediately after preparing the soil is not worth it! Moisten it and keep at a positive temperature of 10-12 days. During this time, bacteria will begin to multiply in sterile soil. Only after that you can begin planting.
Step 2. Planting tomatoes for seedlings
Fill the container (cassettes, peat pots, plastic cups, cottage cheese boxes, shallow boxes) with prepared moist soil and make grooves about 1 cm deep in it. The step between the grooves is 3-4 cm. Place the seeds in them at a distance of 1-2 see more. The less seeds will be sown, the longer it will be possible to withstand seedlings in a seedling container without planting them. Sprinkle the grooves with soil.
Tomato seeds are sown in the ground to a depth of 1 cm
You can make it even easier: lay the seeds on the prepared soil and pour them with a centimeter layer of soil.
Cover with a film or glass on top to provide seedlings with a constant microclimate with a humidity of about 80-90%. In order for the seeds to germinate, the temperature of their content should be 25-30 ° C. Therefore, place the seed boxes near a battery or other heat source.
Check the soil moisture every day. When drying, spray it abundantly from a spray bottle. With excessive humidity - open the film (glass) and wait for it to dry. Sometimes high humidity leads to the formation of mold on the soil surface. Then carefully remove the infected top layer and spill the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate or an antifungal drug (Fundazole, Fitosporin).
The first seedlings of tomatoes appear in 3-4 days at a temperature of 25-28 ° C of the ground layer, at 20-25 ° C - in 5-6 days, at 10-12 ° C - in 12-15 or more days after sowing.
The seedbed leaves of tomato seedlings that appeared from under the ground
In more detail about when to sow tomatoes for seedlings, how to choose tomato seeds and sow them correctly in the ground is shown in the video:
Step 3. Care of tomato seedlings
Growing tomato seedlings is impossible without good lighting! Therefore, after the emergence of shoots, put the pots with seedlings on the lightest window sill. In February and early March, the light for seedlings will not be enough in any case, therefore, if possible, use additional lighting with fluorescent lamps.
There is a version (by Tugarova T. Yu.) That the best development of tomato seedlings can be achieved if the seedlings are illuminated around the clock for the first 2-3 days after germination. After that, you can switch to a regular mode of lighting - 16 hours per day (total duration of the daylight hours).
Tomato seedling under fluorescent lights
Humidity and watering
Young shoots should be kept at high, almost extreme humidity, drying is unacceptable. Therefore, do not rush to immediately remove the film (glass) from the seed container. Every day, slightly open it up so that the seedlings will get used to the fresh air, but at the same time remain in the "greenhouse". After 1-2 weeks the shelter can be completely removed.
Tomato seedlings growing under the film at home may not need watering for a long time. Look at the condition of the soil: do not plant the marsh, but at the same time, do not allow the top layer to dry (while the roots of the sprouts are still small and are in the top layer of the soil, therefore, drying it will mean drying the roots). To water the seedlings of tomatoes should be carefully under the stem. In order not to damage the sprouts, you can use a syringe (without a needle) or a pipette.
After removing the film, the frequency of irrigation of tomato seedlings should be proportional to the amount of heat and light. With an increase in temperature and lengthening of daylight hours, tomatoes begin to get up to growth and “drink” moisture from the ground faster. Accordingly, the soil dries faster, watering is required more often.
It is important not to dry the young tomatoes. Often inexperienced gardeners are faced with such a nuisance: in the evening, coming from work, they notice their seedlings completely wilted, although in the morning it still looked quite normal. It is necessary to check the seedlings in the morning, when there is no hot sun. If you notice that the sprouts are a bit sluggish - water immediately. Not at noon the rays of the sun can dry still weak young seedlings.
Dangerous bays can also be. It is bad that drenched and dried tomato seedlings may look the same: the stalks lose turgor, the leaves fade. Seeing these symptoms, pay attention to the ground. If it is wet, in no case do not add water - ruin the seedlings. Put the seedling container in a place protected from direct sunlight, do not water it until the earth dries out. Further adjust the amount of watering.
Cold window sills in combination with damp earth are especially destructive for young sprouts of tomatoes. Therefore, watering in the evening (February-April) is not recommended. At night, the temperature can drop significantly, the shoots will freeze and start to hurt.
As soon as a warm, calm day comes out, take the seedlings to fresh air: to the balcony, to the street, or just open the window. Even in March, on a sunny day, the temperature on the open balcony can reach 15-20 ° C! If such a day coincided with the emergence of shoots - great luck! Take out the sprouts to bask in the sun. The fact is that sprouts of tomatoes on the first day after germination have protection from UV rays, which does not allow them to burn. Such sprouts from infancy will be heat-resistant, hardened and they can be "walking" in the sun regularly.
If you didn’t manage to take out the seedlings on the sun on the first day, then you can’t do it after 1-2 days - the innate hardening has evaporated. In this case, it is necessary to gradually accustom the shoots to the sun. The first day is enough for 5 minutes. Then every day you can increase the duration of walks for another 5 minutes.
Tomato seedlings, which were put up every day on an open sunny balcony (in the courtyard), by the time they landed for permanent residence, quickly caught up in the growth of the seedlings that were sown a month earlier, but were kept on the windowsill behind the glass and without lighting.
Tomato seedlings need additional feedings in 2-3 weeks after the first shoots. In the future, fertilizer will have to be applied every week. It is best to use natural organic fertilizers, for example, from manure or grass. Of those purchased, specialized guano-based fertilizers, humic fertilizers, biohumus, etc. are good. Use half of the dose specified for a particular fertilizer to feed seedlings.
Step 3. Sampling (transplanting into large cups, pots)
The first true leaves of tomato sprouts appear on day 7-10. At this age, if the seeds were sown too well in one container, you can pick the seedlings in separate cups. Despite the fact that tomatoes tolerate transplantation quite well, this should be done carefully. Replant sprouts with a lump of earth on the roots. Some gardeners advise when picking to pinch the central root of tomato seedlings. However, we do not recommend doing so - the roots in any case, even with the most accurate transplant, will still be damaged. Additionally, there is no need to injure the plant. Moreover, it can be harmful: nipping up to 1/3 of the root will lead to a delay in the development of seedlings for 1 week.
When picking up a seedling, a tomato clod on the roots should be kept
The first transplant is carried out in small cups of 200 ml.
After 2-3 weeks, seedlings can swoop a second time - in pots more. If the seeds were initially sown in individual containers (cups, cassettes), then this transplant will be the first. It is not recommended to use pots less than 0.5-1 liters. Professional gardeners prefer even larger volume - 3-5 liters per plant. But, you see, not every window sill can withstand such seedling plantations, especially in the conditions of a city apartment. Yes, it is not necessary: 1l of land for 1 plant is enough for the eyes!
Pickling tomato sprouts in peat pots
To learn how to grow tomato sprouts and dive seedlings, you can find out by watching the video:
Step 4. Preparation for landing for permanent residence (in the greenhouse, on the balcony, in the exhaust gas)
At the age of 1.5 months, tomato seedlings at home throw out the first flower brushes. As soon as you notice them, know that after 10-15 days, seedlings need to be planted for permanent residence - in a greenhouse, on a balcony or in an exhaust gas. Tightening with transplantation is impossible, otherwise it will lead to a decrease in yield.
If you decide to keep the tomato seedlings on the windowsill for more than 45-60 days, then it should provide at least 1 liter of land per plant. If overexposing tomatoes in relatively small containers, even for 10 days longer than it should be, and let them bloom, they will stop their vegetative growth and will forever remain “young”. Even in the OG, they will not be able to accelerate and will never turn into full-fledged plants. Accordingly, it is not necessary to expect a full-fledged harvest from them either!
Partially solve this problem can be, if you remove the first flower brush. The next brush will appear only in a week, that is, it will be possible to postpone planting for permanent residence for a week.
A good tomato seedling before planting should have thick stems, large leaves, a strong root system and developed buds.
Characteristics of healthy tomato seedlings: powerful bush, large succulent leaves, thick stems, developed root system
Step 5. Planting tomato seedlings in the ground
The distance between the tomatoes in the greenhouse or EG should be 30-40 cm. If you decide to grow garden plantations on the balcony, then 4-12 liters of land should be allocated to each bush of tomatoes. 4-5 liters will be enough for undersized "balcony" varieties: "Balcony miracle", "Dwarf", "Hummingbird", etc. Large garden varieties suitable for OG (“Sasha”, “Sunrise”, etc.) are grown in containers of 10-12 liters.
For tomatoes, good fertile garden soil (chernozem), mixed with peat soil “Universal” or “For vegetables” in a 1: 1 ratio.
Planting tomato seedlings for permanent residence is best to coincide with a cool, windless and overcast day. Plant the seedlings, centering the stem for a couple of centimeters. After a few days, additional roots will begin to form along the recessed stem. In general, the root system will become more powerful and stronger.
After planting, pour tomato seedlings with warm water and wait for the harvest!
Planting tomato seedlings in the balcony box for permanent residence
And finally, in order to better understand the subtleties of growing tomato seedlings and transplanting them for permanent residence in open ground, a greenhouse or on a balcony, we suggest watching a small video below:
Choosing the right variety
Before you start growing tomato seedlings, you must decide on the choice of varieties. Before planting seeds, it is necessary to decide which varieties and where will be grown. It is fundamentally important to know whether tomatoes will grow in open ground or in a greenhouse. According to the mode of growth, all varieties are divided into indentative, semi-determinantal and determinantal. This sign is indicated on the bag with seeds and is crucial for growing plants in open or protected ground.
- Indenertimental Tomatoes have unlimited growth and, if not pinned, can grow up to several meters. In the south, can be grown in a greenhouse or on the street on a trellis, or tied to high stakes. In the middle lane, Siberia, the Far East, these tomatoes are grown only in greenhouses, tying them vertically. The first brush is laid out after 9-10 sheets, the next after 3 sheets. The fruiting period is long, but comes later than in other types.
- Semi-determinant varieties and hybrids. Tomatoes stop growing after laying 9-12 inflorescences. Они склонны завязывать большое количество плодов в ущерб корням и листьям, и, при перегруженности урожаем, помидоры могут прекратить рост задолго до образования 9-й кисти. Цветочные кисти закладываются через 2 листа. На юге выращивают в основном в открытом грунте, в средней полосе можно сажать как в теплицу, так и на улицу.
- Детерминантные помидоры — это низкорослые растения. Они предназначены для посадки в открытый грунт. Their growth is limited, they lay 3-6 brushes, the tip of the shoot ends with a floral brush and the bush does not grow up anymore. The first brush of this type is laid after 6-7 sheets. These are early ripe tomatoes, but their yield is lower than that of the indented type. However, significant differences in the yield of varieties are noticeable only in the south. In the middle lane and to the north, the difference is minimal, since the indenters do not have time to reveal their full potential.
What to choose - a hybrid or variety?
Sort - These are plants capable of maintaining their characteristics for many generations when grown from seeds.
Hybrid - These are plants produced by special pollination. They retain their signs only in one generation, when growing from seeds, their signs are lost. Hybrids of any plant are designated F1.
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Quality seedlings - the key to a good harvest. How to sow tomato seeds, grow healthy seedlings and pick them? Read about it in our article.
When buying tomato seedlings, you never know for sure how good it is and whether it is ready for planting in open ground. The fact is that the lush green mass does not mean that the plants will grow strong and healthy.
And it is quite another thing if you grow tomato seedlings on your own. So you will know exactly what kind of variety will soon settle in your garden when the seedlings will be ready for planting in open ground and how soon to wait for the harvest.
Step 1. Decide on the time of sowing tomato seeds
The time of sowing tomatoes for seedlings depends on the variety you are going to grow. When purchasing a bag of seeds, pay attention to the ripening period of tomatoes (the period from germination to harvest). The varieties of tomatoes maturing can be divided into three groups: early maturity, mid-season and late ripening
If you know which group the tomato variety of your choice belongs to, you can easily calculate the sowing time. For example, to get the first early-ripening tomatoes, say, by July 15, you need to sow the seeds about 100 days before. By this date, you should also add 4-7 days for the emergence of shoots and 3-5 days for the adaptation of the seedlings after its transplantation in open ground. Thus, it turns out that sowing tomatoes should be in the area on March 26.
Typically, seed producers indicate on the packaging when it is worth sowing a particular variety. So, if you are not sure that the timing of sowing was calculated correctly, you can always consult the recommendations of specialists.
Choosing tomato seeds, be sure to pay attention to the date of their release. The best germination will be in seeds produced not more than 2 years ago.
Terms of sowing tomato seeds for different regions
Step 2. Prepare the seeds for sowing
Whatever tomato seeds you plan to sow - collected from your garden or bought in a store - you need them to disinfectto destroy pathogens. To do this, wrap the seeds in cheesecloth and dip them in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate (2.5 g per 1 tablespoon of water) for 20-30 minutes. Then rinse the seeds under running water and dry a little.
After disinfection tomato seeds recommended to germinate - This will speed up the process of emergence. Take a paper napkin, moisten it with water and fold it in half. At one end of the napkin, place the pickled tomato seeds, and cover with the other end.
The most convenient way is to put a napkin with seeds on a saucer or a small plastic plate. Place the saucer in the bag and place it in a warm place (for example, near the battery). Do not forget to constantly moisten the napkin so that the seeds on it do not dry out.
Tomato seeds begin to germinate on the 3-5th day. Select all seeds that have sunk by this time for sowing. It is not worthwhile to sow undegraded seeds - even if they sprout, the plants grown from them will be weak and painful.
Step 3. Prepare the seedling bed.
The soil for planting tomato seeds can be purchased at a gardening shop. Any universal soil for growing seedlings of vegetables will do.
Such a mixture can be "diluted" with vegetable soil. But keep in mind that the soil brought from the street needs to be pretreated. Bring it into the room for 3-5 days so that it can warm up before sowing the seeds. Then, for disinfection, spill the ground well with a pink solution of potassium permanganate and let it stand for another 1-2 days. After that, mix the purchased substrate with garden soil in equal shares and fill them with seedling containers.
Step 4. Choose suitable seedling containers
It is possible to sow tomato seeds in seedling boxes or individual containers. Today in the store you can find boxes for seedlings for every taste and budget. As for single containers, plastic cups will be the most practical option.
Sowing seeds in each type of tank differs only in that seedlings from large containers, when they reach a certain size, should be dived, and the shoots from the cups can be transplanted directly into open ground.
Step 5. Sow Tomato Seeds
In separate pots
Take plastic cups and make drainage holes in their bottom. Then pour drainage to the bottom of the tanks. It can be expanded clay, small pebbles or eggshell. Fill the cups with soil and pour warm water well.
Make shallow holes in the ground (1-2 cm) and sow 2-3 seeds of tomatoes in them. This is done in case, if not all seeds germinate.
Spray crops gently with a spray bottle. And cover the containers themselves with a film and put them in a warm place.
IMPORTANT! After sowing the seeds and until the seedlings of the tomatoes are stronger, water them only from a spray bottle. If you water the crops with running water, the seeds will go deep into the ground and may not grow. And if you water the weak filamentous shoots from the watering can, they will “foul”.
In common tanks
Containers for planting tomatoes, choose not too large. It is enough for them to fit plants of the same type - then it will be more convenient to navigate in the seedlings.
Fill the container with earth and spill it well with water. At a distance of 4 cm from each other, mark several rows. In them every 2 cm spread the seeds of tomatoes.
Do not spread tomato seeds too close to each other. Thickened crops are poorly ventilated, which can lead to a black leg.
Using a pencil or a special stick, gently press the seeds into the soil to a depth of about 1 cm. Then sprinkle them with earth. Watering crops of tomatoes is no longer necessary.
Cover containers with film or a special lid, if one was included. Place containers closer to the battery until the first shoots appear. This usually occurs in 4-7 days. As soon as this happens, transfer the container to a bright place with a temperature not exceeding 18 ° C.
Remember that for good growth, seedlings need to be at least 12 hours a day. If you organize this does not work, you will have to purchase lamps for lighting up.
Be attentive to crops, from a lack of light sprouts can begin to stretch. Before picking, they do not need to be fed with anything, it is enough just to moisten with a spray bottle in a timely manner.
Step 6. Unpack the seedlings
When the seedlings in the cups grow a little, they need to be thinned out (in case there are several seeds in one pot). It is necessary to leave only one thing - the strongest plant. In this case, you should not pull out the "extra" seedling from the ground, because this can damage the root system and the second plant. To remove a weaker instance, you need to pinch it just above the soil level.
Tomato seedlings from the total capacity can be swooped when the seedlings have 2 true leaves each. Just do not confuse them with the cotyledon - this is a common mistake novice gardeners. Real leaflets are the second pair of leaves.
Using a small stick or plastic spoon, carefully remove each seedling with a small lump of earth from the common box and transfer it to separate containers. Dig the plants into the ground almost to the cotyledon leaves.
The soil for transplanting seedlings can be taken the same as for sowing seeds. Only this time it is recommended to add to it a full mineral fertilizer at the rate of 1 tbsp. 5 liters of substrate.
If you grow tomatoes of different varieties, do not forget to stick on the cups of their names, so as not to confuse the seedlings.
10 days after the picking, seedlings begin to form a new root system, and their growth is markedly accelerated. With the advent of the third true leaf, the plants begin to be in dire need of light. But no less than this they need the right feeding. Usually, tomato seedlings are fed 2 times:
- 10 days after picking (5 g of urea, 35 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water),
- 2 weeks after the first feeding (10 g of urea, 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water).
To feed the seedlings of tomatoes can be prepared and complex fertilizers. If the plants are grown correctly, then by the time of landing in the ground, the thickness of the stems should reach 1 cm, and the height of the plants - about 30 cm. By this time they should have 8-9 leaves and one flower brush.
How to grow tomatoes?
Growing tomatoes from seeds can be divided into several stages.. This - the preparation of seeds, sowing seedlings, growing, picking, planting tomatoes in the ground.
- The first thing to do is to choose the right seeds, since how to grow tomatoes with seeds takes longer than seedlings, and the right choice at this stage will save time in the future. At the same time necessarily take into account the climate and soil composition. You should also decide on a variety, what exactly do you want? An early or late variety of tomatoes, and maybe you need vegetables that can be stored for a long time?
- After the seeds are selected they are prepared and sown.
- When the seedlings grow a little, they dive and sit in separate containers. Here they grow until the time to transfer to the ground.
It should also be said that there is also a seedless way of growing tomatoes from seeds.
It has its own features:
- Correctly pick up the time of sowing.
- Choose a suitable place (north and south side will not fit).
- Prepare and fertilize the beds.
- Prepare a covering material.
- Set the arc above the garden to protect the seedlings.
Pros and cons of cultivating tomatoes from seeds
- Cheapness Growing tomatoes from seeds will be several times cheaper than growing from purchased seedlings.
- High survival rate and fecundity of tomatoes.
- Guaranteed to obtain organic vegetables.
- Serious labor costs.
- The need for a large area (for seedlings).
- There is no guarantee that the plants will be healthy and give a good harvest.
- You need to have the necessary knowledge and skills.
Transplant into the ground
The soil for tomatoes should be good moisture and airbut at the same time it should be quite fat and nutritious. Before planting the soil is prepared in advance. To do this, it is necessary to pour a hot solution of copper sulfate (20-30 g per liter of water). The temperature of the solution is 80 degrees. This is the prevention of the appearance of pests.
After that, organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 10 kg of humus per 1 square meter. m, 50-60 g of superphosphate and ½ bucket of wood ash in the same area. Then dig the plot. Usually planting seedlings in the ground occurs in the middle or end of May. But the main factor is air temperature.
How to plant tomatoes:
- When planting, the size of the bush should be at least 20-15 cm in height.
- Before planting, a hole is dug (depth - 1 shovel bayonet).
- Then pour about 1.5 liters of distilled water at room temperature.
- The plant is placed in the hole and held so that the root does not touch the bottom.
- Then the root is covered with earth and pressed tightly.
- Immediately after planting, tomatoes should be watered abundantly.
- Landing is made in the evening or in cloudy weather.
Planting seeds immediately in the ground: how to sow?
- First of all, you should properly prepare the wells. They are dug in advance and added to each bit of peat and humus in equal parts. Above the holes, special arcs are installed to protect the seedlings from the weather.
- Now you can start sowing. To do this, use determinant (undersized) early varieties of tomatoes. Sow seeds compactly (approximately at a distance of 30 cm from each other).
Before sowing, the well should be poured with a hot solution of potassium permanganate.
Conditions of detention
If cultivation is carried out in a seedless way, then after the emergence of shoots it is better not to disturb them. After the seeds grow and the first real leaves appear, the seedlings will open depending on the weather. Ate the weather is sunny, but cool for several hours you can remove the plastic film, while the cut bank, which covered the hole, remains.
If growing is done by seedlings, then in the first two weeks after landing in the ground the plant should not be disturbed. At first, you should not feed a young tomato either. It is necessary to allow time for the root system to take root in the soil, and for the plant itself to adapt.
Young tomatoes are watered quite often, since the root system and the plant itself are actively growing, increasing the stem and green mass, and therefore actively consuming water and nutrients from the soil. Young plants are watered with warm settled water from a watering can. It is not necessary to water the tomatoes from a hose or a bucket, as the strong pressure of the water can damage immature roots.
- After the appearance of 2-3 true leaves should be made the first feeding. To do this, dissolve 1.5 g of ammonium nitrate in 1 liter of water. In each well pour no more than 0.5 liters of solution.
- The second feeding is carried out in 2-3 weeks. To do this, you can use nitrophoska (1 tbsp. Spoon to 1 liter of water). No more than 0.5 liters of solution is poured into the well.
- The third feeding is done after the formation of the ovary. Mullein or bird droppings are well suited for feeding.
The solution is prepared at the rate of 1 part of mullein or litter per 10 parts of water. Pour into the hole no more than 250-300 grams, that would not cause burn roots.
Gardening is a great way to save money and grow healthy vegetables. It is not at all difficult to do this; you just need to know the rules and carefully follow them. Knowledge and work will do the trick. And the result will be a wonderful harvest. But the most important thing is the moral satisfaction of growing plants with their own hands.
Proper preparation for growing tomato seedlings at home
Preparing seeds for growing tomato seedlings house
Our natural environment with great stretch can be called suitable for obtaining a large crop of tomatoes. Without breeding seedlings tomatoes do not grow. In addition, many believe that the harvest is impossible to obtain without greenhouses and special measures to combat the diseases that appear in our specific environment.
The ground for tomato seedlings is called the soil nutrient mixture. It should be nutritious, breathable and have an optimal acidic soil reaction, free from pathogens healthier, pests, weeds. The soil for growing seedlings of tomatoes need to cook in the fall.
It consists of one part of forest or good garden soil, one part of any well-rotten humus and one part of sand. All this is sifted through a sieve with 5-8 mm cells. For one bucket of such a mixture, you must take a 200-gram jar of sifted ash and 100 g of crushed eggshell or simple school chalk.
Before you grow a seedling of tomatoes, all elements of the earth mixture should be well mixed and steamed to kill germs, spores and weed seeds. Steaming the mixture for seedlings is necessary.
Steam the ground like this: in a metal enamelled bucket, the bottom of which is closed with an inverted can of suitable herring size, and 20-30 holes of 5-7 mm in diameter are punched in a nail, 1.5 liters of water are poured over it, not tamping over it, pouring the mixture for seedlings, cover with a lid and put on medium heat for an hour and a half. After that, you can dump the earth into a trough or a box where it cools down. You can store it in large plastic bags of one and a half - two buckets.
When preparing the soil for the proper cultivation of tomato seedlings, you need to be careful with such fertilizer as ash. It is brought into the soil for seedlings only in the autumn, so that by the spring it will be neutralized in the ground, otherwise you can burn the roots of young seedlings and destroy everything. So if the mixture will be prepared before use, it is better to do without ash. And in the future, just pour the seedlings 1-2 times with an extract from it. To prepare the hood is simple: Pour 1 cup of sifted ash with 10 liters of water, insist it all day with occasional stirring. Before watering the infusion filter through 3-4 layers of gauze.
To grow good tomato seedlings as sustainable as possible, you need to enrich the soil with mineral fertilizers. Для этого в смесь из дерновой земли, навозного перегноя и низинного торфа (по 1 части каждого компонента) нужно добавить нитроаммофос — 100 г, двойной суперфосфат — 200 г, калимагнезию — 100 г и золу от сжигания ботвы помидоров – 1,5 литра. Питательными веществами смесь насыщают осенью, перед промораживанием. Оттаявшую смесь насыпают в ящики слоем 6—8 см.
Если почва в вашем огороде близка к черноземной, достаточно питательна, можно отказаться от добавления разрыхляющих материалов (песка, опилок или торфа). For 6-8 liters of vegetable land, 3 liters of humus, 15 g of double superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate and a glass of wood ash as an additional source of trace elements and calcium alkalizing humus are taken.
Before you grow good seedlings of tomatoes, you can mix the soil with organic fertilizer ArganiQ for planting - in this case there is no need to prepare the soil in advance.
Its composition may be approximately as follows (% by volume):
- Lowland peat - 75, sod land - 20, mullein - 5.
- Dung humus or rotted compost - 45, sod land - 50, mullein - 5.
- Lowland peat - 75, horse manure (without straw) - 20, mullein - 5.
If the seedlings are grown in pots, then a mullein is added for their density, if the seedlings are grown in boxes, glasses or pottery pots - they are not used. To reduce the acidity of the substrate, lime, chalk, or ash are added to it: about a handful per bucket. Do not forget about mineral fertilizers. When growing seedlings, for example, green crops, 15–20 g of ammonium nitrate, 20–25 g of superphosphate, 4–6 g of potassium chloride are introduced into the nutritional mixture (based on a bucket).
Before growing high-quality seedlings of tomatoes, you need to pour this nutrient mixture into boxes, and then put the prepared seeds.
How to grow good tomato seedlings at home (with video)
We proceed directly to planting seeds. For growing seedlings of tomatoes at home is best to plant pre-soaked seeds. It is not necessary that they be germinate, it is enough that they swell. It is desirable that the earth was wet and mixed with humus.
We grow tomato seedlings at home
Before you grow tomato seedlings at home, you need to prepare the containers and put in them the nutrient mixture, that is, the soil on which the seeds and germinate. For growing seedlings of tomatoes at home, you can use different containers, in the bottom of which there are drainage holes. It is better not to use wooden containers because it is difficult to remove pathogens from the tree. It is best to use small plastic trays or bowls. Large seeds can be sown in trays with cells or in peat pots.
To grow tomato seedlings at home, the boxes are filled with a mixture and well spilled with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. After the watering is compacted, the seeds of tomatoes are laid out directly on the surface (the distance between the rows is 3 cm, between the seeds - 1.5 cm). Then they need to sprinkle with a layer of 1.5-2 cm, pour a little and, covered with foil, leave the boxes at a temperature of 20-25 ° C.
The video “Cultivation of tomato seedlings” shows how the seeds are planted:
Conditions for growing seedlings of tomatoes from seeds at home
One of the conditions for growing seedlings of tomatoes is to maintain the temperature for 14–16 ° C during the 6 days, 10–12 ° C at night, and then raise the temperature during the day to 24 ° C and at night to 12–14 ° C. Tomatoes are plants of a long day. Therefore, another condition for the cultivation of tomato seedlings in the period from February to March is the illumination with a fluorescent lamp, thus extending the day to 12-14 hours.
The ground in the container is leveled, moderately moisturized and slightly compacted. It is not recommended to make any grooves. Tweezers need to expand the swollen seeds on the surface of the earth in rows. The distance between the seeds in a row is 2 cm, between rows 3-4 cm.
To grow tomato seedlings at home strong, you should not thicken the planting: when the plants and the ground are not ventilated, there is a danger of the emergence of a black leg disease. The seeds spread out on the surface of the container in the container should be pressed into the stick to a depth of 1 cm and covered with earth. Small seeds do not need to sprinkle, large sprinkled with compost or vermiculite to a depth equal to two diameters of the seed. Sprinkle the seeds in an even layer, sifting the compost through a sieve. After the powder should be applied to its surface with a plate. Then cover the container or cup with kraft seeds and put the glass on top. If the paper is damp, you need to change it.
With a shallow planting it happens that the tomato seed beds cannot shed the seed coat and open (this also indicates unacceptably dry air). Such shoots lag far behind in growth, and sometimes they die. If this happens, you need to sprinkle the seedlings as soon as possible several times with warm water. When the seed coat softens, the strong shoots will shed it themselves. You can gently pull off the soft peel with tweezers, trying not to damage the cotyledon leaves. And one more tip on how to grow healthy tomato seedlings: it’s better to remove weak plants immediately.
How to grow strong, healthy tomato seedlings at home
When growing seedlings of tomatoes from seeds, it is better if the container is small, then one variety can be sown in one container. Different varieties, with the same preparation, can sprout at different times. It often happens that one variety has already ascended, but others do not, but in order to not sprout the seedlings, you have to rearrange the entire container to a bright and cool place, where the temperature during the day is 17–20 ° C as shoots most often pulled out at night). And those seeds that have not yet grown, need a temperature of 25-30 ° C.
Ideal for growing seedlings is a loose, porous soil that allows water to pass through, but at the same time is quite moisture-consuming. In such a soil, moisture is absorbed instantly when watered, and its surplus flows without delay. Contrary to popular belief, a highly nourishing soil for young seedlings is not useful, it is good only for adult plants. A high concentration of nutrients in the soil delays the germination of seeds, slows its growth, can provoke diseases. Therefore, it is recommended to use a moderately fertile soil, and during growth always supply the seedlings with nutrition using fertilizer irrigation.
How to grow tomato seedlings strong and healthy? Seedlings should receive food constantly, but little by little. Doses of nutrients required for adult vegetable crops are detrimental to their shoots. The roots of the seedlings should absorb only readily available salts dissolved in the soil solution.
How to grow good tomato seedlings at home
Tomato seedling at home
The emergence of seedlings is a very important moment. Usually shoots appear after 3 days. As soon as shoots appear, remove the paper and lift the glass. According to the technology of growing seedlings of tomatoes, after a few days, remove the glass and move the container to a well-lit place, where direct sunlight does not fall. Containers located on the windowsill need to be rotated every two days. In the first 2-2.5 weeks, seedlings need to be illuminated daily for 12-14 hours (200 watts per 1 m2). Lamps are located at a height of 8-12 cm above the seedlings and raise as it grows.
To grow healthy seedlings of tomatoes at home as strong as possible, after emergence in the boxes with seedlings 1-2 times sprayed with thawed or rain water or a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate.
With the emergence of mass shoots, the temperature must be reduced to 14-13 ° C during the week so that the seedlings are stronger and the root system develops better.
Further temperature can be increased depending on the degree of illumination. Do not let the soil dry. For irrigation it is better to use a sprayer that gives thin streams. Watering should be no more than two times a week. With a lack of light, the seedling at the seedling is pulled out, on which precious reserves of the seed are spent to the detriment of the development of the roots and leaves. Extrusion takes on particularly harmful forms at high air temperatures, that is, when the brightness and temperature do not match.
As you can see, it is not as easy to grow tomato seedlings as it may seem at first glance. But following all the recommendations, you will always achieve excellent results.
How to grow strong and healthy tomato seedlings from home seeds on a windowsill
Seedlings of tomato seeds at home on the windowsill
Seedlings before watering a little water so as not to cause its strong growth. One week after germination, the container is again moved to a warmer place. When the plants get a little stronger, they are periodically taken out to the balcony, if the temperature outside is not below +8 ° C (the weather should be windless). When the first true sheet appears, the daytime temperature is dramatically raised to 20-22 ° C, choosing the warmest and lightest places in the apartment. Plants continue to periodically make the balcony, hardening them. Sometimes in warm weather, you can leave them there at night. Watering is still rare, only when they notice a clear drying out of the soil.
Another recommendation on how to grow tomato seedlings on a healthy window sill is to apply supplements after germination every 10 days, starting from the tenth day. The following solutions are recommended: 100 g of fresh chicken manure per 10 liters of water, 300 g of cow manure or slurry per 10 liters of water. Both solutions are infused day and filtered through before use.
And how to grow homemade seedlings of tomatoes, if there is no litter or manure? In this case, it can be filled with compost or humus infusion - 500–700 g per 10 liters of water, infused for 2–3 days with occasional stirring.
To grow tomato seedlings at home will help the video below:
The technology of growing seedlings of tomatoes: picking
When growing seedlings of tomatoes, after the second true leaf is formed, the seedlings need to be planted in boxes 12 cm deep. The seedlings are watered abundantly, diving and transplanted into seedlings or pots, falling asleep with earth to the cotyledon leaves.
It is important to take only well-developed plants for picking, without deformed, ugly leaves or signs of other deviations. All spoiled plants can be thrown away, it is impossible to get a decent harvest from them. After picking, out of 12 plants, 8-10 remain.
Picking a tomato seedling
During the cultivation of tomato seedlings before picking seedlings should be watered well. In banks or cups pour the ground, lightly tamping, tapping the bottom of the table. A special round rod with a diameter of 17-20 mm, slightly pointed at the end, in the center of the cup you need to make a depression almost to the very bottom. At the bottom throw one grain of superphosphate. Carefully pry off the tomato plant with a fork and, holding it by the cotyledon leaves, carefully remove it from the drawer. The plant must be brought into such a state: remove the cotyledons and the first two true leaves. To do this, you can put a sprout on your left palm and carefully cut it all off with scissors. Lightly shake the lumps of earth on the roots of the plant so that they freely pass into the hole in the ground. Then the dive-down plant is lowered into the prepared cup. The hole is filled by tapping on the walls of the cup. Then they tamp the ground a little more with a tap on the glass table. After this, the plant is watered under the root with a solution of sodium humate (1 g per 2 l of water). Not more than 30 ml.
Further, according to the technology of growing seedlings of tomatoes, after watering in a glass, you need to fill up a little bit of earth and powder everything with ashes. Immediately after transplanting plants must be removed from the sun. Two days later, we return the seedlings to the windowsill, continuing to illuminate with fluorescent lamps.
About a week later, tomato seedlings take root, gives additional roots and starts to grow.
About 10 days after the picking, a new root system is formed and the plants are noticeably growing. Under them pour a little ground. If ready-made soils for seedlings are used, then the seedlings can be additionally not fed. But usually, when growing seedlings, 2 supplements are made: the first 10 days after the pick-up (5 g of urea, 35 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water), the second dressing is done after 2 weeks (10 g of urea, 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g potassium sulfate). There are special fertilizers for fertilizing seedlings of vegetable crops.
How to grow high-quality, healthy tomato seedlings at home
In order to grow tomato seedlings at home as strong and healthy as possible, you need to take care of the proper capacity for seedlings. You should know that the long-term cultivation of seedlings in individual containers of a small volume has a bad effect on the quality of seedlings. Limited capacity does not allow the root system to develop normally: the roots are bent, there is a "tangle".
Capacity for growing seedlings should have reliable drainage holes that do not swim when wet, low thermal conductivity of the walls, which protects the roots from sharp temperature fluctuations, opaque walls, which protects the roots from light, the rigidity of the form, which will exclude mobility of the soil and injury to the roots when moving containers .
When growing seedlings of tomatoes at home in order for the roots of seedlings enough space, it can be transplanted again. Overgrown young plants, as a rule, do not have enough light. As a result, the plants are stretched, become long, brittle, their stems become thinner.
Knowing how to grow healthy tomato seedlings, you can cause artificial growth retardation, lowering the temperature to 10-12 ° C, reduce watering, reduce lighting and gradually lower the temperature to 8 ° C. You can also slow down the growth of plants by picking. Each pick holds the growth of plants for a week and, moreover, the plants become resistant to adverse conditions.
Proper care when growing tomato seedlings
To remove the plants from the state of conservation, it is necessary to gradually increase the temperature and illumination within 3 days, and feed them after 6 days.
Proper care when growing tomato seedlings
When caring for tomato seedlings, when growing at home, the feed solution should be prepared as follows: 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate, 15 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water. There also pour 100 ml of water extract ash (1 cup per 1 liter of water). Cook ash extract for 1 day before feeding. Consumption rate - 1 bucket per 1 m2 of seedlings.
To grow sturdy, loose seedlings, it is necessary to adjust the ratio of the amount of fertilizer in the soil mix. So, when caring for tomato seedlings during cultivation at home, for preparing the mixture before picking, you need to add as much superphosphate and ash as was added for the first time, the amount of nitrogen remained at the same level bordering on the disadvantage.
If there is a noticeable lack of nitrogen in the color of the leaves, then nitrogen in the form of foliar top dressing - 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 l of water at the rate of 2 l of solution per 1 m2 of the box. At the end of March, in the phase of 4 true leaves, the seedlings need to swoop again, but in the greenhouse.
If the seedlings overgrown, it should be transplanted (sometimes 2-3 times), laying a long stem in a spiral and falling asleep with earth. Thus, you will create conditions for the formation of additional roots and shorten the stem.
There is another way to grow strong seedlings of tomatoes, which are often used by experienced gardeners, is to cut the sprouts. So that the overgrown tomato seedlings are not lost, the long plant of the seedlings is cut into 3-4 pieces, dipped into a jar of water (like flowers) and instead of one seedling root you will get 3-4 plants. In the water on the stems, the root system is formed rather quickly, and such seedlings are quite suitable for planting in the greenhouse.
Before planting a plant in a greenhouse, they should be hardened. Approximately 10–12 days before planting in quiet, warm weather, potted plants begin to endure into the air. It should be noted that the seedlings grown on the window may burn on a sunny day for 20-30 minutes, so you should take it for a walk carefully. On a sunny day, the first walking is about 15 minutes. On an overcast day, you can take out for half an hour or an hour. Every day, the time the seedlings stay in the air increases. Seedling is accustomed to sunlight gradually. In the last days before planting, seedlings are left on the street for the whole day.
Now that you know how to grow tomato seedlings from seeds at home, it's time to talk about growing seedlings in a greenhouse.
Growing tomato seedlings in a greenhouse (with video)
In central Russia, after the seedlings, several times (up to three times) transplanted into indoor, home conditions, can be grown in a greenhouse on a garden plot, and after that already planted in a permanent place in a garden bed. The mistake is made by those gardeners who do not use the growing of seedlings in greenhouses. They immediately from the room carry plants to the beds. In this case, the results are unsatisfactory. When grown in a greenhouse, tomato seedlings, depending on the weather, can be kept for 50-60 days. It is necessary to transplant it from a greenhouse to a bed, when the air temperature at night reaches 10 ° C. This happens by mid-June.
Growing tomato seedlings in the greenhouse in the photo
It is necessary to transplant seedlings in a greenhouse on a quiet day at an air temperature not lower than 8 ° C. The temperature of the soil in the greenhouse by this time should be 15- 18 ° C.
Теплица, отведенная под выращивание рассады томатов для открытого грунта, нужно подготовить с особенной тщательностью. Почвенная смесь в таком парнике должен быть плодородным и рыхлым. Ее готовят из 70—80 % хорошо разложившегося торфа и 20—30 % заготовленной с лета суглинистой дерновой земли с навозом или фекалиями. На 1 м3 смеси добавляют 3—5 кг извести или 10—15 кг древесной золы.
Парник с осени набивается сухими листьями для меньшего промерзания. Теперь их нужно рынуть, продезинфицировать 5%-м раствором формалина и набить навозом (за 2 недели до посадки). Толщина слоя не более 60 см. По верху его насыпают слой древесных опилок (не толще 2 см). On sawdust put well-fertilized soil with a thickness of 15 cm.
After burning up and settling the manure, sprinkle with a layer of ash 3 mm and fill it with a layer of soil mixture 15-18 cm thick. Spread a 10x10 cm scheme on it. When the seedlings in the greenhouse are well established, it is necessary to spray with 0.1% boric acid solution, and in a day to conduct additional feeding: pour 12 liters of chicken manure infusion, 100 g of ash extract, 2.5 g of potassium permanganate, 1.5 g of boric acid into a 12-liter bucket. Before feeding, water the plants - 5 liters per 1 m2 with a water temperature of 18 ° C. Top dressing to carry out between rows at the rate of 100 ml of solution for each plant.
In the period of growing seedlings in greenhouses, plants develop in conditions that differ sharply from the conditions of open ground. This explains poor survival rate, stunting and slow rooting of unhardened seedlings when transplanted into open ground.
Hardening of plants consists in their gradual adaptation to the conditions of open ground by changing the regime in the greenhouse in the last days before planting.
To accustom tomatoes to better lighting, lower temperature and humidity, 15 days before they are planted in open ground, frames are removed from greenhouses if the air temperature in the shade is not lower than 10 ° C. In the first 2-3 days, the frames are removed for several hours in the afternoon, and then for the whole day. After 4-7 days, greenhouses are left open overnight. In case of freezing, they are immediately closed with frames.
In the last 5–8 days before planting, especially if the weather is warm, the seedlings grow very quickly and sometimes stretch out, which is especially undesirable. To delay the growth of seedlings in these last days, you can stop watering. Tomatoes during this period are watered only if the plants wither in the middle of the day.
During the quenching period, the soil in the greenhouse must be cut 2-3 times along the rows and between the plants in a row with a knife in order to, as already mentioned, enhance the formation of roots and create a solid earth cube near the root system.
Seedling, hardened, more cold and drought-resistant. When transplanted, it is well rooted and retains leaves and buds.
Watch the video "Growing tomato seedlings in the greenhouse", where all the main agricultural methods are shown:
Preparing for planting tomatoes in open ground seedlings
Planting tomatoes in open ground seedlings on the photo
Timely and high-quality planting tomatoes hardened seedlings - one of the conditions for obtaining high yields. In early June, when the threat of frost has passed, seedlings are planted in open ground. If the seedlings are properly grown, then when they are planted in the ground they must be strong plants 30–35 cm high and with a stem 8–10 mm in diameter. They should be 7-9 leaves and the first flower brush. After this, the plants are abundantly watered, and the soil is mulched. Weather for this choose cloudy and windless. If the seedlings are hardened, then shading it, as a rule, is not required.
Before planting tomato seedlings in open ground, it is important to choose the right place. Ideally, this should be the sunniest and warmest place on the site. The bed near the south or south-west wall of the house will be especially good. In the best case - the wall should be white, for better reflection of sunlight. If the walls were not at hand, it would be nice to make scenes from tall plants, especially along the northern side of the garden bed. Beans, sunflowers and other tall plants are fine.
To prevent damage to tomatoes, common diseases in the area are not recommended to grow them in the same area earlier than four years, and after related crops (potatoes, peppers, eggplants, physalis) - three years later. For planting tomato seedlings in open ground, cabbage, cucumbers and onions on a turnip are considered to be the best predecessors. It is impossible to grow potatoes and tomatoes side by side, as phytophtora appears on potatoes earlier and can spread to tomatoes.
Before planting seedlings of tomatoes in open ground, the soil must be prepared in autumn. On exhausted acidified (acidity below 5.5) and poorly fertilized plots for autumn digging or repacking, plots per 1 m2 contribute 0.5–0.8 kg of lime, 6–8 kg of organic fertilizers (manure, bird droppings, compost, peat) and 30 - 50 g of superphosphate.
If a sufficient amount of fertilizer (up to 10 kg per 1 m2) was applied to the previous crop in the fertile land, then the land allotted for growing tomatoes has only been dug up since autumn. Spring tillage is reduced to digging and repeated loosening to keep the site clean of weeds. In the spring digging of soil per 1 m2, 20–30 g of superphosphate and 20–25 g of potash fertilizers are introduced. If for any reason organic fertilizers have not been applied since autumn, they are evenly scattered over the site and buried during the spring digging. Before planting under the last loosening of the soil, 1 g of potash and 20-30 g of nitrogen fertilizers are introduced per 1 sq. M.
In areas with heavy waterlogged soils, tomatoes make ridges up to 1 m wide or ridges 60–70 cm apart from each other.
How to plant tomatoes in open ground: planting tomatoes
Tomatoes are planted in open ground on a flat surface and ridges in rows, the distance between which is 60–70 cm, and on the ridge - in 2–3 rows with a distance of 30–50 cm row from the row. On all types of surfaces, the distance between plants in a row is 25-30 cm.
Planting tomato seedlings in open ground
The holes are dug 40x40 cm in size, with a depth on a spade bayonet. Scatter the ground from the holes in the plot (and if it is a pity, they add it to the compost — the ground is necessary there, for the reproduction of the necessary bacteria), and one or two humus buckets fall asleep in the hole (better than a sheet or dung two or three years old), —200 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium chloride and urea, 50 g of ash. All this in the hole is thoroughly mixed with the ground (with humus).
Carefully selected from the greenhouse seedlings are transferred to the landing site. Fallen seedlings do not take root well and are far behind in growth, so seedlings cannot be harvested a few hours before planting. Planted seedlings somewhat deeper than she grew in the greenhouse. The roots of the seedlings are carefully compressed by the ground, without bending, so that their ends are directed to the bottom of the hole. After planting, seedlings of tomatoes should be watered again and sprinkle the hole with dry soil.
Undisturbed seedlings (25-30 cm) are planted vertically, falling asleep with soil only pot. If the seedlings for some reason stretched to 35-45 cm and the stem was planted when planting in the soil, then this is a mistake. The stem covered with soil mix immediately gives additional roots, which stops the growth of the plant and contributes to the falling off of the flowers from the first hand. Therefore, if the seedlings
When planting tomatoes in open ground, seedlings make a hole 12 cm deep, the second hole overgrown in it, then you need to plant it as follows, deeper into the height of the pot, put a pot of seedlings into it and fill the second hole with the ground, while the first hole remains open. After 12 days, as soon as the seedlings are well accustomed, fill the hole with earth.
If the seedlings stretched to 100 cm, it should be planted on the garden bed so that the top would rise 30 cm above the ground. The seedlings should be planted in one row in the middle of the garden. The distance between the plants should be 50 cm. To do this, on a bed at an appropriate distance, insert pegs no more than 60 cm high. Next, make a groove with a depth of 70 and a depth of 5-6 cm from each peg (in no case can you plant seedlings into the soil to a greater depth , since in early spring the land was not yet warmed up and the root with the stems was rotting, the seedlings would die). At the end of the groove, dig a hole to place a pot with a root system. The hole and groove is watered, planted with a pot of roots and covered with soil. Then, a stalk without leaves is laid in the grooves (3-4 days before planting, the leaves are cut so that at the base of the main stalk there remain 2-3 pens, which 2-3 days before planting, they dry out and fall off easily without damaging the stalk) . Next, the stem is fixed in two places with a slatted aluminum wire, covered with soil and lightly tamped. The remaining stem (30 cm) with leaves and a flower brush is loosely attached by a figure eight with plastic twine to the pegs.
The bed with planted overgrown tomato seedlings during the summer period is not loosened, not spud. If the prikopannye stems are bare at high tide, it is necessary to make mulching (sprinkling) a layer of 5-6 cm peat or a mixture of peat and sawdust (1: 1).
The first 10-12 days, not counting the day of planting, it is better not to water the plants. In the future, water the tomato rarely and warm water. This stimulates root branching.
Methods of growing seedlings of tomatoes engineer Maslov
In the eighties of the 20th century, an engineer from the Moscow region, Igor Maslov, developed a method of planting tomatoes lying down, thereby becoming many times more to get a harvest of tomatoes from one bush. He believes that in order to ensure the pouring of a large number of fruits, we need a powerful root system. And he advises to get it in two ways.
The first one is planting seedlings not vertically, as is customary, but lying down. Not only the root, but 2/3 of the stem is laid into the prepared furrow, after removing the leaves from this part. They fall asleep with a layer of soil at 10-12 cm. The plant is laid strictly from south to north, so that as it grows it stretches towards the sun, straightens and grows vertically. On the buried part of the stem roots are quickly formed, which are included in the overall power system. Moreover, these roots are several times larger than the main one in their size and effectiveness.
Another method of growing seedlings of tomatoes engineer Maslov is even easier and is available to any gardener. The first side shoots - stepchildren are not removed, but let them grow backwards. Tear off leaves from them, bend down to the ground and cover with a layer of soil of 10-12 cm. Scattered stepchildren quickly grow. Within a month, they are difficult to distinguish from the main plant, both in height and in the number of ripened fruits. It is characteristic that abundant fruiting begins in close proximity to the soil. Tomato plants are not only not afraid of frequent transplants, but, on the contrary, love them. After each transplant, the plants take root even more, gain strength very quickly, grow well and bear fruit abundantly.
Varieties for the Urals and Siberia
- Ultra early - early variety. Bush low, up to 50 centimeters. Tomato weight - 100 grams. Fruiting occurs within 1.5 months after sowing. Cultivated variety in open field and greenhouse conditions.
- Demidov - undersized variety, whose height reaches 50 centimeters. Tomato weight - 200 grams. The taste is pleasant, sweet.
- Königsberg - indeterminate mid-season variety. The height of the bush - 2 meters. Fruiting begins 115 days after sowing. The average weight of a tomato is 280-350 grams. Cultivated variety in open field and greenhouse, greenhouse.
- Heavyweight Siberia - large-fruited variety grown in open field. The height of the bush - 60-100 centimeters. Fruit weight - 400-900 grams.
- Wonder of the earth - greenhouse high-yielding variety. The bush comes up to 2 meters. The average weight of a tomato is 500 grams. The color is pink.
- Altaic - indeterminantny greenhouse hybrid. The bush is tall, 1.5 meters high. Fruiting grade starts at 110-115 day. Tomatoes are rounded flat. The flesh is fleshy. Weigh - 250-300 grams. The fruiting period is extended.
- Grandma's secret - large-fruited variety. Tomato weight reaches 0.9-1 kg. The height of the bush - 1.5-1.7 meters.
Cultivated variety in greenhouse conditions, under the film and unprotected soil. Fruiting occurs in 98-100 days.
- Scarlet candles - simultaneously ripening variety. Fruits in 105-116 days. Bush is tall, up to 2 meters. The plant needs a garter. Fruits elongated, weigh 100-120 grams.
- Pink honey - greenhouse variety with pink fruits. Ripening tomato is 109-115 days. The height of the bush reaches 70-120 centimeters. Tomatoes are sweet. Fruit weight - 550-800 grams.
You can also grow varieties and hybrids such as: Coin, Intuition, Button, Nevsky, My love and others.
Preparing land and seeds for seedlings
For sowing seedlings, you can use ready-made store stock or prepare it yourself.
For this you need to take:
- part of peat,
- part of rotted humus or compost,
- part of turf or leaf land
- 0.5 parts of river sand.
A glass of wood ash or crushed chalk and a tablespoon of complex mineral fertilizers are added to 10 liters of soil mixture. Everything is thoroughly mixed.
The first thing to do when preparing seeds is to do their culling. Salt solution is used for this. Per liter of water is taken 30 grams of salt, poured and stirred. In the resulting solution are placed the seeds for 15 minutes, all the surfaced cleaned.
The selected seed then undergoes decontamination.
There are several options for this procedure:
- For half a glass of water, take 1 gram of potassium permanganate. Dried seeds on a napkin are poured into a bag of cloth or gauze and sent to the solution for 15 minutes.
- In a solution of phytosporin, seeds are soaked for 1-2 hours.
- Instead of potassium permanganate and Fitosporin can take soda solution.
- For half a glass of water is taken 0.5 grams of soda. In solution, the seeds are aged for 1 day. This solution disinfects and speeds up the fruiting of tomatoes.
- Disinfection can be done with aloe juice. It is diluted 1: 1 with water and seeds are placed in it for 12-24 hours. The solution also helps to increase yield, improves the quality of the fruit, enhances the immunity of plants.
After disinfection, the seeds are soaked in a solution of boric acid (1 gram per liter of water) for 24 hours.
Then they are placed in a solution of any growth stimulant (for example, Appina, sodium humate, potassium humate, Virtana micro).
Special boxes, containers or tapes, pots, peat tablets, cups are taken for planting.
Planting tanks are filled with soil mixture. Peat tablets are placed in a transparent container.
In the boxes (containers), furrows are made 3-5 centimeters wide apart and 1 centimeter deep. Drinks are made in cups, tapes or pots. The seeds are laid in the furrows at a distance of 1 centimeter from each other. 3-6 seeds are planted in pots, and there are 2-4 seeds in each peat tablet. They are sprinkled with a thin layer of soil.
Above the tank with sown seeds covered with foil or glass. For germination seeds need a temperature of 30 degrees, so the capacity is set near the heat source, but not on the battery. After the occurrence of the first shoots, protective cover is removed.
Care for seedlings at home
When shoots appear, the seedlings for a week are transferred to a cooler place, with an air temperature of 16 degrees. A week later, the seedlings returned to the room, with a temperature of 20-25 degrees during the day and 16 degrees at night. Drafts can not be allowed!
The tomato seedlings have very tender roots and therefore they need to be watered very carefully. Once a week the plants are watered around the edge of the tank from a watering can without a nozzle and sprayed with a spray gun, a humidifier. Spraying is carried out once a day, and at high temperatures, 2 times.
Young seedlings require a large amount of light. After they hatch, they are placed on a well-lit window sill, a loggia. If there is a lack of light, a fitolamp is installed nearby. Light day should be 16 hours. From time to time, containers with plants need to be turned so that the plants do not stretch in one direction.
If the seedlings grow in a heap, the first dive is carried out after the formation of the first true leaves, by about 10 days after sowing. A dive is carried out to a depth of 3-4 centimeters in pots, cups or boxes. The width between the plants should be 5 to 5 or 7 to 7 centimeters (depending on the volume of capacity).
What to do if tomato seedlings are pulled out
Tomato seedlings need additional feeding in 2-2.5 weeks after germination of the first shoots. Then feeding is made 1 time in 10 days. As a fertilizer, you can use diluted mullein infusion (chicken droppings), wood ash, crushed egg shells or complex mineral fertilizers with a mandatory content of nitrogen, for example, nitrophos (1 tablespoon per liter of water).
Top dressing is brought after watering in the evening or in the early morning.
Hardening sprouts begins after the appearance on the plants of 3-4 true leaves. Suitable temperature for conducting quenching is 15-20 degrees.
Major cultivation mistakes
Of the most common mistakes in the cultivation of tomato seedlings can be identified as follows:
- Wrong grade,
- unprepared or contaminated soil pests, diseases,
- too early sowing of seeds for seedlings,
- insufficient or on the contrary excessive watering,
- failure to comply with the temperature regime of plants,
- oversupply or lack of lighting,
- late picks,
- no or insufficient hardening,
- Wrong site selection for planting seedlings
- planting tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse,
- wrong choice of film for greenhouse,
- неправильно проведённая посадка растений на постоянное место роста,
- высадка растений в неподходящие сорту условия,
- чрезмерный полив растений,
- отсутствие прищипывания и пасынкования.
При выращивании большого объёма помидор лучше выбирать гибридные сорта, которые имеют высокую устойчивость к болезням и негативным воздействиям окружающей среды.
Почве при посеве и посадке нужно обрабатывать дезинфицирующими препаратами.
При раннем посеве семян растения до пересадки в грунт перерастают, что приводит к плохому укоренению.
Watering need tomatoes as the soil dries. Irrigation of seedlings is carried out daily.
The temperature of the content of seedlings during the day should be 18-25 degrees, at night + 13-16 degrees.
Lack of light or around-the-clock lighting of plants weakens them.
Pick up plants should be carried out during the formation of the first true leaves.
The absence or insufficient hardening leads to a weakening of the plants after transplantation.
Land for planting tomatoes should be well lit and be closed from the gusty wind.
Neighborhood tomato and cucumber in one greenhouse has a depressing effect on crops.
When choosing a film for a greenhouse or greenhouse, it is better to choose a hydrophilic one. It repels water and remains transparent for longer.
Planted plants need to be well spilled wells. Watering the seedlings after planting is not worth it, because it affects the passage of air to the roots and makes rooting plants in a new place difficult.
The reasons for this are: sharp temperature drops, a short growing season, poor pollination due to high humidity in the greenhouse.
You can not neglect pinching and pinching. From these procedures depends on the yield of any varieties.
To grow a tomato must be treated with responsibility. From the observance of all factors that can harm plants, depends on the entire future harvest.