Persian daisy is also called feverfew. This plant is a garden perennial. In the people he is known as a priest and chamomile Dalmatian. Such a comparison is associated with the similarity of the forms of the inflorescence: the core is large yellow, and around it are many petals.
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Feverfew has a special place in gardening due to its decorative properties. There are many colors: cherry, purple, white. Inflorescences themselves are both simple and terry. The popularity of culture is connected not only with a beautiful appearance, but also with insecticidal, acaricidal properties. If you plant pyrethrum near other flowers, trees, they are not afraid of various insect pests. Pyrethrum also protects against ticks. It is the aroma of Persian chamomile that repels parasites. In addition, to grow feverfew is a snap, as it is unpretentious.
Chamomile feverfew belongs to the Compositae family. Homeland is North America and Eurasia. It is a perennial herbaceous type. The name is associated with the Greek word "fever", as parts of the plant contain the active ingredient parthenolide, which has a healing effect.
There are more than 100 types of pyrethrum chamomile, but they all have certain similar characteristics. Stems are usually located straight, branching out. In height there are 30-70 cm, although there are also dwarf bushes up to 10 cm. The leaves are usually bright green, in shape they are pinnate. Focus on the bottom of the plant.
Peduncles high. On them are baskets, inflorescences. Usually they are crimson, pink, red, white. The diameter of the flower is 6-9 cm. The core is larger in size than that of garden daisies. Her color is bright yellow. The flowering period is long - from the beginning of summer to the end of September. In the wild, pyrethrum breeds self-sowing, but it does not live for more than 6 years, so it is usually grown in gardens as an annual. Strong sprouts quickly emerge from seeds, so it is easier to grow new plants every year than to constantly fight for the life of existing ones.
One of the most popular types is feverfew. Homeland is considered the southern part of Europe. Bush branched. In height to 60 cm. Leaves are light green with a yellow tint. There are terry and simple inflorescences. Usually they are white or light yellow color. Due to the decorative nature, such varieties are most often grown:
- 1. Gold Ball. It has a thin stem with a height of not more than 30 cm. The inflorescences are spherical, up to 4 cm in diameter. They are usually bright yellow in color. This variety is used for group plantings or grown for bouquets.
- 2. Double Wight. Inflorescence terry, small. Remind white cloud.
- 3. Schneebal A low bush - up to 23 cm. The inflorescences are white.
The next common variety is feverfew pink. It is popularly called Persian chamomile. Differs in high decorative effect. On one stalk appears up to 5 small inflorescences. Petals are pink, varying degrees of intensity of this color. The height of the culture to 70 cm. Great for planting in the center of the flower beds. You can make on the site a mixture with other species. The most famous varieties are:
- 1. Robinson. This hybrid variety has pale pink, white and bright red petals.
- 2. James Kelver. Baskets of rich red color.
- 3. Vanessa. Inflorescences are large, terry. Usually they are different shades of pink.
- 4. Brenda. Blossoming is plentiful, inflorescences of a red shade settle down densely.
Of all the varieties of pink pyrethrum is composed of a mixture, which is called "Hybrid."
A special place is occupied by shield feverfew. This species is a perennial. The bush is much like a field daisy. Stems are up to 1.2 m high. On one bush there appear a multitude of small baskets, which are gathered into inflorescences-shields.
Fetrum large-leaved perennial habitat is the Caucasus. Inflorescences are small, whitish. They gather in shields. At the end of flowering, the plant acquires a brown-red tint.
A separate species - feverfew beautiful. Stems are low, inconspicuous plant. Single baskets, color - milk. A popular variety is Caucasian chamomile, which has white petals. This species in the wild is found in northern China, Mongolia and Siberia.
Cultivation from seeds is the main way of chamomile pyrethrum breeding. Previously on the site you need to fertilize the soil. For the plant is more suitable weakly acidic soil. To reduce acidity, it is recommended to use dolomite flour and hydrated soda.
Pyrethrum chamomile can be grown seedling way:
- 1. Prepare containers. It is recommended to first choose large boxes for germinating seeds. But then you still have to choose smaller pots for planting seedlings.
- 2. Put small stones on the bottom of the container for drainage. Stagnant water must not be allowed.
- 3. Fill the prepared soil in the tank and pour it over.
- 4. Spread the seeds over the surface of the soil and sprinkle with a thin layer or not to fill them with earth at all, only slightly pressing them.
- 5. Spray the seeds with water from a spray bottle.
- 6. Cover the container with a film and put in a darkened warm room.
Usually the first shoots appear after 1.5-2 weeks. Then the shelter must be removed and rearranged containers with flowers in a well-lit place. When they get stronger, they are either planted in separate pots, or transplanted into flower beds in the garden. The latter can be done when there is no risk of frost re-occurrence. Best of all landing in an open ground to carry out at the end of May. In one well placed 2-3 plants.
Plant pyrethrum chamomile and you can immediately into open ground. This is supposed to be done at the end of spring or at the beginning of summer. Preliminary soil needs to be fertilized. Pyrethrum seeds are very small, so that when shoots appear, they will have to be thinned. When 4 true leaves appear, remove excess plants, leaving only 2 pieces at one growth point. Between the bushes need to leave 30-40 cm distance.
Another way of growing chamomile pyrethrum is the separation of shrubs. It is best to carry out the procedure in the spring. It is necessary to dig a bush neatly without damaging the shoots, divide it into 2-3 parts (only with hands, not garden tools), and then place in new holes. Their size should correspond to the roots of the plant system. After planting, be sure to water the new bushes.
Care in the open ground for chamomile feverfew is simple, as the culture is unpretentious. But it is required to perform elementary actions in order to preserve the decorativeness and health of the bush:
- 1. Watering. It should be abundant and regular, especially in hot summers. Some varieties are drought-resistant, but the lower layer of soil should not be allowed to dry. It is recommended to water with separated water at room temperature.
- 2. Weeding and loosening the soil. It is also required to carry out regularly - preferably after each watering. To eliminate weeds is required not only to make the flowerbed look beautiful and neat. This is important for the health of the feverfew, as the plant will receive more moisture and nutrients. Weeding is the prevention of various pests and diseases. In parallel, it is recommended to loosen the soil so that the roots have access to oxygen.
- 3. Feeding. The first time it should be carried out even at the time of preparation of the soil on the site before planting a pyrethrum. Suitable conventional organic fertilizer. The next feeding is carried out in April. Ammonium nitrate is recommended. It will take 20 grams per square meter. Urea is required during bud formation, but it is used to feed only faded plants.
- 4. Warming. Before wintering, if the climate is harsh enough, the ground part of the shrub needs to be cut off before the onset of frost. Adult shrubs tolerate cold, but young specimens are recommended to cover the fallen leaves.
A pyrethrum requires a sunny plot, so it is assumed before planting that it is not shaded by neighboring plants in this place.
If chamomile pyrethrum grows in the same place for more than one year, then it is necessary to rejuvenate the shrub every 5 years. On the one hand, you need to cut the plant and fill it in the hole of fertile soil. After 3 years, you must do the same, but only with another.
You can collect seeds after flowering and the formation of seed seeds. We need to wait for them to dry out and trim. Then they are supposed to be kept in a dark and cool place so that they completely dry out. After that, you can peel the seeds and sift them to separate the husks and debris. Store only in paper bags.
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More than a hundred years ago, people discovered such a useful property of Persian chamomile as the negative impact on unwanted domestic insects. It's all about the alkaloid pyrethrin, substance contained in this plant. This substance causes paralysis in many insects. Even in ancient times hostesses collected feverfew flowers, dried and ground. The resulting powder was added to the bed and bed clothes, crumbled in the corners of the hut. Broth washed floors and pet hair. This allowed to get rid of fleas, bedbugs, cockroaches, spiders and otherunwanted parasites.
However, one should know that in the sunlight the properties of chamomile are destroyed, therefore, dried plants should be stored in the dark, and processing should be carried out regularly, at least once every two or three days.
Pyrethrum is grown both with the help of seedlings, and by sowing in the open land, and cuttings.
Sowing on seedlings begins in late March - early April. Since the seeds are small, you can simply mix them with the soil, and sprinkle them a little. Dish with seedlings should be covered with greenhouse film, which should be removed periodically for ventilation. Shoots will appear within ten days. When forming three leaves, it is possible to carry out a picking out in different capacities. Planted seedlings should be kept warm for thirty days, then it can be tempered, bringing it to cool and pouring with cooled water. By mid-May, seedlings can be planted in a permanent place.
Pyrethrum is planted in the ground when warm weather is established. The seeds mix with the soil and press down a little. When shoots appear, they can be thinned out, leaving the distance between the plants about twenty centimeters.
To propagate the Persian (Dalmtic) chamomile using cuttings, young shoots should be used, which are located near the roots. It is necessary to conduct grafting either in late spring or in summer. The selected shoot is separated from the main plant, placed in prepared land and covered with greenhouse film. The film is periodically removed to remove accumulated condensate and to ventilate the seedling. After full rooting of the plant, it can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Persian, it is a Dalmatian chamomile is a perennial plant, however, over time, the bushes begin to grow, and the quality of the flowers becomes worse - they shrink and lose color, and then the flowering may stop altogether. To avoid these troubles, it is necessary to propagate pyrethrum by dividing approximately once every four years. To do this, the bush must be dug, shake off the excess ground, and neatly divided into two or more parts, depending on the size of the bush. Each of the parts is planted in a new place, watered and cared for, like an ordinary adult bush.
Pyrethrum is a very unpretentious flower. It grows well in open sunny places and in the shade. Quietly tolerates cold, withstands freezing at soil to minus five degrees. It grows well in any kind of soil, except sandstones and wetlands. The rules of care are simple.
- Regular and abundant watering.
- Young bushes need to weed, adult plants independently suppress most weeds.
- It will be useful to pyrethrum shallow loosening of the soil, for better oxygen supply.
- Dry and withered arrows should be promptly removed. If they are not removed, reproduction will occur in a way of self-seeding, which, on the one hand, is convenient, and, on the other, the varieties may mix and the colors of the flowers will change.
- Before winter, the soil should be mulched and covered with sawdust or branches of conifers.
Dalmatian daisy is very resistant to any diseases. They are only possible if there is an infected plant nearby. Pests are also not terrible, except for the black aphid, which very rarely can appear on the trunk of flowers. To destroy aphids, it is enough to treat the plant with a ready insecticidal preparation.
In the landscape of garden plots, the Dalmatian chamomile is used as a border for the main flowerbed, as a decoration for the paths and curb, to create plots in the country style. Pyrethrum is very good in compositions with ordinary garden daisies, cornflowers, bells, poppies. The plant looks beautiful as an independent decoration of the flowerbed. In cut, these flowers are quite stable, so you can make original bouquet compositions with them.
Chamomile pyrethrum is a very, very unpretentious perennial, it will appeal to any grower both professional and amateur, because care for him is minimal, and the beauty and brightness of the colors of flowers are admirable. Therefore, there is no doubt, you just need to buy a bag of seeds and grow this wonderful plant in your plot, front garden, flower garden or balcony. Persian daisy will look wonderful in any interior and flower garden.
Caucasian chamomile belongs to the Compositae family. This is a herbaceous perennial plant with a creeping rhizome, whose height can reach 50cm. It has double-dissected pinnate leaf plates and single inflorescences of the basket.
The flowering period is at the end of July or August. In the first year of cultivation it forms only a basal rosette of leaves, and in the second and subsequent years it throws out flower stalks. The size of flower baskets is 4-5 cm.
There are two main ways of reproduction of Caucasian chamomile: seed and vegetative. In the first method, sowing seeds produced in late autumn in the ground. They must undergo a process of stratification, in the conditions of open ground this process will be as close as possible to the natural, which in turn will serve as a guarantee of friendly shoots in the spring.
When the vegetative method of reproduction produce division of the bushes Caucasian chamomile. It is best to do this in the spring after the emergence of sprouts or in the second half of the summer, but in such a way that the young plots of the plants have time to root well before the onset of frost.
Tip! If there is no possibility of direct sowing into the ground, artificial stratification can be carried out. To do this, the capacity of the crop is placed for 1 month in the refrigerator.
Medicinal properties: preparation and use
Pyrethrum flowers have insecticidal properties, but they are completely harmless to humans and animals.
For the manufacture of drugs pyrethrin group used flower baskets of plants.
The medicinal effect of chamomile flowers is due to the fact that they contain a toxic substance of a resinous nature called pyrethrin. Which consists of pyrethrolone alkaloid esters and chrysanthemum acids.
When and how to pick daisy flowers
To medicinal raw materials turned out high quality, you must comply with the terms and technology of collection:
- The collection of daisy flowers begins in July,
- The collection period should be at the time when the flower baskets are just beginning to dissolve the edge reed flowers, while the middle ones are still in the budding phase,
- Baskets are cut 1-2 cm below the base of the flower,
- The collection of raw materials is carried out in dry weather.
Collected flower baskets laid out for drying in the open air, as well as chamomile odorous.
Signs of quality raw materials
- Quality raw materials should consist of well-dried flower baskets,
- The rest of the peduncle should not exceed 2 cm,
- The moisture level of the finished product should not exceed 12%. If this indicator is observed, flower baskets, except for the receptacle, are easily rubbed with fingers into coarse powder,
- Готовое сырье имеет своеобразный запах, который обладает способностью вызывать раздражение слизистой носа, тем самым вызывая чихание.
Collections and preparations of Caucasian chamomile are used to combat domestic insects, agricultural pests, as well as in veterinary medicine for the destruction of various parasites.
Caucasian chamomile, or feverfew
The plant grows in natural conditions in the Caucasus in the mountains.
A distinctive feature of Caucasian chamomile - poisonousness. Provides a deadly threat to insects, but it is safe for warm-blooded people and humans. The flowers have an intense red tone.
Interesting. Cultures of pyrethrum red with terry inflorescences of burgundy, pink, milky color are popular.
Culture comes from southern Europe. Most users know chamomile pharmacy, or chamomile matricaria, not by hearsay. Chamomile matricaria, or uterine grass, in Latin sounds like a matrix and is translated as uterus, thanks to its healing properties and its use in gynecology. In the Middle Ages, engaged in the cultivation of grass in the gardens for the pharmacy. It was believed that the medicinal decoctions of feverfew girl matrikaria help with childbirth.
Later, perennial aroused interest, both flower growers and breeders.
In an unpretentious culture other names - chrysanthemum maiden, Turkish chamomile. The plant resembles a chrysanthemum in the form of carved leaves and aroma. The growth of low, strongly branched bushes is 40 cm. There are numerous flowers-balls 2.5 cm in diameter. Terry varieties of chamomile tanacetum are in demand.
Reproduction of Turkish chamomile is self-sowing, it is characterized by vitality and simplicity in the care.
It grows on any soil except sandstones. When heat is required to water and weed early in growth.
In the common people the species is called chamomile. In another way is called shchitkoy tansy. It grows in continental meadows. Pyrethrum cicero has strongly developed roots.
Reference. The height of single stems is 40-120 cm.
Many beautiful baskets are formed during flowering - up to 20 that are covered with a bush. In thyroid inflorescences, as a rule, white color. Culture does not possess varietal varieties.
Dalmatian chamomile, or pyrethrum ash leaves
The structure and color of the baskets is like a daisy because of the white edges and the yellow heart. A lot of natural insecticide is contained in the ash-leaf pyrethrum. Dalmatian plants are used as raw materials for the production of Pyrethrum.
According toinstructions, the drug will reliably protect pets and the home from parasites:
To decorate the site perennial plant cultivated in the Far East and southern Russia. The species is characterized by low frost resistance and demands on lighting.
Big-leaf feverfew, or Piretrum Macrophyllum
Perennial has impressive dimensions - up to 150 cm. Small flowers of white color are collected in large shield-shaped baskets with a diameter of 10 cm. Upon completion of flowering plant color becomes reddish.
Perennial has impressive dimensions - up to 150 cm
Looks great in plantings with decorative cereals.
Pyrethrum Scarlet Star is a spectacular perennial plant that grows up to 0.75 m. The diameter of the inflorescences is 12 cm. The tubular buds have a yellow color, and the reed are an intense red. The star is used for group plantings and for soloing in the front garden, as well as for cutting.
Well packaged with:
Feverfew responds to feed. The plant does not grow more than 4 years in a row on the same bed because of the growth of bushes and the weakening of flowering.
- compatibility with other perennial cultures,
- burgundy flow of petals.
Pyrethrum Comedian - a hybrid with lacy foliage and colorful flowers. The erect peduncle reaches 0.8 m. The inflorescences of the baskets are 7 cm in diameter. The Comedant's tubular flowers have a rich yellow tone, reed buds are juicy and have a red color. Plants are used to decorate the garden area and flower arrangements.
For culture, fertile soil and lit space are preferable. She does not tolerate waterlogging. Lightly shelter for the winter.
When attacking aphids process bushes:
- soapy water
- tobacco dust,
- infusion of wormwood.
Use purchased insecticides.
Culture refers to a variety of feverfew maiden. Ornamental perennial cultivated as an annual plant in Russia. The growth of the stems is up to a maximum of 25 cm. In the terry baskets of the Golden Ball, the diameter is up to 4 cm. The culture is suitable for solo on the garden bed or disembarkation in a group, cutting. Originally looks in bouquet compositions. Feverfew has a tender aroma.
The plant loves loose, drained soil and sun location. Pinch culture responds branched. In case of drought, feverfew is watered. Before budding make complex feed.
Slugs sometimes attack feverfew. They are easy to notice, in addition to their presence they say specific damage on the leaves. Collect pests by hand or use chemicals. Bringing hedgehogs and birds to the garden plot will help out in a battle with slimes.
The growth of pink pyrethrum reaches 70 cm. The plant has large flowers of crimson color, the diameter of which is 10 cm. Harmony is suitable for solo and in a group on a flowerbed. Blooming time is long: the second decade of June and until the beginning of August.
Seedlings - the best way to grow pyrethrum. Plant seed in March-April, deepened by 3 mm. Picks are carried out in individual glasses. Landing on a permanent site is carried out in May. Planted planting - 25 x 30 cm. Seedlings tolerate slight frosts, adults temperature is -4 ° C.
Reference. With the defeat of fusarium, sick bushes do not respond to treatment, they are removed from the soil and eliminated so that the infection does not spread. Earth and other individuals sprayed with fungicides.
Plant height is up to 80 cm. Purple and pinkish inflorescences differ in size and reach a diameter of 10-12 cm. They are used for dacha decor in mixborders.
Paradise loves open sunny and semi-shaded front gardens.
On a note! The flower is unpretentious to the soil, but is susceptible to sub-feed.
Grown seed or rassadnom way.
Apply mineral fertilizers as well as organic fertilizers to the feed. The plants are not fed with nitrogen, otherwise pyrethrum will flow poorly and actively grow greens.
Especially distinguished feverfew red Robinson Giants that reach up to 80 cm in height and have powerful baskets with a diameter of 12 cm. Robinson's pink and carmine reed buds will delight in flowering in the second decade of June. Robinson giants are indispensable for planting in a group, bouquets, rabatok.
Recall on fertilizing organic matter - rotted manure. In dry weather, water regularly. High bushes need to be tied up.
Pyrethrum terry white
A distinctive feature of the plant is dense flowers with a diameter of 5 cm. The growth of white pyrethrum is 0.5 m. Flowering begins with the arrival of summer and lasts the whole of July.
It prefers to grow in the sun and in the penumbra, it is frost-resistant, not susceptible to phyto-illness, responsive to top dressing.
When breeding feverfew, planting and leaving novice gardeners will not have to exert maximum effort. Undemanding plant will thank its owners with beauty and charm. This is not only an amazing flower, but also an effective pest control remedy - that's what feverfew is for the garden.
What does a Persian daisy look like?
The Persian chamomile plant is a small dense bush 30-60 cm high with a dense rosette of leaves near the ground and long peduncles, at the top of each of which is a pink or red inflorescence. The photo below shows an adult flowering bush:
It is noteworthy that, like other plants of the Pyrethrum genus, the Persian chamomile has rather large inflorescences up to 4-5 cm in diameter. This is different from typical daisies, the inflorescences of which usually have a diameter of 1-2 cm. on the peduncles one by one, and the peduncles themselves are quite strong.
What is popularly called the flowers of the Persian chamomile, in fact, are its inflorescences, each of which consists of several hundred true flowers. Look at the photo below:
Here you can see that in the middle of the inflorescence there is a round receptacle with a lot of yellow tubular flowers. Each of them has small petals and anthers, it is these flowers that are pollinated and fruits are fastened in their place.
Along the edges of the receptacle is surrounded by reed flowers of red or pink color, in which the petals grow together and form one large lobe, somewhat curved downwards. These flowers are not pollinated, and their task is only to create a contrasting combination of flowers and attract pollinating insects to inflorescence.
The receptacle of the Persian chamomile itself is flat, and inside it with a vertical section, an empty cavity is not detected. This is a characteristic feature of most plants of the Astrov family, which allows them to be distinguished from typical daisies - members of the genus Matricaria have such a cavity in the receptacle, due to which the receptacle itself is convex, and by the end of flowering becomes cone-shaped.
For example, in the photo below - a close-up of the Persian chamomile inflorescence:
And here is the chamomile inflorescence of the pharmacy:
The leaves of the Persian chamomile are rather long, thick, twice pinnate, and the lower ones are pinned apart. In length, they reach 12-15 cm, create a thick rosette, almost completely covering the soil under the bush. At the same time, the leaves that are closest to the root hibernate and remain in the next year, while those located higher in the winter fall together with the peduncles.
In gardening, a large number of artificial varieties of Persian chamomile are known, the inflorescences of which have different shades of pink and red, can be terry, have large sizes or an unusual shape. Most of these varieties are bred in Europe - Holland, Denmark, Germany - and the USA. In Russia, its most famous variety is Robinson with rich scarlet marginal flowers.
The photo shows the bushes of this variety:
It is the red or pink color of the marginal flowers that is the main difference between Persian chamomile and Dalmatian - a closely related species, the inflorescences of which are always surrounded only by white marginal flowers.
The Persian chamomile is similar in appearance and color to the inflorescences of Caucasian chamomile and chamomile meat-red, and it can be difficult to distinguish it from a layman. Moreover, the ranges of these species partially overlap and in some areas they can be found together.
Where does Persian chamomile grow?
The main area of distribution of Persian chamomile is the northeast of Turkey, the Caucasus and Transcaucasia, including the north of Iran. Here it is found in mountain valleys and on alpine meadows up to a height of 3000 m above sea level, but can also grow on open, well-lit coastal slopes, if higher shadow-forming plants do not create competition for it.
Like most other plants of the Astrov family, Persian chamomile does not tolerate shading and quickly disappears from those places where there are shrubs and trees covering the sun from it.
In gardens and plantations, this species is cultivated almost throughout the world. As a raw material for the production of insecticidal preparations, it is grown in Turkey, Italy, Greece, Spain, Germany, in the USA, and it is found as an ornamental plant in many countries of the world, including in the southern hemisphere.
In the USA, the Persian daisy has already managed to get wild, having spread their gardens and flower gardens to the wild. Here it is found in more than half of the northern states, and in some places has already crossed the border with Canada and is described in the wild from several Canadian provinces.
The composition of the flowers and the insecticidal activity of their components
Persian chamomile flowers contain pyrethrin, a resinous substance, which is a mixture of pyrethrolone esters and chrysanthemum acids. This mixture has a strong poisoning effect on various arthropods - insects, spiders, ticks, millipedes, woodlice - but it is almost harmless to humans and warm-blooded animals, due to which it was previously actively used to fight cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, fleas and ticks.
Today, based on natural pyrethrins, extracted from camomile inflorescences, synthetic pyrethroids are produced, much more effective than their predecessors. Due to this, pyrethrins and the Persian chamomile itself have lost their significance for the national economy, although to some extent they continue to be used in traditional medicine to combat pediculosis and scabies. Also, sometimes all natural supporters use powdered chamomile powdered Persian inflorescences to remove cockroaches and bedbugs from the house, although practice shows that such a struggle is rarely successful and does not allow to remove all insects from the room.
Interestingly, Dalmatian chamomile is more often used as a raw material for insecticide than the Persian or Caucasian. This is due to the fact that the composition of its flowers contains the largest number of insecticidal components. At the same time, the effectiveness of the components of the Persian and Caucasian chamomiles is somewhat higher, therefore, in general, these species can be considered equivalent in their insecticidal activity.
Typical preparation for the destruction of insects on the ground and in animal hair.
The anti-inflammatory component parthenolide, known for its anti-inflammatory activity, is also part of the pyrethrum flowers. At the expense of him from persian chamomile and other plants of the genus Pyrethrum make infusions used in traditional medicine as an external anti-inflammatory, as well as antirheumatic drugs.
Collection and use of Persian chamomile products in everyday life and national economy
Collection of Persian chamomile blossoms is carried out in June-July. The collection time depends on the geography of the plant's growing place and its height above sea level. The north and the higher in the mountains is the gathering place, the later the plant blooms.
Flowering bushes of Persian daisies on a flowerbed.
When collecting, they cut off or cut off flower baskets, on which the marginal flowers were already located horizontally and began to wrap themselves a little with the edges down. At this time, the tubular flowers in the middle just bloom, but the seeds are not yet tied. The number of insecticidal components in the colors at this time is maximum.
After collecting the flower baskets are dried in a well-ventilated area or on the street, protecting them from direct sunlight. The raw material ready for processing has a moisture content of about 12% and consists of baskets with a maximum length of the rest of the peduncle 2 cm. They have a peculiar bitter smell, and the dust from them, getting into the nose, causes sneezing. The taste of such baskets also has a bitterness and is generally unpleasant.
Such dried baskets are ground to a powder that, without further processing, is used to combat arthropods. It is scattered in rooms in places of insect accumulation, on its basis an infusion is prepared, which treats the skin during scabies and lice. It is important to be very careful in this case, and in case of allergy development, immediately discontinue the use of the agent.
Persian chamomile powder can be bought in specialized insecticide shops and in some pharmacies. There are manufacturers that produce branded drugs based on such a powder - Feverfew, Clean House and others. There are practically no differences between such means and self-made powder.
Pyrethrum powder in the form in which it is used to kill cockroaches and bedbugs.
Sometimes an extract is made from powder, which is added to complex insecticidal preparations. However, this is done infrequently, since synthetic analogues of pyrethrins are more preferable as such components of complex means.
At home, can be used as a powder, and whole dried inflorescences. The latter, however, are less effective, since even when in contact with them, insects do not get dirty in an insecticidal product, and the effect is poorly pronounced. If a cockroach or a bug runs across the powder, a large number of small particles stick to its body, and the pyrethrins themselves then have a contact poisoning effect.
Features of growing plants
Persian chamomile is often grown on flower beds, as a beautiful and very unpretentious plant. It is not demanding on the quality of the soil, it grows better on depleted soils with a lot of sand. The main requirement for the normal cultivation of it - placing the plant in a well-lit area, not in the shade.
As a decorative variety is most often grown several varieties:
- Robinson’s Hybrid, or simply Robinson, whose inflorescences can be red, pink, pale pink, and also vary depending on the shape of the size of the inflorescences,
- Eileen Mae Robinson, popular for her white and pink, almost cream color,
Vanessa with terry midpoint,
- Brenda, featuring a large number of small inflorescences.
Inflorescence plants of the genus Vanessa.
В цветниках их используют и как самостоятельные растения, и в качестве способа декорации альпийских город, формирования границ и бордюров. В сложных комплексных клумбах персидская ромашка обычно играет роль растений второго или третьего плана. Наконец, его же часто выращивают на срезку — в воде на цветоносе соцветие может стоять до 2 недель.
To grow a bush of Persian chamomile can be seeds, cuttings and division of the parent bush. All methods are relatively simple, but when sowing seeds, one must remember that it is impossible to independently collect them and sow the second and subsequent generations with high demands on decorative plants. The seeds collected independently can give plants with much less attractive and decorative inflorescences. Guaranteed plant appearance can only be obtained by sowing seeds purchased from breeders.
For the same reason, it makes no sense to collect the seeds from the bushes that have left it. It is more expedient to buy new ones.
Such seeds are very inexpensive, but one of them is guaranteed to germinate a plant with inflorescences of that appearance, as indicated on the package.
For planting a dry well-lit area is selected that will not fall on the shadow of adjacent trees and shrubs. The soil here should be light and drained, without heavy clay. For the future it is worth remembering that pyrethrum tolerate the drying of the soil, but quickly die when it is over-wetted.
Seeds are planted in open ground from mid-spring, when night frosts end, or in the peat-sand substrate for seedlings from the beginning of March. After 2-3 weeks, shoots appear, which after another week are swooped, thinned and planted in open ground. The distance between the bushes should be about 30-40 cm.
Young seedlings of Persian chamomile.
As a perennial, Persian chamomile blooms usually in the second year after sowing. It will not be possible to speed up its flowering - in the sowing year it will not bloom for sure. It is believed, however, that if you plant seeds in June-June, next year the bushes will bloom in the same time as those planted in March. But, in fact, there is no difference in the timing of flowering.
Bushes of the Persian chamomile are easily propagated by dividing and grafting. It is better to perform these operations before flowering in the spring or after fruiting in the fall.
After the development of the bush, it can be formed in various ways, and during flowering, it can remove those flower stalks that violate the general ensemble of the flower bed. However, the most decorative and authentic look bushes among the grass thickets, creating a feeling of wildness and naturalness.
The photo below shows what a large flowerbed with a Persian chamomile looks like:
In winter, the Persian daisy is trimmed so that the basal rosette of leaves remains on the bush, which we spend the winter under snow or in a specially made shelter.
Each bush plant lives about 3-4 years. In those places where a flower bed with a Persian chamomile is formed, planting new bushes two years before the supposed death of old ones is desirable - this will ensure the flower bed will always maintain its flowering condition.
Finally, it is important to remember that with all the unpretentiousness and the presence of insecticidal properties, Persian chamomile can be damaged by pests. First of all, it is slugs and snails, sometimes - parasitic plants. If you find damaged leaves or shoots, you need to identify such a pest and take measures to destroy it and prevent further damage to the plant.