With the onset of winter, gardeners and gardeners take a short pause and rest from working in the country. But with the onset of spring, they will again have to work in the garden. Let's find out in more detail what activities need to be carried out on the plots, so that gardeners and gardeners are satisfied with the harvest.
Major garden work in spring
With the onset of spring, the first works begin not in the garden, but in the garden. This is due tothat most activities take place before sap flow and the appearance of the first kidney.
What you need to do:
- Collect foliage and branches, take it out of the garden and burn it so that fungal diseases and pest larvae die and cannot infect your trees and shrubs.
- As soon as the air temperature begins to rise up, remove the covering material from the fruit and ornamental plants.
- Take care of pruning trees and shrubs. This should be done before the sap flow. Remember! Young shrubs and seedlings can not be cut. Remove only dry and broken branches.
- Next you need to do the prevention of pests and diseases. For fungal diseases, treat fruit trees with urea, iron sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. From pests, spray the trees with Fitoverm or Agravertin. To carry out such treatment is necessary before the appearance of the kidneys.
- If there are cracks and freezers on the trees, then they should be covered with garden pitch or a clay mash.
- To protect the bark of the trees from pests, lime them with the addition of copper sulfate or purchase a special paint for this procedure.
- In early April, you need to plant trees. First, grape trees are planted, and later seed trees.
- And also do not forget about feeding garden plants. To do this, make nitrogen-containing and organic fertilizers. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers include: urea, ammonium nitrate. Organic fertilizers include: rotted manure or chicken manure. After fertilization, the soil under the trees and shrubs must be loosened and mulched with humus.
- If frosts have returned, and your trees and shrubs have already bloomed, it is necessary to fumigate. For this kindling fires. And also it is necessary to put containers with water under the trees and shed the ground well. All this is necessary in order to preserve flowering and future harvest.
Care for conifers in spring
In order for the bright spring sun not to damage the crowns of coniferous trees, they must be covered with an old veil or burlap. The roots of conifers need to shed warm water.y. This procedure will help to quickly melt the snow and protect the trees from dehydration.
If the branches broke or dried during the winter, they should be removed. It is also necessary not to forget about mulching. You can do it with the help of pine bark or crushed cones. This procedure helps retain moisture. longer and prevents the emergence of weeds.
Spring care for currants, raspberries and gooseberries
- After the snow melts, broken, dry and old branches must be cut off. After this, it is necessary to add mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen to the soil.
- To prevent the pests from attacking the berry bushes in the garden, treat them with special means: vitriol, nitrofen.
- If currant branches have swollen buds, they must be removed. If there are a large number of such blisters, then the bush should be dug out and burned. Swollen buds mean tick infestation.
- In the spring you can propagate the currant bushes and gooseberries. To do this, you need to tilt the branch to the ground and fix it in this position with the help of the ground.
- With the onset of spring raspberry bushes must be freed from straps. When the branches straighten, they must be tied to the pegs. Cut dry and broken branches. Do not forget to mulch. For this fit manure, straw, broken branches.
Spring work in the garden
In order to get a good harvest from the beds, it is necessary to prepare the garden for planting in spring. What to do?
- To prevent pests and viral diseases from attacking your future harvest, you need to remove foliage from the garden and paths.
- After harvesting, nitrogen-containing and organic fertilizers should be applied.
- After making the feeding, the beds should be dug up, removing the roots of the weeds.
- If you have too hard ground, then you need to add sawdust, humus or river sand.
- If the soil is sandy, add clay to it. So the moisture in the ground will last longer.
- In order for the earth to be less acidic, it is necessary to add ash to it, and in order for the soil to become more acidic, add acetic or malic acid to it.
- If you want to plant early vegetables: beets, carrots, onions for greens, parsley, then for this you need to prepare the beds and cover them with a covering material a few weeks before planting so that the earth warms up.
Spring lawn care
If you have a lawn, you need to take care of him since early spring. As soon as the snow on the lawn begins to melt, you need to scatter mineral fertilizers containing nitrogen over the entire area of the lawn.
When the soil dries out a little, you need to remove all leaves and debris from the lawn. After this, it is necessary to make loosening the lawn with a special rake — a scarifier. This procedure will provide an opportunity to grow young shoots.
In order for the soil to be saturated with oxygen, pierce it around the entire perimeter of the lawn using forks.
If during all of the above works the surface of the lawn was damaged, these areas should be equal in height, Cover with sand and plant new grass.
In May, the lawn needs to be cut, but you shouldn’t stomp on it much so that your tracks will not remain.
Everyone loves strawberries, both adults and children. But not everyone knows that getting a good harvest depends on the proper care of spring strawberries. How to care for this berry in the spring?
From the plot where strawberries grow, it is necessary to remove all snow holding materials. Remove trash and old blackened leaves. Trim old mustache and inflorescences. It is better to burn all the collected garbage to protect your berry from last year’s diseases and pests.
After that, add nitrogen fertilizer to each bush. To get a good harvest strawberries should be fed before flowering and after flowering. For this fit culinary yeast, chicken manure, mullein, sodium sulfate, potassium, nitrophosphate, tincture of weeds. But it is also necessary to feed properly, otherwise excessive feeding can lead to the death of strawberries.
New leaves that swell, it is necessary prikopat land. The soil around the strawberry bushes must be loosened.
Before the appearance of leaves, each bush must be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. And when it gets warm, bushes should be sprayed with a solution from calcium chloride and wood ash.
If some strawberry bushes are frozen out, then new bushes can be planted in their place.
If you don’t want your berry to be attacked by slugs, you should mulch with wood ash or pine needles.
Spring work in the country: planting new flowers
In early March, the following flowers can be planted: hyacinths, crocuses, snowdrops, aster petunias. But if you want these flowers to start to delight you with their flowering, you need to plant the seeds first at home in special boxes, and with the onset of heat to plant seedlings in the ground.
Before planting the seeds, they must be soaked for a few minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate. After this procedure, the seeds must be dried, and can be planted.
Land for planting must also be prepared. It is better if it consists of humus, sand and soil.
If you decide to plant bulbous plants, then before planting they must be kept for thirty minutes in manganese solution. This is necessary so that they are not exposed to various viruses and fungi.
When planting bulbous plants in the ground it is necessary to ensure that the bulb was strictly directed downwards. A landing should be carried out when the temperature of the air at night is above ten degrees. Otherwise, your flowers will die.
The soil should flow well. The sandy soil should be fertilized with compost, and if the ground does not pass water well, then a little rubble and sand should be poured at the bottom of each well.
If you do it rightyour bed will be the most beautiful in the country.
Now you know what the spring works in the garden and the garden are, what you need to do to get a good harvest. Follow these rules, and you will succeed. Have a good harvest!
With the arrival of spring, the hot period begins at the gardeners and gardeners at the dacha and other plots, you need to have time to do all the work and prepare the ground for a good harvest of fruits and vegetables. The owners and itching hands, because winter worries and cold are fed up, and I want to quickly go into the garden and on the beds, to determine for themselves the front of work and begin to implement it. The harvest will depend on the correctly carried out spring works in the garden and in the garden (summer troubles will not be forgotten either). Therefore, spring is a crucial time for gardeners and vegetable growers.
What work is required to perform in the garden in the spring? It is necessary to do everything better according to a plan prepared in advance, taking into account personal experience. All work in the garden and the garden are carried out slowly, with the observance of agrotechnical techniques and in accordance with the climatic conditions. Only this way you can be sure that the works will give a positive result. As soon as the sun warms, the first thing you need to do is fruit trees.
Snow cap release
In early March, the priority of the gardener is to free the branches of fruit trees from the ice crust that occurs when the snow melts. All work should be carried out with garden fork, in order not to cause harm to the young branches.
Experienced gardeners, after heavy snowfall, spend "dusting" trees with peat or wood ash. In pristvolnyh circles need to do the same, as the sun's rays will heat the dark snow faster, and it will begin to melt.
Is it good reception "Accumulation of snow"
Due to the unstable spring weather and low night temperatures, many summer residents want to restrain the blooming and flowering of the trees so that frosts will not affect the future harvest. They practice the technique of "accumulating snow." After heavy snowfall, gardeners pour snow under the trees and cover with sawdust. They believe that the accumulated snow will melt more slowly, delaying the awakening of the plants. The vegetation period shifts a little and the flowering does not fall under the spring frosts. But from a scientific point of view, it is impossible to do this, because each plant has its own development cycle and interference with nature can destroy trees.
After thawing snow, it is necessary to whiten the trunks of trees and shrubs with lime mortar. This procedure is carried out not for beauty, but to protect plants from pests and scorching sunlight. To prepare 10 liters of solution, you need to take a pound of copper sulfate, diluted in a small amount of hot water, 2.5 kg of chalk or lime and casein glue - 100 grams, and adding more water. All components are mixed and applied to the trunks in 2 layers.
Maintenance pruning is done on adult plants. Its goal is to ensure growth, increase fruit formation and preserve crown.
Formative - this is pruning the crown of young plants in order to give it a beautiful and compact look, stimulate the formation of fruits and facilitate the work of harvesting. It is held until the beginning of May.
Regulatory pruning is carried out in conjunction with supporting. She can control the load on the branches during abundant fruiting.
Anti-aging pruning is done on old trees. Thus, it is possible to stimulate fruiting.
Restoring pruning is carried out on strongly branchy trees, on those that have been frozen out over the winter or have been damaged by rodents and pests.
It happens that the taste of the fruit does not suit the owner. There is a way: you can plant trees with new varieties. It is not necessary to buy a new plant.
For grafting, a new variety of cuttings should be cut from young trees: stone fruits should be no older than 5 years old, and seed crops should be 7 years old. The best time for harvesting cuttings (grafts) is the beginning of winter, since the annual growths need to mature and harden. For cuttings take annual shoots. Carefully inspect and cut them into pieces of 40-60 cm and hide in the snow. Also, cuttings can be prepared in early spring, but on condition that the winter was not hard and frosty.
What time to spend
April is the best time for vaccination, since active sap flow begins in the rootstock. In order to place the scion with the stock well adhered, it is necessary not to allow the scion to become active, therefore it should be stored in the refrigerator or under the snow until the very last moment. We can not allow the drying of the scion. During storage, it should be in the bag or it should be wrapped in wet material.
The first thing to do is to inoculate cherries, cherries and plums (stone fruits), and then pear and apple trees (seed crops), since the latter later start sap flow.
- In the split.
- Behind the bark.
- In the side cut.
First you need to cut the skeletal shoots, leaving the length of the trunk of 40 cm and vaccinated with prepared varieties. The place of combining the graft with the stock is wrapped with a film, and the cutting is smeared with pitch. This procedure will halve the evaporation and will not allow the escape to shrink. After 3 weeks, the film must be removed.
You can not re-plant a plant for 1 year, the whole process should be extended for 3 years. During re-grafting, most of the branches are pruned, so 3 years is the optimal period for correspondences to be established between the roots of the tree and its above-ground part. Reapprivate should be "top to bottom." In 1 year, the upper part is grafted, in the second - the middle part, and in the third - the lower part. For stone trees, a graft-splitting method is an inefficient method. The survival rate of cuttings in stone fruit crops is 60%, in seed crops - 90%.
Care of trees and shrubs in the springtime involves the application of fertilizer. You can feed organic, make mineral dressing.
Of organic fertilizers, chicken droppings are well proven. Bring it into the soil in pristvolnom circle. Chicken droppings are fed with apple, plum, pear, quince, sweet cherry, peach. Organic matter is necessary for the growth and fruiting of apricot, cherry.
Fresh chicken manure, not diluted with water, can destroy the roots, so it must be insisted in water before use.
- At 10 liters of water will need 1 kg of dry litter.
- Organics are placed in a bucket and pour 3 liters of water.
- Divorced litter should ferment in 1-2 days.
- Then you need to add a bucket of water to the top, mix and feed the plants.
If there are no chickens in the farm and there is no place to take fresh dung, it can be bought dry. It should be remembered that improper storage of litter leads to the fact that it turns into ammonia, as indicated by a pungent and acrid smell.
Trees can be fed with compost or manure. We bring in only rotted manure, which, unlike chicken droppings, is not diluted in water, but immediately applied to the soil. Feed manure should not only conifers: cypress, spruce, yew, pine, thuja, but also apple trees with pears.
Protection of landings against frost
During the flowering of trees and shrubs and during the setting of berries and fruits, low night-time temperatures bring great damage. It is very difficult to preserve the harvest, but to protect the garden from frost is the main task of the gardener.
Fruit and berry plants at a temperature of -4 degrees drop the buds that have appeared. Air temperature -1 degree damages young, tender ovaries, and temperature -2 degrees is detrimental to full-blown flowers.
If the garden is located on the shore of a large reservoir, lowering the temperature will not harm it. But he, located in open areas, in low places, needs protection.
When laying a garden, it is necessary to take into account that dry and loose soil cools faster than moist. Therefore, in advance it is important to choose a place for the future "living" of trees and shrubs.
Reception "fumigation (in other words: smoke) of trees." Reliable protection against low temperatures. To do this, you need to lay out piles of garbage all over the garden: old foliage, wet grass, tree branches, weeds. To prevent rapid combustion, piles of garbage are sprinkled with sod, garden soil, weeds or grass. Combustible material will smolder, emitting a lot of smoke. When the sun rises (after 1.5 hours), it will be possible to finish the smoke.
Smoke bombs. You can buy them in specialized stores. Smoke, spreading out of smoke bombs, envelops trees and shrubs with a paraffin layer. Растения находятся под защитой, так как парафин не позволяет пониженной температуре повредить набухшие почки, цветки и завязь. Дымовые шашки эффективны даже при температуре -4 град.
Опрыскивание холодной водой деревьев и обильный полив почвы также считается эффективной процедурой защиты от пониженных температур.
Summer residents, who have a great garden care experience behind their shoulders, place basins and other containers under the trees and near shrubs, and fill them with water. The procedure is time consuming, but weighty. It is necessary to place water bowls once and you can not worry about the fact that fruit trees and shrubs will be damaged.
When plants awaken from winter sleep, the pests activate their activity. In early spring, when there are no swollen buds, trees and shrubs can be treated with any toxic chemicals.
Spraying is the most effective method for carrying out preventive work and for fighting insects.
If last year there was no large insect invasion, it would be enough to spray the trees with Bordeaux liquid, urea or blue vitriol according to the instructions.
To prevent the development of diseases such as scab, cocomicosis, moniliasis, curl, it is required to treat dormant buds with Bordeaux mixture (1-2%). Processing is carried out only at temperatures above 0 degrees.
In case of mass destruction of shrubs by harmful insects, it is recommended to carry out treatment with a flyovert or fufanol (20 and 10 ml of the product, respectively, in a bucket of water). "Fitoverm" - biopesticide, which is destroyed within 5 days, the validity of fufanol lasts 10 days. During this time, young insects appear from the larvae and continue to destroy the plantings, so it is necessary to carry out 3-fold treatment of plants. Drugs are dangerous to human health, but to penetrate deep into the plants and destroy the pest, they can not. For example, in order to control currant bud mites with positive results, it is necessary to “catch up” the moment when individuals of the pest will move from old buds to young ones.
In the spring, you can see the cracks and wounds on the bark, they need to be treated with 3% copper sulphate and covered with brew. To prevent fungal diseases, trees are sprayed with urea (5%).
If brownish-red spots with black bumps appeared on trees and shrubs, these are signs of cytosporosis. All damaged branches are trimmed to healthy tissue, thin and weak shoots are completely removed.
How to arrange trapping belt?
During bud break, the larvae of aphids, caterpillars of leafworms, moles, peppered moths, and the apple creeper begin their stormy life. During this period, the apple beetle creeps out of its shelter.
At first they do not know how to fly, but in search of food, they actively climb the bark of trees to young buds and foliage. This can be prevented if glue (trap) belts are put on the trunk of a tree. For their manufacture take thick paper or soft thin cardboard and grease abundantly with glue.
A belt made of loosened cotton and attached to a tree does a good job of catching beetles. To protect the cotton wool from getting wet during the weather, a film visor can be attached on top of it. Cotton wrestling belts are placed on the upper and middle parts of the trunk. If the apple blossom beetle has damaged the buds, you can see black dots on them, similar to a needle prick.
Spring lawn care
When the air temperature rises above 5 degrees, the grass begins to grow. In the spring you want to remove the territory from the garbage: old leaves, moss, twigs of trees. Mechanical lawn cleaning is carried out (or you are just going to put a lawn, here are articles about preparing the site for it and planting itself) with the help of a metal fan rake.
This is followed by aeration. To ensure the access of oxygen, water and nutrients to the roots of lawn grass, it is necessary to pierce the topsoil to a depth of 10 cm.
If there is heavy soil on the site, it can be improved by scattering sand on the surface of the lawn. With it, fill the bumps. It is not necessary to pour in pure sand, but together with humus or garden soil. 2 parts of sand will require 1 part of leaf humus or country land. Level the mound should be the back of the rake.
Preparing the soil for planting
For the seeds of cold-resistant crops: cauliflower, carrots, broccoli, beets and lettuce to germinate, the soil should warm up to +8 degrees, and heat-loving crops like pumpkin and cucumbers will need a temperature of +12 degrees.
Often, winter does not want to give way to spring and the soil does not warm up for a long time. In this case, it should be heated by artificial means. It is required to calculate the time of sowing and in 2 weeks to cover the beds with black plastic or garden material. Thus, the soil warms up faster and moisture will remain on the bed. After planting seedlings in warm soil, it quickly begins to grow.
Planting seedlings of flowers and vegetables
Young plants grown at room temperature, before planting in the soil on the bed should get used to lower temperatures, so they should be tempered in advance. When outside the window will be above zero temperature and there will be no wind, the boxes with seedlings (read how to grow it properly) should be taken out into the garden. Sunbathing will only benefit her. In the evening, the boxes are brought into the house, and if night frosts are not foreseen, they are left outside, but they are wrapped with film or spandband.
When growing seedlings in the greenhouse requires increased ventilation to harden the young plants. It is necessary to prepare seedlings a couple of weeks before planting in open ground.
Before planting, we remove saplings from the plentifully spilled boxes with seedlings together with a clod of earth and plant them in prepared indentations in the garden. Replace need in the evening or on a cloudy day. During transplantation, a part of the main root is removed and the plant is buried to the first leaves. New planting is well watered and once again compresses the soil near the plants, trying not to damage the young leaves.
Calendar of works of the vegetable gardener
At the beginning of the month, it is necessary to start preparing nutrient soil for seedlings, steaming it and sanitizing it. Soak the seeds (be sure to check them for germination) of eggplants, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers and sow them for seedlings. Celery also requires planting.
It's time to review the bulbs of flowering plants, remove all diseased and dried ones.
The second decade is suitable for picking and feeding cabbage seedlings.
Beds with perennial plants need to be powdered with ashes or peat, and covered with some insulation. This technique will help the plants to move faster in growth.
The third decade of the month is suitable for picking peppers and tomatoes. After transplantation, they should be fed.
You can do the preparation of greenhouses for the season, repair them and treat them with disinfectants, sprinkle raspberries, bent down for the winter to the ground.
In the first decade it is required to put potatoes for sprouting, and in the last one you can plant roses for those with whom these flowers wintered in the basement.
It is time to sow late varieties of cabbage: cauliflower, albino, and red.
If there was a subwinter sowing of vegetable seeds, now is the time to remove the shelters and loosen the soil between the rows.
Landing rhubarb and sorrel feed nitrogen fertilizer, planting in a bucket of water 3 tbsp. l urea and pouring obtained between the rows. Around the rhubarb bush should be laid out the compost and cover with a bucket. The plant will become warm and it will move faster in growth, and the stalks will become more tender in taste.
Unpredictable month, the probability of returning frosts is large enough, so you should not rush to plant heat-loving crops in open ground, despite the warm day temperature.
At the beginning of the first decade of May, you can sow parsley, lettuce, chernushku onions, dill, radishes, spring garlic, carrots.
Tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, cucumbers can be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Perennials should be inspected, if necessary, spray plantings from pests, feed the plants and mulch the soil around them.
The middle of the month is suitable for planting potatoes.
When all the work is done, you should prepare the beds for cucumbers, pumpkins, beans, squash, basil and squash.
Features of spring sowing of seeds of some vegetable crops and watermelon (melon) in the ground
To get a high yield, it is necessary to prepare the seeds for planting, quality seeds, and “dummies” to throw. Great attention should be paid to proper fit.
When sowing seeds can not be thickened planting. For root crops to be juicy and large, the distance between the plants / rows should be 5 cm and 15 cm. The culture is demanding of moisture, and therefore needs to be watered daily. With a lack of moisture, radish becomes hard, the stem is drawn out.
Beans and Peas
Thermophilous crops, planted on the garden should be in May. Tall varieties of peas will need a lot of space, so the distance between the rows should be 0.5 m. Before planting legumes, seeds should be soaked.
Spring work in the garden and garden require patience and diligence from the gardener. If all the work is done in a timely manner, you can provide yourself with a supply of vitamins and the joy of contemplating the perfect for a whole year.
The beds for planting need to be changed annually. Return them to the previous place only after 4 years. If you do not adhere to crop rotation, garlic is easier to undergo disease, yields are reduced and shelf life is reduced.
It is preferable to grow through seedlings. The soil for sowing seeds should consist of peat, sod land and sawdust, respectively 1: 1: 2.
The bed for planting cucumbers should be prepared in advance. The culture is thermophilic, therefore the basis of the bed should be fresh manure. Then you should pour fertile soil, make holes and cross the plants, trying not to damage the roots. Heat comes from the manure, which will allow the root system to gain strength and cucumbers will grow faster.
Vegetable culture requires light, heat and moisture, but it is only necessary to water the plants with warm water.
A common mistake of growers is the thickening of plantings. The distance in the row between the plants should be about half a meter, and 60 centimeters between the rows.
It is better to sow fresh seeds, since last year's male flowers are formed that do not give ovaries.
You can not predict what summer awaits us: hot or cold. But you can experiment with planting watermelons. Grow them only need rassadnym way. Replant in a greenhouse or in open ground. When the plant grows up and gives the scourge, they should be shortened, leaving one ovary on the plant. Thus, all the necessary substances will be supplied to the growing fetus, and it will be possible to get a sweet watermelon. Another nuance. The root system of the plant is very vulnerable, so you need to carefully remove the weeds, trying not to damage it. Many growers are advised not to pull out the weeds with roots, but only to pick them off. It looks untidy, but the harvest is good.
Culture likes good light, so the beds should be located on a bright place. The soil is loose, sandy. Root crops should have enough space for growth, therefore, after germination of seeds, plantings should be thinned, focusing on the distance between vegetables of 4 cm, between their rows - 15 cm. When they are thickened, the roots are ugly and small.
The culture is cold-resistant, so it is not afraid of night frosts. Sow the seeds in well-fertilized soil. When watering plants can not get on the leaves, you need to pour at the root. When sowing small seeds, they can be mixed with fine sand and buried 1 cm into the soil. There should be a distance of 8 cm between plants and 15 cm between rows. Over time, the leaves coarsen and become unsuitable for food, therefore, they should be torn off when they are gentle. Varieties of head of lettuce is best grown seedling.
Cleaning in the garden after winter
Cleaning consists in removal of all vegetable garbage, and also audit of the soil and garden plantings at the dacha. It is early spring - the period of occurrence of the first weed vegetation. Still not strong enough roots are quite easily removed from the wet spring soil. The first warm spring days provoke an active growth of sprouts not only on the soil, but also on the surface of the garden paths, which should be thoroughly washed with a strong jet of water from a normal garden hose.
Should rememberthat any spring activities related to water should be carried out only at high temperatures, which will prevent the formation of ice. All planting containers, as well as flowerpots, pots and flower pots intended for growing plants in the upcoming season, also need revision, high-quality cleaning, and, if necessary, restoration of integrity.
Pruning fruit trees and shrubs
In the spring, in most cases sanitary cleaning is carried out, as well as removal of all old and excess shoots and branches:
- annual raspberry shoots need to be booked, cutting the top five buds, which allows you to stimulate the formation of new basal shoots. All frozen, weakened shoots are subject to removal,
- currant bushes spring thinned out. On the black currant are removed branches older than seven years. On the bushes of red and white-fruited currants need to cut branches older than ten years. You also need to cut the excess root shoots and weakened shoots. All frozen tops are cut,
- starting from the age of three, it is required to thin out the gooseberry bushes, as well as to remove old branches and excess growth, which improves the luminance of the fruits and increases the yield,
- spring pruning of bush varieties of cherries must be done very carefully, removing thickening and old branches, taking into account the fruiting on last year's peripheral branches. It is best to perform shortening in the summer, after fruiting,
- The spring annual formation of fruit plantations allows maintaining the habit and improves the insolation of the aerial part. Any molding must be done with the determination of the direction of growth processes of skeletal branches,
- It is best to grow plums with a shtamb, as the bush-like forms thicken faster and become less fruitful. Formation begins almost immediately after planting seedlings at a permanent place, which will create a productive crown to four or five years.
To form the crown of fruit trees can be in a long-thin, horizontal or saucer-shaped, as well as vertical or palmette version.
Rules and terms for the removal of winter shelters
One of the primary tasks in the spring is the correct and timely removal of all protection against frost in the winter. Covering materials or special constructions must be inspected, thoroughly cleaned and rinsed.
After the winter shelter dries out, they can be removed for storage until the autumn cold. From the garden area necessarily old and pruned in the process of spring formation of branches, fallen leaves and withered grass, as well as any other garbage of plant and non-plant origin.
March in the country: protection of plants from sunburn in early spring
In the first decade of March, the illumination increases, so during the daytime the stem part and branches of garden plantings are able to warm up significantly, therefore, when night frosts occur, the heated wood dies out. On areas with sunburns, browning, peeling and cracking are observed.
Effectively reducing the heating of the bark allows whitening of the bole and branches of skeletal branches. It is best to whitewash the garden plantings in the fall or in the last decade of February, choosing for this purpose a dry and sunny day. Before proceeding with the treatment, you need to make a revision of the plants and perform, if necessary, preventive or therapeutic measures. Whitewashing can be done with acrylic water-dispersion paint "VD-AK 0508" or means "Dekoprof". Stringing of the stem with white parchment is also allowed.
What and how to treat trees in the spring against pests
Processing times vary depending on the type of plants and the composition used for spraying solutions:
- prevention of fungal diseases, moss and lichen lesions before budding, copper sulfate, diluted at the rate of 100-150 g per bucket of water,
- spraying of grapevine and soil around before blooming of buds from bacterial cancer, spotted necrosis and anthracnose with iron sulfate at the rate of 200 g per bucket of water,
- Mandatory processing of garden plantings to flowering from the Californian scythos, hedgehogs, ticks, weevils and tsvetoedov "Iskra-M", "Fufanon", "Iskra-double effect", "Karbofos", "Aliot" or "Biotlin"
- processing of currants "Commander", "Bison", "Tanrek", "Iskra Gold" or "Inta-Vir" on the buds and the first leaves,
- Gooseberry processing "Topaz" or "Skorom" before flowering.
You should also spray the peach, apricot and cherry in order to protect against manilioz, curly and nodule "Horus", "Kuprolyuksom", "Abiga-Peak" or "Ordan" after flowering.
Grafting and planting trees
As a rule, by the first decade of May, the planting of fruit and berry trees and shrubs is already over, and the time for vaccination is coming. It is best to perform such an event, when the selected rootstocks swell and slightly buds begin to unfold. Spring vaccination can be done in several ways:
- By copulating
- At the bottom
- В боковой разрез.
Вне зависимости от используемого способа, обязательным условием получения хорошего результата является применение качественного инструмента и специальной прививочной ленты.
Осуществляется очистка огорода от мусора и растительных остатков. It is also required to remove all shelters with which the wintering areas and the least cold-resistant garden crops were covered for the winter period.
As soon as the greenhouse soil warms up, it is necessary to dig it into one spade bayonet. At the same time, the main fertilizers are required:
- cucumbers are added to each square meter of the order of 5–6 kg of high-quality humus, with the addition of 50 g of any complex fertilizer and a pair of glasses of wood ash,
- on ridges prepared for growing tomatoes, peppers and eggplants, the dose of making humus will need to be reduced by half,
- when preparing “warm ridges”, the top 15 cm of soil should be removed, then lay down the biomass and sprinkle with a layer of fertile soil.
In the same period film garden structures should be prepared. The time of stretching the film cover to the greenhouses must be calculated so that in the last decade of April it was possible to sow the most cold-resistant and early ripening garden crops.
Important check the condition of the aboveground part of the garden berries and replace the old mulch layer. It is best to use as organic mulch, represented by:
- tree bark and chips,
- rotted leaves.
A good result is the use of mulch covering tissue. In March or April, fertilizing of the soil by the complex universal fertilizers “Nitroammofoska” or “Azofoska” is carried out.
Spring garden work
For a start, it will not be superfluous to check how protected your shrubs and trees are from bright sunshine. In winter and autumn, it is necessary to provide plants with good shelter - this will help keep the bark healthy. To do this, the trunks are wrapped with non-woven materials, shrubs covered with fir paws. It is possible to remove shelter materials approximately in the middle of spring, after waiting for the snow to fall and for the termination of a sharp temperature drop.
Spring work in the gardens necessarily include pruning trees, cutting shrubs. It is recommended to perform these measures before the buds of the trees swell and the movement of the juices under the bark begins.
How to start work in the garden
Primary work in the garden often begins with cleaning - from the flower beds and ridges remove the accumulated debris. When larvae and insects are found, it is necessary to remove them - this will help reduce the number of pests that will soon appear on the ridges.
The application of organic fertilizers to the ground is in progress. This helps to saturate the soil with nutrients, which subsequently has a beneficial effect on the harvest. Depending on the condition of the soil on the site, fertilizers, humus, purchased peat or compost prepared in advance are introduced into it. For heavy soils, the introduction of coarse sand or gravel of small fractions is recommended - this helps to add lightness to the soil and prevent stagnant moisture near the roots. Clay is added to the crumbly soil in order to hold moisture and the substances necessary for the plants longer.
In beds and ridges, the soil is loosened — enough depth is 5-10 cm. With traditional digging, the nutrients go deep into the ground, and the soil structure is disturbed. When loosening the soil, it turns out to be porous, more suitable for plant development.
When removing the protective coating from plants covered for the winter period, it is necessary to act with caution. To begin with, loosen the harness. Then, when the ambient temperature rises somewhat, a dense winter shelter should be changed. The fabric is chosen more permeable to light and air - it can be agrospan, lutrasil, and so on.
If you whitewash trunks on a regular basis, remember that seedlings do not need this. On the contrary, whitening of the seedling bark often leads to clogging of the pores, which reduces the development rate of the plant.
As the earth warms up, it will be possible to move on to other works, including planting and caring for plants, and refining the site.
Adding an article to a new collection
The onset of the calendar spring awakens in gardeners a violent desire to immediately run to the site and do something. Faster, faster, spring day feeds the year ... Stop for a moment and think about it - maybe right now you are harming your landings.
Gardening is a fairly traditional process. Innovative solutions rarely appear in it, and most processes repeat from year to year. Here only knowledge about them over the years becomes more, and it can already be understood that what seemed unconditionally useful turned out to be just the same. Here are 10 lessons for which you are wasting precious time and energy in the spring.
Error 1. Putting snow under the trees
In the cold spring, in the hope of delaying the awakening of the tree and protecting its roots from frost, many, in the old fashioned way, trample down the snow in the tree trunk. Someone also believes that it helps from mice and rats.
In fact, rammed snow from spring temperature extremes turns into a dense crust, which may not melt until May. While the crown of the tree has already awakened and begins to open buds, the roots are still asleep and do not provide food for the rest of the plant. This can lead to the weakening and even death of young trees, especially stone fruits (cherries, sweet cherries, apricots).
Error 2. Whitewashing trees
You can meet summer residents whitewashing tree trunks and skeletal tree branches in late April in all parts of the country. Why, you ask? There will be two arguments: for beauty and for pests. Alas, if the controversial beauty can still be observed, then the white-washed insects are definitely not a hindrance.
Garden trees are covered with garden paint or diluted with chalk in order to protect the bark from the burning sun rays, which are reflected in the whiteness of the snow, and resulting burns and freezers. Therefore, it is necessary to whiten the trees in late autumn or at the end of winter. Do not have time to do this before the beginning of March? Then do not waste your time on the spring whitewash - it is already useless.
Error 3. Early removal of shelters
The spring sun is deceptive, and even if at the dacha at the country house it is hot and the streams start flowing, it can be very early to remove the shelter from roses, clematis, grapes and other tender plants. Frosts often return much more severe than they were in winter, and frosts in the middle lane are possible until the end of May. So that due to carelessness in the spring not to lose successfully overwintered plants, observe the terms of shelter removal and do not trust deceptive heat.
Error 4. Early treatment for insect pests
It is necessary to have time to carry out the first treatment of the garden from insects before buds grow on the trees. But “before” is a rather loose concept, and someone manages to spray trees and bushes even at sub-zero temperatures.
Benefit from this procedure is not worth waiting for, but it can harm. First, insects have not yet woken up and calmly winter in the ground, under the snow, in plant debris, which means that their processing will not affect. Secondly, any treatment solution is made on the basis of water. Getting into the cracks on the bark, its drops can expand during night frosts and violate the integrity of the trunk and branches, creating a gate for infections.
Mistake 5. Spreading organic fertilizer on snow
There is an opinion that it is possible to fertilize a garden even before the snow melts. To do this, it is enough to scatter ash, peat or humus in strategic places and then you will get two advantages at once - accelerated melting of the snow cover and fertilized soil.
In fact, this theory is false, and as a result, everything will be completely different. On the snow that melts during the day and freezes at night, an ice crust will form that will go much longer, and with the melt water all the nutrients will simply float away, and the soil will not fill with organic matter.
If you want to start the season with fertilizer, do it not only in a timely manner, but also with the right means.
Mistake 6. Rough shaking off of snow and ice from trees
Some people can not wait to start working in the garden with the beginning of the calendar spring, and they are not embarrassed by the fact that the trees are still covered with snow or covered with ice. Believing in the old omen, they beat with sticks along the branches and trunks of the fruit, knocking off their winter hats.
It has been proven that, contrary to popular beliefs, this will not lead to a rich harvest, but to injury to trees, their long recovery and weakening. Shaking off the snow from the branches is necessary only if it is wet, plentiful and threatens the tree with faults. This procedure is carried out carefully, wrapping a stick with several layers of fabric.
Mistake 7. Burning grass
Despite the fact that for the cultivation of an open fire at the site of summer residents, substantial fines are expected, the number of those who thus cleans their territories after winter practically does not decrease. Year by year you can hear in the news that another supporter of "fire farming" was the cause of the fire. But even with the best outcome, one cannot do without a fine and conflict with neighbors - the consequences of burning dry grass are much more serious.
Many insects die in the fire, and not only harmful, but also useful, and humic substances decompose from the heating of the top layer of the soil, and its fertility decreases sharply. Not all vegetables grow well in the fire, unless you decide to plant a turnip in the whole garden - it will be born like a fairy tale.
Error 8. Buying awakened seedlings
The most captivating (and bought) on the market - seedlings that have already released leaves, gave buds or opened flowers. On the one hand, this is a clear sign that the plant is alive and actively developing. On the other hand, when the root system is open and the growing season begins, the seedling is almost doomed to death.
Buy waking bushes, flowers and trees can only be in containers. The same goes for spring bulbous plants, even those that sprouted - this year they will not bloom anymore and whether they will reach the next one after the late planting is a big question. You can buy tulips, hyacinths and crocuses in the spring only at a very interesting (2-3 times lower than normal) price.
Error 9. Unsustainable distribution of loads
With all the abundance of the May holidays to work in the garden in the most "hot" month is given no more than 7-9 days in total, and how much during this time you need to have time! Trees, ridges, beds and paths and beckon owners who are ready to work from dawn to dark. It is only after a couple of days of shock work that it turns out that the trip to the doctor is now more relevant, and the rest of the plants will have to wait, because the muscles are twitching, the back is torn off, and it blew together.
So that in the midst of labor achievements not to be out of order, do not overdo it - during the winter your body has lost the habit of physical exertion, the sun and the posture characteristic of giving. It is unreasonable to believe that in the first couple of days you will dig up everything, then you will sow everything, and “for dessert” you will work the garden in one day. Try to diversify the types of loads and certainly find time to relax. No, it is not necessary to lie in a hammock under the reproachful looks of neighbors, but slowly walking around the neighborhood, drinking tea outside or going to the forest to admire primroses is very useful.
Error 10. Untimely planting seedlings and seedlings
It is easy to forget about the saplings or seedlings brought to the site in the huge flow of affairs in the country. It seems that you only went to the barn for a shovel for a moment, and in the second half of the day came to your senses on the other part of the plot with a wheelbarrow in your hands. For you, the time flew by unnoticed, but for seedlings purchased with an open root system or forgotten in the sun, seedlings bought on the way to the country could be fatal.
Remember that green pets need to take care first and buy seedlings only when a planting pit and ground have been prepared for them, and for seedlings - shelter in the shade.
If you are transporting seedlings grown in an apartment to a cottage, accustom it to direct sunlight and open air gradually, starting from several hours a day. At other times, shade and do not forget about the shelter during cold spells.
Try not to waste your time on these classes in the coming season, and you will see how many hours will be released for a truly rewarding pastime.
Preliminary work in the garden
First of all, you need to prepare the land for future work on it. First, get rid of the winter garbage. Dry leaves, remnants of supports and shelters, windbreak - we do not need anything. It is important to thoroughly approach this issue, since unnecessary rubbish not only spoils the appearance of the summer cottage, but also creates a favorable environment for the reproduction of pests and insects. In the course of cleaning the area from the soil you need to remove the weeds. As long as they are not strong, they can be easily pulled out of the ground. You can also get rid of the larvae and live insects, which you are sure to meet in your spring garden.
Works with soil
Excavation work in a spring garden requires strength and some skills. We'll have to work with a shovel and a wheelbarrow, which is needed for the distribution of fertilizers. Before you plant the plants, the soil needs to be fed.
Organic fertilizers are the best way to make favorable conditions in the soil for plants, shrubs and trees.
For perennial plants suitable minerals that contain potassium. It can be replaced by ordinary chicken droppings. The soil for garden plants and root crops can be processed using purchased peat, rotted manure, or ready-made compost. Preparing a garden in the spring is a very important event, so you need to take this seriously. Bait and mulching is possible only when the soil is thoroughly wetted.
After last winter, you need to assess the quality of the soil:
- If the ground is heavy - add airiness in the form of fine gravel or coarse sand. In this case, you will get rid of stagnant water at the roots.
- If the soil is too crumbly, then a small amount of clay should be added to retain nutrients and moisture on the surface.
The next stage of spring work in the garden is the process of loosening the soil.
Experienced gardeners know that it is impossible to constantly dig up the land on the site. During digging all the useful and nutrients go deep into the ground, plus the whole structure deteriorates.
The garden in the spring requires a little loosening to a depth of no more than 5-8 cm. Porous and granular soil is a favorable environment for planting plants, in which the root system will quickly gain strength and growth.
Spring work in the garden with trees and shrubs
Work in the garden in the spring requires not only the preparation and fertilization of the soil. In the warm season, special attention should be paid to perennial plants and garden trees.
What can and should be done with them in the spring?
- Starting from April, you can start planting shrubs, evergreen, fruit and garden trees. In addition, at this time they can be transplanted.
- Before the fruit trees and some berry bushes - raspberries, gooseberries, currants, and others. Start to grow again, they need to be cut.
- Pruning of shrubs and trees is possible only if they bloom in spring and summer, for example roses. However, plants that bloom on the shoots of last year, should be cut only after flowering - that is, in spring or early summer.
- In the spring you can plant plants.
- At the beginning of the season, you can begin the process of reproduction - cutting the trees and dividing perennial plants.
What to do with the lawn in the spring?
After the snow melted, special attention should be paid to the lawn. Last year's grass needs to be torn out with a rake. Potholes that appeared on the grass need to fall asleep earth, mixed with sand. The surface of the lawn is leveled, sprinkled with sand and seeds are planted in areas where there is no grass. In addition, spring work in the garden involve cutting hedges and repairs if necessary.
Preparing a garden in the spring is a fascinating and interesting activity. How you carry out these works depends on the appearance of the suburban area, the quality and quantity of the future harvest. Arranging your own garden, planting vegetables and caring for flowers will be a pleasant event if you give yourself to this process with a soul.