In ancient times, the steppe was called a wild field, but at the present time, unfortunately, wild nature has remained only in protected areas. Many years ago, the fields were covered with silver blankets, and the wind spreading the grass along the whole steppe. Now, most of the fields are plowed and planted with agricultural crops, because the golden value of the steppe is fertile chernozem.
The world of the steppe is beautiful and very rich in vegetation:
- yellow tulips
The vegetation of these zones is very diverse.. Steppe species differ from forest ones in that they are characterized by higher frost resistance and drought tolerance. Their usual color of leaves is grayish or grayish-greenish. The leaves themselves are narrow and thin, but at the same time, the cuticle is thick. In drought, most of the steppe plants coagulate into a tube, this property and gives them the opportunity to survive in the harsh conditions of the steppe. All vegetation is divided into subspecies:
- therapeutic herbal,
- feed destination
More popular are white sweet clover, wild strawberries, creeping thyme, and cornflower. Such species are slightly less valuable: licorice, steppe carnation, horticard, old-hatcher.
Field sow thistle (yellow sow thistle, garden)
This view is hard weed. It grows in the fields, along roads, near ditches and in many other places. A very strong lover of bees, but he stands out for nectar only in the morning hours; in the second half, the black thistle closes his flowers. Pure black honey is obtained in a rich amber color. The stems and leaves contain a large amount of white, viscous juice. The leaves themselves are a little prickly, and the flowers are bright yellow. Flowering time in summer.
Cornflower, Cumin, and Common Nivyanik
Cornflower is a perennial species.represented from the Asteraceae family. In height can reach up to one meter. It grows in all meadows, fields, near roads. Absolutely not capricious plant. It is medicinal, used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Good honey plant, bee's favorite.
In the common people Cmin sandy is called immortelle. It is a perennial that grows on sandy and rocky surfaces. Inflorescences have dry scales, when cut flower does not fade remains in one pore. Because of this, it is called immortelle. Flowers are collected for medicinal purposes.
In the ordinary sense of the field - this is an ordinary daisy. Refers to asteraceae, from a number of asteraceae. It grows in meadows, usually likes wetter and shady places, in preference selects drained soil. Chamomile blooms in June, and its fruits ripen in August. It has healing properties and is a honey flower. Stem thin, with narrow leaves. The flowers are small, white, and inside the yellow middle.
Elecampus, stone shrub and stonecrop survivors
Plant perennial, Asteraceae. Grows in steppes and forest-steppe. Chooses wet terrain, grows where rivers and reservoirs. And also lover to get lost in the tall grasses. Flowering lasts one month, from August to September. In height grows more than one and a half meters. Long and thin stalk, on top of a yellow flower.
Bedouren - perennial herbaceous plant. For himself chooses hilly places, sunny glades, edges. Loves the sunny side. Plant height reaches 30 cm, a branchy plant with small white flowers.
Sedum belongs to the family of pulkovy, perennial species. It grows on the slopes of hills with high grass, in the dry thickets. Height of a plant is 50–60 cm. Inflorescences small yellow color. Bees visit it very actively, as it is an excellent honey plant. Blooms from early June with a duration of up to September.
Pasternak forest and groundwort
Type - biennial plant, family - umbrella. It can be found in the field, in the gardens, near the roads. The length of the stem is about 1–1.2 meters in height. Leaves, though large, but pinnate. Flowers are very small, gathered in umbrellas. It is pollinated not by bees, but by flies.
Meadowsweet grassy perennial. Presented from the family Rosaceae. Such a blooming grass can be found in the summer period on mixed grass meadows, on the outskirts of deciduous forests. In the leaves of this plant, contains a huge amount of vitamin C. That is why the collected flowers are brewed into tea, and in spring, the newly grown shoots are cut for salads. Flowers are small, in a pink tone, with a pleasant light smell of honey. If you grind the leaves, you can hear the smell of fresh cucumber.
The pharmacy of the pellet
From a species of herbaceous, Rosaceae family. It is a perennial plant, it grows in densely planted shrubs, as well as on dry forest edges.
Plant height reaches 60 cm, closer to the root of the foliage of larger size than at the top. Burnet - plant with straight, branched stems, with lots of foliage and have slight pubescence. Flowers are small in dark color (red or black). Blooms in mid-summer and continues until the beginning of autumn. Flowers emit a huge amount of pollen, and nectar quite a bit.
Is a healing plant for a long time. Its root system is used in traditional medicine as an excellent anti-inflammatory drug. A good decoction of the roots of the burner prevents the appearance of microbes in the body.
Lemon or catnip
Its name "lemon cat" plant received due to a strong rich lemon smell. A plant of the family of Labiaceae. Prized for its essential oils. Is the favorite of bees. Often, beekeepers near their apiaries make plantings from catnip, thus luring bee swarm. As a wild plant, it is currently very rare. In the edges of Western Siberia is very common and grows well. The height of a branched, tetrahedral stem sometimes reaches up to half a meter. The leaves have a triangular shape, the flowers are small, pink tint. Begins to bloom from early June to late September.
It is a perennial plant (family Labs). Occurs in the steppe, on wet slopes, as well as on forest edges. Sage low, only grows up to 25 cm, sometimes growing with several stems at once. Its leaflets are elongate and ovate. Flowers are blue or purple in color, collected in inflorescence. There are hard hairs all over the plant. It blooms only in the middle of summer - from late June to late July.
From the Rosaceae family, a popular perennial plant. It can be found on various steppe zones, forest-steppe and wet slopes. The plant is completely non-capricious, so it can adapt to any terrain.
It grows with a downy bush, the leaves are directed in different directions, the flowers are white, of which some time later some tasty bright red fruits ripen. Bloom in mid-May to late June.
The people are sometimes called "grandmother". Belongs to the lipotsevolny family and is a perennial plant. In the steppes is very common. The plant is quite tall, its dark red trunk reaches a height of one meter. The leaves are large, elongated, wrinkled with small hairs. Flowers have a pink tint and bloom at the ends of the stems of 2-3 pieces. In the south, the steppes of Western Siberia begin to bloom at the end of June, and in other areas flowering occurs until the last days of August.
This article presents only a short list of steppe plants. Our steppe is vast and immense, rich in a diverse flora, and to describe all the steppe plants in one article is, in fact, impossible.
What is the STEP?
Steppes are the richest species in communities of drought-tolerant plants - xerophytes. They are common where the climate is warm, but there is not enough rainfall for the forest to grow. The steppes are “a type of vegetation represented by a community of drought-resistant perennial herbaceous plants with the domination of turf cereals, less often sedges and onions.” If you analyze the geographical location of the steppe landscapes on the globe, you will find
that the most typical steppes form in the inner regions of the continent. Steppe zones of temperate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres, characterized by a dry climate, waterlessness of watersheds, the dominance of grassy, mainly grass vegetation on black earth, dark chestnut and chestnut soils.
Steppes predominate by area, which are altered by pasture digression and represent low-grass pasture communities dominated by fescue and wormwood. There are small fragments of hay-growing varieties of steppe, among which there are southern, northern and central variants, which represent a transition between the northern and southern ones. In the steppes of the central variant, if they are not disturbed by grazing, feather-washed, Zelesky, narrow-leaved coals are common. In addition, there are fescue and very richly presented herbs. The composition of the steppe includes shrubs - Karagana, spirea, gorse, broom.
In addition to the mountain steppes, on the plain in small fragments solonetsous steppes have been preserved, in which the wormwood of Lerch, Kermek Gmelin, and the east Falmothrea are common. For steppes on gravelly soils characteristic
participation of species - petrophytes, i.e., stone lovers - onosma of the simplest, thyme, grate, Siberian cornflower and others. Such steppes are especially easily destroyed by pasture digression. The productivity of steppe haymakings is up to 4-5 c / ha
Hay, the productivity of steppe pastures as a result of overgrazing is low and amounts to no more than 15-20 centners / ha of green mass
for the entire pasture period. According to the classification, according to the research of Professor Mirkin BM All the steppes of the Republic of Bashkortostan can be divided into two main types, meadow and typical. Meadow are common in the forest-steppe zone, and in the steppe zone they are to the slopes of the northern exposure.
Typical steppe occupy areas in the steppe zone of the republic.
Biennial or perennial herb of the family Compositae. Plant height reaches 1.5 m. The stem is single, straight, branching at the top. It is covered with glandular hairs. Leaves twice pinnately, large, long from 10 to 25 cm and from 4 to 10 cm wide. Rosette leaves with a petiole, the rest sessile, stalk-encompassing. From above they are green, and from below they are covered with white felt, at the edges there are small spikes. The flowers are collected in spherical inflorescences, they are bluish-white in color. Spherical heads have a diameter of 4-5cm. Fruits are achenes. It grows in river valleys, among shrubs, on the edges of island forests, in wastelands.
The population of plants on the hill Roman-mountain is represented by single plants. Occasionally there are "islands" of 5-10 plants. In general, the plants are in good condition.
Perennial herb from the family Compositae. Plant with erect stem. In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus its height varies from 48 to 72 cm. Several shoots of the stems depart from the thin creeping rhizome. Bottom leaves - lanceolate, doubly pinnate to narrow small lobules. Stem leaves are shorter, pinnately dissected.
Stem leaves are shorter, pinnately divided, divided into a large number of lobules. Inflorescence - corymbose, consisting of many flower baskets. The flowers are small, white, pink-purple or reddish. It blooms in June and August, a very long time.
It grows on a hill everywhere, where there are areas of meadow steppe. Particularly often found on the southern side of the slope on gentle places, where cattle graze more often and closer to the Asly-Udryak river.
A perennial herb of the lily family. The stalk of asparagus is erect, reaching a height of 150 cm., Strongly branched. Branches on a stalk depart at an acute angle. The leaves are reduced to scales, modified shoots are formed in the axils of the stem, resembling leaves. Underground stem straight, smooth. It is juicy, etiolated, forming shoots extending from the rhizome. These stems are used as a vegetable plant. The flowers are small, greenish-yellow. Perianth of six petals with 6 stamens. The fruit is a red spherical berry. It blooms in June - July. Asparagus grows in the meadows, among thickets of shrubs, and is found in the steppes, on the slopes of the mountains.
It is quite rare in the study area. Found in areas adjacent to the forest belt and located between the rows of trees inside the forest belt. The population is represented by single plants.
Perennial herbaceous plant of the buttercup family. Adonis has a two-stroke development - at the beginning
Early flowering is different, and then the formation of the stem and leaves. The color is early spring, from the end of April, in May. The bush in which there are up to 20-30 pieces of flowers, blooms from 40 to 50 days. The very first flowers, as a rule, are large, but they are pale yellow, golden, apical, solitary, abundantly visited by bees. Adonis at the beginning of flowering has a bush height of 10 to 15 cm, and in the fruiting phase it reaches 30-70 cm. In each bush there are from 2 to 15 generative and from 4 to 23 vegetative shoots.
It occurs everywhere in the study area. The population consists of more than 150 plants that are in good condition.
Perennial, herbaceous plant of the family Labiotour. Budra has a creeping and branched stem, it takes root, forming new stalks. The leaves are petiolate, opposite, crenate-toothed, roundly reniform in shape. They are covered with hairs. Flowers 3-4 pieces. located in the axils of the middle stem leaves, they are small, bilabiate, purple-blue or bluish-purple color. Pedicels 4-5 times shorter than calyx, supplied with awl-shaped bracts. The calyx is covered with hairs, its teeth are triangular, thinly pointed. The height of the ascending stems ranges from 10 to 40 cm. The flower blooms in May and June.
It grows along the ravine and on the south side of the slope. A large population was studied at the beginning of flowering.
Flora of the steppe
The flora of the steppes usually consists of plants, such as small shrubs and grasses that can withstand drought and nutrient deficiencies in the soil. There are also trees, but only along the river banks. Tall grasses growing up to one and a half meters in height are found near trees near water sources. Lower grasses - up to one meter in height, can be found in areas closer to deserts. Due to the dryness of the vegetation, sometimes in the summer, the grass ignites and fires spread very quickly, covering large areas.
Among the vegetation of the steppe, grasses grow, growing in small tufts, between which bare soil is visible. Different types of feather grass are widespread, such as John's feather grass (Stipa pennata). He often occupies vast territories. In densely-grown areas of the steppe, feather grass species flourish, characterized by a much larger size. On dry arid steppes small species of feather grass predominate. Also there are various species from the genus Tonkonog (Koeleria). They grow everywhere in the steppes, but are especially widespread east of the Ural Mountains, and some species serve as wonderful food for grazing steppe animals.
Since the steppe natural zone is very diverse, the flora growing in the steppes also varies greatly depending on the region. Regarding the majority of plants there is no general opinion, which of them belong to exclusively steppe species.
The flora of the steppe, for example, differs from the forest one in its resistance to heat and drought. The color of plants is usually grayish or gray-green, the leaf plates are small, and the cuticles are thickened. In most of the steppe grass plants, the leaves have developed an adaptation that allows them to curl in dry weather, which provides them with protection from severe moisture loss.
Among the steppe flora emit plants that have important economic value. Basically it is fodder vegetation that grows in the steppe and forms grazing land. Honey and medicinal herbs are considered other steppe plants valuable to humans. Also, grasses and legumes deserve special attention, but among other plants, united by the notion of forbs, there are also valuable species.
Below is a list of some steppe zone plants with a brief description and a photo:
This biennial reaches one and a half meters in height, its leaves have felted pubescence. Spike-shaped inflorescences of the mullein are dotted with yellow flowers. The flowering period lasts from July to September. All parts of the plant are widely used in medicine. Broths and leaf infusions are used as expectorant, analgesic, anticonvulsant drugs.
The representative of the family of cereals prefers dry fields. The crest of the tonkonog is 65 cm. The lower leaves are pubescent, the stems have a dense base. Соцветие представляет собой вытянутую метелку, оттенок которой варьируется от зеленого до серебристого. Растение обильно плодоносит. Настои из листьев обладают ранозаживляющим действием.
Является хорошим медоносом, растет на склонах холмов и лугах. The plant has a woody root and a simple stem, the height of which may exceed 60 cm. Cirro-dissected leaves have 3-5 shares. Shizonepeta, or anise grass, blooms from June to August. Purple flowers are collected in the ear. The plant has high nectar productivity. Schizonepeta has been used in folk medicine for many centuries: the decoction is used as an expectorant and anti-inflammatory drug. The plant is part of hypoallergenic cosmetics. In cooking, it is used as a seasoning, especially for fish dishes.
Herbaceous perennial is considered a rare species, therefore it is listed in the Red Book of Russia. Iris, or iris, is found in the thickets of steppe shrubs and along river valleys. The rhizome of the plant is short and creeping. The height of the peduncle is about 50 cm. Leaves covered with a bluish bloom appear later and grow taller than the peduncle. The flowers themselves are large, purple hue. The middle is colored yellow. Admire irises can be at the end of May - early June. The fruit is a box that opens with wings. Some forms are peculiar remontance, i.e. the opportunity to bloom again.
The plant is part of the Compositae family. The period of his life may be one or two years. During this time, the cornflower is pulled out by 60 cm. The green mass is thin and pointed, covered with felt bloom, the lower leaves are tribed-lobed. Flower baskets are single. Along the edges they are painted blue. The flowers in the middle of the plant are purple in color. The flowering period occurs in June - July. This species is considered a weed plant, its favorite habitat are rye crops. Cornflower fruits are smooth achenes with a red tuft. Edge flowers, painted in blue, are often harvested and dried. They are the basis for different drug fees. Powder from seeds treat skin inflammation.
Meadow grass meadow
A perennial plant of the family of cereals very quickly builds up dense turf. Withstands waterlogging, severe frosts and drought. Bluegrass reaches full development in the fourth year of life. The rhizome of the plant does not penetrate deeper than 100 cm, so the bluegrass forms loose sods. Bright green leaves are narrow and rough. Spikelets form a pyramidal panicle. Meadow grass meadow is a valuable pasture plant. It is high-yielding, rich in proteins and vitamins.
The biennial of the legume family reaches a height of 2 m. The root is taped, up to two meters deep. Great honey plant. The plant is light-loving and very cold-resistant. The trifoliate leaves, small white flowers are collected in the brush. The plant does not tolerate overwetting and acidic soils, arid, stony and saline steppes are the ideal growing place for the tributary. The flowering period occurs in June - August, even in dry summer the plant produces a lot of nectar. White clover is widely used in medicine as an antiseptic, anticonvulsant, analgesic and antihypertensive.
Perennial ethereal plant from the family of the mammal. Stalk straight, height from 45 to 80 cm, naked, with two faces. The leaves are oblong-ovate, entire, opposite, sessile. On the leaves are scattered translucent dotted containers that resemble holes, hence the name, perforated.
The flowers are numerous, golden-yellow in color, collected in a wide-body, almost shield-like inflorescence. Sepals sharp with a solid edge. Petals twice as long as the sepal, blooms in June and July. The fruit is a three-ctern, multi-seeded basket, revealed by 3 leaves. The rhizome is thin, several stalks leave it.
Found only in one place on the eastern sloping side of the hill. Presented by 8-15 plants.
Perennial herbaceous plant. Keeps green shoots all year round. The leaves are located opposite, in the sinuses of the brush are not the right flowers. In the flower 2 stamens and 1 pistil. The fruit of Veronica is a flattened box.
It grows in meadow areas of the steppe study area. Plants are evenly distributed between other species. Often found on the outskirts of the forest belt.
Belongs to the family of cereals. It has smooth stems, reaching a height of one meter. The leaves are flat and wide. Spikelets are collected in inflorescence - sprawling whisk. Bonfire is a good forage grass, it blooms from the end of May and in June. From creeping rhizome there are many high upright shoots of peduncles.
In the plant communities, the hill is an environment-forming species, since occurs evenly often almost everywhere.
An annual, herbaceous plant of the buckwheat family. A small plant with a height of 10 to 40 cm. It has straight stems, prostrate, branched. Leaves elliptical or lanceolate, small, with short spine. The flowers are in the leaf axils, distributed evenly throughout the plant. Corolla flower is pale pink. The fruit is a triangular nutlet. It blooms from May to October. It grows on the roads, on the streets, on yards, on pastures. On pastures, where there is a large load of livestock, all plant species suffer, only the knotweed remains.
This species is well pronounced at the foot of the hill from the side of the river and the stall of animals. In the main system almost does not occur.
Cruciferous herb. Bright green rosettes of colza from fancy lyre. pinnately dissected leaves are abundantly visible on the fields that were plowed last fall. It blooms in May and June. With an abundance of sun and moisture from the melted snow at the colza, a flowering shoot with a brush of yellow flowers is quickly pulled out. A fruit - multi-seeded, opened by two shutters. Good honey plant.
In the vegetation cover of the hill does not grow evenly and is found in a large way from the field, located closer to the eastern slope.
Achenes at the base with a hollow swollen stem, 12 mm long, ribbed, light gray. Stems are straight and ascending, striated, simple and branching. Radical leaves on long petioles, pinnate and dissected, with narrow linear lateral segments. The baskets are cylindrical, the wrapper is weakly arachnoid, then bare, its leaves are lanceolate, sometimes with a horn-like appendage. Flowers are yellow, marginal from the outside reddish.
It grows on a hill on the lawns between the trees of the forest belt. It is found moderately often, the population consists of individual plants that are at a relatively short distance from each other - from 40 to 60 cm.
Belongs to the family of legumes. Shrub with gray straight, thin branches, with four contiguous obsessive leaves with a wedge-shaped base and spikes on the top, golden-yellow flowers with a broad obovate sail, blunt boat, focusing on 2-3 on single peduncles, which are twice as long as the cup, beans up to 3 cm long, bare, cylindrical, 1-4 seed.
It grows mainly on the western slope of the mountain, in the ravine and the adjacent gully on the north side.
Nonea is dark
Belongs to the family borachnikovyh. The whole plant is covered with bulged, stiff hair and sparse glandular. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, the lower ones are narrowed in petioles, the rest are sessile, half-stem-rich. Bracts lanceolate, longer than flowers, dark red-brown color. Calyx bell-shaped, notched to one part. The shares of the calyx are lanceolate. Nuts are wrinkled.
On a hill it grows everywhere, it was studied and determined at the beginning of flowering.
Belongs to the bell family. Flowers numerous, in a large branched inflorescence. Corolla funnel bell-shaped, blue or white. Stem with dense foliage. The leaves are large pilchatye, naked or pubescent.
It grows in the communities of the studied plants between cereals. Rare, counted in a population of only about 30 plants.
If we analyze the geographical location of the steppe reliefs on the globe, it will be found that the most ordinary steppes are formed in the internal areas of the continent.
The steppe regions of the temperate zones of the southern and northern hemispheres are characterized by waterless watersheds, a dry hot climate, and the domination of grass greens on dark chestnut and chernozem lands.
Steppe areas modified by pasture digression prevail and show low grass grazing communities with a predominance of fescue and wormwood. Among other things, the composition of the steppe includes grass and all kinds of shrubs. In addition to mountain steppes, solonetseous steppe plants, such as wormwood, rapture, etc., remained on the plain in small fragments. Thyme, cornflower and other plants are specific for the steppe on gravelly lands.
According to the researches of researchers, according to the classification, steppe plants can be divided into two types:
- meadow (in the forest-steppe zone),
- typical (in the steppe zone).
There are a large number of diverse plants, consider only some of them in more detail:
Biennial or perennial herb. Plant height about one and a half meters. The stalk is single, straight, spreading upward. The leaves are pinnate, large, from 10 to 25 cm long and from 4 to 10 cm wide. Leaves rosette with petiole, sessile, stalk.
Green above and below covered with snow-white felt, on the edges there are scanty prickles. Flowers are collected in spherical inflorescences of a bluish-white coloring. The diameter of the spherical head 4-5 cm. Fruits achenes. Grows among shrubs in river valleys, on wastelands and edges.
Belongs to the family nornikovye. The leaves to the very top are unequated with thinly pointed,
Simple or base b.ch. double notches, oblong or linear-lanceolate, heart-shaped or rounded at the base, often whorled. The inflorescence is the final thick brush extending up to 25 cm, sometimes with several side brushes, the flowers on the pedicels are almost equal to the calyx. Corolla blue about 6 mm. Long, with a hairy inside the tube. The whole plant is bare or with short grayish pubescence.
The distribution of this plant in the studied ecosystem is moderately rare. It grows as individual plants or 2-3 individuals.
Violet is amazing
It belongs to the violet family. Stem up to 30 cm tall. Petioles of large, wide heart-shaped stem leaves are grooved, pubescent only on convex hairs facing down. Stipules of stem leaves are large, entire, prikrlnevyh large, rusty-red.
On a hill it grows in places with low grasses or among low grassy cover; it likes stony patches of surface.
Ranunculus family - Ranunculaceae. Perennial. Stem leaves not fused, similar to basal, short-haired. The flowers are yellow-white.
It grows in small “small families” between pine rows of trees and separately on the open slopes on the eastern and northern sides of the Roman-Gora hill.
Belongs to the family of convolvuli. Bare or absent-minded plant with recumbent, creeping or climbing shoots. Flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter, usually collected in 2-3 or single. Bracts in the form of a pair of small linear leaflets located oppositely in the middle of the pedicel, do not reach the calyx. The corolla is pink, rarely white.
It grows in areas with other meadow plants from the side of the ravine and the river.
Belongs to the borage family. Pedicels are very short, much shorter than bracts. The whole plant is hard and rough. The stem is straight, simple, rarely branched, covered with stiff bristles and thick fuzz. Prikornye leaves are numerous, petiolate, linear, stem sessile, linear-lanceolate.
Loves open sunny places with stony soil. It grows crowded bushes. Very interesting during the flowering period. On the Roman-Gora hill there are not many plants on top from the south side. Numerical accounting showed about 20 plants.
Features of all kinds of plants in the steppe
36—37) steppe zone. For color matching, you can use the “key” below.
What zone, located between the steppes and forest zones, remained unpainted? Paint it at home.
Our inquisitive Parrot knows something about the steppes. Here are some of his statements. Are they true? Circle Yes or No. If not, correct the errors (verbally).
a) The steppe zone is located south of the forest zones. Answer: Yes
b) In the steppe zone of a cold, rainy summer. Answer: No
c) The soil in the steppe zone is very fertile. Answer: Yes
g) Tulips bloom in the steppe in the midst of summer. Answer: No
e) In the steppe there is a bustard - one of the smallest birds of our country. Answer: No
Mama Seryozha and Nadi wondered if you know steppe plants. Cut out the drawings from the Application and place them in the appropriate windows. Check yourself on the textbook. After self-test, stick the pictures.
And this task was prepared for you by Pope Seryozha and Nadi. Get to know the animals of the steppe by fragments. Sign the names of the animals. Ask a nearby student to check you out.
Make a diagram of the power circuit characteristic of the steppe zone. Compare it with the scheme proposed by a neighbor on the desk. Using these schemes, tell us about the ecological connections in the steppe zone.
Kovyl - Filly - Steppe Lark - Steppe Eagle
Tipchak - Khomyak - Steppe Viper
Think about the environmental problems of the steppe zone expressed by these signs. Formulate and write down.
Steppes are plowed almost everywhere. There are almost no steppes in the steppe zone!
On unplowed areas of the steppes graze cattle. Sometimes large herds of animals graze for a long time in one place, overgrazing occurs.
Suggest nature conservation measures for class discussion to help solve these problems.
Continue filling the poster “The Red Book of Russia”, which was painted by Pope Seryozha and Nadya. Find a plant and animals of the steppe zone on the poster and sign their names.
Thin-leaved peony, steppe eagle, bustard, steppe dybka
8. On the instructions of the textbook (p. 117) draw a steppe.
9. On the instructions of the textbook (p. 117), prepare a report on steppe plants and animals that you are especially interested in.
Post subject: Bustard
2) Basic information
The bustard is recognized as the heaviest of flying birds, this steppe inhabitant basically moves on the ground and runs fast in case of danger. Individuals are considered omnivorous, in their diet are vegetable food (seeds, shoots, wild garlic) and animals (insects, rodents, frogs), in the mating period the males perform a spectacular dance.
Length: males up to 105 cm, females from 75 to 80 cm
Weight: males up to 16 kg, females up to 8 kg
Lifespan: 20-25 years
Bustard - mostly steppe bird. She lives on open plains without groves, meadows and fields. This is due to the caution of birds, since the free space there is far visible. During nesting, individuals stop in areas of high vegetation. There are also cases when bustards nest among crops of grain, sunflower and other crops.
Source (s) of information: Internet, Encyclopedia
Plants of the steppe zone: photo and names
What plants grow in the steppe?
- Mountain steppes with lush alpine vegetation and alpine, characterized by scarce and inconspicuous vegetation, mainly consisting of grains and promnika.
- Meadow. Steppes, characterized by the presence of small forests forming glades and edges.
- These. Steppes with a feather and fescue growing on them in great predominance. This is the most typical steppe plants.
- Sazovye - steppe, consisting of plants that adapt to the arid climate, shrubs.
- Desert steppes, which grow desert grass tumbleweed, wormwood, prutnyak
- It is also necessary to say a few words about the forest-steppes, which are characterized by the alternation of deciduous forests and coniferous forests with steppes, since the plants of the steppe and forest-steppe differ only in subspecies.
The steppe is embodied on any continent except Antarctica, and on different continents it has its own name: in North America - this is the prairie, in South America - the pampas (pampas), in South America, Africa and Australia - this is the savanna. In New Zealand, the steppe is called tussokie.
Let us consider in more detail which plants grow in the steppe.
Plant species steppe
- Krupka. This is an annual cruciferous plant growing on the high mountains and in the tundra. There are about 100 varieties of grain, characteristic of our steppes. It is characterized by a branched stem with oblong leaves, topped with tassels of yellow flowers. The flowering period is April - July. In folk phytotherapy, Krupka is used as a hemostatic, expectorant and diuretic.
- Prolomnik. It is also an annual plant, about 25 cm long and with oblong leaves, a variety of floral arrows, each of which ends in an inflorescence consisting of tiny white flowers. Prolomnik is used as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, diuretic and hemostatic, as well as an anticonvulsant for epilepsy
- Poppy. Depending on the species, it is annual or perennial grass with flower buds on long peduncles. Он растет на каменистых склонах, у горных ручьев и речек, на полях, вдоль дорог. И хотя маки ядовиты, их широко применяют в фитотерапии как успокаивающее и снотворное средство при бессоннице, а также при некоторых болезнях кишечника и мочевого пузыря.
- Тюльпаны – это многолетние травянистые растения степи семейства лилейных с крупными и яркими цветками. They mainly grow in semi-desert, desert and mountainous areas.
- Astragalus. This plant has more than 950 species of various colors and shades, growing in desert and dry steppes, in the forest zone and alpine meadows. It is widely used for edema, edema, gastroenteritis, diseases of the spleen, as a tonic, as well as for headaches and hypertension
- Feather grass. It is also a diverse grass. There are more than 60 of them, and the most common of them is feathery feather grass. This is a perennial plant of the cereal family. A feather grass grows up to 1 meter tall with smooth stems and spinous leaves. Feather grass is used as a decoction of milk with goiter and paralysis.
- Mullein. This is a large (up to 2 m) plant with hairy leaves and large yellow flowers. Studies of the plant showed the presence of many useful substances in its flowers, such as flavonoids, saponins, coumarin, gum, essential oil, aukubin glycoside, ascorbic acid and carotene content. Therefore, the plant is actively used as a food additive in salads and hot dishes, they prepare drinks and also eat fresh.
- Melissa officinalis. This is a perennial tall grass with a pronounced lemon smell. The stems of the plant are topped with bluish-purple flowers, which are collected in false rings. In the leaves of lemon balm contains an essential oil, ascorbic acid, some organic acids.
- Camel thorn is a semi-shrub, up to 1 meter in height, with a strong root system, bare stems with long spines and red (pink) flowers. Camel thorn is widespread in the riverside space; it grows along canals and canals, in wastelands and irrigated lands. The plant contains many vitamins, some organic acids, rubber, resins, tannins, essential oil, as well as carotene and wax. Decoction of plants used in colitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer.
- Sagebrush. It is a herbaceous or semi-shrub plant found almost everywhere. The whole plant has a straight stem with thin pinnately-separated leaves and yellowish flowers, collected in inflorescences. Wormwood is used as a spicy plant, and essential oil is used in perfumery and cosmetics. Wormwood also matters as a fodder plant for livestock.
- So, we have considered only some species of steppe plants. And, of course, differences in the landscape leave their mark on the appearance of the herbs growing on it, but, nevertheless, some common properties can be distinguished. So typical for steppe plants:
- Branched root system
- Onion Roots
- Fleshy stems and thin, narrow leaves
Even more interesting
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