The Kodryanka grape variety is a hybrid. It was bred by breeders of two varieties: Moldova and Marshall. Especially in demand among gardeners, as one of the best varieties of dark grapes. In this article we will try to consider in detail this variety, its description, planting and care.
Grapes Kodryanka. Description
As mentioned above, this grape variety is hybrid. He was selected by specialists from Moldova. After breeding, this grape was widely used by amateur growers in Moldova, Ukraine and southern Russia, for cultivation in their plots. The grape variety Kodryanka refers to the early maturity. Maturation occurs in 110-118 days. Bushes of this variety are very large and vigorous. In the description, you can add that it is characterized by a large number of shoots after pruning. The advantages of this class include:
- high yield. Ripe grapes reach 0.5 kg. There are cases when, with good care, their weight can reach 1 kilogram. At the same time bunches can hang on the vine for a very long time,
- good survival rate. This variety is characterized by a good survival rate. Seedlings are widely used as a good graft, giving a high percentage of rooting,
- disease resistance. This variety is very unpretentious in care and resistant to various types of diseases. And also, this grape is slightly affected by wasps, which makes it easier to care for,
- good frost resistance. Not bad transfers winter frosts to minus 23 degrees. Unlike other varieties, it tolerates spring frosts well.
In the description of this variety, you can add that it is intended mainly for eating and adding berries to fruit compote. It is not suitable for making wine. The disadvantages of the Codrean grape include the frequent and abundant appearance of small berries (pea). But, according to experienced growers, and with this drawback you can successfully fight.
Planting grapes Kodryanka
High yield of grapes depends on many reasons. First, the choice of a place for his landing. Secondly, the climate of the area where it will grow. And also depends on the method of planting and proper care. Consider different landing methods..
- Seed method. Planting begins with the collection of seeds of Kodryanka grapes. For this fit healthy and ripe berries. After the seeds have been collected, they should be washed well and put in the refrigerator. When the seeds are cracked they must be taken out and put on wet gauze for germination. When the first roots appear, the seeds can be planted in open ground. This should be done in the spring. This method has one drawback - the possibility of loss of varietal qualities.
- Planting seedlings. This is the most reliable method of planting for early harvest. Seedlings are best purchased in specialized stores or from experienced growers. Having decided on the place of landing, on the sunny side, it is necessary to prepare the holes. The depth of the pits should be at least 30 centimeters and a width of about 0.5 meters. At the bottom of the pits need to fill with fertile soil or add mineral fertilizers. Before planting, the seedling must be carefully examined. It must be durable without damage. It is desirable that the roots are located in a circle and were not too long. The roots of the seedling can be soaked in a root-stimulator solution. Then, lower the prepared specimen into the hole and sprinkle it, making a small slope of the trunk from south to north. The soil is well compacted and watering abundantly. Grapes can be planted in the fall, but be sure to cover the seedling.
- Planting cuttings. The main condition of this method is the correct preparation of cuttings. The appearance of the roots can be done in several ways. You can just keep the stalk in the water. The roots will appear in 21-28 days. Planting cuttings in the prepared soil (you can ready to buy in a specialty store), poured into any container. When the cutting takes root, it can be planted in open ground.
- Reproduction by layering. To do this, select the long branches of the grape bush. We make small grooves near the bush, lower branches there and fix. Then we sprinkle it on the ground and water it abundantly. All these operations must be done in the spring. During the season, these layers will take root and in the fall they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
By the way, experienced growers believe that the more a pit is made for planting, the better the vine will take root and the harvest will be richer.
One of the conditions for obtaining a good harvest from new seedlings is caring for them. It is necessary to regularly loosen the soil around the planted bushes and in the aisle. Young bushes should be watered once a week at the rate of a bucket of water per plant. When the first leaves appear, it is necessary to make a small hole near the trunk so that the trunk becomes hardened. In the summer, the grapes must be pinched periodically so that the vine does not become too long. Be sure to feed the grapes twice. Then, regularly need to remove stepchildren, so that food comes directly to the shoots and the ripening of the berries. It is also necessary to remove large leaves, which will close the berry from the light.
The main purpose of care for grapes in the fall - it is to prepare the plant for the winter period. After harvesting, a weakened plant must be fed with organic fertilizers. After all the leaves fall off, you can start pruning the grapes. Pruning must necessarily be carried out before the first frost. After pruning, the plant should be high upright and close for the winter.
Fight against diseases and pests of grapes
The most common disease of this plant is mildew. The external characteristics are similar to powdery mildew. Literally the whole plant is covered with white spots. Then, the leaves dry completely, and the berries fall. In some cases, the vine may die completely. If you find that your plant is sick, then the use of chemicals is ineffective. Therefore, it is necessary to fight it with preventive methods. They consist in cleaning the fallen leaves and cut parts of the vine. It is also necessary to ensure that the vine does not touch the ground. Also, the plant can be treated with fungicides.
Among the pests, the most common is a spider mite. Especially they appear in dry times. Currently, specialty stores sell complex drugs to combat diseases and pests of grapes.
Description of the variety, characteristic with a photo
It is difficult to pick grapes for a climatic zone with cold winters and short summers. Codrians are distinguished by relatively good frost resistance and resistance to return spring frosts.
The threshold of winter temperatures is 22 ° C. From 0 to –22 ° C, grape bushes overwinter well. With guaranteed high snow cover they are not covered. At lower temperatures, the plant freezes. From the summer drought vine does not suffer.
On a note! Kodryanka begins to bear fruit at 2 years of age.
Winegrowers involved in cultivating a crop in a short summer have an important ripening time. According to this feature, Codryanka is ideal for the middle band. In terms of ripening is an early culture.
From blooming buds in the spring, a maximum of 120 days passes before harvesting. If the rationing of the ovaries is carried out, the ripening period is reduced to 100-110 days.
As experienced winegrowers note, rationing is an obligatory measure when growing Kodryanka grapes. The number of brushes is determined from the allowable load on the bush and its age.
Extra brushes are removed, it helps to eliminate negative factors from vine overload:
- The ripening period is not delayed.
- Berries do not shrink.
- The crop is spiced together in a short time period.
Spring spend rationing eyes. For vigorous, large-fruited bushes Kodryanki recommended load of 30 eyes.
Ripe brush Kodryanka
With a good agrotechnical brush separate formed weighing up to 1 kg. Average weight - 600 g. Berries of large size (up to 8 g), elongated, oval in shape. Durable dark purple skin is covered with a layer of pruine - a wax coating that prevents:
- moisture evaporation
- mechanical damage to berries,
- negative environmental impact.
Because of the purine berries have a bluish outflow. The nutritional value of berries and their purpose determines the taste. Tasters put out for a simple, pleasant taste without musk 9.1 points. With a 10 point system, this is a good result.
Note! On the poor, stony soil, the sweetest berries get from Kodryanka.
Sugar in the pulp of fully ripened fruits is 16%, acids not more than 7 g / l. Osypayemost low, as the stem is durable. In wet weather, the skin can burst, which leads to a decrease in the commodity value of the grapes. Well separated bones in berry 2, they are large.
The height of the bush comes to 2 meters or more. Bushes form powerful shoots that mature well during the season. The leaves are large, round-shaped, have a wavy profile. Leaf plate covered with sparse, thin setae. On both sides of the sheet there are cloves. Bubbly weak or absent.
Advantages and disadvantages
Varietal disadvantages include:
- predisposition of the bush Kodryanka overload,
- the need to ration the crop,
- predisposition varieties to pea - chopping berries.
The table summarizes all the valuable qualities of table varieties.
Annual seedlings - the best material for planting. Cuttings can also be used, having previously processed them with a stimulant for better root formation. A day before planting, put the cutting into the water (preferably thawed), dunk into the stimulant (powder) before planting it in the ground. Tilt the stalk toward the north.
On a note. Choose a high elevation or flat area for planting. Check the groundwater level. It should lie no higher than 2.5 from the surface of the earth. Lowland, marshy soil is not suitable.
For planting seedlings prepare a hole 50 * 50. Drainage is necessarily poured on its bottom (medium gravel, brick breaking, pebbles) with a layer of at least 10 cm. A fertile mixture is prepared for filling the pit:
All is thoroughly mixed, before falling asleep seedling roots. The earth is compacted around the roots, and 2 buckets of water are poured into the hole. While the seedling is not established, keep the soil moist, preventing overmoistening.
The layout of the holes should take into account the future development of the vine. The distance to the nearest bush is not less than 2 m. Aisle distance for horizontal line landing is no longer 3 m. It is important to choose the right time for planting. In the spring to catch up to the start of sap flow, in the fall not to be late and plant a month before the first frost.
The first 5 years, the seedling requires very careful care. Fertilizing the first years (2 years) is not necessary, since the landing pit was charged with the necessary amount of fertilizer. Later adhere to the scheme shown in the table.
To combat the pea all growers use gibberellin. This is a hormonal drug. His actions during the flowering of grapes:
- Flowers crumble less.
- Stimulates the formation of berries.
- Affects the size of the berries.
- Clusters have a marketable appearance and are not damaged during transportation.
- Stimulate the growth of shoots and leaves.
There is a feature in the preparation of the drug - alcohol is required. The crystals are almost insoluble in water, therefore, they are first diluted in alcohol and then added to water. Strictly observe the dosage to eliminate the negative impact of the tool and its excessive accumulation in the tissues of the grape bush.
Watering is required. The volume of water per bush increases with the age of the vine. For a young plant from 0 to 3 years, the minimum norm is 3 buckets, for an adult bush the norm increases by 2 times.
Take into account the level of rain watering. During the drought period, avoid dryness of the topsoil. Particularly sensitive to deficiency 1-2 summer grape bushes.
Tied up bushes Kodryanka
In the middle band forming pruning carried out in the autumn. There are two advantages:
- Wounds overgrow faster.
- Pruned bushes easier to lay in the winter and shelter.
The first 2-3 years in the bushes can only remove shoots that did not have time to fully mature. In adult plants, trim the lash according to the chosen scheme and the permissible load on the bush. In the summer, remove the leaves around the clusters and the extra shoots. For Kodryanki experienced growers recommend a short pruning. With this scheme, the permissible load is 20 shoots for a fruiting bush.
In winter, you need to fear not only frost. In the thaw, with improper shelter, the roots can subside. Winegrowers consider lapnik the best covering material. In case of its absence, straw or purchased covering material of sufficient density can be used.
Tip In the shelter, leave a few holes. During the thaw, the raw air will go out through them, the temperature of the soil will not rise, the roots will not grow.
Before the very frosts, the bushes are pruned, the leaves are removed. Shrubs pile, removed from the trellis or other support. Lay on the ground and cover. In winter they throw snow.
When the threat of severe frosts is over, the bushes are free from covering material. Damaged shoots cut out. The soil from the trunk otberebayut and mulch with humus. When the snow melts, spend the first feeding.
The mildew for Kodryanka is a real threat, especially in bad weather conditions. Even with good immunity varieties will not be superfluous the following preventive measures:
- Autumn - pruning of diseased shoots and spoiled berries, cleaning leaves.
- Spring - pruning.
- Before flowering - treatment with topaz, ridomil, carbamide.
- After flowering - the drug Strobe.
Grapes Codreanca: video
Planted Kodryanka germinated cuttings. The first signaling was for 2 years. Her weight was about 300 grams, cut off in early September. For 3 years I made a mistake - I overloaded the vine. The development of the bush has noticeably decreased, the clusters eventually all matured. Cut in September. One bunch of 10 pulled 1 kg. By grade I can note: the presence of pea, not outstanding taste. The yield in the end all overlaps and I am satisfied with the result.
I grow clone Kodryanki. Bushes are powerful, productive. The weight of a bunch is 700 g. The weight of a berry is 7 g. The color is dark-purple, the patina is gray. The taste is simple. I struggle with pea in simple ways: I remove the leaves near the bunch, spray it with boric acid, sometimes I use the Ovary. With the harvest do not pull. Ripens in late August.
Lazy this year. When flowering went, did not remove the leaves around the clusters. The result - a pea. Pollination went bad, this year's harvest was all wasted.
Rules for planting grapes
The scheme of planting grapes.
- The best time for planting seedlings is either late autumn or early spring. It is forbidden to plant seedlings after the onset of autumn frosts!
- It is necessary to prepare in advance a shallow pit for disembarkation, the earth, abundantly mixed with mineral fertilizers, is piled in advance at the bottom of the pit.
- Seedlings are placed in the hole gently, avoiding jams of roots. The soil, previously mixed with a small amount of fertilizer, is added in small portions in order not to damage the delicate root system of the plant.
- A steady backwater is driven into the ground near the landing site, to which a sapling is tied, so that later the plant growth direction can be adjusted.
- Next, the seedling needs abundant watering in several buckets of water - this is important for faster rooting. And if planting occurs in the fall, then watering will protect the grapes from frostbite.
- In the autumn time, it is recommended to produce an earthing up to protect the roots of the seedling from frost. It is possible that the stalk is covered with a tub with a cropped bottom, which is then completely filled with earth.
Rules for planting grapes cuttings
The scheme of planting grapes cuttings.
For planting grapes "codryanka" cuttings the best time is early spring. It is undesirable to make the landing after the start of movement of the juice.
- To prepare the cutting for planting, it must be cut from the bush with a sharp knife and soaked in water for several days.
- Next, the stalk should be waxed, with the roots better placed in a special solution that accelerates their growth. For this purpose, the drug "Gumat" is well suited, ten drops of which is enough for one liter of water.
- It is necessary to dig a shallow hole for planting in advance, plant the stalk and compact the hole well with earth.
- From above the ground around the cutting is covered with a piece of polyethylene with a small hole for the cutting.
The grapes harvest after planting will need to wait three years, however, in some cases, under good conditions and care, the grapes “kodryanka” produce crops in the second year after planting.
The classic and effective way of planting with the highest survival rate of plants in the soil is planting annual seedlings, cuttings take root a little worse. However, a third option is also possible - grafting the grape variety, which is already growing on the site of the grape.
Grafting of “grape” grapes can be done at almost any time of the year, except, of course, for the winter season. In early spring, before the movement of the juices, an unblowed stem is grafted onto the bush. Также «черный» черенок можно прививать в конце весны либо в начале лета. Распустившийся черенок лучше прививать осенью, в начале октября.
Подготовка черенка осуществляется так же, как перед посадкой. Место среза на виноградном кусте очищается от любых загрязнений и тщательно выравнивается острым ножом. Next grams shtamb split into two parts, in this split, you must insert the prepared stalk roots down. The place of "vaccination" is tied with cotton cloth and smeared with clay. In the autumn before the start of freezing, a grape bush with “grafting” is better to pile up.
Care and pruning
It is necessary not only to observe all the rules of planting grapes, but also to carry out competent care for the plant. Grapes “codrian” are unpretentious compared to other varieties, however, some rules still need to be observed, because it is a shame to spend a lot of effort and not get a harvest because of one annoying mistake when growing a plant.
Watering grapes of the codrian variety should occur regularly - it tends to grow rapidly, gives abundant crops and requires a lot of water for development and maturation. It is necessary to ensure that the land does not dry out during the dry period, for this you can focus on the following watering norms: about six buckets of water are needed for one large, overgrown vineyard, for a relatively young bush, small in size, three buckets are enough.
In spring and autumn, the soil around the “Kodryanka” grape bushes must be mulched in order for the water to linger when watering and better absorbed by the root system of the plant. Lay out peat and humus preferably over the entire area of the bushes. In the summer, mulching, on the contrary, is contraindicated, it can damage the roots of grapes - they can overheat in a humid environment and begin to die off.
Scheme of preparation of grapes for winter.
To increase the number of berries, you can use fertilizers that supply additional nutrients to the soil. After a period of a year, humus with EM-fertilizers or compost can be put into the ground.
In order to prevent grapes from "peeling", the drug Giberellin is commonly used: it not only allows you to prevent the flowers from shedding and reducing the size of the berries, but also contributes to the ripening of large seedless grapes.
Pruning grapes "codryanka" in the first years of life is not required. This variety is very viable and will grow and bear fruit on its own, without pruning. Further, after the beginning of the fruiting period, it is possible to prune young shoots of “codgrassians” for the winter, but they are still not able to spend the winter. When the bush has already grown, you can prune it to correct the direction of development, you need to get rid of the dried shoots.
This variety is frost-resistant, but in the first years after planting it is necessary to protect the immature root system of the plant from winter frosts. For this, in the autumn it is necessary to produce an earthing up, and also it is possible to cover bushes with straw. To protect against rodents in the winter they tie the base of the bushes with fir branches.
Grape Codreanca: variety description
Berry Codrean is very large, dark purple, close to black. The shape of the berry elongated in length to 3 cm, ovate, with a thick wax coating (pruine), average weight is 7 grams There are not many seeds in the berry, they are easily separated.
The peel of the fruit is quite dense, but not noticeable when used. Kodryanka taste, though simple, but pleasant, juicy flesh.
Bush varieties tall, the vine matures well. Already in the second year after grafting or planting seedlings, the grapes enter fruiting. Clusters are moderately dense, medium weight - 600 grams. Some clusters reach 1 kgbut at the same time they are well attached and for a long time are on the vine already in a mature state.
Characteristics of grapes "Kodryanka" (he Black magic) Is a complex interspecific hybrid of the table form of black grapes, which is distinguished by its very early ripening period.
Early ripening can boast and Kishmish Jupiter, Velez and Super Extra.
Codrians are valued primarily for regular large harvest volumes, even under adverse conditions.
The variety is table, it is often grown for sale, because it can be stored for a long time after ripening and does not lose its commodity and taste qualities. For winemaking, this variety is also suitable due to the high sugar content (before 18%) and juice.
By chemical composition berries Kodryanki considered a very valuable product. This is not only an excellent antiseptic and antioxidant, it contains a lot of useful elements for the body:
The grade differs in good frost resistance - to -22, but for the winter shelter is desirable. In bad years, Codreanca is prone to pea, which is considered a minus when growing berries for sale, because they lose their appearance. Preventing pea can be done in advance with the help of Gibberelin.
Such varieties as Angelica, King Ruby and Ruslan can also show pollen.
The load on the bush, on average, is 17-19 shoots with a short trim.
Photo grapes "Kodryanka":
Planting and care
When planting a variety of great advantage is its simplicity, and the ability to take root anywhere. However, when landing you need to consider some features:
- The grade well breeds one-year saplings,
- The best time to plant is late autumn.
- Immediately after planting the seedling is important to pile up.
The roots of the seedling are carefully covered with earth to prevent damage, and watering is required immediately after planting.
If this method of planting is chosen as a vaccination, then there are several options. In early spring, graft is black to black (this means until the blooming stalk to black stock), in late spring-early summer, black to green, in autumn, green to green.
The basis of any crop is caring for the plant. For normal growth requires a lot of moisture, so watering should be regular.
Despite the fact that this variety shows good frost resistance, it should be sheltered for the winter, especially when it comes to seedlings. At the same time, the seedlings are not only curling with soil, but also sheltering with straw.
The Beauty of the North, the Arched and Pink Flamingo are also frost-resistant varieties.
No need to prune grapes in the first few years. The plant can bear fruit and develop independently. As soon as Codreanca enters the fruiting period, in the fall it is recommended to prune the young shoots that cannot bear the winter. In older age, pruning is done in the fall only those shoots that do not bear fruit or dried.
This variety is characterized by increased resistance to disease, at the level of 2.5-3 points to oidium and mildew. For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is possible to spray 2 times per season with standard means to combat these diseases before flowering and immediately after the berries start to set.
Grapes may require preventive measures against anthracnosis, chlorosis, bacteriosis, rubella and bacterial cancer. Read about them in detail in separate materials of the site.
As for other pests (phylloxera, spider mite), standard agrotechnical measures in the form of thinning a bush and timely removal of old or damaged parts will reduce these problems to a minimum.
Due to its unpretentiousness and durability, the Kodryanka grape variety has become popular with many winegrowers. Even in years with adverse conditions, the variety brings a large amount of the crop. Its berries are always saturated with beneficial trace elements that strengthen the body as a whole and have healing properties. Codreanca is a decent form of grapes for homegrown viticulture that is perfect for beginners.
"Codrean" is also known as Black magic.. It was obtained by crossing 2 varieties - "Marshall" and "Moldova." In addition to the native country, this grape is grown in Belarus, Ukraine, central and southern regions of Russia.
The variety is considered early ripening with a maturity of 108 to 118 days. It is distinguished by vigorous and voluminous bushes with a vine that is capable of ripening along its entire length. It is noteworthy that the term of ripening depends on the load of the plant - the longer it is, the later the berries will become ripe.
The flower of this culture is bisexual. The variety is characterized by large clusters that have a conical shape and moderate density. On average, the Cadrean brush weighs 500–600 grams, but some clusters reach 1.5 kg mass. Regardless of their weight, the brushes hold well on the vine.
The berries of this variety differ in large size and weight of 6−8 grams. They have a dark purple, almost black shade and elongated or egg-shaped form. The skin of the berries of medium thickness is covered with a wax coating that does not affect the taste of the grapes. The flesh is juicy and crunchy, with a small amount of small seeds that are easy to separate.
The taste of “Kodryanki” is quite simple, without a nutmeg shade, but very pleasant. This is due to the low content of acid - not more than 7 grams per liter with the level of sugar up to 16%. The sweetness of the berries appears early, so they are tasty even in non-matured form.
The berries of this variety are rarely showered, so they tolerate transportation. If they are left on the bush after ripening, the taste of the grapes will not become worse. However, in adverse weather conditions they may crack.
When describing grapes “Codreanka” it is worth mentioning that it belongs to table crops, therefore it is grown for fresh use. Due to the high sugar content of these berries are suitable for home winemaking. For the production of raisins, this variety is considered not the best option because of the seed.
Although the variety belongs to dark varieties of grapes, sometimes “White Codreanca” is found on sale, which has nothing to do with the classic look. This is a hybrid plant of unknown origin. In some areas, it is also known as Cinderella. The variety in appearance resembles "Biruintsa" grapes.
"White Codrean" has an average agingconstituting 130−140 days. Her bunch reaches a weight of 600−800 grams. Berries are larger than the dark version. They are characterized by an oval shape and a weight of 10−12 grams. Although it is very good in taste, it is not so easy to care for it as it is for the usual “Codrean”. It needs close attention and frequent processing, as it is unstable to diseases and parasites.
You can try to grow the culture of the seeds, however, the resulting bush will no longer have the characteristics of "Kodryanki." This is due to the fact that during the formation of seeds pollinated, resulting in a change of genetic material.
It is better to propagate the grapes by layering, cuttings or purchased seedlings. When using any of these methods, the procedure should be carried out before the first frost - in October - November - or in the spring before the beginning of the growing season. When planting, it is desirable to take into account some of the nuances:
- The plot for the grapes should not be swamped. It is desirable that the depth of the groundwater was at least 2.5 meters.
- Grapes will be better to bear fruit if it is planted on a sunny plot without drafts.
- Preference should be given to light soils. Stony and sandy soil is suitable - grapes turn out to be sweeter on it.
- The distance between the bushes should be at least 1.5 meters, and between their rows - at least 2.5 meters.
- For planting you need a hole 80 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter, which should be fertilized with potassium sulphate, superphosphate, wood ash and humus. Feed must be mixed well with the ground.
- With each bush you need to put a support.
- After planting, the cutting or sapling is watered with 2 buckets of water, carefully spud and mulched, if the procedure is carried out in the autumn.
For breeding by layering, you should take one of the shoots of the mother bush, lean it against the ground with buds and cover it with earth. After a root or stem is formed on a young bush, it should be cut off from the old plant.
Propagation by cuttings is also considered effective. To do this, from the bush you need to cut off the shoot with 2−3 buds that need to be rooted, soaked for 24 hours in melt water and dipped in a root formation stimulator. The upper part of the cutting should be rubbed with paraffin to protect it from rotting. Escape is better to plant with a slope to the north.
When buying a sapling in a nursery, you should pay attention to its appearance. There should be no signs of disease and mechanical damage on the plant. It is desirable that the main root is well developed and has many branches. The main shoot should have a smooth and sturdy stem with a vertical direction that exceeds the others in height. In addition, the seedling must be at least 2 healthy buds.
Rules for the care of grapes
After planting, the care of the Kodryanka grapes consists in timely watering and fertilizer. A young bush needs 25 liters of water, an adult needs at least 45 liters. The frequency of moisture depends on the dry season, but not more than 3 times a week. Watering should be carried out in the early morning or in the evening after sunset.
In the spring, when the bush begins to grow rapidly, it needs nitrogen fertilizers that help the plant develop leaves. When flowering, the culture should be fed with potassium-nitrogen complexes, and 2 weeks before the berries ripen, a mixture of phosphorus and nitrogen compounds should be added. Fertilizers should be applied no more than 2 times a month, accompanied by watering.
It is worth noting that in the first and second year of life, the bushes do not need to be fed if they are fertilized during planting. The older the plant becomes, the more nutrients it needs for normal development.
No less important measure for the care of "Codrean" is its pruning, because without it it is impossible to get a good harvest. In the first few years, the bushes do not need this procedure. It can be limited only to pruning of green shoots, which is carried out in the autumn, moreover after the plant began to bear fruit. In adult grapes, it is also worth cutting off dried and damaged branches.
In the future, pruning should be carried out according to the chosen scheme, given that you need to leave from 7 to 9 eyes at each shoot. The optimal load on the bush is 17−20 branches. If you leave more, the grapes will ripen longer. Pruning the plant is better in the autumn, because in the spring the vine produces a lot of juice and can die.
In the summer, it is worthwhile to carry out molding pruning, removing unnecessary stepchildren and pinching shoots. It should take into account the load of the bush and its features.
When pruning, it is advisable to disinfect the secateur with copper sulphate or alcohol to reduce the risk of developing pathogenic bacteria. The tool should be processed after working with each bush.
Shelter for the winter
Characteristics of grapes "Codreanca» allow to leave it for the winter without shelter only in an area with warm winters. In regions where there is a frost of more than 23 degrees and little snow falls, the bushes need to be warmed.
The roots of culture need to be warmed with a layer of earth. It should be taken not near the bushes, but from distant areas where there were no diseased plants. After that, it is desirable to mulch the soil.
To cover the vine, you can simply drop it to the ground and sprinkle it with earth, but with this method, the shoots can damage rodents. In addition, they can dry out, which is especially likely in areas where spring melt water accumulates. Therefore, it is better to build a dry shelter with a layer of air from pine spruce branches, reed or straw mats.
For reliability, such a shelter can be insulated with plastic film. In this case, it is necessary to leave a few products, so that the plants have the opportunity to be aired during the thaw.
It should be remembered that there should be no dampness under the shelter, otherwise the grapes can melt. For him, it is more dangerous than frost.
The origin of the grape variety Kodryanka
The variety was obtained by Soviet scientists in 1985 in the NIViV (National Institute of Viticulture and Wine) of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Moldova. Codrying is bred by crossing popular varieties of Moldova and Marshall.
Variety is often found under the name Black Magic (Black Magic).
"Parents" Kodryanki - Moldova and Marshall varieties
Video: Kodryanka grapes
The main trouble Kodryanki - her penchant for pea. Unfavorable conditions cause a lack of pollination, not all flowers are fertilized in the inflorescence, the grapes “degenerate” and become small. If in June outside the temperature does not rise above 15 o C, and in the mornings there are dense fogs, then the probability of getting a harvest of sweet “peas” instead of grapes is very high. Overloaded bush is also a common cause of pea.
Peeling is one of the main problems of the Kodryanka grape variety
Ways to combat pea:
- do not forget to thin out the bush to prevent its thickening,
- grow grapes in open, well-blown areas,
- spray the grapes in hot weather, it helps pollen stick to the pistils,
- grow honey near the grapes: phacelia, mustard, rape to attract bees,
- fertilize grapes with microelement complexes with a high content of boron and zinc,
- artificial pollination of grapes helps to cope with the problem.
Preparing a landing site
Prepare holes with a diameter of 15 cm and a depth of 15–20 cm (on a spade bayonet). If the length of the roots is greater than the diameter of the planting hole, then they should be cut to the desired size. Подогнутые корни навредят растению гораздо сильней. Почву из лунки рекомендуется смешать с перепревшим перегноем и песком в соотношении 2:1:1.
Перед высадкой рекомендуется замочить корни саженца на сутки в растворе стимулятора корневого роста, например, в Корневине. Фитогормоны, содержащиеся в нём, увеличат шансы саженца на выживание.
Today, most grape seedlings in stores and markets are covered with special wax that reduces transpiration. He does not interfere with engraftment at all, but an attempt to clean it off will greatly harm the plant.
- Put the seedling in the hole.
- At the planting, the grafting site of the seedling should be 1–1.5 cm above the soil level.
- Cover the roots with soil mixture and spill with a bucket of water.
- After the moisture has been absorbed, add more soil and tamp the soil.
- In addition, fill the seedling with loose earth from above, completely hiding it under a small mound of earth.
Peculiarities of care
Codrying favorably with its unpretentiousness, however, like any cultivated plant, requires compliance with certain agrotechnical measures. Care for young plants is a regular watering, weeding, mulching, shelter for the winter. Top dressing is carried out according to the following scheme:
- In the spring, before opening the bushes after wintering, the grapes are shed with a nutrient mixture: 20 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of ammonium nitrate and 5 grams of potassium salt are squeezed into 10 liters of water. This is a serving for one plant.
- Once again, feed the codrying with this mixture is necessary before flowering.
- Top dressing with the same solution, but without ammonium nitrate, is needed before the ripening of the grapes.
- Potassium fertilizers are applied after harvest. They will help the plant to overwinter.
- Every three years in the fall, the soil is fertilized with manure. It is evenly distributed over the soil surface and dug over.
Coding keys do not have a need for trimming during the first years of life. In the future, all that is required is to remove the young shoots after fruiting, which still cannot survive the winter. Also in the case of growth of a bush, it is “corrected” by removing dried vines. Codreanka fully begins to bear fruit in the 3rd year of life, but under favorable conditions, the harvest can be hoped for already in the 2nd year.
Reviews about grape variety Kodryanka
Not so long ago, a friend of his wife brought grapes to sample, among the varieties, the best, for my taste, was Codreanca, I could not imagine that such a yummy can grow near Kiev.
The Kodryanka variety is an excellent large-creeping variety from the blue-creepy early ones. I think it should be in every yard.
I have a crop on Kodryanka. The largest cluster on a 2-year-old bush is 1.3 kg, the lightest is 0.8 kg, mostly 1 kg each. 10 clusters of a bush pulled out very easily plus he ate plenty. Just started to mature shoots. Probably, it is impossible to do without early cutting and covering with a film on arcs. Frosts are stable in the 2nd decade of September.
Do Codreanes have a tendency to pea, especially noticeable in years unfavorable for flowering, but for fans of tinkering a minus can be turned into a plus? applying gibberellin to obtain large seedless berries. Productivity is high. Resistance to mildew in varieties of 2.5-3.0 points, to frost -22 ° C. Having its own holes in agrobiology, in general it is a very worthy grape variety for home viticulture.
My Kodryanochka, planted with a green seedling, blossomed on the 3rd summer, but only in August! Although the vine every year is more powerful. In the difficult season of summer 2016 - I did not notice a single sore on it.
Codreanca is one of the most popular table grape varieties in Russia. What is not surprising, since it has excellent taste, high yield, besides it is early maturing.
Varietal characteristics of grapes Kodryanka
Kodryanka grape is a hybrid variety obtained by crossing such well-known varieties as Moldova and Marshal.
From their genetic parents grapes received such qualities as:
- the frost resistance allowing to maintain temperatures to-23 degrees,
- dense and durable structure of the stems, protecting the clusters from breaking off,
- large fruit size,
- early term of aging
- high expandability of the bushes of grapes.
In addition to hereditary, it should be noted, and individual signs of grapes Codreanka, including:
- high yield, reaching 50 centners per hectare,
- moderate density of clusters on a bush,
- significant brush weight, ranging from 500 to 600 g and above,
- fruiting is already in the second year.
Choosing a landing site
Despite the unpretentiousness of the variety, when planting is usually guided by the following rules:
- the site planned for planting should be characterized by deep groundwater (at least 2.5 - 3 meters),
- landing site should not be shaded,
- Do not plant grapes in lowland areas characterized by high waterlogging of the soil.
As the cuttings use strong shoots of the vine from the mother grapes. Their thickness must be at least 10 mm.
It is recommended to plant grapes in the following order:
- Cuttings are cut from the middle part of the vine, taking into account the presence of at least three to four intact ocelli.
- The upper part of the cutting is treated with paraffin, and the lower part is cut off with a wedge-shaped method and dipped into the solution of the “Gumat” preparation. It is prepared at the rate of 10 drops per liter of water.
- Then you should prepare shtamb bush to which the vaccination will be carried out.
- The cut is machined to a smooth surface.
- The trunks are gently chopped and placed in the place of splitting the stalk of the trimmed part.
- The junction is wrapped tightly with cotton cloth and clay is applied over it.
Caring for grapes Codreanca
If you properly care for grapes, you can guaranteed to get a higher yield from your site. Therefore, we should not forget about the important features that help the vine grow and develop.
Caring for grapes Codryanka includes:
- correct watering
- shelter for the winter,
- pest and disease control.
Principles of watering Caddleki:
- for ripening and development of grapes requires a lot of water
- watering should be carried out regularly, not allowing the soil to dry out,
- the amount of water is taken from the calculation: young plants - at least three buckets, adults - at least six.
- carried out 2 years after planting, because the amount of fertilizer applied during planting is usually enough for this period,
- further apply nitrogen - potassium fertilizers,
- two weeks before the onset of technical ripeness, grapes are fertilized with potash - phosphate compounds,
- the older the shrub, the more fertilizer is required to ensure its best growth and ripening berries.
Pruning grapes Kodryanka
Pruning and the formation of the bush are the key to high yield Kodryanka. Since the third year of life, pruning should be carried out regularly, leaving seven to nine eyes. In the autumn period, annual shoots that have not had time to ripen are removed.
The main objectives of pruning grapes are:
- removal of underdeveloped plant parts,
- proper formation of the bush
- vine renewal
- yield increase,
- acceleration of ripening and improvement of taste.
Pruning Codreanski is done in the fall, because in the spring months, after the beginning of the movement of juices, the plant may die due to strong secretions.
In the summer, mainly the pinching of the shoots and the removal of unnecessary stepchildren are performed.
On the photo - grape pruning scheme
- a) bush before pruning, lines indicate pruning of fruit shooters and replacement knots,
- b) the same bush after pruning.
Reproduction of grapes Kodryanka
Cadreans are propagated by cuttings and layering, while:
- When breeding cuttings should be cut shoots with two - three buds, after which they are rooted.
- Reproduction by layings provides for the abstraction of shoots from different parts of the grapes, followed by powdering them with earth. As a result, the roots are formed. As soon as the roots and stem are fully formed, the cut-off area is trimmed.
Diseases and pests
Kodryanka grapes are known, among others, for their resistance to various kinds of pests and diseases. It is sprayed with standard preparations, which provides excellent results. It is best to use Mikosan for the prevention of morbidity. In rainy periods, the culture is sprayed with a Phytodoc or Fitosporin. This procedure is best done before flowering or after the formation of the ovary.
It is possible to protect the grapes from damage by rodents, if the fir-tree is strapping the shrub of the shrub, as well as spud it thoroughly with soil.
From the invasion of wasps on Codreanca, a number of effective measures should be taken:
- Remove all the wasp nests near the vineyard.
- Wrap each bunch in special mesh bags.
- Next to the vine, place traps - special containers in which jam, honey and other products that are attractive for os are put.