Among the different varieties of apple trees, colonized species are distinguished by their special attractiveness and beauty. Moreover, such trees bring a rich harvest, and since the variety variety of apple trees is large enough, they will easily please summer residents not only delicious (the taste may be different for different varieties), but also beautiful multi-colored fruits. All columnar apple trees (it does not matter if you chose seedlings for the middle band or for Siberia) have one vertical stem, around which by the autumn fruit formations are strewn, covered with colored fruits. In this article, we will pay attention to the varieties of apple-tree columnar intended specifically for cultivation in Siberia, since the climate in this area differs significantly from other regions, which means that the plants here grow unusual.
Selection of seedlings for planting
The first step towards successful cultivation of columnar apple trees in Siberia is the selection of good, viable seedlings (better than one-year old).
It will be better if you go to the garden center or nursery for planting materials, as when buying seedlings on the market or in other places there is a serious likelihood of purchasing summer varieties instead of autumn ones.
Also, you can sell a low-quality copy or even a different culture.
In order not to be mistaken in your choice and purchase truly high-quality seedlings of a columnar apple, we recommend that you follow the following rules:
- Buy only planting material with a tag with the specified age and plant variety (you can additionally ask the seller for written confirmation of the zoning of the seedling, its fruiting period, winter hardiness, resistance to diseases and pests, etc.).
- Pay attention to the type of root system (open or closed). When buying seedlings directly in the nursery, it is better to give preference to the closed root system. Such planting material has a longer shelf life before landing in the ground, and a high percentage of survival rate when placed at a permanent place of growth. Also pay attention to the container itself: you need to determine whether the sapling grew in it from the very beginning or was transplanted into a container before sale. In the latter case, the apple tree will be easily removed from the container, and with high probability it will not be able to take root in the new place.
- If you came to a nursery for a sapling, ask them to dig a selected plant with you, having carefully examined it. Sapling of the columnar apple should not have any mechanical damage to the root or bark, otherwise planting and subsequent care of the plant will not bring the expected result, and it does not matter whether you are in Siberia or in the more southern region.
- If the plant is grafted, then carefully inspect it (the fragility of the rootstock and the scion can cause damage to the junction). The stock deserves special attention.
- If by the appearance of a sapling it is noticeable that it was specially prepared for sale, then be sure to check the root system. Good seedling roots should be resilient, resilient and not have any knobbly nodules. When removing the bark from the root, the fabric under it should be lively and white. There should be no sign of drying on the bark of the plant.
- In the annual seedlings, which should be preferred, there are no side branches. Their trunk is usually 6–7 cm in length, and there are at least 5–6 buds on it.
Choosing a place in the Siberian garden
The best varieties of columnar apples for Siberia and other regions of the country need to create certain conditions for their growth. However, first of all, you should choose the right place for planting acquired seedlings. Since all representatives of the apple tree of this type have a weak branching root system, it is logical that fertile grounds with a high moisture capacity and a good level of water and air permeability will be ideal for planting.
On heavy clay soils in the landing pit requires a good drainage layer. To create a garden of columnar apple varieties, it is better to select areas with high groundwater levels (at least two meters from the soil surface).
Crown-shaped apple trees cannot grow and develop well in the shade and with strong gusts of wind, which means that the chosen area should be sunny and protected from the prevailing wind corridors.
How to plant a columnar apple in Siberia: technology and planting scheme
When planting apple trees in Siberia, the process of planting itself and subsequent care is somewhat different from similar actions in warmer climatic zones. Nevertheless, these apple trees in any case do not take up much space, and they are planted at a distance of 40 cm from each other, keeping at least a meter of free space between the rows. In regions with a harsh climate, it is better to land with the arrival of spring., because during the autumn planting of a sapling there is a possibility that he simply will not survive the harsh winter. As for the planting pit itself, it is prepared from the fall, selecting the size, based on the size of the seedling rhizome (all roots should be freely placed in it, without kinks and cracks).
At the bottom of the pit it is necessary to put fertilizer in the form of several handfuls of humus or compost. It is better not to use mineral feedings yet, because the root system of apple trees is so weak that it can not cope with them, and the seedling will die.
In the autumn preparation of the pit, you can use phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, only in this case the dosage should be 10 times lower. The exact amount of fertilizer can be found in the instructions on the package. On average, one young tree has about two tablespoons of the composition. Also, do not forget about the benefits of peat deposited in the planting pit or humus in the event that your columnar apple will have to grow on very lean soils.
As soon as the preparatory stage is successfully completed, and it gets a little warmer on the street, you can proceed to the direct planting of a seed-bearing apple tree in the ground. Agrotechnology planting plants is quite simple, although there are still some points that should not be forgotten.
For example, before planting an apple tree, make sure that the roots of the seedlings are not dried. If this is not the case, then the rhizome should be placed in water for 10 hours. This procedure is also carried out in the case when the bark of the seedling is wrinkled. If everything is normal, then the seedling is placed in a prepared pit, the roots are straightened and tied to a peg driven into the center, after which you can begin to fill the pit.
There are several main nuances that should be considered not only when choosing apple seedlings, but also when planting and further care, in particular in Siberia. So, it is necessary to cut off the roots of a seedling before placing it in the planting pit. This procedure will help the plant to settle down faster in a new place.
Once the seedling is in the pit and you gently straighten the roots, sprinkle the rhizome with soil and lightly tamp so that there are no voids around the plant, then pour plenty of water on it. Next, you need to level the ground (fill the hole, leaving the root neck of the apple tree above) and thrash the tree trunk with grass, which will help to retain moisture better.
How to water the fruit plants
The juiciness of the pulp of the fruit of the tree is largely determined by the quality of watering, so when caring for apple trees (not only in Siberia, but also in other regions), it is so important that the tree receives enough moisture during the growing season. When performing individual watering, it is better to form low sides (no more than 2 cm) that will help retain moisture.
Every apple tree should have at least 1-2 buckets of water, after using which the soil in the tree circle should be mulched with dry grass. The need to perform the next irrigation is determined based on the depth of drying of the soil. So, if the soil had time to dry 4-5 cm deep, it means that the plant needs another portion of moisture.
If an irrigation system is used for irrigation, the procedure is performed between rows. In the dry season, columnar apples respond well to irrigation, which is carried out in the morning or in the evening, after sunset. On light soils, watering is performed about 2-3 times a week.
Top dressing of Apple
First feeding Colonoid apple trees are carried out when planting a seedling, when fertilizers mixed with soil are placed at the bottom of the pit. With the arrival of summer, about a month after planting a young tree, the plants are fed again, using a solution of urea (50 g of the substance must be taken in a bucket of water), and the plant is watered at the root.
Features pruning Apple-shaped in Siberia
Pruning apple trees in Siberia is another important aspect in the care of such plants. Taking into account the unique structure of the crown of these apples, they practically do not need pruning, and most often gardeners simply cut off dying and damaged branches (affected by pests or frosts). If the apple tree is overgrown with young shoots, it is also better to cut them, using the extra parts for grafting new bushes. Experienced gardeners know for sure when in Siberia it is necessary to prune apple trees (usually in early spring), but when cultivating colonic species in such harsh regions where there is always a risk of freezing tops of trunks, they are not just shortened, but cut to the next strong escape. Due to the fact that only one of the most developed shoots remains, the trunk of an apple tree will be only one. Replacing shoots grow very quickly and soon begin to bear fruit abundantly.
Major pests and diseases of the columnar apple
Like other types of apple trees, columnar trees are not able to resist pests on their own, which is why gardeners have to spray the crown with special preparations even when insect damage is not strong. At the same time, it is impossible not to note the fact that the columnar varieties have a higher level of resistance to pests and diseases, therefore, it is easier to deal with them than when growing ordinary varieties of these fruit trees.
In the epiphytotic years, a massive invasion of pests of buds, aphids and tsvetoedov can cause significant damage to the crop. Protection against this scourge involves the use of the same measures as in ordinary apple orchards: spring treatment with special preparations, collection and burning of the foliage and branches remaining after the winter, etc.
Colonoid apple trees and insecticide plants (for example, lemon balm, dill, marigold or calendula) protect well, especially since their planting will not only help to solve this problem, but also help decorate the garden.
How to protect the apple tree from frost
No matter how cold-resistant apple trees for Siberia you have planted on your plot, in particularly frosty winters there is a possibility of freezing of the top bud on the central shoot.
To prevent this trouble, the sapling tree is covered on top with several layers of sackcloth, spunbond or any other insulating material.
With the advent of winter, mice and hares may start in your garden, which often gnaw the bark of trees. You can protect your columnar apple trees from their attention by simply wrapping the trunk with a net-rabbit, prikopav it in the ground by 2-3 cm (only very carefully, so as not to damage the root).
After each snowfall, gently seal the snow around the trunk of the tree, which will also help block the way for rodents.
We grow up columnar apple varieties for Siberia
Far from all gardeners - gardeners do not dare to grow apple-shaped trees in Siberia in their plots, fearing that due to the short summer and severe frosts, this crop will not yield or freeze.
Such concerns come from ignorance of varietal material and proper care for it.
For not long summer, early maturity is best suited.
Some of which can yield even in the first year. Of course, not a bucket of apples, but to treat grandchildren is enough.
All items that can be grown in the Siberian region are united by increased winter hardiness and early maturity.
Most of them are medium-fruiting, entering into active fruiting for 3-4 years.
Siberia is large and the climate is noticeably different in each region.
Therefore, apple trees grow and bear differently. And even if good indicators of winter hardiness, it does not give a full guarantee against frost damage. Severe cold over -30 ° with the wind for a week will not save any winter hardiness.
Only wrapping the entire trunk will help to avoid damage to the apical bud, and warming the tree trunk will save the root system.
Tip! Experienced gardeners recommend planting such fruit crops in areas of the largest snow application in winter. It gives chances to preserve the roots.
How to choose the right grade?
The basis for the selection is frost resistance, which is determined by a certain scale in points.
The basis for such an assessment was taken by Antonovka, who has 4.5 points.
This means that such an assessment can withstand frost down to -25 ° C, and at lower temperatures it is possible that freezing of annual gains and fruit buds is freezing.
The highest score is 6.0. But such a view has not yet been developed, ready to withstand -50 ° C.
The table will fully show the columnar apple trees for Siberia.
Every year the number of new species increases. They need to check and try to plant on their sites.
The table shows the time-tested varieties.
Features of planting and care
Siberian weather itself is not familiar to the rest of the country.
Accordingly, planting and caring for fruit trees is not an ordinary thing, but associated with certain requirements.
It has its own peculiar apple-shaped tree. Planting and care in Siberia should be made according to the rules.
The requirements for care in harsh climates also have some nuances:
- Pest and disease control.
This is the first thing to do after deciding to grow a columnar culture.
It is best to take root annual seedlings purchased in large garden centers or nurseries.
When choosing them, you must adhere to certain criteria:
- On planting material should be a tag indicating the age and stock of the plant. In extreme cases, documentary evidence can be requested from the seller,
- Pay special attention to the state of the root system. The best option is closed. With such a root system, the seedling is planted by the method of transshipment and practically does not notice the transplanting
- When purchased in the nursery will be correct if the planting material is dug out with you. In this case, it will not interfere with the visual inspection of the entire tree, vaccinations on it,
- It is important to know that the annual seedling has no side shoots. There may only be a few buds,
- If you purchased material with an open root system, then it must be in a wet state from the garden center (nursery) to the house.
Probability of success
Dream or reality? Reality, if the plant has an important quality - adaptability to the conditions of cultivation in the area.
Siberian territory is huge and includes East, West, North and South.
Of course in the northern regions of its colony-like species on dwarf rootstocks in the open ground can not grow.
Only by grafting them to winter-hardy ordinary apples can enthusiasts do this. Or grow in containers that are brought into a warm room for the winter.
But the southern and western regions may well grow a culture with proper care and adequate shelter for the winter.
In difficult climatic conditions, it is better to plant in the spring, because of the likelihood that the plant will freeze out in the winter when it is planted in the autumn.
Early varieties of apple trees.
Tip! The pit is prepared in the fall and should correspond to the size of the seedling root, depending on the structure of the soil.
Ways and methods
It also depends on the nature of the winter.
In more severe conditions, it is customary to plant the culture by the stanza method. To do this, the seedling is planted in the ground at an angle, which allows it to bend to the ground for the winter, where it will successfully remain under the snow.
And in a milder climate, planted in the usual way, but faithfully harbor.
Growing in a colder climate is not much, but it is still different.
The difference is:
- Selection of seedlings,
- Landing sites
- More attentive and careful care of the culture.
Since the columnar apple has a weakly branched root system, the ideal place for its growth will be a place with a fertile, water-and breathable soil.
For heavy soils, the landing pit should be well drained.
The place is chosen sunny, protected from wind corridors.
Important! Перед высадкой молодняка в посадочную яму у него нужно надрезать корень, чтобы оно быстрее прижилось и смогло окрепнуть в период короткого лета.
Такой вид плодовых деревьев создавался для любительских садов и небольших приусадебных участков, что позволяет экономно использовать небольшие площади.
Колоннообразный сад не допускает пропуска ни одного мероприятия по ухаживанию. If there is not enough time or opportunity for this, then it is better not to plant the columns:
- Planting trees is compacted.
- The distance between the seedlings should not be less than 40 cm, and the aisle is not less than one meter.
Dense planting of columnar apple trees.
- During the growing season, plants need thrilling three times.
- During the planting of the seedling at the bottom of the pit lay out fertilizers and mixed with the soil. With the arrival of heat, additional fertilizing is carried out with the urea solution, spreading 50 g into a bucket of water. This feeding is carried out at the root.
- The second and third dressing produced at intervals of two weeks with the same solution.
- Great importance is attached to watering the garden. Juiciness and aroma saturation largely depends on the accuracy of watering, especially during the growing season.
Trimming and shaping
Another important aspect is pruning and shaping.
Such apple trees practically do not require pruning due to the uniqueness of the crown.
In general, pruned or damaged by pests branches are subject to pruning. With strong fouling by young shoots, they should also be thinned.
Pruning is done in early spring, before the buds appear.
In Siberia, there is the likelihood of frost damage tops. Therefore, it is not just necessary to shorten it, but it is necessary to cut it to a stronger escape. And since of the number of shoots remains mostly the most developed, naturally the trunk will be one.
Even despite the constant freezing of part of the branches, shoots and even the top, the apple tree is able to develop further, after proper pruning.
Preparation and shelter for the winter
In case of large colds, any winter-hardy apple tree has a risk of freezing of the apical bud on the main shoot.
Therefore, before the onset of winter, the tree should be wrapped with several layers of insulation or spunbond.
And after each snowfall, pour snow to it and gently seal it in the area of the tree circle.
You also need to protect the trunk from eating the bark of rodents.
For this, the shtamb is wrapped with a cloth soaked in some kind of deterrent composition. And from hares protect the trunk with a net with a rabbit.
Important! The roots of the apple tree are very delicate and fragile. Therefore, compacting the snow around the trunk must be very careful not to inadvertently harm them.
Varieties for Siberia
As previously reported, Siberia is a very large area with different climatic conditions.
Varietal material, even of one variety, will behave differently in each locality.
Semi-dwarf types whose height does not exceed two meters:
Kolonovidnaya Apple President.
They mature in late August or mid-September. They successfully endure the conditions of Western Siberia.
Very well, thanks to the density and compactness of the roots, tolerate transplants.
They have rather large fruits, about 200 g. In Medka, they are sweetish, and the President has more sourness.
For this climate are more suitable:
They tolerate forty-degree frosts and are successfully grown.
But they all need special attention and the creation of certain conditions.
Grigory Povitsky: - “I have been cultivating apple-shaped apple trees for a long time. The first time was lucky with winters that were not too cold. But then the garden was lost due to frost. Laid a new one and following all the agrotechnical techniques, it was possible to restore it. The President and Vasyugan have proven themselves well. ”
Lyubov Solovyova: - “How many do not try to grow this kind of apples, nothing happens. The site is located in the lowlands and the frost on it is stronger. Although some in our area manage to get a good harvest. "
Natalia Sorokina: - “We grow columns in tubs. They planted ten columns in 40-liter tubs and bring them to the summer kitchen before the onset of cold weather, since we have a big one. Yield worthy for the Siberian region. We remove about 50-60 kg from all trees. Especially like Medoc and the Moscow necklace. "
Watch a video from an experienced gardener about growing a columnar apple in Siberia:
Watch the video review about the varieties of columnar apple trees for Siberia:
Watch the video from an expert on special varieties of columnar apple trees for Siberia:
Look at the video experience gardeners about the proper care of apples in Siberia:
Only with a great desire, opportunities and sufficient time, in harsh climatic conditions, it is possible to achieve an acceptable result from this type of fruit crop.
Only a strict adherence to the recommendations for agrotechnical care and increased attention to planting material will provide an opportunity to get an acceptable harvest from the columnar apple trees.
Colonoid apples for Siberia: varieties and characteristics of cultivation
Not all gardeners consider it possible to grow columnar apple trees in their summer cottage. They fear that because of the short summer period and severe frosts (up to -45 degrees), trees may freeze and not yield a crop. But breeders managed to get columnar apple trees for Siberia, about the best varieties of which will be discussed a little later.
According to reviews of gardeners, it is possible to grow apple trees of this type only when carrying out full-fledged care. For planting, it is advised to take annual seedlings with a closed root system. When planting between crops leave a distance of 40 cm. The width between the rows should be at least 1 meter. Compost and humus fall asleep in the landing pit. Further, columnar apple trees grown in Siberia require abundant watering until autumn. If precipitation is sufficient, watering is required to reduce. In the presence of heat, it increases the opposite.
A month after planting, trees are advised to feed. A well-proven urea solution. The second and third feeding is carried out with an interval of 2 weeks after the first and between them. Due to the peculiarities of apple trees for Siberia, and more precisely of columnar varieties, their crown does not require formation. But pruning, during which the dying off, spoiled, frost-bitten, affected by the pests of the branch are removed, must be performed without fail. To save the trees from pests, it is required to carry out treatment with special preparations. Fruits should be collected in time so as not to harm the trunk. The lower part of the cultures are advised to sprinkle with snow in order to warm.
Speaking about the excellent varieties of columnar apple trees, we should mention the grade Medok. He is very much appreciated by gardeners of Central Russia and the Moscow region. Fruit ripening occurs in late August - early September. They are fruits of yellow color, endowed with a sweet taste and a characteristic honey aroma. Able to store up to 1 month. The yield is up to 10 kg of fruit from each crop. The weight of each apple on average is about 250 grams. The variety is frost resistant and has good immunity to pests. Fruits can be eaten fresh, dried, preserved, incorporated into different dishes.
Apple harvest President manages to collect at the end of the summer. Fruits of domestic varieties endowed with white and yellow color with the obligatory blush of red and purple. The average weight of each is about 250 grams. The flesh is juicy and smells good. The main characteristics of the species are a high degree of yield and good immunity to diseases, as well as the appearance of pests.
If the two previous varieties are summer, then Ostankino apple trees belong to the winter ones. Such a culture is a semi-dwarf plant with a dense crown. Fruits have a light green base color and have a rich red blush. On average, each apple weighs about 200 grams. Sometimes it is possible to collect specimens that reach 300 grams when weighed. They received from nature a sweetish taste, juicy flesh and exquisite aroma.
Harvest taken at the end of September. The degree of yield is kept at 16 kg per crop. If you create the right conditions, you can save your favorite fruits until December.
The variety is endowed with winter hardiness to a moderate degree, but is highly immune to the main diseases of fruit crops and pest attacks.
Such a culture can grow on a plot of up to 3 meters in height. In the middle of September, large apples with red-striped color and sweet taste with obligatory sourness ripen on it. Vasyugan successfully cultivated in Siberia, the Far East, the Urals. Crop when stored for about 1 month does not lose its presentation and taste. Trees are endowed with frost resistance, perfectly resist the appearance of diseases and pests. It is customary to use the fruits fresh, make them juices, jam, canned for the winter.
Culture is representative of winter varieties. It is almost a dwarf plant. Fruits are usually collected in October. They are painted in golden yellow color. On the surface you can see the red blush. Each copy weighs about 150 grams, endowed with a sweet taste, somewhat sour.
The degree of preservation of the crop is quite high - the apples lie until about February. Variety endowed with resistance to such a common disease, as scab, and a number of other infections. Peak fructification occurs in 4 years from the date of planting on the site.
Culture grows up to 2 meters in height. Fruiting requires the proximity of other pollinating trees. Since this refers to the self-infertile. Popular among summer residents of the Urals, Siberia, Moscow region. Harvest taken in October. Fruits are ball-shaped, dark red in color. Each weighs on average about 170 grams. Have a sweet-sour taste. The flesh is always juicy and fragrant. Among the characteristics it is worth mentioning a high degree of yield, persistent immunity to diseases and pests, excellent frost resistance.
Review of the best varieties of columnar apple trees for Siberia
Far from all summer residents in Siberia decide to plant a columnar apple tree on their land - this is a matter of severe frosts and a short northern summer. But breeders solved the problem, and brought out several varieties that can bear fruit even in the harsh Siberian conditions. However, even such apple trees will feel good only on the condition of careful and attentive care from the gardener.
For planting it is better to choose one-year-old seedlings, in which the root system is closed. When preparing planting pits, try to keep a distance of at least 40 cm between them, and the distance between rows should be about 1 m. Organic fertilizer is placed in the hole - humus or compost, and the trees themselves should be watered abundantly throughout the summer. If the weather is set wet, then watering should be reduced.
The following dressing should be carried out 1 month after planting the seedlings. Urea solution is used as a fertilizer. The following feeding is carried out at equal intervals of 14 days after the first time.
Colon-shaped varieties do not require formative pruning due to the characteristics of the tree structure, but one should not neglect the sanitary removal of damaged, dried, or frozen shoots. Do not forget about the mandatory systematic treatments for pests and diseases.
The best columnar varieties
Kolonovidnye apple for Siberia are presented in the following rankings, compiled on the basis of feedback from practicing gardeners:
- Ostankino. Late variety, reaching ripeness by the end of September. It has average resistance to frost, therefore it is better to shelter trees for the winter. At the same time, apple trees are distinguished by immunity to diseases and pests, they bear excellent fruit - you will collect at least 15 kg from each tree,
- Vasyugan. Gives red fruits with characteristic stripes on the peel. Trees grow up to 3 m tall, tolerate northern winters, and bear excellent fruit. Apples have a sweet and sour taste and a pleasant aroma,
- Moscow necklace. Late variety ripening by October. It is important to remember that this species is self-productive, therefore such trees need a neighborhood of pollinator crops.
Trees have a traditional set of advantages grown in the north - frost resistance, disease resistance and good yield.
Colonoid apple tree in Siberia, planting and care
Fruit trees in the garden are a valuable acquisition for every gardener who wants to get not only garden decoration, but also a large number of tasty and healthy fruits during the winter months. Often household plots do not allow to place a lot of young fruit trees, no matter how much you would like. In this case, columnar varieties come to the rescue of gardeners, among which a special place is given to apple trees - pioneers in this area of selection. It was the columnar apple trees that first appeared in the gardens and made a real revolution: they take up little space, perfectly adapt to the climatic conditions and produce a great harvest.
Many gardeners are still afraid to grow columnar apple trees, but they are worth it. The works of foreign and domestic breeders allowed planting such varieties even in Siberia.
In order to properly plant and grow a columnar apple in Siberia, we consider in more detail the characteristics of columnar apple trees, as well as the characteristics of the most suitable varieties for this region. Note the important rules for the cultivation of the columnar apple in Siberia.
Features and morphological description of the columnar apple for Siberia
Colony-shaped varieties of fruit trees is a novelty in the world of horticulture, which has attracted many gardeners around the world. In fact, these compact trees are a clone of ordinary apple trees that have received the best features and characteristics. The first to discover this type of fruit trees was a gardener from Canada, who, while going around his garden, saw an unusual branch on the Macintosh apple tree. This branch was strictly vertical and had no branches, but there were plenty of leaves and apples on it. He took a cutting from this branch and tried to graft it. Everything went well and the gardener received a new variety of apple trees - columnar. It happened in 1964, after which a similar natural mutation of fruit trees was adopted by breeders from around the world and used to produce a large number of different varieties of columnar apple, including varieties for Siberia. The first variety of the columnar apple received the name "Leader".
Canada is considered to be the birthplace of the columnar apple, since it was here in British Columbia that this mutation was noted. And here the breeders first began to display varieties of this species. In Russia, a columnar apple appeared 10 years after its discovery. Today, new varieties are constantly appearing, including thanks to the tremendous work of domestic breeders, whose work is aimed at developing more frost-resistant varieties that can produce a large crop in a short summer. That is why it is safe to say that the columnar apple for Siberia is not a fiction and not a dream, but a real opportunity.
Description of the clone apple for Siberia:
- Not all columnar apple varieties are suitable for cultivation in Siberia, where there is a short summer and rather severe winters. However, in recent years a lot of work has been done by breeders in the direction of obtaining frost-resistant varieties that can be planted in Siberia.
- Specially bred varieties of columnar apple for Siberia have excellent adaptation to the climatic conditions of the region.
- All apples for Siberia have a number of frost-resistant characteristics and late ripening of fruits, which is important in the conditions of a short Siberian summer.
- The territory of Siberia is quite large, so the climate is significantly different in its various regions. Taking into account these facts, varieties of a columnar apple are selected for cultivation.
- A columnar apple is a natural clone of an ordinary apple tree, which was obtained due to a natural mutation.
- In appearance, this fruit tree is a thickened trunk with a large number of fruit sprigs, a spear and ringworms, which together form a pyramidal or kolonovidnoy crown. Although, as such, the crown of these apples is not, due to the lack of strong branching.
- The height of the columnar apple can be different, it all depends on the group of this type of fruit trees, of which there are three: dwarf columnar apple trees - height is 150-200 cm, medium-grown apple trees - height is 250-300 cm, tall columnar varieties - height is from 300 cm.
- On the territory of Siberia, it is recommended to plant medium-grown varieties of columnar apple.
- The diameter of the adult tree of the columnar apple is about 50 cm, which makes it possible to consider these varieties as compact. This feature is appreciated by gardeners, as in small areas you can easily plant several seedlings of the columnar apple, which will not interfere with each other and other plantings.
- For the first 2-3 years, the columnar apple has very fast growth and strong branching. During this period, it is especially important to maintain the upper point of growth, if you need exactly the columnar shape. In the harsh climatic conditions of Siberia, this is especially important as well as the preservation of the root system, which in this species is superficial.
- Также стоит отметить, что колоновидные яблони могут давать урожай уже в первый год после посадки, однако его рекомендуют полностью срывать, чтобы в дальнейшем дерево давало еще больше яблок. В Сибири этот вид яблонь может дать первый урожай только через пару лет, а иногда и через 2-3 года.
- Regardless of where the columnar apple grows, for the first 5-6 years the volume of the crop is constantly increasing, and then stops at one high level.
- Celled apple trees can bear fruit for 15–20 years, after which they must be rejuvenated by pruning or reproduction.
- Seedlings of this apple tree planted in Siberia require a little more care and care, shelter in the winter and pruning, which ultimately allows you to get a good harvest. It is especially important to take care of the absence of a strong wind in the place where the apple trees are planted, since it can damage not only the tree itself, but also cause the apical bud to freeze.
- For planting in Siberian conditions, varieties of a columnar apple with frost resistance of -35-45 degrees frost are suitable.
Colony Apple for Siberia: Varieties
Today, the breeders have developed just a huge number of different varieties of columnar apple trees, which are distinguished by their characteristics, growing characteristics, ripening and harvesting terms. Especially for cultivation in central Russia and in Siberia, varieties of this type of apple trees were bred with greater resistance to frost, which allows the trees to easily endure harsh winters. Consider the description of the most suitable varieties of columnar apple for Siberia.
- Sort of colon apple "Medoc". It is one of the most popular varieties, which has proven itself in the territory of Siberia. The height of the tree can reach about 2-2.5 meters. It is considered a semi-dwarf variety that is distinguished by high yield and resistance to diseases and pests. Fruits of a light yellow shade with granular and very juicy pulp with pronounced honey taste, hence the name of the variety. The fruits of this variety of columnar apple are rather large, the weight of one can be approximately 200-250 grams. High frost resistance - the apple tree can withstand temperatures down to minus 30-35 degrees. Crop ripens in late August - early September.
- Variety "President". It is a summer variety, which also proved to be excellent not only in Siberia, but also in the Moscow region. Compact semi-dwarf variety of domestic breeding, which has good immunity to diseases and excellent frost resistance, which corresponds to approximately -25-35 degrees. This apple tree is also distinguished by its high yield - up to 10 kg of juicy fruits from a tree. Fruits are large, light yellow with a ruddy reddish side. The weight of one fruit can be 100-200 grams. The flesh of apples is very juicy and fragrant.
- Variety "Vasyugan." It is considered one of the best varieties for Siberia, because it has excellent frost resistance - the tree can tolerate frosts down to minus 40-42 degrees. It can reach a height of 250-300 cm. This variety of domestic selection belongs to the autumn, since the full ripening of the fruit falls in the middle or end of September. Fruits are large, hard, have a conical shape and bright red striped coloring. The flesh is juicy, sweet and sour. The weight of one fruit can be about 150-200 grams. The variety is resistant to diseases and pests.
- Variety "Ostankino". Sredneroslyy semi-dwarf variety of domestic breeding, whose tree in height can reach about 200-250 cm. It has good yields and precociousness, as well as resistance to pests and diseases. With proper and good care from one tree, you can get 6-9 kg of apples, and sometimes up to 16 kg. Winter hardiness is average, it can withstand temperatures down to minus 25 degrees. The fruits are large, the weight of one is 200-220 grams. The fruits are light green with a reddish blush, with a juicy flesh and a sweetish taste. Ripen in mid-September.
- Variety "Iksha". This variety among all differs in the highest frost resistance. Apple Iksha varieties can tolerate Siberian frosts more than 40 degrees. The fruits ripen in late summer - early September. The size of the average, the weight of one fruit can be about 150-180 grams. Apples beautiful orange-red hue with juicy pulp.
- Variety "Currency". It is a representative of winter varieties of columnar apple trees, which have proven themselves well in the climate conditions of Siberia. Dwarf variety, pleasing excellent immunity to a variety of diseases and pests, for this reason, practically does not need spraying chemicals. Full ripening occurs around the beginning or end of October. Fruits are medium in size, the weight of one is about 150-180 grams. Apples have a bright golden-yellow skin with a reddish blush, as well as sweetish juicy flesh. Fruits can be stored until February.
- Variety "Triumph". It is considered a high-yielding and skoroplodny variety of a columnar apple that possesses, among other things, good resistance to pests and diseases. Fruits are rather large with dark red rich skin and juicy sweet-sour, sweet taste. Winter hardiness is average. The fruits ripen completely in mid-September and can be stored for one month.
In addition to the above varieties that can be grown on the territory of Siberia and receive a large crop of fruits, others can be noted: Chevonets, Renet Mazherova, Gene, Arbat, Moscow Necklace, Amber Necklace, Dialogue, Senator, Maluha.
The technology of planting a columnar apple in Siberia
The climate in Siberia is significantly different from other regions of the country and has a number of features that are important to consider when growing different fruit crops here. That is why planting and caring for columnar apple trees on the territory of Siberia is a very delicate and laborious business that requires competent and thorough preparation. However, with a serious mood and correctly planted stages of planting, you can achieve a positive result - in a couple of years you will feast on juicy fruits from a young tree of a columnar apple.
Selection and purchase of columnar apple seedlings for Siberia
- The first and most important stage on the way to planting a columnar apple in Siberia is the acquisition of planting material. Today saplings of this type of fruit trees can be bought absolutely in any garden centers and shops.
- It is possible to buy a columnar apple for Siberia in specialized garden centers and nurseries. In this case, be sure to pay attention to the presence of a label or tag that will contain information about the seedling of your choice: variety, age, where it is grown. If you do not see such information, be sure to check its availability with a consultant.
- Do not buy seedlings of a columnar apple in spontaneous markets or on the side of roads. In this case, you can sell completely wrong planting material, and you will find out about it only after a couple of years. There is no guarantee in the purchased seedlings.
- For cultivation in the territory of Siberia, it is necessary to select varieties of a columnar apple with high frost resistance. It is best to start with varieties such as President, Iksha or Vasyugan, which can withstand temperatures down to minus 40 degrees. If the experience is successful, you can try planting seedlings with less frost resistance.
- Most often, for planting in Siberian climate conditions, it is recommended to acquire zoned varieties of a columnar apple. This means that these varieties were bred and grown in Siberia and perfectly adapted to changing weather conditions. So you protect yourself from further problems with the cultivation of fruit tree.
- In garden stores and nurseries you can purchase seedlings of a columnar apple with both a closed root system and an open one. Ideally, it is best to buy a sapling in a container, since the open roots of this tree cannot remain for a long time without soil and moisture. A seedling in a container has a longer shelf life as well as a better survival rate. When buying such planting material, be sure to pay attention to the soil in the tank: it must be clean and moist, with no signs of mold. You can pull a little at the top of the seedling: if the seedling is pulled out, it means it was transplanted just before planting. And this can lead to poor rooting.
- If you purchase a seedling with an open root system, then ask the nursery staff to dig up a seedling just before purchase. So you will be sure of what you get.
- Be sure to carefully inspect the appearance of the seedling. There should be no visible damage to the bark and roots. On the seedlings themselves there should be no leaves, and the root neck and the root lobe should be healthy, without any sagging or dry areas. The roots themselves must be elastic.
- In order for the sapling to get accustomed to quickly and easily in Siberia, it is important to buy exactly one-year planting material. It has no side branches, and reaches a height of approximately 50-60 cm.
- If seedlings with open roots were purchased, it is important to transport them properly and keep them up to the time they are planted in open ground. The roots must always be wet, for this they are wrapped in wet sacking and film.
Site selection and soil preparation for planting a columnar apple in Siberia
- The next important stage before planting a columnar apple in the territory of Siberia is to choose the most suitable place on your site.
- All varieties of columnar apple differ in their demanding requirements for the growing area, it is important for them to choose an open area with a lot of sunlight. In the shade, these fruit trees will grow poorly and will not give a good harvest.
- Be sure to select a site that will be reliably protected from strong winds and drafts. They have a detrimental effect on the growth of the columnar apple and can often damage the root system, which is located superficially. In this case, you can choose a place closed by the structure of the wind flow.
- A columnar apple prefers to grow on light and fertile soils that have good water permeability and breathability. At the same time, one of the conditions for normal growth is the fairly close occurrence of groundwater - at least 2 meters.
- If in the selected area the soil is heavy, then it is imperative to take care of good drainage.
- It is important to prepare the selected site for planting in the fall. They dig it up about two bayonet shovels, carefully loosened. At the same time, landing pits are also prepared, the size of which should be as follows: 60-70 cm in width and length, as well as 50-60 cm in depth. If you plant several seedlings of a columnar apple, be sure to observe the distance between the holes of 40-60 cm.
Planting a columnar apple in Siberia: step by step instructions
- The optimal time for planting a columnar apple in Siberia is spring, immediately after the soil warms up, but before the start of active sap flow. Autumn planting in Siberia is not recommended, since in this case young saplings will not have time to get stronger before the onset of winter.
- Two weeks before planting, prepare a soil substrate. For this, the soil that was dug out of the planting pits is important to mix with 3-4 buckets of humus, 100 grams of superphosphate, 100 grams of potash fertilizer and a small amount of dolomite flour. After this, pour part of the soil mixture to the bottom of the planting pit so that it settles. Beforehand, do not forget to put a drainage layer consisting of broken brick or rubble on the bottom of each landing pit.
- On the day of planting, be sure to check the root system of seedlings, if you purchased them with open roots. If the roots are slightly dried, then before planting, place the seedlings for 10 hours in water. Saplings in containers should be poured abundantly with water to facilitate their removal.
- In order to seedlings more quickly in the harsh Siberian climate, experienced gardeners recommend cutting the roots of a columnar apple lightly.
- For planting a columnar apple in Siberia has its own rules that contribute to the rapid survival of seedlings. When planting seedlings in planting pits, it is necessary to tilt them slightly. This will allow the trees to bend down to the ground for shelter. If the landing is carried out in the Siberian region with a milder climate, then the landing is done in the usual way.
- When placing the seedlings in the planting pits, it is important to carefully straighten all the roots, and then completely fill them with soil so that the root collar remains on the surface.
- The soil around the seedlings is well compacted and plentifully watered, then the trunk circle is mulched with peat.
- You can also drive a peg next to the seedling's trunk, to which you can tie up the tree later.
Colony apple in Siberia - photo
Reviews of the columnar apple in Siberia make it possible to grow strong and healthy fruit trees and get a rich harvest in such harsh conditions. The main thing is to choose the right sort of apple tree and carefully follow the rules of agricultural cultivation.
Features in spring and autumn
By the fall it is better not to land, in order to avoid freezing.
Features spring planting no different from ordinary. Is that better to land at a slight angle.
For container growing, everything is done in the usual way.
First year care features
Plant care in First year Life is especially important for further fruiting. This is especially true of ensuring its protection from frost, pests and rodents.
Sufficient soil release nutritious substances, top dressing during planting will give strength to the plant and increase its immune system.
For Moscow region
- Renet Mazherova. Fruits are small in size. Plants with a narrow crown.
- Arbat. Juicy aromatic pulp.
- Medoc. With a taste of honey.
- Maluha. High-yielding variety. Fruits with sour, yellow-green color.
- Renet Mazherova,
- The president,
- Moscow necklace,
All varieties with good winter hardiness and active fruiting.
Kolonovidnye apple: varieties for Siberia
Asking a question of a choice of suitable fruit and garden cultures for a severe climatic zone, choose the zoned varieties adapted for any changes. If in your area the duration of the warm period is very short, it is better to prefer early-ripening species. By the way, many of them give a good harvest in the first year of life, however, its volumes are very small.
All columnar apple trees, which are subject to cultivation in Siberia, are characterized by increased winter hardiness and early maturity. Active fruiting can begin in 3-4 years from the moment of planting. Important to understandthat Siberia occupies a very large area, so different climates may be present in its different parts.
And this means that the life cycle and fruiting of apple trees are seriously different from each other. Even if the crop has excellent winter hardiness, there is still no full guarantee of damage from low temperatures. If for a long time the temperature indicators are kept at around -30 degrees Celsius, no variety can survive.
However, with proper care, which consists of wrapping the entire trunk, damage to the apical kidney can be avoided. And in order to protect the root system from death, it is enough to warm the tree trunk.
Besides, seasoned Siberian gardeners It is advised to plant apple trees in places where there is maximum accumulation of snow, because such a natural carpet will reduce the likelihood of freezing of the roots.
How to choose the right sort of apple for Siberia
When choosing a suitable variety for growing in the harsh Siberian conditions, pay attention to a certain scale in points that determine its winter hardiness. For example, you can take the grade Antonovka, which has a performance of 4.5 points, which means the permissible limit of temperatures up to -25 degrees Celsius. If the temperature drops below, annual growths and fruit buds can freeze. The highest score is 6.0, however, this type has not yet been derived.
Nevertheless, every year breeders produce a lot of hybrids and winter-hardy species that can withstand extreme temperatures and at the same time give a good harvest.
Need to understand what is the apple tree breed for Siberia significantly different from others, including those that are grown in the Moscow region and other regions of the country. In this regard, the features of planting and further care are different, requiring specific skills and efforts. If left unattended, the variety will most likely die in the first adverse weather.
As for the columnar apple, it also has a number of features that should be considered during planting and care. Among the key points:
- Choosing a comfortable seat,
- Balanced feedings,
- Effective prevention of diseases and pests
Successful landing - myth or reality
Asking the question: “Is it possible to grow a good apple tree in Siberia or Moscow region?” - be sure that it is real. The main thing is that the variety has one key property - its adaptability to the conditions of detention in a particular area. Do not forget that the vast expanses of Siberia are incredibly huge and consist of the Eastern, Western, Northern, and also the Southern parts.
Естественно, если говорить о северных регионах, то выращивать колоновидные сорта на карликовых подвоях нельзя. Лишь самые заядлые энтузиасты умудряются прививать такие виды к более зимостойким обычным яблоням. Остальные же отдают предпочтение выращиванию в специальных контейнерах, которые заносятся в помещение на зиму.
However, in the southern and western regions, such cultures grow quietly in the open field, although subject to the basic rules of care and maintenance.
If the planting of columnar varieties is carried out in extreme climatic conditions, it is best carried out in early spring. Autumn treatments increase risk of freezing of young seedlings in winter.
As for the method of planting, it is determined by the nature of winter. For example, in harsh areas, the culture is planted by the stanza method, when the seedling is placed in an open soil at a certain angle. This will allow him to bend down to the ground and cover with snow, where he can spend the winter.
With milder climatic conditions, planting is carried out in the usual way, although in winter the tree is safely covered.
It is not recommended to plant a crop during the autumn period.. Even if the winters are not very cold, no one can guarantee that the temperature marks at night will not fall below -25 degrees Celsius. Spring landing is not much different from the rest. The only thing that is required from the gardener is to withstand a certain angle of inclination. In container growing, the action is implemented in the usual way.
Between compact columnar apple trees must remain at least 40 centimeters. If we are talking about the distance between the rows, then the optimal rate is not less than 100 centimeters.
Features of growing
If you grow a culture in the most adverse conditions, there are practically no special differences from the same occupation in another locality. However, certain rules are present, and they must be taken into account during planting. The main points are:
- Choosing a reliable planting material with excellent winter hardiness,
- Choosing a landing site,
- More productive and diligent care in the cold season.
Considering the fact that the root system of the columnar apple trees is weakly branched, it is better to give preference to places with fertile, water- and breathable soil. Growing in heavy formulations requires prior drainage of the well for planting. It is important that the selected area is well lit by the sun, and at the same time was reliably protected from wind corridors.
An important feature: in order to plant the young in the planting pit, you need to slightly incise the root. This action will speed up the rate of rooting of the tree and strengthen it in the early stages of development with a short summer.
Proper care of the culture in the first year of life
For the further development of the columnar apple in the regions of Siberia or the Moscow region to be successful, it is important to ensure thorough care in the first year of its life. The main points in proper care are protection from frost, pests and rodents. To improve the state of the immune system, it is enough to use different feedings during planting.
It is known that columnar varieties are small in size, so they allow you to save well the free space of the site and correctly use all square meters. With the arrangement of such stunted gardensIt is important to responsibly follow all established rules. If you do not have time for appropriate care, it is better not to start planting apple trees at all. So, follow these rules:
- Tree planting is carried out in a compacted manner.
- Between each seedling there should be a distance of at least 40 centimeters, and the distance between rows should be at least 100 centimeters,
- During the growing season, plants need to provide enhanced feeding,
- When planting seedlings, special fertilizers are placed on the bottom of the planting hole, which are then carefully mixed with the soil. When heat comes, you should re-feed with urea, during which 50 grams of the finished product is diluted with a bucket of water. A similar feeding is carried out directly under the root. The second and third procedures are carried out with an interval of 14 days, using a similar solution,
- Special attention should be paid to the irrigation procedure. The success of fruiting depends largely on the correctness of watering, especially when it comes to the growing season.
An important condition for the proper care of columnar apple trees is regular pruning and shaping. Such varieties are characterized by the uniqueness of the crown, so forming pruning is optional. In most cases, such actions are carried out to remove dried or damaged branches. If the apple tree is overgrown with young shoots, it also needs to be cleaned.
Any pruning will be successful.if it is carried out in early spring, during the formation of new buds.
It is important to understand that when landing in cold Siberia, the risk of damage to the tops by severe frosts is very high. Based on this feature, the culture should not just be shortened, but cut to strong shoots. As a result, only the main shoot remains for the winter.
Even if all the tops are constantly freezing, the apple tree can continue to develop, if it is due to the correct pruning.
When grown in extreme climatic conditions, even the most winter-hardy varieties are exposed to severe frosts, with the result that the apical bud on the main shoot can die.
Concerning, before the onset of winter, the seedling needs to be wrapped with several layers of a spunbond or a reliable insulation.
A good shelter from the cold weather will be regular pouring snow to the apple tree and compacting it in the area of the trunk circle.
Also, the tree should be treated with scaring compounds, with the aim of providing effective protection against rodents and insects. And the hare culture is protected by a net with a rabbit.
If you intend to grow a good and prolific culture in Siberian conditions, be prepared to spend a lot of time and effort. Only with diligent efforts and responsible care, the end result will be able to meet all your expectations.
Strictly follow all agrotechnical recommendations and follow the advice of experienced gardeners. Choose the right planting material and place to land in open ground. Consider all necessary preventive measures and be prepared to act radically. In this case, your efforts will allow you to get an acceptable harvest even in Siberia.