The native land of Guzmania is the tropical forests of South America, where plants prefer to settle on the trunks and roots of the larger representatives of the flora. Today, exotic culture is a popular houseplant, and for many flower growers the question is: “How to care for a potted pot?”
What to consider when caring for guzmaniya at home?
The way of life of an epiphyte, extracting everything necessary for existence from the atmosphere and a small amount of alluvial soil, determined some features of the structure and humming.
First of all, attention is attracted by the funnel-shaped form of a sheet rosette, intended not only for providing photosynthesis, but also for collecting rain moisture, all kinds of organic matter. The root system of guzmaniyas, like in other epiphytes, is of little use for obtaining nutrients from the stratum. She is too weak and fragile, but these roots are:
- perfectly obtained from the air and a very small amount of substrate accumulating under the socket and next to it,
- provide reliable fastening of a plant on a tree or its roots.
Unlike some epiphytes that receive food from the plant on which they live, a ghuzmaniya is not a parasite and provides for itself.
An important feature of the culture is its long and unusual flowering. Although the flowers themselves can not be called beautiful, but most often they are hardly noticeable at all, for many lovers of ornamental cultures, a Gusmania is a welcome guest in the home collection due to bright stipules that crown the outlet during flowering from 3 to 4 months.
The interest in exotic culture is great, but the natural features of the plant leave their imprint on its maintenance at home, on caring for guzmania and maintaining its flowering.
How to care for a gumman in a pot?
In order for the plant to feel comfortable in the house, it needs conditions close to those in which wild-growing ghummania grows. The basic requirements are:
- in providing heat
- in the absence of drafts,
- in regular, but not excessive watering,
- in maintaining high humidity,
- in accurate top dressing throughout the entire period of active vegetation.
In nature, under a rainforest canopy, the plant is in warm, heated to 18–24 ° C air. Only in winter does the temperature drop slightly, and growth during 16–18 ° C will be comfortable for the huzmania during this period. At the same time, the air humidity, especially in the summer months, is increased.
A video about grooming care at home will help replenish the stock of knowledge about this interesting plant and preserve its decorative effect for a long time.
The best place to gozmaniya where the plant:
- will receive a bright but diffused light
- will not be exposed to dry hot air coming from the radiators,
- will be protected from cold winds and drafts.
The optimal location for the flower will be the eastern or western windows. Not bad gusmaniya adapts to the depth of the heated, south-facing loggia.
If in the winter time the air in the room is excessively dry, in the framework of caring for guzmania at home, a moderate irrigation of the leaf outlet is required. The same procedure is necessary for a plant in the summer when the temperature exceeds 28 ° C.
How to water Guzmania?
Gusmania is a tropical plant that requires not only humid air, but also soil. In spring, when the activity of the green pet increases, the culture is provided with moderate watering and fertilizing. But at the same time, they carefully watch that the water in the pot and the pan does not stagnate, threatening to cause the roots and the base of the outlet to rot.
A plant that receives moisture only from precipitation in nature does not respond well to tap water and may even die from it. Therefore, before pouring guzmaniyu, water must be defended or passed through a softening filter. In addition, the owner of a tropical culture needs to know that in summer the moisture is poured into the central part of the rosette of the plant. Fertilizing of the culture can be carried out in the same way.
As fertilizer for humming, it is more correct to take balanced ready-made products for bromeliads or to use top-dressings for home crops with a low nitrogen content. An excess of this element can be detrimental to the plant. It is undesirable for calcium nitrate and superphosphate to be in the feed composition.
The water in the outlet is replenished as it is absorbed and evaporated, and once every two months it is completely drained and replaced with fresh.
In winter, the moisture from the outlet is removed in order to prevent rotting of the base of the foliage. With proper watering, the leaves of the plant have a good tone, do not dry out and do not turn yellow for a long time.
How to transplant guzmaniya in room conditions?
Guzmans are already selling flowering plants, so after buying a plant, you should not immediately repot it. Make it better in a couple of weeks, when the flower is a little acclimatized.
For a green pet to be comfortable, and care for a gusmania, as in the photo, was simple and effective, you should pick up a wide, but not deep pot.
At the bottom of the tank make a layer of drainage, and as a substrate using the finished mixture for bromelievye. You can pick up the soil yourself using:
The components are mixed in equal proportions, then chopped and steamed needles, sphagnum and small pieces of charcoal are added to the substrate for looseness and airiness.
From the old pot to the new adult plant is transferred very carefully, trying to preserve all the existing roots. The socket is not buried, and the soil after the transplant is carefully compacted. Extremely attractive are the plants of the Husmania, which, as in nature, are planted in a recess on a snag, or used in a composition with bark or moss. In this case, the socket will have to be additionally fixed with wire, until the roots of the Gusmania are fixed and can not provide a strong position for the flower.
Unfortunately, the life of an adult outlet ends when the peduncle fades. But do not despair. If the care of a guzman, as in the photo, is carried out correctly, the plants throughout their life preserve the richness and fluffiness of the rosette, blooms and gives young shoots. At the base of a large outlet, small Hummania usually appear, which are easy to set as soon as they acquire their own roots. This is best done in the spring when the seasonal awakening begins.
In order for the “babies” to grow faster and better, the peduncle that began to wither is cut off at the adult plant. Such a measure will save the strength of the force and allow you to get planting material of excellent quality.
From the moment of appearance of the processes to their flowering, no less than 2-3 years should pass. In this case, the young Guzman will have to artificially push to the formation of buds. To do this, the plant is transferred to a room where the temperature is elevated to 26–27 ° C, and after some time it is returned to its usual conditions.
What is interesting flower
Guzmania, as reviews show, is very different from those plants that we used to associate with indoor floriculture. It has wide, long leaves that overlap each other near the base. Thus, they form a bowl that plays an important role in the wild. It is into this cup that the rainwater flows, providing the plant with moisture and serving as a source of water for animals.
In the middle of a leafy rosette is a high peduncle. It blooms inconspicuous flowers. But their beauty is emphasized by bright, like lacquered, bracts that form an unusually beautiful inflorescence. The shade of bracts depends on the species and can be red, bright yellow, fiery orange or white.
The genus Guzmania, belonging to the Bromeliad family, includes about 200 species. They differ in the color of the leaves, perianth and flowers themselves. Most of them can be not only epiphytes (live on dead parts of trees), but also develop well in rocky areas or in the ground. In the indoor floriculture demand only a few types of guzmaniya, which are described in the table.
Table - Indoor Types of Humman and Their Features
Fundamentals of Guzman Care
If you decide to settle in your house a beautiful woman from the tropics, you will certainly have questions: “How to care for the ghuzman?”, “What conditions should be provided for her?” The charming guest from the tropics is completely unpretentious. And if you monitor the humidity, control the watering and provide it with sufficient light, then the beautiful guzmania will surely delight you with its original flowering. But about everything in order.
It is with transplantation that the cultivation of guzmania at home most often begins. The plant enters the store in a small pot and transporting soil. In such conditions it can live, but it is rather difficult for it to develop. Therefore, after buying experienced growers recommend transplanting guzmaniyu. The process of transplanting is carried out in four stages.
- Choosing a pot. Particular attention should be paid to the pot. The root system in Guzmania is growing rather slowly. Therefore, a shallow flat-pot, the diameter of which is 5 cm larger than the transport one, is best.
- Selection of soil. The plant is suitable soil for orchids. But it is best to independently prepare the soil, mixing in equal quantities turf soil, peat, leaf soil, humus and some sand.
- Preparation of drainage. Drainage layer is poured into the pot. He must fill the container by one third.
- Handling plants. The roots of the plant require careful treatment. Therefore, it is recommended to transship the guzmania together with a lump of transporting soil. Then the root system is filled with new soil. Sprinkling with earth, you can gently tap on the pot. And tamping plant is strictly prohibited.
The evergreen is not a lover of bright sunlight. In the wild, guzmania grows in partial shade. Therefore, it is recommended to create similar conditions in the apartment. Recommendations flower growers for the following.
- The choice of location. The plant should not stand on the south windows. Constant exposure to sunlight will cause burns and lead to rapid death. It is best to place Guzman on a high stand near the window.
- The norm of light. You should not create a full shade of Guzman if you want to admire its flowering. Placing the plant on the northern windows, you do not provoke the death of the culture. But, without receiving normal lighting (eight-hour), she refuses to bloom.
- Winter lighting. In winter, the plant may suffer from a lack of light. Therefore, it is recommended to use artificial light sources.
Providing a normal temperature for a tropical guest is easy. At the same time it is important to protect it from sudden drops and not to expose drafts. Guzmania likes such conditions:
- in summer - ensure the temperature in the room is within + 22 ° С- + 25 ° С,
- in winter - a slight decrease to + 17 ° С- + 20 ° С is acceptable.
Guzmania flower and home care for oastania
Guzmania flower belongs to the group of herbaceous plants with long leaves and bright bracts. When home content this epiphyte rarely reaches 50 centimeters in height, due to the lack of abundant lighting and moisture, which are available in the natural environment. However, planting a flower at home can bring good results in the form of abundant and lush flowering.
Luxurious bracts, which can be painted in a wide variety of color shades, are considered to be the main advantage of the flower of the Guzman. Most often in nature there are such tones:
And because of the presence of bright green leaves, covered with a variety of patterns, the plant turns into a real find for lovers of such greenery, who want to transform their home beyond recognition. After the flowering period is over, so-called bolls are formed in the flower, inside which contain small seeds. In the future, they are used for the cultivation of new copies.
And although many people believe that planting and caring for guzman at home is a very difficult task, because a masterpiece appearance needs special care - in fact, everything is much simpler. It is enough to treat all the requirements for the content and follow the recommendations of more experienced gardeners.
Guzmania flower. Description of popular varieties and varieties
Currently, a bromeliad plant called Guzmania has about 130 different varieties. For room maintenance are suitable only a few, among which are:
- Guzman blood red. Representatives of the species have lanceolate leaves with a characteristic bending downwards, creating a goblet rosette. Leaf plates may have a reddish or yellowish plaque, which is why the decorative properties of the species are significantly improved. The length of the leaves reaches 40 centimeters, and the width is 5 cm. Guzmania does not have peduncles, and there are up to 12 yellow flowers in the corymbose inflorescences. The flowering period begins in spring. A popular variety of this variety is the short-flowered Guzman,
- Guzman mosaic. It is considered a low tropical plant with a unique decorative effect. The length of leaves with a striped shape reaches 80 centimeters, while in the process of growth and development they form an incredibly beautiful spreading rosette. Dark strips of irregular shape stand out brightly among light green foliage. The inner part consists of red shades and erect peduncles with bright pink color. Many white or pale inflorescences begin to close with the accretion of the sepals. The flowering period falls in the middle of summer,
- Guzmania Donnel-Smith. At the time of flowering the length of the stems of this Guzmania reaches 30 centimeters. 60-centimeter foliage forms beautiful rosettes, painted in dark green tones. Unique pale scales show through them. Erect peduncle consists of a low panicle inflorescence, which blooms in early spring. The cultivated version of this variety was introduced in 1908,
There is also one unique form of the plant called the Guzman Mix, which combines several different flower varieties that are grown in the same container. Like other representatives of bromeliad cultures, the Guzman mix represents luxurious foliage, forming a kind of bowl that is used to store moisture from precipitation. In most cases, the leaf plates of this plant have monotonous tones, although there are some varieties with longitudinal and transverse stripes on the foliage. Leaf length often reaches 40-70 centimetersand the average diameter of the outlet exceeds 50-60 centimeters.
Guzmania flower. Home care
Asking the question: “How to care for a guzman?”, Pay attention to the basic rules of the right content, which will allow you to grow a truly colorful and lush exotic plant. Among the key features of care, we should highlight the following:
- Balanced watering. To water Guzmania it is necessary to choose warm, defended water, which is poured into the outlet, where it is stored throughout the warm period of the year. In winter, the remaining water after irrigation merge. In the summer, watering is carried out daily, in the winter - twice a week. It is important to install moss in the pan, which is periodically wetted. If it is too hot and dry outside, you will have to spray it.
- Seasonal dressing. And although guzmaniya does not require fertilizers, the development of flowering buds is carried out much faster, and the duration of the flowering period was long. Feeding is carried out using ready-made preparations for orchids. The solution is poured into the outlet,
- Bloom guzmania. Due to the amazingly beautiful ornamentation, Guzman flowers are in incredible demand among connoisseurs of elegant exotic flowers. The first flower stalks appear in the third year of the life cycle and continue to bloom up to several months. At the end of this period, the plant dies,
- Features care after flowering. When the flower has faded, it needs to be removed. The same procedure is carried out with wilted, drying foliage. As a result, after a short time, the plant will be covered with daughter shoots that will be used as planting material for new plants,
What diseases and pests guzmaniya exposed
Guzman flower is characterized by excellent endurance and strong immunity, which is well opposed to a variety of diseases and pests. However, with illiterate care, some dangerous creatures and diseases can harm the plant and cause a number of disastrous consequences. Common problems include:
- the appearance of fungal microorganisms, such as powdery mildew, gray mold and others. Their appearance is associated with high humidity and high temperature. Для борьбы с проблемой используются хорошие фунгицидные препараты,
- гузмания подвергается атаке паутинных клещей, щитовки и мучнистого червеца. Такие опасные создания нападают на декоративного представителя тропической флоры в результате продолжительного воздействия низких температур, при переувлажнении почвенного состава и заражении грунта. Обнаружив проблему, растение нужно обработать инсектицидным веществом,
Размножение гузмании на дому
The principle of breeding guzmaniya is the use of lateral processes of "babies", which appear as a result of the death of the mother plant. Less often growers use the seed method.
As for propagation by shoots, it is used in the period when the plants grow up to 15 centimeters and become ready for transplanting into individual pots. During this period, the mother flower dies completely, and the processes are covered with healthy leaves and produce a good root system. This process may continue. up to four months from the date of their formation.
Experienced growers recommend guzmania transplant at home in early spring. To implement the event it is necessary to pull the flower out of the pot and cut off the suitable element. The maternal part remains intact.
Guzmania sanguinea guzmania blood red
Blood-red guzmania is characterized by lanceolate leaves that fold down. They form a goblet socket. Red or yellow bloom on the foliage makes this type of plant highly decorative. The leaves grow up to forty centimeters long and five wide. The plant itself has a height of not more than twenty centimeters. Blood-red guzmania does not have flower stalks. The thyroid inflorescences contain an average of twelve yellow flowers on a pedicle, located directly in a leaf rosette. Flowering plant occurs in the spring. A species of blood-red guzmania is the short-flowered gullman.
Guzmania musaica Guzmania
On the photo of the buzzing mosaic
Guzman mosaic is a low (up to fifty centimeters) plant and has very high decorative properties. Long striped leaves reach eighty centimeters in length and seven in width and form a beautiful sprawling rosette. Dark stripes of irregular shape are clearly visible on the light green background of the upper surface of the foliage. The inner surface is red. Peduncles erect, low, pointed stipules have a bright pink color. A variety of white or pale yellow flowers are closed by means of intergrown yellow sepals and gathered in attractive inflorescences. Flowering begins in mid-summer.
Guzmania Donnell-smithii Guzmania
Gusmania Donnella Smith at the time of flowering reaches thirty centimeters in height. The foliage is about sixty centimeters long and is assembled into beautiful rosettes. On their dark green surface, more pale scales are clearly visible. On erect peduncle there is a low (up to twelve centimeters) inflorescence-panicle. The bloom of Donnell-Smith's ghuzman takes place in spring. Grown as a cultivated plant since 1908.
How to care for guzmanii at home
Plays an important role for the plant lighting
Care for any kind of gusmania at home is carried out according to one general rules for its content, thanks to which it is possible to create conditions for this exotic plant that are most close to natural.
Lighting and air temperature
When growing Guzman, lighting plays an important role. The best option would be to place it on the window sill of the west or east window. Because hitting the direct rays of the sun on the south side will adversely affect the general condition of the plant, and the lack of light in the north can lead to a lack of flowering. The optimum temperature should not be below twenty-five degrees in the summer and about eighteen in the winter. Humidity should be at least eighty-five percent. Guzmania requires regular airing of the room, but without drafts, inhibiting the onset of flowering and provoking the occurrence of certain diseases.
For irrigation Guzman used warm distilled water. It is poured into the outlet and in the warm season it remains there. In winter, the remaining water after some watering should be drained. In summer, the plant should be watered every day, in the winter - twice a week. In the pan you need to put gravel (moss), which must be periodically moistened. In especially hot time it is possible to water the soil. Daily it is necessary to spray Guzman.
Feed the plant is not tubing
Guzmania does not require fertilizing. But to accelerate the appearance of the peduncle and increase the duration of flowering, you can feed it monthly during the summer with fertilizer for orchids, the solution of which is poured into the outlet.
Diseases, pests and ways to combat them
If the conditions of detention are not followed, guzmania can be damaged by a number of diseases:
- Fungal diseases (powdery mildew, gray mold and others), which are provoked by too high humidity and air temperature. The plant is treated with a fungicide,
- Guzmania can be infected with spider mites, scabies, and mealybugs. They appear at low air temperature, waterlogging, contaminated soil. When pests are found, the plant must be treated with insecticide.
Features reproduction kids
Guzman children are formed at the time when the main plant is flowering. With a height of fifteen centimeters, they are separated and seated in individual containers. At this time, the old Guzmania dies completely, the children release the fourth leaf, and their root system is already quite well developed. This process lasts from two to four months from the moment of appearing processes.
The best time for transplanting Guzman babies is spring. To do this, the flower is pulled out of the pot, a process is cut off with a sharp knife, and the mother plant is destroyed.
In order to properly seed Guzmania you need to prepare a suitable, easy-to-make primer. It may consist of equal parts:
- Sod land
- Sphagnum moss,
- Large sand.
The processes also root well in the following soil mixture:
- Leafy ground - 3 parts,
- Pine bark - 1 part,
- Coarse sand - 1 part.
If it is not possible to prepare the soil yourself, you can use the prepared soil for orchids and bromeliads. For transplanting babies Guzmania better to choose low bowls with a small diameter. At the bottom you need to pour drainage.
Important! Young processes are characterized by very fragile roots, therefore, they should be treated as carefully as possible. To prevent the death of the plant.
After landing, babies need to be covered, for this is suitable plastic film. The air temperature in the room where they will take root should not be below twenty-eight degrees. Children grow up very quickly and care for them can be conducted as adult specimens. They will begin to bloom after three years. If the children are not separated from the main plant, and left to grow in the same container, flowering may occur within a year. The old plant just needs to be trimmed gently.
How to grow Guzmania from seed
Before sowing seeds, they must be disinfected using a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After that, they are planted in the soil, which includes peat and sand in equal quantities. Sprinkle them on top of the ground is not necessary. Crops are covered with glass or plastic wrap and sent to a bright room in which the air temperature should be about twenty-five degrees. Shoots appear on average after three weeks. After a month of growing the seedlings, a picking is carried out in small pots (seven centimeters in diameter).
Difficulties in growing a gusmania plant
In the photo a sick plant, as usual it happens because of stagnant water.
As with the cultivation of many plants that are exotic for our climate, there may be some difficulties in breeding guzmania:
- Guzmania does not bloom. This may be due to a lack or excess of lighting, lack of power and low humidity. In this case, you need to identify the cause, and notice the stimulation of flowering. To do this, take a few apples or bananas, spread them around the plant and cover with plastic. With time, ethylene emission will begin. The action of this gas causes flowering in many bromeliad plants. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure that the fruits do not rot and do not become covered with mold,
- Guzman leaves fade due to stagnant water in the outlet, which leads to rotting of the roots. In this case, you need to reduce the number of waterings. It may also occur due to the presence of pests,
- Guzmania does not grow, as a rule, due to the poverty of the soil, lack of nutrients and lighting.
- Important! Although guzmaniya is not a poisonous plant, it is necessary to work with it carefully, as its juices can irritate the mucous membranes and skin.
Guzmania has a positive impact not only on people, but also on the atmosphere throughout the house. It relieves depression, improves mood, gives a surge of strength. The house feels peace, harmony and tranquility. Guzmania attracts into the room in which it is located, powerful energy flows, increases well-being and brings happiness to the house. In places of natural growth of this plant, it is a symbol of male power. It is often located in the bedrooms, using it as a natural aphrodisiac.
From the above, we can conclude that, despite all its exoticism, the guzmaniya with minimal time and effort to care for it can be a great decoration for any interior, while it will contribute to improving family relations.
And at the end I would like to recommend that you also watch the video for this material, in this video you will learn additional information about the care, transplanting and how the children of the indoor gummania flower look, we wish you a pleasant viewing.
Description and features
As a houseplant, gusmania is known relatively recently. She came to us from the tropics of South and Central America. In nature, it is epiphyte - uses trees as a support. In apartments Gusmania is grown as a pot ground culture. An interesting feature is the long flowering. It lasts up to several months. After that, the parent plant gradually dies off, leaving the kids to replace them.
Plant height - no more than 80 cm with a flower. The diameter is about 25 cm. A funnel-shaped socket is formed from long leaves. An unusual inflorescence forms in the center. Bracts painted red, pink, burgundy. High decorativeness is achieved by contrasting the bracts with green leaves.
Interesting fact! Gusmania belongs to the bromeliad family and is a close relative of the pineapple.
Varieties of Guzmania
Total known about 130 varieties of gusmaniya. Not all of them are adapted to growing in apartment conditions. The following varieties are considered popular:
- Gusmaniy reed. Shade-tolerant, blooms in winter. The inflorescences are short, many-flowered. Reproductive organs are yellow. The rosette is formed from wide-leaf numerous leaves.
- Gusmania Zana. Colombian variety with wide, pointed leaves. Leaf color is greenish-yellow with longitudinal red veins. Bracts and flowers are yellow, stem vegetative organs - scarlet.
- Gusmania Nicaraguan. In the wild form is found mainly in Mexico and Central America. Leaves lingual, spiky, with red strokes.
Important! Gusmania pollen is a strong allergen. An allergic reaction is manifested by itching in the throat and skin rash. Allergy sufferers are recommended to refrain from growing gusmania in an apartment.
Caring for a gusmaniya is simple, but it has several features. To preserve the decorativeness of the plant, he creates the following conditions.
- Temperature. It grows well at room temperature 18-25 ° C. Throughout the year, they maintain a stable temperature, without lowering it for the winter.
- Lighting. A pot with a plant put in a bright place inaccessible to the direct rays of the sun. In the penumbra grows better than with intense light.
- Watering. During irrigation water is poured directly into the rosette of leaves. During the next irrigation, the remains of old water are poured out and refilled fresh. In the warm season, watering is plentiful, in winter it is moderate. Use soft, slightly warm water.
- Humidity. Stable high humidity is the main factor of rapid growth and long-term flowering. The plant is sprayed daily, the soil is covered with a layer of sphagnum. In summer, at least a small amount of water should always remain in the outlet.
- Priming. The best soil for guzmania is loose and light. Store mixes are best not to use. The soil is prepared from equal parts of crushed sphagnum, garden soil and peat. The addition of crushed charcoal is recommended.
- Feeding. Conducted in the spring and summer every 2 weeks. Use any flower fertilizer in low concentration.
- Transfer. If the plant was bought in a small pot, a transfer of the gusmania into a larger container would be required. The purpose of the next transplant - separation of the children. When planting can not be buried in the soil base of the outlet.
Tip! Gusmania optional plant in a regular pot. Experienced growers are experimenting, planting a coconut shell, fancy snags and pieces of bark. To keep the roots dry, they are wrapped in sphagnum and often moistened. This method of growing looks very impressive, but requires a responsible approach.
Gusmania multiply in two ways - offspring and seed. Both methods have their own subtleties.
- Growing from seed. Seeds for a few minutes immersed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, washed and dried. They are sown in a mixture of crushed sphagnum and sand. Peat can be used instead of sphagnum. For the germination of seeds need direct light, so do not sprinkle them on top of them. The container is covered with glass or film. The temperature is maintained at 22-24 ° C, the substrate is regularly sprayed, and the greenhouse is aired. Shoots appear no earlier than 10 days. Seated seedlings are planted in separate pots with a substrate for adult plants. Gusmania grown from seeds, blooms in 3-4 years.
- Reproduction by offspring. Maternal plant after flowering gradually dies. It activates kidney renewal. Their them grow numerous offspring. Next to the mother bush, they should remain 2 months. During this time, they will form the root system and release 3-4 leaves each. They are carefully separated and deposited. Young plants more quickly gain green mass under the hood, at a temperature of 26-28 ° C.
Tip! After flowering, the outlet can live up to 2 years. Siblings for further breeding can be separated, without waiting for the complete withering away of the mother bush.
Growing problems and pests
Gusmania is not resistant to diseases and pests, violation of the rules of care can also harm the flower. Most often faced with the following problems.
- Anthracnose. Called fungus. On the leaves there are spots in the form of dimples with a brown border. Sometimes the center of the spot turns pink. Gradually, the fungus captures all large areas, the flower dries and dies. They treat with antifungal drugs, provide poor watering and heat. Processes from the diseased plant are not taken.
- Spotting On the leaves appear brown, purple spots with bright dots in the middle. The leaves turn red, dry. The cause of the fungal disease caused by helminthosporia. The main role in its development is assigned to direct sunlight and abundant watering. They are treated with fungicides at intervals of 1 week.
- Bacterial spotting. One of the most common diseases of gussmania. Brownish or yellow spots of watery spots appear. In the heat, the spots become covered with mucus and quickly spread to healthy areas. For resuscitation, plants remove infected parts. Reduce the number of waterings, the plant is not sprayed. Water entering the leaves will speed up the spread of the fungus.
- Darkening of the leaves at the base. A sign of root rot. Develops with stagnant water in the roots. Babies are deposited, the mother plant is treated with a fungicide.
- Salt accumulation. When watering with hard water from the tap on the leaves are white spots. The plant is sprayed with distilled water and gently rubbed with a soft cloth.
- Yellow spots. Appear under the action of direct sunlight. The plant is moved to a shaded place.
Gusmania looks good next to other colors, fits well into any composition.
Description and photo guzmanii
Gusmania (or Gusmania - both versions of the name are correct) - a guest from tropical forests. She lives in Central and South America. Gusmania from the bromeliad genus, belongs to the evergreen epiphytic plants (does not grow in the soil), lives on the mountain slopes, trunks and bark of dead trees. The roots of the flower are superficial, but strong. Guzmaniya moisture collects from the external environment.
Gusmania is a very spectacular epiphyte plant
The leaves are elongated, lanceolate, green, may be with longitudinal or transverse stripes, form a dense outlet in which huzmaniya collects rainwater. The bract (many people confuse it with a real flower) is always painted in a bright color to attract pollinating insects: the flowers of a gummania are very small, imperceptible. Такой хитрый приём растение вырабатывало веками, иначе роду грозило бы вымирание из-за трудностей с образованием семян. Некоторые виды гузмании имеют закрытые цветки, внутри которых опыление происходит самостоятельно из-за тесного соприкосновения тычинок и пестика. Цветёт растение около семнадцати недель, а затем отмирает. Однако не стоит этого пугаться, просто нужно заранее позаботиться о размножении.
The genus was first described by a Spanish biologist - researcher Anastasio Guzman in 1802. The plant is named after him by Gusmania (Gusmania in Latin transcription).
Guzmania is a welcome guest on all windowsills, because it cleans the air perfectly and contributes to the improvement of mood. It is said that this flower is a symbol of male power, and also gives a lot of positive energy.
Despite its origin, the husmania is quite unpretentious in care and does not cause much trouble even to the beginning florist. The main thing for her is a sufficient amount of moisture and bright light.
Popular species in floriculture
- Guzmania today has more than one hundred different species. However, in the home grow only a few varieties.
- Tempo. This species attracts with its contrast: bright red bract stands out against the background of tender, light green leaves. Leaves are elongated, shiny, dense rosette. Height is about 35 cm.
- Ostara. This is a hybrid. It has narrow, bright green leaves. The stem is long, on it are located scarlet bracts, white flowers appear a little later, fade fast. Unpretentious care. Widespread among gardeners.
- Reed. Perhaps the most popular species among the Guzman. The rosette is dense, the leaves are wide, the perianth is bright, from scarlet to yellow. The flowers are small, cream-colored, gathered in inflorescences, spikelets, bloom not for long. Reed guzmaniya has varieties: purple, fiery, small, modest color, normal.
- Minor - Rondo. Beautiful small plant, green leaves, erect bract, red, small flowers, white, in large numbers, gathered in inflorescences. Flowering begins in February.
- Calypso. This is one of the most beautiful species of Guzmania. The rosette is loose, collected from narrow leaves of a light green color, the bract is erect, its leaves are directed upwards and have a bright red color.
- Blood red A distinctive feature of this type - the very middle of the outlet has a bright red color. The central funnel is often almost completely filled with moisture. Therefore, the flowers of the plant literally float in it.
- Mosaic. The peduncle itself is short, the bract consists of small leaves, painted in red or orange. The decorative value of this species is in the leaves - they have a striped color.
- One-legged Absolutely not remarkable, small bract. This type of Gusmania has decorative long leaves painted in longitudinal stripes.
How to plant or transplant bromelium
Caring for a gusmania does not imply frequent transfers. Guzmania does not need a similar procedure if it feels great: green leaves, healthy roots, growth dynamics is visible. Transplanting is needed only when it is urgently needed - for reproduction, when babies were formed, or for changing the pot, if it is frankly small. In this case, you need to take into account some of the nuances.
Guzmania is an epiphytic plant, therefore the substrate for it needs the lightest. Under natural conditions, it grows on the bark of trees or on the forest floor, and feeds on the account of moist air.
The root system in a guzmania serves only for attachment to the base; nutrients can hardly absorb the roots.
If we are talking about self-made soil mixture, it should be peat, river sand, turf and humus in equal parts, where you need to add sphagnum and chopped pine bark (as a drainage). Of course, it is easier to purchase in the store a special soil for bromelias.
The substrate for guzmanii should be light and loose
Pan for guzmanii choose deep, but not wide. In this case, the roots will not rot, they will develop properly, providing the plant with adequate nutrition. It is better to opt for a small pot, always with drainage holes. For stability at the bottom of the pot is recommended to put something heavy.
Do I need to replant guzmaniyu after purchase
Most often, manufacturers conscientiously relate to the pre-sale preparation of plants, providing the right flatware and the right substrate. It is not always a universal ground. Visually, you can assess the suitability of the soil. If it looks like peat, and pieces of bark or moss can be seen with the naked eye, such a flower does not need to be transplanted. In the case when the soil is dense to the touch, it is better to transplant the gusmania.
When transplanting can not injure the delicate roots of Guzman. The plant will respond to this by a slowdown in growth and development, reluctance to bloom and the appearance of disease.
How to water and how to fertilize
Exotic Guzmania manifests itself even in watering. This process does not occur as with most plants, at the root, but by filling the outlet with water. And all because of the fact that in their natural habitat Guzmania collects moisture mainly from the atmosphere due to its wide leaves, which serve as a kind of gutters for water accumulation. If the air in the room is dry, the flower should be sprayed at least once a day.
Watering occurs in this way. Take the separated water at room temperature and gently pour into the center of the outlet. At the end of the day, excess water is drained. This is from April to September. In winter, when the temperature drops to 18 ° C, the soil is moistened in the traditional, basal way. This is due to the fact that under such conditions there is a risk of developing fungal diseases. Watering is carried out every day in the summer in hot weather (when it is overcast - it is possible every other day).
In nature, humming takes moisture from the air, so it’s not enough to water them under the root and it’s not always necessary
Spraying guzmaniya spend every day with warm water (about 30 ° C). Cold water can not be used for these purposes - dark spots will appear on the leaves.
Top dressing is an important point in the care of the plant. Suitable fertilizer for bromeliyevyh. It is bred according to the instructions and sprayed Guzman once in two weeks in the summer, and in the spring and autumn - once a month. Winter feeding is not needed.
It is better not to experiment with fertilizers in order not to destroy the Guzman. After all, not everyone knows that it does not tolerate superphosphate fertilizers and mullein.
Flowering is the brightest period in the life of the Guzman, but also the sad one, since after this the plant dies off. Exotic beauty blooms for about 17 weeks. Rather, this bract is pleasing to the eye, and small flowers fade a couple of days after the appearance. Usually in stores you can buy an already blooming guzman. The question is how much time she is already in such a state and will she have time to increase the children for later in life.
After guzmaniya ottsvetet, you should cut the peduncle at the very base. This is done so that, firstly, the plant no longer spends power on unnecessary objects, and, secondly, to impart an aesthetic appearance.
Guzmania blooms only in the fourth year of its growth and development under conditions favorable to it.
How to make a plant blossom
What to do when the plant does not want to bloom? It seems to be the conditions for it are the best, but for some reason Guzmania does not release the peduncle. In this case it is necessary:
- Provide a sharp rise in temperature to 27 ° C for a couple of days - you can cover with cellophane, and then lower it to 24 ° C.
- Grind bananas and apples in a bowl, put them next to a gusmania and cover the entire structure with a package. The fact is that fruits emit special substances that accelerate ripening and also have a beneficial effect on the onset of flowering. Before the appearance of the bracts, the bag is not completely removed, but the fruit is periodically replaced with fresh ones in order to prevent rot.
Another tropical guest, the pachistachis, is distinguished by unusual spike-shaped inflorescences and a long flowering period. Read more about it at: https://diz-cafe.com/rastenija/pahistahis-uhod-v-domashnih-usloviyah.html
There is no dormant period for the Guzman. This is an evergreen plant that blooms once and then dies, leaving young plants. The only point: in winter, the flower is not fed and reduce the frequency of watering. It is recommended to rearrange the pot with guzmaniya to the south window, in the brightest place. Daily spraying does not cancel.
Table: Dangerous pests of bromeliads
- Spray Aktare insecticide solution according to the instructions.
- Moistened with a solution of Karbofos (diluted according to the instructions) with a cotton swab to remove all the flaps manually. Wear gloves.
- Prepare a soap solution: 20 g of soap in 3 liters of water. Cotton swab moistened with a solution, remove all the insects and their white discharge from the plant.
- Spray guzmaniyu any of the presented insecticides, dilute according to the instructions: Aktara, Fitoverm, Calypso, Konfidor.
- Wash away all insects and cobwebs under running warm water (about 30 ° C).
- Sponge with laundry soap to wipe the entire plant, then rinse.
- Spray insecticide: Aktellik, Fitoverm. Dilute according to the instructions.
- 20–30 g minced garlic or onion per liter of water. Insist day, then spray the plant.
- Insecticides: Fitoverm, Aktar, Spark. Dilute according to the instructions, spray Guzman.
Table: characteristic diseases
- Prepare a soap solution (20 g per 3 l). Dampen them with a cotton swab and remove soot.
- Remove loose leaf.
- In extreme cases, apply fungicides Scor, Confidor, Decis.
- Moderate watering.
- At low temperatures to exclude moisture on the leaves of the plant.
- Get rid of aphids with insecticide, for example, Aktar.
- Use a light substrate recommended for bromeliads.
- Do not forget about sphagnum moss.
- Adjust the watering mode.
Breeding guzmaniya at home
Flower reproduction is possible in two ways:
- by separating the newly formed lateral processes (children) remaining after the death of the main plant,
- You must wait for the death of the uterus rosette.
After flowering, the withering of the Gusmania rosette
The division produced, subject to the presence of the children own roots
Only healthy processes with roots are suitable for planting.
The pod under the bag is kept for several days for reliable rooting of the Guzman.
It is better to put pots with young guzmania on the south side, but to protect from direct sunlight
Video: flower breeding division
This method of breeding Guzmania takes place, but it is rarely used by growers.
- Seeds purchased in the store are pre-soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate (two crystals per cup of water at room temperature), dried.
Seed soaking is carried out in a weak solution of manganese, while the water should be about 30 degrees
Soil mixture for seeds differs in composition from the substrate for adult plants
Guzman seeds need light to germinate
Mini-pot can be homemade
When the first shoots appear, the coating does not remove
The grown seedlings swoop down into separate small cups with holes
Rooted young Guzmania are seated at a permanent place of growth - in separate bowls
Flower grower reviews
Fell in love, having seen this magnificent flower in shop. Caring for him is not the same as in all: it is undesirable to water and fertilize the earth, but it is better to pour it directly into the rosette of leaves, since the plant is epiphytic, it only needs the earth to attach the roots. And water only with soft, unknown water, otherwise sediment like scum will appear on delicate leaves. It is surprising, by the way, the variation in prices for Guzmania: you will see somewhere under a thousand, and somewhere - for 60 rubles. By the way, my second Guzmania, bought precisely for this ridiculous money (I don’t know why they discounted it, was probably small, but pretty mad) - she has now given a couple of kids. There is no limit to my joy and hope, because what was bought earlier, stronger and larger, is already dying off, but it does not think of acquiring offspring. Perhaps the fact is that the little one in the brighter sun is worth it, and I water it less. So I conclude that ghuzmaniya is thermophilic, not loving the stagnation of water in the outlet. Spraying loves, but as they say, watering every 10 days, she will keep this water in a rosette of leaves, and she has enough of it. I hope the children will form as it should, because it is a pity to lose such an unusually beautiful plant!
Guzmania is a very beautiful flower, I think that it should not be watered too often, I checked it on my own experience, after it ottsvetat, you need to cut a flower, and after a while it will sprout shoots.
Guzmania was presented to me about 5 years ago on March 8th. It looked like a large bright red flower in the center of the “bundle of sedge”. Two weeks later I transplanted a flower from a temporary one into a small ceramic pot. In the state of bloom guzmaniya was several months. Then the flower began to fade and not to dry up, but to “even grow”. At the same time, several children appeared, which I later dropped into separate pots, by which time the mother base had gradually died out. And now - a new generation that grew out of that donated Guzman. Juicy sedge was green, growing up, "fluffed up". I watered the flower as it dried, made sure that the water got into the outlet, periodically loosened the ground. The habitat of the plant, according to tradition, has become the window sill (east side). Four years nothing happened, only periodically new leaves were added, and then ... In the spring, during the next watering, I noticed that something was blushing in the depth of the outlet - my joy knew no bounds! I waited! The process of growing and blooming a flower to its maximum shape took about three months. That is, by the summer the Guzmania acquired exactly the form in which I saw it for the first time. Then another 6 months she was brightly alela on my window, then the process of letting the children out and dying out was repeated.
Undoubtedly, humming is capricious, because she is accustomed to a tropical climate. An incredible beauty plant will appreciate the works of a diligent grower, pleasing the eye and bringing peace, tranquility and peace to the house.
Suitable soil for the flower
In order to properly plant guzmaniya at home, it is important to choose the right soil composition. The optimal solution consists of:
- Sod land
- Sphagnum moss,
- Large sand,
A high rate of rooting is present in this ratio of different soils:
- 3 pieces of leafy ground
- 1 part of pine bark,
- 1 part of coarse sand,
If the opportunity to prepare the soil with your own hands is not available, you can give preference to the purchase options for orchids and bromeliads. They are available in specialty stores at reasonable prices. For transplanting plants it is better to use low bowls with a small diameter. The bottom layer of soil in the pot should consist of good drainage.
After transplantation of the shoots, they must be protected from the aggressive influence of the surrounding world with the help of a plastic film. In the place where the landing elements will be stored until rooting, there should be a stable temperature within 28 degrees Celsius. The development of children is characterized by a very high speed, so the care of such specimens should be appropriate. The first floral elements appear only after three years of plant life. If you do not move the children away from the maternal part and leave them in the same capacity, the first flower stalks may appear in a year.
Growing from seed
As for growing from seeds at home, such an action implies a preliminary sterilization of the future planting material with the help of a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After the procedure, the seeds are planted in the ground, consisting of peat and sand in equal amounts. Putting a small layer of earth on top is optional. Proper seed care includes arranging a cover in the form of glass or plastic film and moving the planting material to a room with a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. The first shoots seem out of the ground after 21 days. As the green shoots grow, you will have to pick one in small pots with a diameter of seven centimeters.
Due to low germination rates and many difficulties in the process, seed breeding is not very popular.
Guzmania: Care and Transplant
As for transplanting a plant into a new container, such a procedure can be carried out every few years. The plant lives and develops freely in one pot, and a mandatory change of the pot is needed only after purchasing the seedling in the store. The fact is that purchased products are offered in transporting soils that are not capable of providing comfortable conditions. for normal growth and development of a “green friend”.
There may be some difficulties in the process of caring for guzman. To know how to deal with them, it is important to understand in advance the origin of the problem and effective methods of struggle.
If you are a victim of such troubles as the absence of the appearance of flower stalks, think about improving the conditions of lighting, nutrition and humidity. Determine the cause of the problem, and then select a good growth stimulus. To do this, take a couple of apples or bananas and put them in a container with a flower, covered with plastic. По мере разложения такие фрукты начнут выделять ценные этилена, оказывающие хорошее воздействие на развитие цветоносных почек,
Если листья гузмании начали вянуть, убедитесь, что застой влаги в розетке локализирован. В противном случае, такое явление приведет к образованию гнилостных процессов. Чтобы избежать непоправимых последствий интенсивность поливов важно сократить. Нередко проблема проявляется и через наличие вредителей,
If Guzmania is not growing, this may be due to the poverty of the soil or the lack of nutrients and lighting.
Often the lack of good growth is due to poor soil or a lack of nutrients and light.
When caring for a plant it is important to be careful. And even though its juices do not have toxic properties, they can cause various irritations if they enter mucous membranes and integuments. Therefore, in the home content is better to use gloves and other protective equipment.
Learn the peculiarities of caring for guzmania, and such a flower will turn your home into a truly cozy green place.
Guzmania flower overview
Gusmania belong to heat-loving plants and for their flowering a temperature of about 25 degrees Celsius is necessary. These inhabitants of tropical forests grow as epiphytes on trees, and also take root in the soil.
The plant has bright green or variegated leaves with a solid edge, forming a funnel-shaped outlet that can reach up to 50 centimeters tall and have the same diameter. In the center of the rosette before flowering, pristotsvetny leaves appear that have a bright color and stand out from the rest of the leaves.
Some species "emit" inflorescences on long peduncles. Guzmania home care in which all the recommendations were observed only blooms at the age of 2-3 years. Duration of flowering can be more than 3 months, but after that the maternal plant dies out.
This is a feature of all bromeliad representatives who bloom only once in their lives, after which they give side shoots and die.
Guzmania species and varieties
Guzmania Zana or Cana (Guzmania zahnii) is a plant with oblong-pointed leaves, the length of which can reach 70 centimeters, and width - from 2.5 to 3 centimeters. Leaf color can be greenish-red or green-yellowish with a large number of red longitudinal veins. Stem leaves have a red color.
The length of the inflorescence is from 18 to 25 centimeters. Bracts and flowers are colored golden yellow. There is a variety of this type of gusmania - variegated, having longitudinal stripes on whitish leaves. Homeland plants of this species is Colombia.
Guzmania donnell-smithii Guzmania
A plant whose leaves form a loose rosette and are up to 60 centimeters long and 3 centimeters wide. Leaf shape - lingual, pointed to the top. Green leaves with pale colored scales.
Peduncle on the plant is erect, tightly closed with tiled leaves. The inflorescence is short, dense, pyramidal paniculate with a bare axis. On the inflorescence, the lower leaves are bent, have a wide oval shape with a sharp end and a bright red color.
The resulting spikelets are dense, consist of 2-3 flowers with an axis of 1 centimeter long. Bracts much shorter than sepals, thin-film, naked, have a rounded shape and a length of up to 10 centimeters. Sepals narrowly elliptical in shape, form a short tube. Flower petals are fused, with oval, blunt lobes. The plant blooms in April and May. The rainforests of Costa Rica and Panama are home to this species of guzmania.
Guzmania sanguinea Mez Guzman blood red
Tropical beauty with leaves of wide linear shape, with a twisted top down and a solid edge, which form a goblet-like rosette. The leaves have a length of up to 30 centimeters and during the flowering period they acquire a bright red color. In this species, the peduncle is not developed, and the yellow flowers are found on flattened short pedicels, combining into inflorescences of 7–12 pieces.
Flower petals are spliced and form a long, narrow tube. Bracts larger than sepals. The flowering period is April and August. This wild guzmania is common in the forests of Colombia, Costa Rica, and Ecuador.
It has several varieties:
- brevipedicellata is characterized by helmet-shaped, pointed bracts,
- sanguinea has rounded bracts with a sharp end, white or greenish-yellow petals,
- tricolor - on dark green leaves there are longitudinal whitish stripes.
Nicaraguan Guzmania (Guzmania Nicaraguensis)
A plant with a dense scyphoid rosette of leaves, in which the inflorescence is immersed. The socket consists of 10-15 lingual with a sharp end of the leaves, having a length of up to 6 centimeters and a width of up to 2.5 centimeters, which are covered from the bottom, disappearing with time, small, pressed pale-colored scales.
The inflorescence of this guzmaniye is not a multi-flowered simple on not pubescent peduncle, having a length of up to 10 centimeters. Thin-film bracts have a widely pointed shape and are up to 5 centimeters long.
The flowers are placed on short, erect legs with yellow petals that grow together to form a tube. The ends of the petals remain free. The thin-film elliptical sepals, up to 2.5 centimeters long, grow together at the base. Forests of Central America and Mexico are considered to be home to this species.
A plant with a dense rosette of numerous narrow linear with a pointed end of leaves up to 40 centimeters long and 2 centimeters wide. The leaves are painted in yellow-green color, which is paler below.
A cylindrical multi-row simple spike, reaching 15 centimeters long and 3 centimeters in diameter, is located on a direct, bare peduncle. Fine-membranous bracts have an oval, pointed shape. Flowers with accrete petals of white color, up to 3 centimeters long.
- alba - has one-color leaves and bracts of two colors - white on the top and green - on the bottom,
- variegata - the leaves of this plant have white touches on a green background,
- monostachia - The plant is characterized by pale colored bracts of fruit-bearing flowers with longitudinal dark brown strokes.
This species is distributed in the forests of South Florida, Nicaragua, Peru, Northern Brazil and India.
Guzmania lingulata (Guzmania lingulata)
The plant, forming a very beautiful showy and ornamental buds, which, after flowering, must be removed. This guzmania grows epiphitically on the trees of mountain forests in Brazil, Honduras and Bolivia. The leaves are pointed, broadly linear, with a solid edge forming dense dense rosettes. The length of leaves from 30 to 45 centimeters, width 4 centimeters.
On a straight short and thick peduncle, a corymbose multi-flowered inflorescence is located, having a diameter of about 7 centimeters. Small yellow flowers are up to 4 centimeters in length and are decorated with reddish bracts. The flowering period is winter or early spring.
This type of Guzmania is very changeable. The following varieties of it are known in nature:
- cardinalis - has a multi-flowered inflorescence with bright red spreading prisotsvetnym leaves. Blooms in March and September.
- flammea - has shorter (up to 34 cm) and narrow (up to 1.7 cm) leaves. The flowering period is July, August.
- lingulata - a large plant with numerous flowers and inflorescences with upright leaves of red or pink color. Flowering time - December, March, August.
- minor - monochromatic small plant with erect priztsvetnym leaves of red color. It blooms from February to July.
Guzmania home care
Guzmania refers to plants that can grow in shading and in a bright place. When grown at home in sunny windows, it is necessary to provide protection from the direct rays of the sun at noon, with a translucent cloth or paper. Feels best on windows facing west or east.
North windows can be used for growing plants, but at the same time tropical beauty may not bloom. In the summer it is advisable to take the pots with plants to fresh air, while protecting from direct sun, drafts and precipitation. If it is impossible to contain guzmaniyu in the open air, it is necessary to air the room regularly.
From autumn to spring, the ghzmaniya at home does not need shading, on the contrary, a sufficient amount of light is necessary. It is recommended to even create additional lighting using fluorescent lamps lasting at least 8 hours.
Lamps are placed at a distance of 60 centimeters from the plants. In winter, airing is also necessary, only you need to ensure that the plant does not fall under the action of drafts.
Guzmania needs warm conditions, since it is a heat-loving plant and prefers to “live” in spring and summer at a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees.
In winter, when the plant has a period of rest, it is necessary to keep it in a cooler room with a temperature of 15-18 degrees. The minimum tolerated temperature is 12 degrees.
Guzman flower watering and necessary moisture
During the period of growth and development (approximately from March to October), homemade care at home requires abundant watering as the soil dries out. Water at the same time, is poured directly into the outlet. It is advisable to conduct watering Guzman in the morning.
Water in the sockets should always remain at about 2.5 centimeters, and once a month it is necessary to update it. After flowering and before the rest period, the water from the outlet must be removed.
In winter, watering of the guzmania is carried out moderately, after the soil dries out about half of the pot. If the air temperature is below 20 degrees, then the plant is not watered at all, but only sprayed. Flooded water in the outlet funnel at the end of blooming guzmanii provokes rotting.
If the gusmania is placed on a bromeliad tree, then it is removed from the support once every 10 days and immersed in water until saturation, after which it is allowed to drain off, and placed back on the tree.
If in winter the plant is kept at a temperature above 20 degrees, then occasionally it is allowed to pour a small amount of warm water into the outlet.
The water used for irrigation of a guzman should be soft, well settled and warm (about 3 degrees higher than the temperature in the room).
Like all tropical plants, Guzmania loves the air, saturated with plenty of moisture. Best of all, she will feel in wet greenhouses and terrariums. Guzmaniya home care in which you can place the pots with a plant on pallets with wet pebbles, expanded clay or moss.
At the same time the bottom of the pot should not be in contact with water. Also, to provide the necessary humidity, spraying is carried out several times a day, especially if the air in the room is dry.
Guzmaniya care at home means periodically clean the leaves of dust, wiping with a damp cloth. The use of wax to add shine to the leaves is not recommended.
Fertilizer for Guzman
Starting from May and ending in August, fertilizers are applied once a month. For these purposes, it is best to use special fertilizers for bromeliads, but in the absence of such, conventional fertilizer for houseplants with a low nitrogen content, which is harmful in large doses for humming, will also be suitable.
Fertilizer is dissolved in water for irrigation and poured into the outlet. When using conventional fertilizer, its dose should be reduced by 4 times than for other plants.
Guzmania care and transplant
Guzmania flower transplanted about once every 2-3 years, as needed. The procedure can be carried out only upon completion of flowering, when educated children grow up a little. During transplantation, care must be taken not to deepen the neck of the plant, which will inevitably lead to its death.
Caring for guzmania also implies the selection of small pots, it is better to take shallow and wide ones. Which 1/3 of the pot is filled with drainage from pieces of wine cork or expanded clay. Substrate for guzmaniye needed loose. You can buy a mixture for epiphytic plants in a flower shop, and you can also make your own.
There are several "recipes" for its preparation:
- crushed pine bark –3 parts, top peat - 1 part, chopped sphagnum moss - 1 part, leaf ground - 1 part, humus - 0.5 parts. Here also add a little perlite and charcoal.
- Leaf ground - 1 part, coconut fiber - 1 part, pine bark pieces - 0.5 parts, sand - 0.5 parts, sphagnum moss - one handful.
- Taken in equal parts, universal soil, sand and pieces of pine bark.
- Shredded fern roots - 3 parts and sphagnum moss - 1 part.
Guzmania seed reproduction at home
In rare cases, seed reproduction is possible. Much easier and safer to multiply offspring.
Before sowing, the seeds are washed with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried. Mixture for sowing is prepared from crushed sphagnum or peat and sand. Since seed germination occurs in the light, they are scattered over the soil surface.
The required temperature for successful germination is 24 degrees. It is necessary to carry out regular airing and spraying. Shoots can be expected in 10-20 days after sowing.
After another 2.5 months, the young plants dive into the substrate consisting of 1 part sod land, 2 parts leafy land and 1 part peat. Six months later, the grown-up Guzmans are planted in pots. Guzmania care at home, even if it was implemented with all the recommendations, flowering can be expected no earlier than in 3-4 years.
Reproduction guzmanii offspring
At the end of the bloom, the guzmania dies off, “giving life” to the numerous offsprings that sprout from the renewal buds. In 2 months, these processes will form several leaflets and weak roots.
During this period, they are carefully separated and planted in pots filled with crushed sphagnum or a mixture consisting of 1 part sand and pine bark and 3 parts of leafy ground.
Set aside sprouts in a place where the temperature is 26-28 degrees Celsius, and cover with a glass container or plastic bag for faster growth and development of plants. After successful rooting and noticeable growing-up, the “youth” begin to be accustomed to the usual conditions of detention.
Possible difficulties in growing Guzman
- With excessive watering root decay is possible.
- Often Guzmania affected by fungal diseases due to keeping in too warm and humid rooms.
- Brown spots on leaves indicate sunburn.
- The tips of the leaves turn brown. with insufficient air humidity, as well as irrigation with hard water or the absence of the required amount of water in the outlet.
- Dying off the plant at the end of flowering - a natural process.
- The appearance of yellow spots on the leaves with a gradual yellowing and death of the leaf as a whole indicates a red spider mite.
- The appearance of brown plaques-tubercles on the leaves - The plant is affected by bromeliad shield.
- If the leaves are covered with white cotton-like fluff - Means, there was a defeat for mealybugs.
- If the plant does not form affiliated, it means it does not have enough nutrients.
- Drooping and soft leaves indicate a low temperature content guzmanii.
Watering and moisturizing
Watering Guzman is a special science. This plant will force you to completely change your ideas about proper hydration. Initially, remember that a tropical guest is a great lover of water, but she is dying from excess moisture. How to properly water Guzmania? Competent watering is based on the following recommendations:
- Watering place. Water is poured into a leafy outlet. In the warm season, water should always be present in the "bowl". But prolonged stagnation can provoke decay, so once a month you need to completely empty the outlet and fill it with clean, always soft water.
- Moisturizing the soil. It is permissible only if it dries out during intense heat. But it is better not to water the soil, and leave some water in the pan. Remember, the root system of the Guzman is the most vulnerable spot of the plant.
- The amount of watering. Moistening sockets spend every day or every other day in the summer. In winter, watering is reduced to two times a week.
- Spraying crown. A lover of water will take pleasure in daily irrigation with warm water from a spray bottle. This will recreate the necessary moisture and prevent the development of diseases.
- Hygiene procedures. Broad leaves often accumulate dust. Periodically it must be eliminated. To do this, wipe the leaves with a soft sponge. This procedure is effective in preventing the appearance of pests.
The plant requires almost no fertilizer. Indeed, in a wild environment, a beautiful tropikanka does not receive them, and therefore has learned to do without them. Usually fertilizers are used to extend and stimulate the flowering process. If you decide to feed Guzmania, then follow these rules.
- The number of dressings. Fertilizers are applied once a month from May to September. In winter, the plant does not need additional feeding.
- Fertilizer selection. To improve bloom guzmanii, you can use dressing for orchids. But it is better to buy fertilizer for bromelium crops.
- Fertilizer process. The selected fertilizer is diluted in water. Цветоводы рекомендуют готовить раствор менее концентрированный, чем указано на упаковке, приблизительно в четыре раза. Полученное удобрение наливают в розетку.
- Дополнительная подкормка. Раз в три месяца рекомендуется вносить калийное удобрение. Оно помогает сохранить упругость листьев и поддерживает яркость околоцветников.
Когда гузмания отцветает
Как бы прекрасно ни было цветение гузмании, ближе к осени оно заканчивается. The flower begins to fade and dries out. During this period, the plant no longer needs either increased watering or fertilizing. How to care for guzmanii after flowering? Follow these three guidelines.
- Cut off the flower.
- Moisten the tray periodically, but do not pour water into the outlet.
- Gradually wither foliage remove.
Tropical flower can be propagated by two methods: seeds and "kids". The most commonly used side processes or "kids", which are formed by the mother plant in the period of withering away.
After flowering, the plant seeks to give offspring. Therefore, it is necessary to remove old leaves very carefully, so as not to damage the emerging shoot. As the old Guzman dies, the young shoots gain strength. And by the time it dies completely, young plants already have four leaves each and are distinguished by a well-developed root system. On the development of "kids" on average takes three to four months. The breeding process consists of the following three steps.
- Branch "kids". The flower is completely removed from the pot. With the help of a sharp knife, the “babe” of the ghuzman should be separated so that it necessarily contains the root system. After cutting off all the "kids", the dried-up old plant is destroyed.
- Planting shoots. The process of planting is almost no different from transplanting a purchased flower. But it is important to remember the incredible fragility of the root system. "Baby", left without roots, is not able to take root.
- Proper care. After planting, young plants are recommended to cover with polyethylene. Young Guzmania need heat (+ 25 ° C- + 28 ° C), sufficient moisture.
Sometimes growers propagate an amazing plant with seeds. This method is not very popular among beginners. It is rather a method of breeding new varieties of Guzman. The process of growing plants from seeds consists of the following four steps.
- Disinfecting seeds. For this, the plants are soaked for several hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Planting seeds. Now planting material is planted in the ground. The soil is prepared from equal parts of sand and peat. Seeds are put on the soil and do not sprinkle on top.
- Care for sowing. Capacity with planted seeds covered with film or glass. It is placed in a warm and very bright room, at a temperature of + 25 ° C. Approximately in two-three weeks shoots will appear.
- Pick up plants. A month later, the plants must be planted in separate pots.
Growing any plant may be accompanied by the appearance of some difficulties. And even more so when it comes to an exotic beauty who was forcibly transported to the European climate. What problems may arise and how to solve them, the table will prompt.
Table - Diseases of the Gusmania and flower treatment methods.
The most vulnerable place of the plant is the root. Therefore, when providing care for a guzman in a pot, never overmoisten the soil. Rhizome can quickly rot. But to save the plant, if the process of decay has begun, it is simply impossible.