- When planting gladiolus in open ground in spring
- How to grow gladiolus
- Secrets of planting gladioli
The planting season in many regions has already begun, and anyone, even a small garden, always wants to decorate with flowers. Many people prefer to grow gladioli on their own plot, which are full of their beauty and palette. However, not only this attracts the townsfolk. Since ancient times, gladiolus is considered the flower of friendship, loyalty and nobility, and causes admiration in all.
Gladiolus can be planted from spring to late autumn. However, during the autumn planting there is a high risk that the plant will not have time to take root and will be weak and lifeless by the flowering period. That is why preferable to plant gladiolus in the spring.
Planted culture bulbs. If the bulbs were bought, then you can start planting right away, if dug up in the fall and kept in the refrigerator, then you must get them a month before disembarking. Then clean the coarse husk and check for diseases. Also pay attention to the presence of shoots and roots.
Start landing in open ground follows when the soil temperature is warmed to 8 degrees at a depth of about 10-12 centimeters. Soil temperature is easy to check yourself: It is necessary to prikopat outdoor thermometer to the desired depth for a couple of hours, and then look. Cold and damp soil can cause bulbs to rot, and therefore the optimum temperature is very important.
The best time for planting gladiolus in open ground: The end of April is the beginning of May. Light frost colors are not terrible. In the southern latitudes planting has been made since the beginning of April in order not to delay and not wait for the temptation of the soil. But in the Urals and Siberia The best time is the end of May - the beginning of June. It was then that you can no longer be afraid of the return of cold weather and prolonged rains.
Place you need to choose the sun and closed from the wind. It is better if you land the gladioli along the fence or the sunny side of the wall of the house.
If you properly distribute the time of landing in open ground and place, then very soon the site will illuminate the lush and variegated flowers of gladiolus, pleasing not only you, but also those around you.
How to choose a bulb when buying
First of all, you need to choose the planting material. Gladioli planted out of bulbs. They come in different sizes and colors. When buying, it is very important to choose good bulbs from which beautiful healthy flowers will grow.
It is possible to select high-quality gladiolus bulbs, adhering to four main criteria.
First, you need to look at the size. The main thing here is not to buy too large onions. They will not bring a good result.
Also, do not take those that have a concave bottom, reaching 1 cm in diameter and more. This characteristic suggests that this plant has faded, and perhaps not even once. Quality kids from such bulbs should not be expected. As well as a beautiful abundant flowering.
It is best to choose onions, whose bottom does not exceed 3-7 mm in diameter. The tuber itself should be about 2-4 cm. The surface of the bulbs should be shiny and smooth, in no case shriveled.
The second criterion is root tubercles. It is their appearance that matters. When in April you buy gladioli, these hillocks should already be sufficiently formed. Also, pay attention to their color. It should not be brown, but light.
General appearance is another feature that you need to pay attention to when choosing this flower for planting.
First, there should be no external signs of disease on the tubers. They should look clean, beautiful.
As for sprouts, it is worth choosing an onion with one big, powerful sprout. Most likely, such gladioli have not yet bloomed, that is, they are called juvenile.
But the bulbs, in which there are three or more shoots, still not worth buying. Such a sign, as a rule, indicates that the plant suffers from grassiness.
This gladiolus disease is not treated. Its symptoms are small, deformed flowers that are greenish in color.
On some tubers you can see red spots. Sometimes they can be eaten deep enough with purple powder on the surface.
Such damage indicates the presence of thrips. The best way to get rid of the problem is to burn such bulbs. But if these are very valuable varieties that are difficult to get, you can try to overcome the problem with the help of insecticides.
In gladioli the color of the bulb depends on the variety.
It is important to remember that the varieties of gladioli are determined by the bulbs. For example, if you choose the right material for planting, then you can rejoice in the flowering of this plant from mid-summer to the end of September.
By the way, the flowering time is determined by the size of the bulbs. For example, if the diameter is 2.5-3 cm, then such gladioli will bloom 2-3 weeks earlier than those that reach 1.5-2 cm.
Preparation of bulbs for planting
But choosing the right corm is only half the success. It is also very important to properly prepare them for planting.
The first thing to do is to clear the planting material from the scales. These are dry formations resembling those that cover a real bow. Gladiolus should be cleaned very carefully. If you hurry and make sharp movements, it is easy to damage the sprout that breaks through from the middle and is immediately imperceptible.
Such processing is carried out in about 2-3 weeks before the flowers have to be planted. This process is very important. After all, the cleaned bulbs well demonstrate all the diseases and shortcomings on the planting material. In addition, scales contain harmful parasites - microorganisms that lead to diseases, as well as thrips.
As for the kids, they need to be cleaned much later - best of all on the eve of the landing in the ground. Otherwise, the young onion will simply wither. If it turns out that the baby is sick, there are black dots or spots on it, then it is best to throw them away at all. All waste that remains after such events is best burned, so you can protect plants from the spread of disease and pests.
Corms after cleansing need to properly put. They are laid up sprouts. This method of preservation helps to improve flowering, as well as improve the immunity of flowers in an important period - the beginning of growth.
If the planting material is not collected independently, but bought, then it must also be treated for diseases, the presence of pests. By the way, it is not necessary to use chemicals for this. Natural products work very well. So you can not introduce harmful chemicals to your site.
Corms stand in the infusion of garlic.
It is easy to prepare - about 250-300 g of garlic are taken per 10 liters of water. It is necessary to insist about 2 hours, previously grinding in a meat grinder.
In such an infusion of gladiolus tubers can insist and after digging in the fall. If there is no garlic, then potassium permanganate is useful.
Its solution helps to get rid of diseases. And karbofos solution is used to control pests on planting material. Keeping corms in these substances takes about 30 minutes.
Other treatments can also be used if desired. Before planting, corms are treated with growth stimulants, trace elements that stimulate root development.
As for the germination of gladioli, it all depends on your desire. This process is optional. But he will help gladioli grow and bloom soon.
When planted in open ground
The time of disembarkation of gladioli depends on several factors. It is influenced by the climate zone, the weather. But in general we can say that corms are planted on the site, starting from the end of April and until about mid-May.
It is important that at this time the soil at a depth of 10 cm has already been heated to about 8-10 0 C.
Choosing a place
The beauty of flowers also depends on the location of the flower bed and the soil on it. The selection of the site for the landing affects their further state.
- Gladioli love to grow in areas where there is a lot of light.
- The soil should be well drained.
- It is important to ensure that there are no strong drafts in this place.
- There is one rule - the more north there is a place where gladioli will land, the more light should fall on it.
- The smallest blackout will restrain the growth of the plant, as well as its flowering.
- In places where groundwater is high, gladioli will not grow.
- If you live in the southern regions, then gladioli should be slightly protected from the hot sun. To do this, at lunchtime they are a little shaded.
- Plots that are on the slopes should not be chosen for gladioli.
Smooth surfaces or with a slight inclination are most of all - up to 5 0 towards the south. This will ensure waste of excess moisture.
Soil preparation for planting
There must also be suitable soil in the right area. One of the most important qualities for the growth of gladiolus is acidity. The optimum is pH 6.5-6.8.
If the soil has a higher acidity, the plants do not look very nice. The tips of their leaves begin to wither and darken, the flowers do not fully open, there is fusarium.
Acidic soil needs to be neutralized. To do this, you can use simple tools - egg shells or dolomite flour. These substances are introduced when digging 150-200 g per 1 m 2.
It is necessary to pay attention to the structure of the soil. Black soil is excellent, as well as sandy loam or light loam. Excellent composition can be created independently.
- Sand is applied to heavy loams.
- On the contrary, in the sand plots need to make some clay.
- Also when digging humus is added, compost.
Digging is best done immediately before disembarking. This is especially true of sites that are very well warmed. But in arid regions they dig up a plot only in the autumn, but in the spring it is simply loosened.
Gladioli grow well in places where perennial grasses, vegetables or legumes have previously been planted.
But after the root crops and asters, gladioli do not want to grow.
If you chose a place for gladiolus in the fall, then you can apply fertilizer to the soil before the onset of winter. For example, phosphoric (per 1 m 2 100 g of superphosphate) and potash (per 1 m 2 about 30-40 g of potassium chloride). But kalimagnezii or potassium sulfate is best to make already before spring digging. By the way, it should be smaller than the autumn one, about 10 cm.
Planting bulbs and babies
Already immediately before disembarking, furrows are made at the site. Each of them needs to be shed with water, phytosporin solution can also be used. River sand is poured at the bottom of the furrows - about 2 cm each. Instead of sand, you can take sphagnum.
First of all, those varieties that need to be multiplied faster are planted. It is best to land in rows. How far apart the bulbs are, depends on the type and size of the planting material.
But it should be understood that the greater the distance between the gladioli, the better for them. This allows you to simplify care, plants are not so susceptible to infection from each other. The minimum distance should be about 15 cm in rows and about 20 cm between them. For kids it is a bit smaller - 5 and 15 cm, respectively.
As for the depth of planting, it depends on such factors as the composition of the soil, the size of the bulbs. So, if they are 4-5 cm in diameter, then it is necessary to plant about 10-12 cm into the ground. Such tubers give the highest quality flower stalks.
Chernozems, sandy soils require a deeper disembarkation - up to 15 cm. But on clay or wetlands it is better to reduce it - to 7-9 cm, but not smaller. Too small planted gladioli are more susceptible to disease.
There is one simple formula for calculating the depth of disembarkation - it should be equal to the three diameters of the selected corm. Small children are planted not deep - by 3-5 cm.
Growing new flowers from babies
In order to gladioli were beautiful and healthy, they can be grown from the same bulbs no more than 3-4 years. After that, the planting material is aging, the plants completely degenerate. Old tubers may simply not even germinate. That is why the bulbs should be updated regularly and replaced with young ones.
This is easy to do by growing new plants from babies. They are more resistant to diseases, they can adapt to unusual conditions much easier.
Growing out of babies is the rejuvenation of planting material and its healing.
In fact, the children of gladioli are the organs with which vegetative reproduction is carried out. They are formed in large numbers near the tubers - approximately 20-30 pieces. For the preparation and planting of babies produced the same activities as for adult bulbs. Before germination beds with planted children can be covered with foil. Small gladioli germinate for about 15-20 days.
The flowering of these plants is best not to allow, even if they produce flower stalks. Such gladioli will have to please with their beauty only in a year.
Flower care in summer
Gladioli require a lot of attention and careful care throughout the summer. After the plants become 10 cm in height, it is desirable to mulch the soil under them with humus (5 cm thick). This will avoid overheating of the earth, its dehydration.
Watering is done every 7 days. This should be done during the early morning or late evening. At 1 m 2 when watering need to spend about 10-12 liters of water. Moisture should not fall on the leaves.
After watering the soil should be loosened, it will not allow the crust to form when the moisture dries. Loosen the bed preferably every 10 days. After the appearance of the buds, it is advisable to tie up the gladioli, otherwise in bad weather they may break.
Another important point of care - the elimination of dried flowers. If they remain on the plant, it will spend its strength on the ripening of seeds that are not needed at all.
Weeding also needs to be done - as needed. In general, it is done up to 4 times per summer.
And, of course, do not forget about feeding.
- The first is done after the appearance of the first leaves. Ammonium sulphate in a dry form, urea is used, ammonium nitrate is also suitable (on average 25 g per 1 m 2).
- The second feeding is done after up to 5-6 leaves appear on the plants. For 1 m 2 you need to make 10-20 g of ammonium sulfate, 15-20 g of superphosphate, and also 10-20 g of potassium sulfate.
- Already before budding, the last additional feeding is performed - potassium chloride (15-20 g) and superphosphate (30-40 g) per 1 m 2.
Organic fertilizers are also well suited for top dressing. For example, at the beginning of growth between the rows, you can make watering infusion of bird droppings. After that, the soil must be loosened and the plants pile up. But horse manure for gladiolus fertilizer can not be used.
Decorative and beauty of flowers can be increased by spraying with solutions of mineral substances: boric acid (0.15 g), potassium permanganate (0.15 g) or copper sulfate (0.2 g) per liter of water.
How to cut a flower gladiolus
If you decide to decorate your house with a bouquet of gladioli, then they need to be cut properly. The remains of peduncles should be hidden deep in the leaves. The last should be at least 4 pieces. This will ensure the development and growth of corms, which is useful when disembarking for the next year.
Bulb planting rules
In order to understand the rules of planting gladioli should first understand features of these colors. These flowers have been revered since ancient times by the people. They were grown in ancient Rome, were loved by the Egyptian pharaohs, and were also considered a talisman for gladiators. Often these beautiful flowers are called as a spike for the shape of the leaves, resembling a long and sharp weapon.
Plant should be in a high and well-lit place, because the flower is very fond of the sun. True, it is necessary to plant gladioli so as to protect from the wind. Strong gusts are disastrous for the plant. They can break its long stalks.
Land for the sword is to pick up soft and loose. However, it should not retain moisture in itself. Optimally, if it is sandy soil with a low content of peat.
The steamer belongs to the bulbous plantsthat multiply by the formation of small onion - kids. In Siberia, the bulbs should be dug out in the fall with the onset of cold weather. This is done so that they do not freeze and die.
Most often, gladiolus is dug up by the end of October, when it has already blossomed and the stem is easily separated from the bulb. All collected specimens should be carefully examined for rot, dryness, or lethargy. All bulbs with defects should be thrown out, they will not be able to live until spring and give beautiful and healthy flowers.
Healthy bulbs should be placed in the sand, without removing the husk, and put in a cool place. It is there that they will wait for spring.
How to plant gladiolus correctly
In order to get beautiful and strong plants you need to properly prepare the tubers. To do this, they should be taken out of the cellar and carefully inspected for rot and damage. All damaged bulbs are sifted out again. Твёрдые луковицы рекомендуется отчистить от шелухи и отделить от них « деток » .
Здоровые клубни должны быть ровными и блестящими, с зачатками почек и небольшими бугорками на месте корешков.
If on the bulbs of the plant there is a slight darkening, then you can try to cure them yourself. For this, the affected area must be cut with a sharp knife and smeared with green. But it is worth remembering that before the bulbs are planted in the ground, the cut should overgrow.
Most often, before planting in the soil, the bulbs are germinated. This not only allows you to accelerate the growth and flowering of gladioli at the site, but also allows you to separate the dead bulbs from which nothing grows.
Germination is recommended to perform in the following sequence:
- First, all the bulbs must be decontaminated, for which they are placed in a half-percent solution of potassium permanganate or any other antiseptic,
- For larger flowers and strong trunks should be a few hours to lower the roots in boric acid,
- The tank for planting is filled with a sod mixture consisting of sand, peat and sod soil. Here you should add a little ash, bone meal,
- Small indentations are made in the soil and some sand is poured into it. The bulb is placed in the spines right on the sand and slightly pressed,
- It is recommended to sprinkle with soil and water on top of the bulb,
- Until the first shoots appear, it is recommended to keep the tray with gladioli in a cool place,
- After the sprouts appear, take the tray to the light and place it on a window sill, in a greenhouse or greenhouse,
- In mid-April, early May, bulbs can be planted in open ground.
Water the plant should be moderate. It does not tolerate excessive moisture, and therefore the bulbs can quickly begin to rot.
But you can do without sprouting bulbs. To do this, they are taken out of the basement and laid out in a dry and warm place. Some growers recommend periodically spraying them with a spray bottle. But in fact, this is not worth it. They can simply start to rot, or roots will grow on the bulbs, which will break off when they are sweet. After the appearance of tubercles and small sprouts can be planted bulbs in open ground.
Planting gladioli in the ground
First of all, a gardener should learn properly deepen the sword into the ground. There is one small rule - the size of the hole should exceed the size of the root about three times. Only in this case, the plant will develop properly and begin to bloom early.
Different varieties of skewer differ not only in color during flowering, but also in the shade of tubers.
Planting gladioli in the Urals in the spring or in any other place begins with the filling of sand in the prepared hole. After that, the root vegetable is laid there. From above it should be covered with soil and water carefully.
Keeping the distance between the bushes is very important. Gladioli are very large and large plants, and therefore light, nutrients and water should be enough for each flower separately. That is why the distance between the holes should be at least 70 cm. Otherwise, the plants will choke each other.
Basic rules of care
Now you know the basic rules of how to plant gladioli in the spring. It remains to deal with thathow to care for them. Experienced gardeners are advised to stick to a specific algorithm.
When the shoots rise above the ground by eight centimeters, they should be a little sprinkled with humus. This should be done in order to prevent the evaporation of moisture from the soil and overheating of the plant.
About once every two weeks it is recommended to loosen the soil between the rows. However, this procedure should be carried out with extreme caution; otherwise, the bulbs and roots can be damaged.
Watering plants must be carried out by a special technology. For this, a small hole is made in the aisle and water is poured into it. If you water the plant directly under the root, there is a danger of damaging fragile leaves.
Knowing how to plant gladioli, one should also know how to keep them in the form in which they grow. The stems of the plants are very fragile, and therefore after the appearance of the first flowers it is recommended to tie the stem to the support. So it will not break from the wind and stand until late autumn.
When planting gladiolus in open ground in spring - more this question will not disturb you. Enough to listen to the advice of experienced flower growers and in your garden will grow the most beautiful flowers in the world, planting which will not be difficult.
Terms of planting gladioli
Planting gladiolus in the open ground is carried out from the end of April to mid-May. The planting time for gladiolus bulbs depends on various factors and varies depending on the region. In the regions that are located to the south, favorable conditions for planting come earlier, and for the northern regions they can, on the contrary, move to a later date. The main criterion for planting is the readiness of the soil. Planting gladioli should be in a dry and heated soil. The optimum temperature is 10 degrees. The soil should be heated to a depth of 10-12 cm.
It is better to plant the gladioli two weeks later than to plant them in the cold ground. Such gladioli (planted in warm soil) quickly catch up with the growth of those flowers that were planted in the cold ground. And even ahead of them and bloom earlier.
Planting gladiolus bulbs in several stages
In order to achieve a certain color rotation, if you can call it that, or rather, extend the period of flowering of these luxurious flowers in your area, you can plant bulbs in several stages. The corms planted in June will bloom at the earliest in mid-September.
In addition, smaller bulbs bloom later than larger ones.
In addition, you can hold and very early planting gladioli. But in this case, additional work is required.
To this end, in the fall, the plot prepared for planting is covered with peat or sheet, and a film or frames with glass are placed on top. Shelter is done to ensure that the earth does not freeze. In early March, the shelter is removed, leaving the film or frame. The sun begins to warm and under the sunlight the earth heats up quickly. This allows us to make an early planting of gladiolus bulbs.
Considering the above, we can draw the following conclusions.:
Planting gladioli is necessary only in heated soil. However, the landing time may vary depending on the region. You can extend the blooming of gladioli, if planted them in several stages. When planting early, soil preparation should be carried out. And take care of this should be in the fall.
And in the next article we will continue the topic of planting gladiolus and talk about the choice of location, preparation of the soil, preparation of the soil and other important points.
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Choice of corms
Despite the fact that gladioli can be planted in three ways: seeds, tubers and tubers, it is the latter method that is most convenient. Successful planting of flowers depends on the correct choice of tubers.
To begin, each bulb must be carefully examined and weed out the damaged, sick, rotten, with mold, with suspicious spots. Pay attention to the size of the bulb and its bottom. If it is too small, it means that the tuber has not yet ripened.
The bulb must be at least 5–7 cm in size. The larger it is, the better.
The best time for planting in open ground
The best time for planting gladioli in the spring in open ground will be the period from late April to early May. The main thing is that the soil warms up to 8–10 cm deep down to at least +8 ° C. This recommendation should be observed, since the planting of the bulbs at a lower temperature will lead to the fact that the development of the root system will take place slowly, and it will not be able to provide normal nutrition to the ground part of the plant.
Do I need to germinate bulbs and how to do it
Germinating bulbs before planting - a desirable procedure, but not mandatory. Germinated tubers are characterized by rapid growth and better flowering.
The time of sprouting corms depends on the climate that prevails in the zone where they are planted. So, in the middle lane it can be done from the beginning of March.
The bulbs are placed in a warm place where sunlight does not penetrate.
Two days before planting, the tubers need to be decomposed on a damp napkin for germination. This will allow bulbs to be placed in the ground, which already have small roots.
How to land gladioli
At this point, we want to share with you how to plant gladioli in the spring, familiarizing you with the rules, recommendations and tips.
In addition to preparing the bulbs and observing the recommended time for planting, important factors that must be considered before planting gladioli are:
- the choice of location in accordance with the preferences of the plant for lighting,
- soil preparation for planting.
Since gladiolus comes from hot Africa and the warm Mediterranean, they light and heat-loving. Therefore, looking for a place to plant, you need to choose a well-lit area, which does not fall the shadow of trees and other tall cultures.
The soil flowers love fertile. Sandy or loamy light soil would be ideal for planting. In the absence of such, it will need to be prepared in advance. In heavy soils with a large admixture of clay or peat flowers will not grow. They will also refuse to live in acidic soil, since they prefer a weakly acidic reaction, which is close to neutral (pH = 6.5–6.8). To reduce the acidity, you need to add lime, egg shells or dolomite flour under the digging into the ground. It will be enough to 150-200 g per square meter.
If the soil contains an excessive amount of clay, then it should be diluted with sand, and when digging in the autumn, add lime and humus. Fresh humus can be made, but undesirable because it can provoke excessive foliage growth and poor flowering. Clay with humus and rotted compost is added to the sandy soil.
In the spring, before planting flowers, the soil should be fed with the necessary elements for normal growth and development of the plant: phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium. It adds:
- ammonium nitrate (15 g / 1 sq. m),
- superphosphate (15 g / 1 sq. m),
- potassium sulphate (30 g / 1 sq. m.).
It is necessary to make holes in the ground. Their size will depend on the size of the bulbs. The pits should be equal to the four diameters of the planting material. So, the largest bulbs will need to be deepened by about 10–15 cm, small ones - by 8–10.
Tubers do not need to be deepened too much, because in this case they will bloom later and give fewer babies. If you plant them not too deeply, then tying up the arrows will be added to the care activities. Also shallow bulbs are more likely to undergo disease.
The gaps between the holes are also made depending on the size of the tubers. The larger they are, the gaps should be longer. However, in any case, the wells do not need to be located closer than 10 cm apart. The row spacing should be 20–25 cm.
Gladiolus can be planted in another way - in a solid ditch. In the deepening of the bulbs are also decomposed depending on the diameter and at a distance of 10–20 cm from each other.
Before planting material placed in the hole, the ground should be well watered. It is also desirable to treat the drug "Fitosporin". Lay drainage at the bottom: river sand or sphagnum moss, 2 cm layer.
Tubers need to be cleaned of integumentary scales. If there are slightly rotted places, they should be cut with a sharp knife.
Also, the bulbs can be put in garlic solution for two hours. It is prepared from five to six pieces of teeth, which are filled with hot water. To disinfect the bulbs immediately before planting process with a solution of potassium permanganate. It is prepared from 0.5 g of potassium permanganate dissolved in a liter of warm water. The bulbs hold it for 30 minutes.
Those who prefer to work with chemical means, planting material before planting can be processed in a solution of the drug "Karbofos."
After the tubers are placed in the wells or ditch, they are sprinkled with loose earth. You also need to mulch the planting with peat. Mulching will save the necessary moisture in the ground. Until the moment when shoots appear, gladioli should not be watered. Sprouts should appear after two or three weeks.