In thick blue,
I flew over me.
He's like teasing,
Tired of circling,
On a palm to me.
Maple is easily distinguished from other trees by large patterned leaves with five sharp ends. Maple is especially beautiful in the fall. The leaves on the maple are painted in different colors: yellow, red, orange, purple, golden. The tree is transformed, it becomes so elegant that the eye does not take. It is difficult to resist and not to collect a bouquet of leaves.
Maple meets the very first.
Circling in the air cheerful.
Land quickly covers.
Let the native fall asleep.
Long winter sleep.
In the spring maple awakens one of the first. As soon as the snow begins to melt, the roots of the maple absorb moisture from the ground and drive it along the trunk to the branches. If at this time to make an incision in the tree, juice will flow out of it. Maple juice is sweet, contains 2-3 percent sugar. In late April, the maple begins to bloom. The flowers are barely noticeable: small, yellowish-green, but they have a strong attractive smell. Moreover, at this time there are not so many flowering plants, so bees and other insects rush to the maple, collect sweet nectar and pollinate the plant. Maple fruits resemble small propellers. In the fall, they break away from the branches, and the wind spreads them around the neighborhood. Maple is a fast-growing tree. Young shoots, which receive enough moisture, heat and light, grow by about a meter in a year. The wood in maple is white, with a reddish-brown or yellowish tinge. She perfectly planed and retains shape. Maple wood can be easily bent, so it has been used for making musical instruments since ancient times. Back in the 9th century, the Slavs made maple gusli. In the Middle Ages, maple was widely used in the manufacture of stringed, stringed and other musical instruments. Now voiced violins and guitars are made of maple. And skis are made of maple, fast and light.
Maple Leaf is associated with Canada all over the world. Maple in the economy and ecology of Canada occupies an important place, this tree is one of the main decorations of the Canadian landscape, especially in autumn. There are 13 species of maple, 10 of which grow in North America. For Canadians, maple represents strength and vitality in harsh conditions. Immigrants from Europe learned to get maple syrup from the natives of the continent, who replaced sugar and became a component of many culinary dishes.
In the 19th century, sugar syrup production became a key sector of the food industry, whose products were consumed not only domestically, but also exported (this sector of the economy still exists today, mainly in Quebec). French Canadians, who founded settlements along the banks of the St. Lawrence River in the 18th century, were the first to use the image of a maple leaf as an emblem. The sign became especially popular during the founding of the Society of St. John the Baptist in 1834.
Then the Baptists used maple leaf as a symbol of the organization. The first alcalde of Montreal, Jacques Wiger called the maple king of the Canadian forests and the symbol of the Canadian people. In 1860, Canada was visited by the Prince of Wales, whom residents greeted with bouquets of maple leaves. In 1867, Alexander Muir composed the patriotic work “Maple Leaf Forever,” which became the unofficial anthem of the English-speaking part of Canada.
Since 1921, the maple leaf - an integral part of the coat of arms of Canada, later the gold leaf was included in the coat of arms of the province of Ontario, and the green leaf - Quebec. Since 1800, the maple leaf is a symbol of the country's armed forces: it flaunted on the summer helmets of Canadian soldiers during wars - the Second Boer (1899-1902), the First World War (was the hallmark of the Canadian Expeditionary Force military).
Finally, since 1965, the maple leaf as a national symbol has been portrayed on the national flag.
Children about trees (abstract of classes and a set of tasks for the first acquaintance)
It is interesting that the image of a leaf with eleven teeth and a short stem does not correspond to any of the species, but it symbolizes the number of maple species found in the country. In earlier emblems, the sheet was depicted with 30 teeth.
Maple Leaf has become an attribute of coins that were minted in Canada. In 1979, the Canadian Mint began to issue coins of gold, silver, platinum and palladium, on which the contours of the maple leaf are applied. The Government of Canada is the guarantor of the quality and quantity of the precious metal in the coin. For example, each gold coin has a weight of 31.1030 grams and consists of 99.99% noble metal.
The logos of all government agencies, enterprises, and sports societies in various variants use the maple leaf theme — Air Canada, branches of McDonald, General Motors, sports teams for football and hockey, as an identifier for Canadian official institutions on websites. Festivals dedicated to the national delicacy - maple syrup are held annually throughout the country.
Article Rating: 6723 view
Author: Elena Tkach
Rod: We have one kind - view: the leaves are simple - leaves palmate-lobed with 5-7 lobes - lobes of leaves pointed - leaves are bare.
Norway maple is an ordinary plant, the most beautiful tree in our parks, especially in the fall. In early spring, when there is still snowing, the maple wakes up and sap flow begins inside it. Often in the beginning of March, icicles appear on broken branches, slightly sweet to the taste, which is usually always surprising.
We also have other representatives of maple trees: an American maple with feathery leaves, and in the spring with long bunches of pistillate flowers, and a Tatar maple with red krylatkami fruit and whole leaves.
As soon as the snow melts, the maple blossoms. This usually occurs at the end of April, together with the flowering of the unclear lunar, spring clematus, and anemone buttercup. At this time, the maple is shrouded in a yellow-green haze of inflorescences.
The branches are often dotted with flowers.
Tell the children about trees - Frost V. Burmistrova L. - Page 2
Flowers in shields of 15-30 pc. Flowering begins before the leaves bloom.
Despite the fact that the flowers are dioecious, they grow on one tree, that is monoecious.
The flowers are yellowish-green, with five separate petals and a splice cup with 5 sepals.
Most often there are flowers with 8 stamens, and 5 of them are folded on the petals, and 3 are bent inwards, towards the center. However, the number of stamens ranges from 5 to 10. Stamens grow directly from a powerful nectar disc, a ring surrounding the pistil (on the stamen flower the pistil is underdeveloped).
A pistillate flower contains one pistil, divisible on top. In such a flower stamens are underdeveloped, and they are much lower in height. Nectar disc is the same as on pistillate flowers.
The leaves are bare, large, up to 20 cm in length, opposite, palmate with 5-7 large-toothed lobes, with pointed ends, with large veins, especially on the reverse side. Autumn leaves get a beautiful yellow and red color with numerous spots and specks.
The trunk is up to 20 meters high, with a thick spherical crown.
The bark of young branches is green, then brown, then gray-brown, smooth. As it ages, the bark darkens, becomes covered with long, narrow, intertwining longitudinal cracks. Spring buds are brown.
Young shoots maple bright red. Here you have a finished photograph of the "Martian Flower".
The fruit is a double lionfish.
There are about one hundred and fifty species of trees and shrubs in the world, but on our territory there are only twenty species. If we talk about the use and properties of maple wood, as in the photo below, it is worth saying that for the manufacture of furniture and other items for the house it is chosen most often.
Its structure is rather firm, elastic and durable. It has a beautiful and exquisite pattern that adorns the material, makes it especially decorative.
When buying wooden furniture, sometimes we can see that there is information about the density of wood in the description. Unfortunately, not all buyers understand the meaning of written numbers. However, this is important, because this information helps to select the necessary items of furniture, depending on the type of room.
Before buying a wooden product it is worth deciding what density is. Why is this feature so important? The density of maple wood is the ratio of weight to volume. The heavier a cubic meter of wood, the denser it is. The density of wood depends on humidity. If the same piece of wood will be under different operating conditions, its density will change.
Please note that the European maple has a density of 0.65 g / cm 3 and a hardness of 3.6 g / cm 3. These are average values that make it possible to use maple so widely in the national economy.
Its hygroscopicity and strength depend on the density of wood. Dense wood is more durable.
Maple Wood Scope
They use wood in the furniture industry, make parquet, musical instruments, skis, chess pieces and cladding panels. Its use has become popular in ancient times. In the old days, carts, baking tins, oars, cutlery and much more were made from this material. Cases of musical instruments made of maple, sound and look great.
Maple is grown specifically for wood, because it is well processed. This is a suitable material for the manufacture of stairs and railings, still maple wood decorate the room. Wood lovers choose maple sawing material because it is highly resistant. This feature allows you to make the thinnest sections without the appearance of splits. Elements made from this material are distinguished from other products by the presence of charm, uniqueness and sophistication.
For many centuries, the maple breed has been used for such decorative and applied arts as intarsia. Experts select multi-colored wood and cut it into thin ribbons. At the same time, it is necessary to remove areas with defects. Then tapes are glued and cut mosaics, folding pattern.
Use in garden design
Maple wood, pre-treated against rotting, is ideal for creating arbors, patios, railings, elements for children's playgrounds.
This material makes excellent garden furniture - tables, benches, stools.
It is suitable for all sorts of decorative crafts, which can decorate the site.
In the world there are many different types of wood of this breed, but the most common of them is Norway maple. It is not difficult to meet this breed, because maple grows in lowland forests. To distinguish this tree from other species is simple. Representatives of the genus grow up to thirty meters in height and have a dense crown, similar to a tent.
Among the maples there are also giants, for example, velvety. It grows to fifty meters. A bit smaller (forty meters in height) grows a sycamore. This representative is found in the mountain forests of the Caucasus. Also there are these types of maple:
If we talk about varieties, there are also a lot of them, for example:
- Ample Maple Crimson King. It has a folding crown and large leaves.
- Atropurpurea moss maple. It features a wide cone-shaped crown and beautiful five-pointed leaves.
- Aspen Maple Flamingo. Tree modest size, very beautiful with variegated leaves. It is used to create a variety of compositions.
- Wieri - picturesque, silver maple.
- Fast growing Royal Red. It is a Norway maple, has a broad crown like a cocoon.
American maple wood: features
Many species of maple grow in the Americas. Some of this list can also be found on other continents, for example, ash-leaved maple, whose wood is very popular. Often this type is called the "killer", because it is aggressive, inhibits the growth of other plants.
Since American maple wood is not very durable, it is used to make dishes and other items for the home. And from its curved and twisted branches make parts for decorating the room, a variety of flower vases, sculptures and handles for cold arms. In many countries, American maple wood is used to create furniture, interior doors, parquet and bowling tracks. The color of the wood depends on the location of maple sprouting. Most often it is light brown and has a red tint. It has a uniform texture, which is sometimes decorated with curls.
American maple wood dries long, but is easy to process. Also, it is well glued, polished, covered with paints and varnishes. The advantages of wood include good flexibility, durability and accessibility.
Among hardwoods, maple wood is considered the most valuable and useful. Products made from maple wood are easy to recognize, as its beautiful core rays are immediately visible. The main properties of this material:
- Beautiful colour.
- Wear resistance.
During wood steaming, its color changes. This is a very interesting feature. However, drying the material requires care. It is necessary to choose the optimal mode, because the wood can crack and deform.
Material color palette
Furniture made from maple wood has a light brown tint. Most often from it do large designs, such as a dresser or a case. Large light furniture visually expands the space, making it lighter and more comfortable. Light brown color goes well with dark upholstery and a variety of large items. The maple parquet looks advantageous because it is a pleasant shade for the eyes. In addition, it is strong and durable.
The color of the maple wood changes after drying of the raw material, which is covered with staining. Over time, it brightens. Natural rock always remains light and uniform.
The wood of the European maple looks very light, but it takes on a yellowish tint after varnishing, and when processing with oil it becomes an amber sunny shade. You cannot say the same about hard maple, the whitish color of which barely noticeably changes after processing the paintwork material. Wood of maple sugar and red is very much appreciated. It has a light brown tint, durable, easy to process.
The use of wood in the furniture industry
For the manufacture of furniture maple wood is chosen very often. This material produces high-quality and externally attractive furniture, since it has practically no flaws. Maple wood is used to make cabinets, beds, chairs, and tables. The maple competitor in the furniture industry is boxwood, but it has a rather high density, which is why it is made heavier.
In the production of using different color wood. Countertops made from solid maple massif are especially appreciated, but more often it is used as veneer for decoration.
Benefits of Maple Wood
Maple wood is a fairly affordable material. In addition, it has several advantages:
- Durability and reliability.
- Long service life.
- Simple and easy repair in case of breakage of a product from it.
- The ability to design beautiful high-quality furniture and many household items.
- Environmental friendliness and naturalness.
- The uniformity of color from the center of the trunk to the periphery.
- During operation does not form cracks and chips.
- Relatively low price.
The main advantage of wood is, of course, its ecological purity and naturalness. Furniture made from natural raw materials has been in great demand for many years.
Since the material is durable, it has a positive effect on the operational life. Products for the production of which used high-grade wood, are of excellent quality, they are not defeated by a variety of microorganisms. Other features of maple wood:
- It has excellent acoustic properties.
- Resistant to the negative effects of aggressive chemicals.
- Differs in low heat conductivity.
Using wood it is necessary to take full advantage of its positive qualities and to protect the material from the negative impact of various factors.
This wonderful material experts see only one major drawback - it is prone to rotting. However, this property is not only in maple wood. To prevent rotting, the material must be treated with special protective agents before use, the most effective of which is the PSB preparation.
Maple wood is widely used in many countries of the world. It is especially popular in Canada and in the USA. Благодаря своей прочности, прекрасному оттенку и необычайной красотой древесина клена остается уже много лет весьма востребованной.
Читаем обязательно! Букоф много, но вопросов станет меньше.
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Species of maple
Genus Acer L.
The genus includes about 120 species and 40 subspecies. In Russia, 16 species naturally grow and more than 50 in introduction.
Deciduous trees and shrubs. The leaves are opposite, simple (palmatelopolopastnye), complex. Polygamous plants. The flowers are regular, bisexual and false hollow. Inflorescences are corymbose or racemes panicles, according to their location on the shoots may be terminal or lateral. Perianth often ugly, double, 4-5-membered, sometimes reduced. Stamens 8-10, pistil of 2 carpels, ovary upper. Most of them bloom simultaneously with the blooming of leaves, less often - after. The fruit is a winged dvusemyanka, when ripe, splits into 2 single-seeded krylatki. Entomophilous, anemophilic.
Good honey plants. Transfer the forming pruning in the early spring.
They do not play a large role in the formation of forests; they take part in the formation of coniferous-deciduous and deciduous forests (I and II tier), undergrowth and scrub.
Most maple trees are demanding of soil moisture (but not stagnant), but they are rather resistant to high temperature and dry air, relatively shade-tolerant, wind-resistant and have a rather rapid growth. For growing maple trees, light loams or sandy loams are suitable first of all. They must be sufficiently deep and rich in nutrients, have good physical properties.
The wood of the maples is diffusely vascular, without division into core and sapwood, yellowish-white or pinkish-white, with a beautiful texture. In some species the wood is hard, strong, heavy and highly valued in the manufacture of musical instruments and furniture.
All types of maple juice contain up to 3% sugar. Most species are widely used in landscaping.
Norway maple Acer platanoides L.
Tree up to 30 m tall, with a diameter of up to 1 m. The bark is black-gray, fissured, not flaking. Shoots are bare, brownish-olive with scattered lentils. The crown is broadly ovate, dense. Leaves 5-7 lobed, lobes with large rare sharp teeth.
It blooms simultaneously with the blooming of the leaves, flowers in the final erect ciliary panicle. The flowers are greenish-yellow, 8-12 mm in diameter. On one plant usually staminate, false-genital and pistillate flowers are found in various combinations. Stamens 8 (5-10). Lionfish diverge at an obtuse angle, the seeds are flat. Lives up to 200-250 years. Able to resume shoots from the stump. Enters the north subzone taiga.
Demanding on soils, relatively shade-tolerant and winter-hardy, grows rapidly. It tolerates the conditions of the city. Fallen maple leaves contribute to the improvement of soil fertility. The root system is pivotal. Wood has high physicomechanical properties, is well polished and used in furniture, carpentry, turning, machine building and aircraft industry, it is used for making musical instruments and goes to various handicrafts. When tapping spring, sugary juice flows out of the stem. Honey plant (a bee collects about 10 kg of honey from a single tree).
Windproof. At an early age grows rapidly.
The area - the European part of Russia (south of the line Petersburg - Vologda - Perm - Yekaterinburg), Middle and South Urals, Caucasus,
Carpathians (absent in the Crimea), the middle and northern part of Western Europe to the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.
It does not form pure plantations; it is found in the composition of mixed and coniferous-deciduous European forests. Its participation usually does not exceed 2-3 units of the total composition of the plantings, it grows with oak, ash, linden, spruce, aspen, and sometimes pine. In the northern part of the range serves as an indicator of fertile soils.
Falcon maple, white, sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus L.
Tree height up to 40 m, up to 2 m in diameter. The crown is spreading, tent-like. The bark is grayish-beige, exfoliated by large plates, exposing stains to a brighter, younger bark. Leaves with 5 large rounded lobes, up to 17 cm in circumference, dull green above, whitish below, sometimes with a purple tinge. The blades are ovate, serrated along the edge, the angle between the blades is very sharp. The leaf stalk is equal to or greater than the length of the leaf plate. Flowers in dangling racemes. It blooms in May - June. The fruits of the two-poster, diverging at an angle from 45 to 90 °, the length of each wing is up to 6 cm. The seeds are convex, spherical. The fruits ripen in September - October. Best sown when sowing in autumn is freshly harvested seeds.
The area - the south-western part of Ukraine, the Caucasus, the middle and south-eastern part of Western Europe, the Black Sea coast of Asia Minor. It does not form pure plantations, but grows with fir, beech, linden, hornbeam on deep, fertile soils with sufficient moisture.
Heat-loving, growing rapidly, shade-tolerant, demanding of air humidity, live to 200 years or more. In Bulgaria, a specimen at the age of 1100 years with a diameter of 3 m was described (in 1964 a postage stamp was dedicated to this tree). Propagated by seeds and shoots from the stump. The wood is white with a yellowish tinge, solid, shiny, heavy, used in construction, furniture, lathe, carpentry, for the manufacture of musical instruments, well polished. Quite often it forms wood with a decorative texture (bird's eye, wavy, streaked) - raw material for the production of veneer. Good honey plant.
Used as a beautiful park tree.
Field maple (touched) Acer campestre L.
Tree up to 15-20 m tall, up to 60 cm in diameter. The crown is spherical, the bark is gray, longitudinally fissured.
The leaves are entire, 5-lobed, lobes dulled. It blooms a decade after the blooming of the leaves, later the maple leaves. The inflorescence is a finite, erect, corymboid panicle. Lionfish diverge at an angle of 180 °, the seeds are flat.
Field Maple (touched)
Grows slowly, well resumed shoots from the stump. Lives up to 100-150 years. The wood is hard, dense, well polished, used for the manufacture of small joinery and turning products. Suitable for making musical instruments. It tolerates a haircut, can be used in hedges. Medonos.
Shade-tolerant, demanding of soil fertility, moderately thermophilic, drought-resistant, inferior in winter hardiness to maple, stable in the city.
The area - from England to the Volga in the zone of deciduous European forests, forest-steppe, steppe, including the Crimea and the Caucasus, northern Africa and the northern part of Asia Minor.
It grows along with pedunculate oak, rocky and fluffy, hornbeam, hornbeam, tree juniper, in the Caucasus it rises to the mountains up to 1800 m above sea level. It is found in culture in St. Petersburg, Vologda, Moscow, and Kazakhstan.
In landscaping can be applied in the alleys and group planting.
Tatar maple, chernoklylen, neklёn Acer tataricum L.
Tree or large shrub up to 10-12 m. The bark is smooth, almost black, the crown is wide, spreading.
The leaves are ovate, double-blade along the margin without lobes or with two weakly marked lobes.
It blooms after blooming leaves. The flowers are white, collected in the final erect short pyramidal panicles. Crimson-red lionfish, later turning brown, located at an acute angle, slightly overlap each other. Good honey plant.
The area - the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the European part of Russia, the Crimea, the Caucasus. It grows in small groups on the edges of deciduous forests. It is widely distributed in culture, it is found in Vologda, Petrozavodsk, in the middle Urals, in Kazakhstan.
Drought-resistant, frost-resistant, light-requiring, gas-resistant, moderately demanding on soil fertility.
It is widely used in steppe and shelter-forestry. in single, group landings, in hedges.
Maple Semenov Acer semenovii Regel et Herd.
View vikarny in relation to maple Tatar.
The tree is 5-7 m tall, the leaves are clearly 3-lobed, fall yellow in autumn. The flowers are yellowish, in dense, many-flowered inflorescences up to 6 cm long, blooms in the same time. Fruits - lionfish up to 3 cm long, at the beginning of development bright red or bright pink, mature - light yellow. Used in hedges, borders, group planting.
Range - the mountains of Central Asia, in landscaping - in the southern regions.
River maple, Ginnala Acer ginnala Maxim.
The tree is up to 5-7 m in height, 10-15-20 cm in diameter, often a large shrub. The bark is smooth, gray, thin shoots, reddish-brown. Leaves on elongated shoots 3-lobed, with an elongated, oblong-ovate middle lobe, shiny, dark green. The leaves of the fertile shoots are solid or three-lobed, but the middle lobe is not drawn from them, and in the fall they acquire a crimson-red color. It blooms in late May - early June with full foliage. Inflorescence ovate panicle, yellowish flowers. The wings of the fruit diverge at a very acute angle and often find each other. Medonos.
The area - the Far East, the middle reaches of the Amur, Primorsky Krai.
Maple tree: where the species description grows
It grows along the banks of rivers and streams, forming thickets on the edges.
Photophilous, frost-resistant, undemanding to soil fertility, grows quickly, tolerates pruning. In the European part of Russia is widely used in landscaping to Petrozavodsk inclusive.
Small leaf maple Acer mono Maxim.
View vikarny in relation to maple maple.
The tree is 15–25 m high, diameter 50–60 (70) cm. The leaves are 5–7 lobed, the blades are solid, the leaves are dense. It blooms at the beginning of blooming leaves, inflorescences with 15-30 flowers, light yellow flowers in the scutes. Lionfish diverge at a sharp or obtuse angle. This is the breed of the second tier. Gives shoots from the stump. The age limit is over 250 years.
Winter-hardy, shade-tolerant, wind-resistant, prefers fresh drained soil. Grows slowly. Relatively hardy in city conditions, significantly reduces noise. Well tolerated transplant. Recommended for alleys, single and group plantings, creating edges and mixed plantations of forest parks.
Motherland - Primorsky, Khabarovsk Territory, Amur Region, Sakhalin. It is a good early spring honey plant. Wood is used to produce high-quality plywood, millwork, furniture. Decorative, in the fall has golden-yellow foliage.
St. Petersburg is not enough winter hardy.
Green maple Acer tegmentosum Maxim.
The local name is Maple Linden, either because of its soft white wood, or because of large, round leaves that look like Manchurian linden leaves. The dioecious tree is 10–12 (15) m, 30–35 cm in diameter. Green bark with longitudinal white veins. The leaves are rounded-5-coal. Blossoms simultaneously with the blooming of leaves, flowers in rare drooping brushes. Lionfish diverge at an obtuse angle.
Winter-hardy, grows relatively quickly, shade-tolerant, but in terms of culture prefers well-lit places. Hygrophilous, demanding of soil fertility and moisture. Well tolerated transplant. Used in single and group plantings.
Homeland - Primorsky, Khabarovsk, Amur region.
Maple Manchu Acer mandschuricum Maxim.
The tree is 20–25 m high, diameter is 50–60 cm, the leaves are trifoliate, on long reddish petioles, in the autumn - purple-red. Flowers 7–8 mm in diameter, in 3-5 flower corymbose inflorescences, bloom soon after the leaves bloom. Lionfish diverge at right angles.
It grows quickly, good melliferous, decorative, especially in autumn, when the foliage takes on various reddish shades, but quickly flies. Light-requiring, but can tolerate light shading. Easily tolerates transplant, but painfully reacts to pruning and urban conditions. In landscaping - in the western regions of Russia to the south of 60 ° N.
Homeland - the south of Primorsky Krai. Wood is suitable for the manufacture of plywood, furniture and joinery.
Acer pseudosiboldianum (Pax) maple
Tree height up to 8 m, 30-40 cm in diameter. Crohn thick. The leaves are rounded, palmate-9-lobed. It blooms after blooming leaves, flowers in corymbose inflorescences. Lionfish diverge at an obtuse angle. Medonos.
Of all the maples of the Far East - this is the most decorative look, especially spectacular in the fall, when its foliage acquires the most diverse colors - from light pink to fiery red and even purple-violet (it quickly flies around).
Easy transfer transplant. Put up with the conditions of the city. Winter-hardy enough, shade-tolerant, well developed on well-drained soils.
Homeland - the forests of the south of Primorsky Krai. In landscaping in Primorye and in the western regions of the European part of the Russian Federation. Winter-hardy in St. Petersburg.
Bearded maple Acer barbinerve Maxim.
A dioecious tree 4–5 (10–12) m, often grows bush-like. Leaves 3-5-lobed, bottom with small beards hairs in the corners of the veins. Flowers in few-flowered shields (4-6 flowers), blooms before the opening of leaves. It is promising for landscaping in its range and in the zone of mixed forests of the Russian Plain.
Light-requiring, frost-resistant, demanding of the soil, grows relatively slowly. Easily tolerates pruning. Suitable for creating composite groups, looks good in single and group planting.
Homeland - Primorsky Krai. It grows in mixed forests along streams and forest ravines and in places on slopes, on more or less clarified areas.
Maple yellow (ukurund) Acer ukurunduense Trautv. et mey.
A small, often bush tree 5-7 m tall valley forests of the Far East. The bark is light, yellowish-gray soft scaly (hence its other name is “maple-birch”). The leaves are rounded, palmate-5-lobed, pubescent, the middle lobe is wide and much more lateral. It blooms after blooming of leaves, flowers in brushes up to 15 cm long, thick brush, many-flowered (up to 120 flowers), in the period of flowering, the brushes are arranged vertically upwards.
The most winter hardy of the Far Eastern maples. Undemanding to soil, hygrophilous.
White-leaved Maple (American) Acer negundo L.
The dioecious tree is up to 20 m high, and is up to 1 m in diameter. The crown is wide and spreading. The bark is gray-brown, fissured. Young shoots are dark green, sometimes purple, with a bluish bloom. The leaves are complex, pinnate, consist of 3-5-7 leaves. Blooms before the leaves bloom.
Male inflorescences are collected in dense bunches and appear from special buds located on both sides of the side. Peduncles thin, drooping, pubescent, up to 6 cm long. Male flower consists only of the calyx and 4 stamens. Female inflorescence - a brush, green color to 7 cm long. A female flower consists of a calyx (4 mm long) and a felt-pubescent bifid ovary.
The fruit is a diplate up to 4 cm long, diverging at an acute angle. Seeds are convex, oblong. Lionfish remain hanging on the tree until the end of winter.
In culture introduced in 1688. In Russia and neighboring countries, it is very widespread from Arkhangelsk to the Black Sea, in Siberia it can grow only in the south. It is frost-resistant, light-loving, heat-resistant, undemanding to soil fertility, tolerates urban conditions well, grows very quickly in youth, is short-lived (80 years, and in street plantings no more than 30 years). Gives abundant self-seeding, which often grows in the most inappropriate places. In urban plantings it is advisable to leave only male plants.
Rapidly growing, resumed shoots from the stump.
Naturally grows in the central and eastern regions of North America along the valleys of rivers and lakes.
Sugar Maple, silver Acer saccharinum L.
A dioecious tree reaching at home in North America (southeast) with a height of 40 m, 1.5 m in diameter. The bark is beige-gray, exfoliated by small longitudinal plates. Crohn spreading, through with wilted branches and shoots of red-brown color. The leaves are deep-bladed, from below - silvery-white, with sharp lobes. It blooms before the leaves bloom, flowers are greenish-red, 3-5 in bunches. Lion crescent, curved, oval-oblong fruit, half the length of the lion ripen, ripen in early summer and require immediate sowing.
Moisture-and light-requiring, reaches the best development on well-drained, rich soils. Gas, dust, smoke resistant. It grows fast, lives 150 years or more. In landscaping to the taiga zone. Winter-hardy in St. Petersburg.
Introduced in culture in 1725.
Sugar Maple Acer saccharum Marsh.
Tree up to 40 m high, with a diameter up to 1,5 m. Bark gray, furrowed. Leaves 3-5 lobed, with rare sharp teeth. The flowers are small, inconspicuous, in the plates. Blossoms in April — May.
Shade-tolerant, prefers fresh, well-drained soil. Frost-resistant Sensitive to air pollution and asphalt pavement. Lives up to 300-400 years. Used in single, group and alley landings. odin - North America.
In the Crimea, there are 6 species of maple: field maple, Steven maplerun wild False-maple maple, Norway maple, American maple, Tatar maple.
Trees or shrubs with falling, simple, less often complex, long petiole, with fruits - divert. Beautiful pattern of leaves of various shapes, bright autumn colors, original inflorescences and fruits, bark pattern and shoot color have long attracted the attention of people.
Клен Стевена (Acer stevenii) — одно из двух эндемичных деревьев Крыма (второе — рябина крымская). Узнать его легко по плодам: крылатки расположены под углом. Растет в широколиственных лесах.
Maple species: photo with names and descriptions
Included in the European Red List, the Red Book of Ukraine. It is protected in Karadag, Crimea Natural and Yalta mountain-forest reserves.
Field maple (Acer campestre) - a tree up to 15 m high, with a thick, spreading crown, less often a shrub. The trunk is brown-gray, shoots are light brown or grayish, dull, with longitudinal gray stripes, representing the beginning of the formation of cork growths. Leaves 3-5 lobed, soft outlines, leathery, strongly varying in shape and size, dark green above, lighter below, yellow green, slightly pubescent, in the fall of a very beautiful light yellow color. The flowers are yellowish-green, bloom after the leaves bloom. Lionfish copious, horizontally prostrate.
Norway maple (Acer platanoides) - tree up to 30 m tall, with a dense, wide-round crown. The bark of young branches is reddish-gray, smooth. The trunk is covered with dark, brownish-gray, sometimes almost black bark with numerous shallow cracks. Large, up to 18 cm, five-lobed, dark green leaves are painted in orange-yellow tones in autumn. Blooms before and during the blooming of leaves, yellowish-green, collected in corymbose inflorescences. Naturalized.
Falcon maple, or sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) - a slender tree with a thick, margins crown in single specimens, wide-cylindrical - in plantations. A trunk with ash-gray bark cracking and flaking off in old specimens, like a sycamore revealing the young bark of a light gray or pink color. Leaves 3-5 lobed, up to 17 cm, dark green above, dull, bare, glaucous or whitish below, sometimes purple-red, with shallow, pointed, coarsely toothed blades. Inflorescences - narrow, many-flowered brush. Naturalized.
American maple (Acer negundo) - The tree is usually 12-15 m tall with an uneven crown. The trunk is short, often at the base is divided into several long, sprawling, mostly curved processes, which diverge unevenly in different directions and create an abrupt crown. The bark is thin, gray or light brown, with shallow intersecting grooves. Branches from green to crimson color, often covered with grayish-green cannon. The leaves are opposite, complex, pinnate, with 3-5 (rarely 7) leaves, light green at the top, pale silver-white below, resemble ash leaves. Male flowers are collected in a brush on thin petioles, female ones are located on other branches. Naturalized.
Tatar maple (Acer tataricum) - large shrub or small tree up to 9 m tall, with smooth dark gray or almost black bark and wide oval crown. Shoots are red or brown. Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, twice serrate on margin or serrated lobed, bright green above, glabrous, lighter underneath, pubescent along veins. Krylatki dark red, as they mature turn brown. Naturalized and actively self-produced throughout the Crimea.
Photo by I. Peskova, I.Turbanov, P.Evseenkov and author of the site
The Latin name for this magnificent tree is “Acer”, which means “sharp”.
The first mentions of Maple appeared in the annals in the XV century in the Old Slavonic language. Single-root words are found in Polish, Croatian and Scandinavian languages, therefore, it is not possible to accurately judge the roots of the word's origin.
The Forest team suggested the following hypothesis for the emergence of the name of this tree.
Maple is nothing but a modified word "Wedge". Because of its properties, this brittle-looking tree is stronger than oak, it was used for splitting stumps and as a wedge. Quite possibly, thanks to these features Maple got its modern name.
Where grows Maple?
There are about 150 species of Maple in the world, while only 25 species grow in Russia. The most common species is Norway Maple, Field Maple and White Maple.
Distributed mainly in the Northern Hemisphere, although its evergreen counterparts are found in the tropics.
In Russia, it lives in mixed forests without forming pure maple forests. He is very fond of lighted places, so these joker can be found on the edges and edges of the forest.
What does maple look like?
In our country, the Most Distinct Fallen Maple.
The height can reach 30 meters. On average, this member of the Maple family can live up to 200 years, while his brother, the Canadian Maple, is a real long-liver and lives until the 4th-5th centuries.
The bark of a ripe Maple has a gray tint. The diameter of the tree reaches one and a half meters.
Maple leaves can not be confused with anything. Large and wiry, they have five blades with pointed lobes.
In the fall, the leaves are filled with amber fire until they fall off. Already after the leaf fall, the seeds, similar to dragonflies, fall to give birth to new shoots.
Maple wood has a white color with a slightly golden tint. It is well painted, therefore it is appreciated in joiner's workshops.
When does Maple bloom?
In the spring of May, small yellow-green flowers appear on the Maple branches - a rehearsal of colors. Flowering lasts a week and a half before the first leaves appear on the tree.
With the flowering Maple will be connected a lot.
One of them is that if the birch begins to bloom before Maple, it is worth waiting for a dry summer. If Maple blooms before Birch, summer will be rainy.
Healing properties of Maple
Maple shoots and leaves are simultaneously a choleretic, diuretic and antiseptic.
All known maple sap is used in the treatment of scurvy, atherosclerosis, as well as to strengthen the immune system during vitamin deficiency and to restore the nervous system.
Maple leaf decoction is used for kidney disease and inflammatory diseases of the liver.
For deep abrasions, ulcers and cuts, fresh crushed Maple leaves will help restore the skin and enhance the action of antiseptics.
Seeds and flowers of maple are a good remedy against intestinal and stomach disorders.
Maple syrup is a delicacy that glorified Canada, but not everyone knows that in Russia there are maple farms that grow trees for sap production. One of these farms is located near St. Petersburg.
Since Maple is the most valuable honey plant, apiaries located near such farms receive excellent honey.
Maple is the strongest tree, so it is used by craftsmen for fine wood carving. By ensuring a small number of chips, Maple allows you to create unique detailed patterns and engravings.
Due to its acoustic characteristics, white Maple is used in the manufacture of guitar parts and stringed instruments. Maple is famous for giving brightness to the sound.
Due to its hardness and wear resistance in dance classes, Maple parquet is an indispensable attribute.
Masters of the art of drawing patterns on furniture marquetry appreciate Maple veneer for its unique drawings, which are obtained by cutting veneer from the root.
Maple grows very quickly and can grow by as much as two meters in a year.
In the old days, the most important part of the spinning wheel was made from Maple whenever possible. Due to its strength and uniform structure, Maple made it possible to make a comb with thin and long teeth. These ridges are preserved in museums and some huts to this day.
The material for the Trojan horse from Greek mythology was served by Maple.
One of the oldest Maples in the countries of the former USSR is located in Kiev in the botanical garden. Its age is 150 years.
Maple leaf in Japan and China symbolizes love.
In the tropics there are never yellowing evergreen Maples.
In the XIX century in Russia there was a tradition of threading a child between the branches of maple. Maple was considered the owner of magical power, and some of these forces were transferred to the child, after which an amazing and long life awaited him.
Since the 70s, Maple is still the indispensable basis for skateboard and longboard boards.
Types of maple
There are many different species of this tree, and to be more precise, then 160. All these species can be found in the northern hemisphere:
Where does maple grow? Most often maple trees grow in temperate climates. There is also a single species - laurel, which grows in the tropics of the southern hemisphere.
Maple is a huge genus of plants belonging to the sapindo family. Most often, this family includes trees whose height ranges from 10 to 40 meters, but you can also find not tall shrubs whose height does not exceed 10 m. Such shrubs, as a rule, have many shoots that grow from the base. The main part of the maple trees are deciduous, but in the subtropical can also be found evergreen species.
But how are maples different from other trees? Of course its simple large palmate or lobed leavesthat sit on long petioles. It is the leaves that are the main decoration of the tree, thus forming a uniform beautiful crown of a rounded shape. It is also worth noting that not all species have similar leaf plates. In some species, the leaves are complex, palmate or trifoliate:
- have gray
- at Maksimovich.
Also, any kind can be recognized by the fruit-lionfish, which is popularly known as helicopter gunners. Seeds have special devices that spin in the wind and do not fall for a long time and can fly away a long distance from the mother tree. This is how the distribution of maple distribution and expansion occurs.
It is also worth noting that the maple is a kind of hermit who often grows alone or in a small company.
Large thickets and forests these trees are almost do not form. All species that grow in the southern areas, prefer high mountainous terrain. Maples can often be found in the mountains at an altitude of 3000 m above sea level. It is at this height that maples grow in the Himalayas.
Maple in Russia
On the territory of our country you can find about 20 species of maples, four of which grow in the European part of Russia. These types include the following:
Even more species can be found on the territory of the Far East:
- false bears,
On the territory of the Caucasus there are all European species, but also there is a maple of high mountains, Colchian, Monpelian, Sosnovsky. The Japanese maple is even listed in the Red Book of Russia.
Description of species
Of course, gardeners could not disregard maple. This tree is often used in landscaping, and breeders derive many decorative varieties. Let's take a closer look at some species and varieties of this tree, more ornamental, which are used in gardening.
American, or hard-leaved
The American maple has hard-feathery leaves, which consist of 3, 5, 7 and even 9 small leaves. The crown of the tree is rather shaggy and shapeless. Surely this view is familiar to everyone, since it is he grows almost everywhereSometimes in cities with this tree even some problems arise. The fact is that this maple breeds self-seeding and has a rapid growth, it is able to fill the space of streets, squares, parks, therefore it is considered almost a weed.
The homeland of American maple is North America. On the territory of Eurasia, this species formed a secondary range.
It is also worth noting that the American is the most frost-resistant type of all the others, so he was able to settle down in the harsh Siberian conditions. This species is characterized by rapid growth, as already mentioned, in one season a tree can grow by one and a half meters.
By itself, an American maple is a low-deco tree, but it has garden forms, and its leaves are painted gold or silver shade. Some varieties at a young age have leaves of white and pink color, so the trees look very unusual and elegant. There are also golden species of this variety.
Despite the fact that this species is growing prohibitively, it is ideal if you need to create a green array in the shortest possible time. It will also serve perfectly as a hedge. This is due to the fact that with a strong pruning the trees quickly resume and give a lot of shoots, forming an impassable wall.
Most species of maple are trees that grow from 10 to 40 meters. But there are also shrubs up to 10 meters high, which have many shoots coming from the base. Among deciduous representatives, there are also evergreen specimens growing in South Asia.
Most plants of this species have leaves palmate (palmate), similar to the open human palm.
Other forms of maple leaves include:
- difficult and palmate,
- without blades,
- hard and feathery,
- with feathery venation.
Thanks to the leaves, maple is considered one of the most beautiful woody plants. Foliage can remain the same color throughout the season, and can change its color several times.
The flowers of the plant have five petals, which can be yellow, green and red. Depending on the type of flowering can occur both before and after the appearance of foliage. After flowering within 6 weeks, fruits - diplates. The shape of the fruit allows the wind to drop it over considerable distances in the fall.
Types of maple trees
Different maple varieties are found in many cities and countries. Such popularity is due to the simplicity of plants, their resistance to negative environmental factors and, of course, decorative qualities.
The most famous species of maple:
- Canadianmaple (sugar) - a large tree about 40 meters in height. A tree can live up to four hundred years. The plant has a powerful trunk, reaching a meter in diameter and a thick crown. The gray-brown bark is covered with cracks, which gives it a rough look. The branches are brown-red with a glossy shine. The flowers of the tree are clustered and have a yellowish-green color. Usually they are male or female, but there are plants with bisexual flowers. Tree seeds have wings that are connected in pairs. They are called porch. Having such a structure, the seeds rotate in the air and are able to fly away from the parent tree at a decent distance.
- Americanmaple (ash-leaved) is from North America. This beautiful tree has an uneven crown and reaches 21 meters. The trunk is often divided into long processes, diverging in different directions. The leaves of the plant are opposite, complex, asymmetrically pinnate, from 15 to 18 cm in length. The upper part of the leaves has a light green color, and the bottom - silver-white. The plant got its name from the leaves, which are similar to the foliage of ash. Despite all its beauty, the tree carries danger to other plant species. Due to its environmentally friendly plasticity and the ability to grow faster than other plants, creating a multi-tiered thickets, it can change the existing ecosystem.
- Norway mapleThe photo of which is most often found on the Internet and in magazines has other names - platanovidny, ordinary. It is widely distributed in Europe and Asia. Deciduous tree got its name due to long leaves, pointed at the ends. The foliage of the plant is large up to 20 cm wide. The crown of the tree is wide-spread, spherical in shape, capable of reaching a diameter of 20 meters. The trunk is powerful and slim, grows to 28 meters. The flowers are yellow-green. They are collected in inflorescences and have a pleasant aroma. Pollinating plants occurs with the help of insects. The tree begins to bear fruit from the 17th year of life.
- Silver Maple (lat acer saccharinum) - fast-growing tree, reaching 36 meters. The plant is more common where wet soil. Young plants have strong branches of bright red color, which eventually become silver-gray. When the branches break, a rather unpleasant smell appears. In summer, the upper part of the plate is green and the lower part is bluish-silver. In the fall, the leaves of the sugar maple acquires a rich yellow tint. The young tree has a smoky gray smooth bark, which eventually darkens and becomes covered with flaky scales. It can self-pollinate, because male and female flowers form on the same plant.
- White Maple (sycamore, psevnoplatanovy, psevdoplatanovy) - has a dome-shaped crown, reaches 35 meters in height. The bark of young trees is smooth with a gray tinge, darkens and coarsens over the years. The leaves consist of five blades with sharp edges and change their color from saturated green to yellow, red, purple, depending on the season. In length and width of the sheets grow to 25 centimeters.
- Field maple (flat, towed, neklёn) - a tree (less commonly a shrub) with a spherical crown shape, not exceeding 15 meters. The trunk is straight, with brownish-gray bark covered with longitudinal cracks. The leaves are opposite, five-lobed or three-lobed with dull teeth. The upper side of the leaf is dark green with a slight gloss, and the bottom is lighter, melkoopushennaya. Осенью листва приобретает жёлтый окрас.
- Клён зеленокорый (покрывальный) — листопадное дерево (кустарник) с широкой куполообразной кроной, вырастающее от 10 до 30 метров. Дерево имеет и другое название — «клён-липа», так как его листва очень похожа на листья маньчжурской липы. The branches have a dark cherry tint. In spring, bright red buds swell on them. In September, a pink-brown lion ripen on the tree. A distinctive feature is the green and smooth bark. In young plants, it is covered with white mesh, which over the years becomes gray.
Varieties with original foliage
The variety of maple varieties is so great that using only this type of plants you can create original woody compositions. Trees with an unusual shape or color of foliage will effectively stand out against the background of other plants. These types include:
- Red Maple - one of the most popular ornamental trees in Japan. The plant is able to grow on almost any soil, except marsh. The leaves are three-bladed or five-lobed and have a red color. The bark of the tree is light silver. Under the common name of the red-leaf (Chinese) maple, there are several species of plants of the genus maple with a characteristic leaf color. The most popular of them are: palmate (fan, atropurpureum), Japanese red and Shirasavi. Maple palm or fan (atropurpureum, palmatum) in the spring and autumn time looks amazing. In the central part of Russia, it is rarely grown, as it can die in the winter even during shelter.
- Drummond. It is one of the spectacular forms of the holly species. This is a deciduous tree growing to 10 meters. Clearly outlined leaves when blooming have a pink color, then - light green with a broad cream stripe.
- Maple Ginnala - low deciduous tree or shrub, growing from 3 to 8 meters. The crown of the plant is wide, the branches are thin, upright, have a reddish tint. The bark is brown with a gray tint, has a smooth surface, which begins to crack with age. Its leaves are simple, opposite, up to 10 cm in length. In the summer, the foliage is colored dark green. At the end of the summer the plant has fruits - lionfish. The color of the fruit, depending on the light, varies from green to bright red and brown.
- Ash Flamingo - a tree with an unusual light green foliage, decorated with white and pink spots. Thanks to this color foliage crown looks openwork, lace.
- Maple - Deciduous tree or shrub growing up to 8 meters. The plant retains decorative qualities from the moment the leaves of the buds appear with bright red covering scales until autumn, when the foliage changes colors several times in a short time, resembling a blazing bonfire. Due to the exquisite beauty it is often used in landscape design.
- Tatar maple (chernoklyn) - a small deciduous tree or shrub, reaching a height of 10 meters, with black and smooth bark. Maple grows slowly. The leaves are oblong, resembling a trident. With the onset of autumn, the saturated green color of the foliage changes to yellow and red. Flowering plant about three weeks. The flowers are white with a reddish tinge gathered in a dense scape broom. Chernoklyon is a good honey plant. The tree has similarities with riverine maple.
- Crimson Sentry - deciduous tree with a dense crown and incredibly beautiful purple foliage, which does not change its color all season.
Trees with spectacular crown
Landscape designers recently began to make extensive use of ornamental species of Norway maple with the original crown shape, which does not require shaping. Most of these plants are perfect for both park areas and small private areas, as they do not grow above 12 meters.
Species maple with a spectacular crown:
- Columnar - Maple, reaching 10 meters in height, with an interesting columnar shape of the crown. The branches of the tree are directed exactly up.
- Globocum - stem tree with spherical dense crown that does not require formative pruning. Young branches have a red-gray color. Depending on the trunk, it grows to 10 meters.
- Golden glob - Standard type of Norway maple with spherical crown growing to 6 meters. The foliage is yellow, which varies from greenish to orange, depending on the time of year.
- Olmsted - slowly growing deciduous tree, reaching 12 meters in height. The young tree has a columnar crown, which eventually becomes conical.
- Cleveland - a type of a Norway maple having a slender stem and a cone-shaped crown. The tree is frost-resistant and copes well with the winds.
Growing maple at home
A smaller copy of the maple can be grown at home with the help of bansai art. Most often, small trees are grown from conifers: spruce, pine. At the same time the plant remains unchanged throughout the year. Bansai deciduous tree will require a lot of effort and time, but as a result you can get a tree that behaves like a full-fledged plant. To grow a bansai, special specimens were bred, whose small leaves look quite organically on a small tree. These include:
Maples are popular in all countries of the world. The love for this plant is caused by unpretentiousness, shade tolerance, frost resistance, the ability to grow on poor soils. To treat indifferently to him is impossible.
And what a beautiful maple in the fall! This plant is often mentioned by writers and poets, artists use in their works and even ordinary people are not averse to drawing a picture with a stunningly beautiful tree.
This species - one of the most famous, includes several varieties, grows throughout the European part of Russia. Another name for maple is: plane or platanolaceous - according to the characteristic shape of the leaves (in the photo).
This species includes many decorative forms, differing in stem height, size and thickness of the crown, a shade of leaves. The holly maple is demanding on the composition of the soil, prefers medium-humid fertile, slightly acidified soils, does not tolerate sandstones and stony lands. In height, such trees reach 20–30 m, have a wide rounded crown. The bark is light gray, young maple trees are quite smooth, with age it becomes covered with cracks. The size of the leaves is about 15–18 cm, they are located on long thin cuttings, have a five-lobed shape with pronounced notches: the middle lobes extend far forward, the lateral ones are slightly shorter. There are types of maple with horned or ash-like foliage: transversely arranged on long cuttings with toothed elongated leaves of small size.
In the autumn period, green maple foliage acquires bright yellow, orange, red and burgundy shades, creating a picturesque natural carnival of colors. A five-blade maple leaf is depicted on the national flag of Canada.
Trees grow quickly, especially in the first years after planting, their life expectancy is up to 200 years. Holly maples are immune to the polluted air of cities, therefore they are suitable for landscaping streets and creating beautiful landscapes. They are planted along roads, courtyards, squares, parks.
Amphibious maple is widespread throughout Europe, in Western Siberia, the temperate zone of the North American continent.
This tree is widespread in the northern and eastern regions of the United States, being the official symbol of some states. Another name for the species is sugar maple. It is from the sap of its wood that the famous maple syrup is made, and the sawn timber is used in construction. American maple is resistant to cold climates, can grow up to 30-40 m, has a thick dark bark and a thick crown.
This species is often called sycamore or lozhnoplatanov. Slender trees up to 30 m in height have a tent-like dense crown. The foliage is dark green, on the back side it is much lighter - whitish, slightly bluish. Sycamore does not tolerate severe frosts, therefore it is rarely found in the middle zone, it grows mainly in the Caucasus, in the Carpathians, and also in the southern regions of Europe.
It is also called black clown. Most often forms shrub forms no higher than 9 m, the crown is spreading. The bark has a dark, almost black color, foliage with finger-shaped lobes, dark green, smooth. Tatar maple blooms beautifully, in the spring on the branches soft pink rather large inflorescences, similar to bells, are formed. Chernoklen grows quickly, gives a good haircut, is used as an ornamental plant. It tolerates drought well, it is common in the steppe regions of the European part, in the Caucasus, in the Balkans.
Large shrub, thick and high, up to 15–20 m. The foliage is five-lobed, bright green, the bark is dark, grayish or brown, the inflorescences are small and inconspicuous. The field maple has good adaptive properties, adapts to almost any climatic conditions, is wind-resistant and shade-tolerant, and tolerates a short-term drought. It grows in deciduous forests, forest-steppe zones, in urban environments.
Planting and care
It is possible to propagate maple by layering, sapling or seed. Seed material is planted in April to a depth of 5–10 cm. It is important to choose loose and nutritious soil, avoid planting salt marshes or strongly acidified areas. Seedlings appear after 2-3 weeks.
If desired, it is possible to propagate the tree by layering: in the spring, cut the selected shoot with a knife and treat it with a special compound to stimulate growth, then delimit the cut point with a pebble, cover it with moss and wrap tightly with film or foil. A year later, the shoot sprout is separated and planted separately. Watering seedlings is often necessary: they consume about 15 liters of water per week. With sufficient humidity and the absence of strong winter frosts, young maples grow to 1 m per year.
The main enemies of maples are mealybug, weevil, maple whitefly. Sometimes the leaves and bark affect coral spot and brown rot. For the prevention of diseases and getting rid of pests trees are treated with reagents: chlorophos, nitrafenom or dimethoatom. Spray preferably with the first onset of heat, before bud break.
Wood and its application
Maple wood belongs to the sapwood, as the central part of the trunk is not very different from the rest of the array. White maple has a light cream color, in other species - from beige and pinkish to brown, with pronounced annual layers. The surface of the tree is silky, with a slight sheen. Over time, may turn yellow. The core rays on the cuts form a small mosaic pattern. The structure of the array is homogeneous, very durable. The most dense is the American maple: its figure is 705 kg / m³. Sycamore and holly species are slightly inferior to it: from 570 to 650 kg / m³. The strength of wood is slightly higher than that of oak.
A fresh tree is whimsical when drying: natural conditions are recommended at temperatures not higher than 45 ° C. With rapid drying, it is prone to cracking.
Finished lumber is suitable for any turning and construction work: it is well processed with tools, bends, holds all types of fasteners, is impregnated with stains, coloring solutions, polished, glued.
Maple is used in the manufacture of furniture, stairs, doors, parquet, finishing materials, wooden elements of various tools, kitchen utensils, objects for artistic decoration of interiors. This is an excellent ornamental material: decorative dishes are cut out of it, knife handles, cases and caskets are used for inlays.
The disadvantages of maple wood is low biostability, which makes it poorly suited for outdoor decoration. During processing, the material requires antiseptic coating.
The performance characteristics of maple are quite high: it is not susceptible to warping and deformation, it is well tolerated by moisture, and is resistant to shock loads.
The Manchurian Maple is a very attractive tree, which is why many gardeners love it. Distinguished by this kind of beautiful lace crown, leaves are complex, trifoliate, with the arrival of autumn acquire orange and purple hues. The stalks become bright red. Prefer plants to grow in open places.
This species is a beautiful tree or large shrub whose height reaches 15 m. The tree is valued for its beauty of the trunk. The bark is quite smooth, green with longitudinal stripes. In young trees, they are white in color, like marble, with a gray color. Its beautiful and spherical crown with cherry branches and large pink-colored buds looks quite attractive.
The leaves of the tree are large, wide, three-lobed. Their length reaches 16 cm. The sheet plates are rather thin, in the summer get a dark green colorand in the fall they become golden yellow. Maple becomes especially beautiful in spring during flowering. On the tree begin to bloom yellow-green flowers that are going to brush up to 8 cm long. In autumn, the flowers ripen and form a pink-brown fruit. This species is winter-hardy, fast-growing and quite unpretentious in the care.
This type of maple can tolerate excessive moisture and even stagnation of water, as it grows in nature in the marshy areas in eastern North America, which is why it is often called marsh maple. Red Maple gets its name from amazing color of autumn leaves. Their outer side becomes orange or red, and the bottom gets a silvery-pinkish tint. Among the species there are decorative forms: kolonovidny and spherical.
This species is a low tree, the height of which does not exceed 6 m. That is why plants can be formed in the form of a bush. The leaves are three-lobed, slightly elongated, the flowers are very fragrant, yellowish in color, going into panicles. Fruits are bright red in color, which gives the plant a special decoration in the autumn. This species is quite good both in single landing and in groups. Plants can also be used to form a hedge. This species is distinguished by its rapid growth, unpretentiousness in care, winter hardiness, and photo light.
This species has received this name due to the dark color of the skin, which makes the tree especially beautiful with the arrival of winter when it black silhouette stands out against the background white snowdrifts. Seeds during ripening become saturated pink color, are collected in bunches. Externally, the fruits resemble pink flowers against the background of green foliage.
Plants can grow only in the southern regions of Russia. Externally, the Japanese maple is a small tree or shrub. Its attractiveness lies in the autumn decoration of foliage. At this time, the leaves become an unusual bright color. You can even find varieties with purple and pink hues. In addition, this species can be grown in container culture.
Maples in Japan
In Japan, maples are considered to be special plants, and they are as much loved as sakura and chrysanthemum. On the territory of this country grows many different species that attract attention with its magnificence.
In the spring, people in Japan often gather in parks to admire the blossoming sakura, and in the fall the Japanese adhere to the tradition of admiring the autumn maples.
There is even the so-called season of maples, or momiji, which is the main event of the fall in Japan. These trees are painted in bright colors for about 50 days. You can admire this beauty from late October to mid-November.
Like most other trees, maple trees can be easily propagated by seed. To do this, in the autumn it is necessary to collect fallen seeds from the ground, and in late September to sow them. In the spring, as a rule, the first shoots appear. If you are going to sow the seeds of maple, then it is necessary to carry out stratification. To do this, sow the seeds in a container and put them in the fridge for a couple of weeks.
Speaking about a maple, it is necessary to mention maple syrup or sugar. Maple syrup is obtained from sugar maple sap. This syrup is especially popular in the New World. The leaves of this particular tree species became the national symbol of Canada. Sheet can be found even on the flag of this state. Sugar maple grows in the south-eastern territory of the country. With the arrival of spring, sap flow begins at the trees, it is at this time that surprisingly sweet maple sap is needed.
These are the various maple trees. If you have a not very small plot, be sure to plant at least one maple tree on it. It will decorate your summer cottage at any time of the year.