Haricot beans are an excellent vegetable crop that enjoys deserved respect among gardeners because of its beneficial qualities, ease of planting and cultivation. In addition, with proper care, the beans give a wonderful harvest. Today we will talk about how to properly grow asparagus beans in open ground (photos are attached).
Description of popular varieties and existing varieties
Asparagus or as it is sometimes called green beans is a climbing perennial / annual plant with feather leaves. The development of flowers occurs in the sinuses. Fruits - bivalve beans, with large beans inside, between which there is a spongy-like partition. Beans contain a large amount of protein and beneficial trace elements.
Haricot - the plant which is not demanding a large amount of light. 12 hours a day is enough to get a rich harvest as a result. The big plus of culture is that it is capable of self-pollination, which means that it is possible to carry out cultivation on the site of several varieties at once. And to the word about varieties. Asparagus beans can be classified according to several criteria:
- By maturity: early maturity (2 months), medium early (2.5 months), medium (2.5-3 months), medium ripening (up to one hundred days) and late (maturity exceeds 100 days).
- The shape of the land plant: curly, bush.
- According to taste characteristics and scope of use: shelling, sugar and semi-sugar.
Shelling (grain) beans it is cultivated for eating only grains, since the outer shell is rather hard, which does not allow it to be used as food. Such beans are best grown only in a warm climate, as in the middle lane it simply does not ripen, and in this form it will be simply inedible. The most popular varieties of grain beans include:
- Ballad. This mid-season variety is not afraid of drought and contains a large amount of protein. It has green pods and grains of light yellow color with purple splashes.
- Ruby. This variety is also mid-season. It has narrow pods containing burgundy beans. It has excellent taste characteristics.
- Chocolate girl. This is a medium-late bean, the bush reaches a meter height. Pods - long, yellow.
Asparagus (sugar) beans it is usually used in food almost entirely, that is, together with the pods, because they do not contain a special permanent layer, as in shelling. This variety is the most delicious. It also has an interesting property: the removal of excess fluid from the body. The most popular varieties of green beans include:
- Oil King. Early variety, giving a rich harvest. It has pods with a delicate flavor.
- Hell Rem. Variety with climbing bushes and pale pink beans with a delicate mushroom flavor.
- Crane It has a fairly compact size bushes, on which fiberless pods ripen, characterized by delicate taste.
Planting in open ground
Since the asparagus bean is a rather thermophilic plant, the plot should be sown with seeds in late spring (not earlier than May), when the weather becomes steadily warm and the air warms to at least 10 degrees plus.
Haricot "loves" fertile soil, easily permeable by water, with deep groundwater. It is undesirable to use areas with clayy, too wet or nitrogen-rich ground for growing asparagus (since asparagus itself is capable of producing it).
The site for planting beans must be prepared in the fall: dig 4 kg of humus, a couple of tablespoons of dolomite flour, a spoonful of nitrate and superphosphate, and (preferably) potassium chloride per square meter of the plot.
In the spring, a couple of days before sowing seeds, the earth must be re-digged and a rake to walk on it in order to slightly “fluff”. If the soil is viscous, then you can add sand: about 5 kg per meter of cultivated area. Be sure to disinfect the soil with weak potassium permanganate.
Before planting the seeds of asparagus beans be sure to sort out and throw away the beans with any defects. Fill them with enough hot water and leave for about fifteen minutes. They will have time to absorb moisture and slightly swell - then shoots will appear much faster. After soaking, the seeds are necessarily disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate to protect young shoots from pests.
Bean seeds are planted to a depth of not more than 6 cm in the hole, the distance between which is about 20 cm (this refers to the bush varieties). The distance between the rows should be no more than half a meter. The distance between the seeds of climbing varieties should be somewhat wider - about 30 cm. 5-6 beans are put into each well. After planting the seeds, the sown area must be moistened and slightly compacted.
Tip When the first shoots appear, only the most “strong” seedlings (2-3 pieces) should be left in the holes, the rest should be removed.
Plant reproduction in the open field
In order to reproduce the asparagus bean in the open ground quickly and efficiently, the seedlings must be constantly monitored. Until the first buds appear, bean seedlings should be watered regularly: copiously, but not often (no more than once a week). The soil should not be dry.
When the plants will have the first few leaves, watering should be completely stopped. When the beans begin to bloom, watering will resume again and its frequency will increase by 2 times.
It is better to begin to loosen the soil after the shoots reach a height of 6-7 cm. The second time is loosening (simultaneously with hilling) carried out a couple of weeks after the first. The last time the soil is loosened before the bean bushes begin to close.
For the development of beans to occur quickly and efficiently, you need to help her a little bit in this. So, special vertical supports (1.5 m) are made for climbing beans. On top of them put a rope or wire. Bean sprouts are sent along it.
Fertilizer and dressing
When the first leaves appear on bean shoots, you can begin to feed in the form of superphosphate in the amount of 30-40 g per each square meter. And when the first buds appear, add potassium salt to the soil - about 10 g per the same unit of area. During the period of fruit ripening, the soil should be fed with fertilizer in the form of a wood ash solution.
Tip Nitrogen should not be added to the soil, since the beans themselves produce it. If the nitrogen content in the soil is excessive, the harvest will be quite modest, but there will be plenty of greenery.
Fighting Disease and Pests
Most often the beans suffer from such diseases: downy mildew, bacteriosis and anthracnose. It is quite simple to actively prevent the spread of these diseases: you only need to take proper care, destroy infected plants, add limestone to acidic soil, and remember to disinfect the seeds before sowing. To protect the beans from fungal and viral damage, copper preparations should be used.
In addition to all of the above, the plant can eat slugs, the appearance of which can be prevented by removing weeds in a timely manner and regularly moistening the soil. If they do appear, you just need to delete them.
The combination of green beans with other plants
The plant breeds well in the ground with such predecessors as: representatives of the family of nightshade (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant), cabbage. But with the predecessors of the legume family, the combination is unlikely (and beans as well).
Vegetables such as onions, cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes, beets and others will be good “neighbors” for beans.
Harvesting asparagus beans can begin as early as 14 days after the plant has the first flowers (if you want to enjoy the delicate taste of young pods). Otherwise, you can harvest when the pods are dry and the fruits are fully ripe.
That came to an end our article. We have reviewed in detail the process of growing asparagus beans and caring for them in the open field. Have a good harvest!
The oldest representative of legumes
Beans are not unreasonably considered biologists to be the oldest cultivated plant on the planet. Officially, there are three botanical types of beans.
- Shelling, from which the beans are obtained, is characterized by a dense parchment shell.
- Semi-sugar - this type has a parchment shell of medium hardness.
- Sugar, he is asparagus, in which the parchment shell is completely absent, and there is a green, juicy and soft.
In the garden culture is called the last kind of green beans, which is eaten with the pods. In contrast, shelling varieties, the pods of which are not suitable for food.
Useful properties of green beans
Another two types can be divided beans by growth method.
When growing all types of beans, the basic agrotechnical norms are observed, which include the following points.
- Beans can not tolerate sandy, acidic and too heavy soils.
- He loves light, humidity, heat, and drought with difficulty. If the dry period fell at the time of flowering, the ovary may fall off, and there will be no harvest.
- Beans do not like drafts and winds. The plant must be grown in a calm.
- Sowing is carried out not earlier than the warming up of the soil to + 13 ° С (May - June).
- Sowing is preceded by the procedure of heating and soaking the seeds.
- The seeds of the plant are deepened no more than seven centimeters.
- Shoots of all varieties need to loosen and preferably mulch.
- When the stem grows 15 centimeters, the plants need to be spud.
- For climbing varieties, it is necessary to provide a support immediately upon planting.
Varieties of green beans
By the way!Not all varieties have classic green pods. Some fruits have whitish, yellowish and even bright yellow, purple. Therefore, it is better to focus on the harvest not on the color of the fruit, but on the term of the expected milky ripeness, which is indicated on the package with seeds.
String beans are thermophilic, but not too much. This is not an exotic representative of the African flora, which you need to anxiously grow seedlings and plant only when the last possible threat of frost has passed. Beans, along with other garden crops, can be safely sown in the spring right on the ridge, subjecting the beans to a preliminary presowing treatment.
Sowing beans on ridges
How to process beans before sowing
Bean seeds need to warm up. And it’s best to do it naturally, not in the battery, but in the sun. In industrial farming, they are heated in special dryers, where the temperature is maintained at + 30 ° C ... 35 ° C. The process takes two days. Acceptable for summer residents option - warming the sun. To do this, the seeds must be placed seed on the southern sill and hold there for at least a week. After that, the beans must be soaked. Day spent seeds in warm clean water (water change four times) will be enough.
Soaking beans before sowing
How to cook a bed under the beans
The soil needs a normal alkaline reaction, in any case, not acidic. Wood ash or dolomite flour will help to remove acidity. If you are not sure about the acidity parameters of the soil on the plot, add ash to the well anyway, it will help the plant to develop better.
Removal of soil acidity with wood ash
Sandstone and heavy clay soils will not do. Best of all, if the soil is light, fertile, moderately drained.
An important parameter for green beans, especially climbing varieties - the absence of wind. The site should be chosen not only warmed up, but also protected from the winds. It is better to place the plants in the penumbra than in the draft.
Before sowing beans, be sure to rid the bed and surrounding paths from weeds. Tomatoes, potatoes and different types of cabbages will be excellent predecessors for the crop.
Whether it is necessary to remind that the site which is supposed to bean growing from autumn needs to be dug over and filled with fertilizers. Mandatory organic - traditional 6 kg per square meter, superphosphate - 35 g, potassium chloride - 20 g.
In the spring, you must also add a complex that has a high content of potassium - this element of green beans is needed more than all other garden plants.
Seeds are prepared, the ridge is waiting for new "tenants". Getting to plant, it is necessary to decide on what scheme to carry it out.
By the way!The depth of sowing bean seeds depends on the density of the soil. If the mechanical structure is light, it can be buried. If heavy - sow as much as possible to the surface. But in all cases, the range of depth of sowing beans is 2-7 cm.
Bush varieties sown in rows (two, three) or in a checkerboard pattern. Wells are made of a given depth. In each well fit two beans. Between the holes try to keep a distance of about 25 cm, and between the rows: two - 45 cm, three - 35 cm.
Props for climbing beans
Curly varieties are sown differently. There are, by the way, still semi-growing species. Their seeding is carried out in the same way as climbing. Before sowing on the prepared and processed ridge strong props are installed. They can be of any design and from any available materials. You can bend strong wires in arcs, put U-shaped or X-shaped stakes, pipes, plastic slats. Suitable and mesh frame, stretched on the frame. The main thing is that the lashes of the plant have something to catch on.
Wells are made in close proximity to the pillars. It is for them beans will climb up to the light and a good harvest. The distance between the holes here can be reduced - 20 cm is enough.
Shoots and care
Harvested beans, despite the hard shell and impressive size of the seed, not for long. A strong sprout emerges from the soil already on the sixth day after sowing. The main thing - the right temperature. For successful shoots in the daytime it should be about + 20 ° С.
Bean seed germination
Young sprouts are sensitive to night cold. That is why, at the slightest threat of a minus on the ground, they must be covered with a spunbond overnight. And on the eighth - the tenth day, all shoots need to spud.
Then, after the plants reach a height of 15 cm, they must be re-routed. And repeat the procedure throughout the season several times, as the soil subsides after watering.
Tip!As soon as the whips of climbing beans grow to a length of two meters, their tips must be pinched. This will increase fruiting.
String beans of mid-ripening varieties, with proper care, will begin mass flowering on the fortieth day from the day of germination. Three more weeks will be needed for the formation of full-fledged ovaries. And after that - attention! Harvesting green bean pods begins ten days after the formation of ovaries. If you miss this moment and perederzhat pods on lashes at least a week, their taste will deteriorate significantly.
Bean Care Council
In addition to the preliminary autumn and spring refueling of the soil, green beans will need additional feeding. At least twice during the growing season will have to feed the culture - when entering the budding phase, and at the beginning of the fruiting phase.
Fertilizer - superphosphate mixed with wood ash (15 /
50 g per square meter). If there is, you can add to the dressing complex with a high content of molybdenum, boron and manganese. If there is no special fertilizer containing these three microelements, ordinary potassium permanganate will help to get out of the situation. Medium-pink solution watered the plants on the leaves and in the hole.
For green beans, moisture is important, especially curling varieties suffer from a lack of watering. But water intensively and often the beans are needed only during the forcing of the lashes and budding. As soon as the ovary began to form, watering should be done less frequently, but more abundantly, and the soil around the bushes should be mulched.
Watering Green Beans
Tip!For irrigation of green beans, experienced gardeners use one secret - weeds are placed in a large barrel standing in the sun (any weeds after weeding a vegetable garden, they can be chopped slightly) and poured to the top with water. Infusion should stand for seven days. From time to time it needs to be mixed. After a week, a liter of ready-made herbal infusion is diluted in ten liters of water and poured beans. She responds to such moistness with the fleshyness of the pods and healthy powerful stems.
Important points of the harvest
- In the early variety, the harvest begins to be collected on the 50th day after the spitting of the first shoots from the soil.
- In mid-season - on the 70th day.
- In the late ripening - on the 100th.
Rip off the pods in the state of milky ripeness. It is characterized by the following features:
- the pods are not hard, bend, not break,
- length of a pod is from 10 to 20 cm (depends on a grade),
- inside the pod is a green bean, about the size of a wheat grain.
Bean pods in a state of milky ripeness
- Harvesting is carried out in stages, every two days.
- Те стручки, которые вы своевременно не сняли, оставьте на семена, а впредь проверяйте плети более тщательно.
- Удаление стручков стимулирует плодоношение. Это означает, что чем больше вы соберете фасоли, тем больше ее вырастет.
- Сбор может продолжаться до заморозков.
- Урожай с метра квадратного посадок фасоли стручковой – два килограмма.
Спаржевая фасоль: сорта
Asparagus beans are a variety group of an annual plant of the species Beans from the Bean genus. The peculiarity of the asparagus varieties is that when ripe, a dense parchment layer does not form in its valves, allowing them to be eaten. Often, beans also do not form in the pods of the asparagus bean, as in grain varieties.
Asparag bean is a low-calorie product, rich in vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, flavonoids and minerals. It is widely used in cooking as a vegetable ingredient in salads, side dishes, first and second courses. The name of the variety received for the taste, reminiscent of asparagus.
The following varieties of asparagus beans are most in demand among Russian summer residents:
- Purple queen A beautiful bush plant that combines fruit and ornamental features. Gives pods of dark purple color up to 15 cm long. The variety is disease resistant and suitable for planting in many regions.
- Sachs 615 (without fiber). Spraying early ripe hybrid with a height of up to 45 cm and green pods up to 12 cm. Very popular due to its high vitamin content.
- Oil King. Bush variety with a growing season of 55 days. By the end of the summer gives yellow pods with distinctive taste.
- Winner. A curly flat-leaf variety that adorns the garden of fire-red flowers during its flowering. Brings flattened fruit pods up to 30 cm long.
- Panther. Another shrub variety with yellow fiberless fruits. Differs in high resistance to fungal diseases and special spicy taste.
- Hell Rem. Curly variety with light pods and rare lilac-pink grains. Differs in characteristic mushroom aroma and high resistance to pests and diseases.
- Asparagus beans Serengeti. Planting of this early-ripening variety is possible in all climatic zones. The plant is resistant to many diseases, has good taste and high yield.
Particularly noteworthy are the sugar varieties of asparagus beans Melody, Fatima, Caramel, Oleniy Korol and Zhuravushka. For middle and northern latitudes, it is necessary to choose among early-ripening or mid-mature hybrids that ripen in 50-80 days. Late-ripening varieties of beans are suitable for growing in the south, as they reach ripeness no less than 100 days after sowing.
Green bean planting and care in the open field
For cultivation from seeds in open ground for asparagus beans it is necessary to allocate well-lit areas with light fertile soil. If potatoes, cabbage, onions or carrots grew in this land last season, even better. On clay soils and lands with a close presence of groundwater, the beans survive very reluctantly.
In areas with long cold winters, it is better to start growing green beans in a greenhouse so as not to lose time due to insufficient heating of the soil. This culture is very sensitive to cold and dies, as a rule, at temperatures below + 5˚C. For this reason, already sown beans are covered with a film with an unexpected cold snap.
If an asparagus bean has already been planted on a particular plot, it is recommended to re-cultivate from seeds only after 4 years. This is not a problem, given that after a given crop that enriches the soil with nitrogen, any garden plants grow well.
In autumn, the soil under the asparagus beans is enriched with organic matter, potassium chloride and superphosphate in the amount of 7 kg / m 2, 45 g / m 2 and 25 g / m 2, respectively, before deep-digging. Before planting from seeds at the cottage, a fertilizer complex should be introduced with a high proportion of potassium at the rate of 25 g / m 2. After laying the seed material, it is recommended to sprinkle the bed with humus from above and feed the plants with mineral mixtures up to 3 times during the season. Introduction scheme: in the shallow grooves made along the rows at a distance of 15-20 cm. One dressing must be made in the phase of setting of buds.
Planting Asparagus Beans
Asparagus bean seeds are sown like any other legume. It should be started when the earth is heated at a depth of 6 cm to + 10˚C and the frost stops. The preselected beans are first soaked for 10 hours in melt water for better germination. Many summer residents slightly tint water with potassium permanganate and add growth stimulants, but this is not necessary. It is also believed that it is not necessary to soak the seeds, if the planting will be carried out in wet soil.
Immediately before laying, the beans are also kept for 5 minutes in an aqueous solution of boric acid (0.2 g / l), for increased immunity to disease. After that, the seeds are put on several pieces in the wells with a depth of 3-5 cm. In the same row for the bush varieties between the pits should remain 10-15 cm, and between the rows - 25-30 cm. Curly hybrids should be located at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other and 0.5 m between the rows.
Excessive moisture is something that the asparagus bush beans do not really like. Growing should be accompanied by moderate but regular watering once a week with doubling the volume during the flowering period. After watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil around the plants so as not to stop the access of air to the root nodules. We must also constantly pull out the weeds, as they deplete the soil. In order to increase the yield, it is recommended to apply two supplements from mineral complex fertilizers during the growing process.
Green beans: growing from seeds at home
Asparagus beans can quite successfully grow in indoor conditions, for example on a glazed loggia or a well-lit window sill. It is better, of course, to choose the bush varieties that do not rise above 50 centimeters in height. Curly varieties can be planted on the balcony, nor should we be ready for this, that they will entwine it from the inside, turning it into room jungle.
Planting can be carried out as a direct seeding in the tank for growing, and seedling method through peat pots. Planting time depends on individual conditions, you can even organize year-round cultivation. For such cultivation of culture varieties Maska, Fatima, Violetta, Zelenostuvkovy 517 and Golden Neck are well suited.
Growing a house often requires additional lighting equipment, but plants do not need a long light day. The soil for planting should consist of two-thirds of the garden land and one of the humus. You need to constantly keep it loose. Top dressing is desirable - it is enough to use complexes with potassium and phosphorus a couple of times a month. It is worth retaining fruitful branches only when collecting seed material.
Description of green beans and its varieties
This crop belongs to the legume family and is a one-year plant. Therefore, it has to be planted anew each year. The plant is very popular around the world.
The cog variety has its differences and, most importantly, the fact that the harvest is carried out before the grains fully mature, namely during the period of their milk ripeness. This bean has a pleasant and delicate flavor with hints of asparagus. This gave the name of the brand. Above all, it is a dietary product and is rich in various vitamins that benefit the human body.
She was brought into the country from the American continent and perfectly caught on in a temperate climate. Due to the fact that it is an unpretentious plant, even an inexperienced gardener can cope with its cultivation, but first it is necessary to choose a variety, of which there are several:
- Curly - a variety with long pods, which can serve as an additional decoration of the site, thanks to the multi-colored crop. It has flexible stems and beautiful flowers.
- bush - has smaller fruits that are unsuitable for food. Its landing may be necessary in order to enrich the earth with nitrogen.
How to choose a place for beans
Beans are fairly easy to grow.This plant is very unpretentious, however, it does not like acidic soil. Therefore, it is better to choose a site where the soil will have neutral acidity, it will warm up well and there will be no drafts with black earth soil. In addition, it would be better if the water does not stagnate.
In such cases, the code of bean cultivation will be carried out in harsh climatic conditions, where there are sharp drops in day and night temperatures, it is better to plant the crop in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
The plant is not frost resistant and loves warm weather. When it comes only the slightest froze, it is damaged and immediately fades.
Every year, beans are not planted in one place. Its location should be constantly changed. It is very good when its predecessors in the garden were carrots, potatoes, cabbage or eggplants. But after such vegetables as onions, peas and garlic it is better not to plant it. Haricot also does not like and just be in the neighborhood with them and it is useful to know about it.
It is necessary to prepare the soil for planting this crop in advance, that is, in the autumn period. Thus, you can get a pretty good harvest. First, the prepared area is dug up and weeds are removed. Then fertilize with organic fertilizers. You can also add superphosphate and potassium chloride. And already in the spring before the planting fertilizer is applied, which includes potassium.
How and when to plant asparagus beans
The planting time of a plant can vary and depends mainly on the region where it is planted. The usual landmark is the end of the frost. That is, for a temperate climate, this is the end of May, the beginning of June, and for more southern regions this may be the end of April. Good seed germination is observed at a temperature of +12 degrees, and growth at +25.
Beans are planted in open ground in several ways, depending on the variety, so that one plant does not interfere with the growth of another. For example, shrub asparagus beans are planted in a checkerboard pattern, while curly beans are planted at a greater distance from each other so that they do not twist adjacent bushes.
The algorithm for planting beans is similar to other legumes.. That is, it looks like this:
- First you need to select good beans that are undamaged and soak them in warm water. No need to wait for the emergence of sprouts, just enough fifteen hours. You can soak in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- then, after their swelling and before planting, they are dipped in a solution of boric acid for about two minutes. This procedure allows you to protect them from parasites.
- The next stage is the sowing of seeds in the ground. To do this, prepare the grooves in the beds and pour them with warm water. Now you can start planting seeds. Put them to a depth of 4-6 cm.
- Then the bed from above is covered with a small layer of soil or humus and covered with a film, which will facilitate the early germination.
- then, after about a week and a half, the first shoots begin to appear.
- If the seedlings are too thick, they should be seated so that the distance between them is approximately ten centimeters.
- when the seedlings grow up to a height of ten centimeters, they should be tucked in a bit. This will allow to strengthen the rhizomes, and for climbing varieties of beans should be prepared a support where the plant can be tied up.
Seedlings are planted quite rarely and mostly where the climate is quite harsh. Plant and grow legumes can be dry seeds without soaking.
Asparagus beans: the cultivation and care of it
Bean care is pretty simple., but to get a good harvest you need to do it right from the first days. In the first days after landing special care is not required. And the rest will require standard care, which is:
- correct watering
- good landing spot
- weeding and hilling,
Beans are quite moisture-loving plants and need regular watering, and also do not like when a dry crust forms on the surface of the earth. Therefore, after planting the garden can be mulched. She also does not like when water is stagnant in the roots, so before planting you should think about the drainage system, which will allow you to leave excess water.
It is also worth noting that this is a very light-loving plant and when it does not have enough light, the shoots begin to stretch in length, so for this culture you should choose a place that is not too shady. Also in the shade may be a decrease in yield.
If the bed is not mulched, then when we weed and loosen it, you should be very careful with the roots of the plant. It is impossible that they were on the surface of the earth. For this it is better to spud the bushes.
When the plant grows and develops too slowly, it can be fed with an infusion of weeds or an infusion of ash. They can water the bean bushes 2-3 times per season.
When the stem of the climbing bean grows more than one and a half or two meters, you should pinch the top of the head. This will reduce the growth rate of the plant and will contribute to the ovary of the pods.
When the pods start to be tied up on the string bean, it can fall on the garden and at this time it is better to tie it to sticks, like a tomato.
We collect asparagus beans
When to harvest when growing asparagus beans? The pods begin to be tied for about two to three weeks after flowering, and already ten days after the first ovaries, you can begin to harvest. To preserve freshness, they collect it in the morning. It is better to inspect the bushes every day and cut off those that are already ripe and suitable for cooking. A daily inspection of the beans is necessary so as not to miss the pods and prevent them from hardening. It also stimulates the emergence of new ovaries.
If the beans are not eaten immediately, then it can be frozen and stockpiled for the winter. Upon the onset of autumn and the final harvest, the beans are not pulled out by the root, but only cut off the upper part, because its root system fixes nitrogen.
What you need to know about the diseases of asparagus beans.
In order to get a good harvest, the legume should be aware of the diseases it is subject to in order to help her in time. The plant can strike powdery mildew and then its stems and leaves will be covered with light bloom. The disease can manifest itself with the onset of flowering of the bushes, in which case the beans should be treated with bio-soda or pharmaceutical, and the seriously damaged remains burned.
Also on the plant can be marked root rot, which appears due to fungi. This disease may be associated with too early sowing of seeds in the unheated soil and then the roots slowly begin to die off, the foliage turns yellow and fades. To prevent this from happening, the soil should be better prepared for planting. You also need to feed the plants with potash fertilizers from natural ingredients. For example, a banana peel or infusion of ash.
Anthracnose - This damage to the top of the bushes and the appearance of brown spots on them. Spots can appear on stalks, foliage and even pods. Seedlings can be protected by spraying them with phytosporin or by treating the seeds thermally, that is, before planting, they should be soaked for several hours in water, then heated to 50 degrees for 5 minutes and cooled down sharply.
Types and varieties of asparagus beans for open ground
Bean seeds come in a variety of colors: white, yellow, olive, green, purple, and piebald.
Asparagus seeds (right) are slightly thinner than vegetable beans (left)
Varieties of asparagus beans without fibers are very widely available. They sprout well, and from them gardeners get their own beans for future plantings. When selecting a place for planting in open ground, it is necessary to take into account that the following plant forms are different:
- bush - bushes of 40-60 cm height are formed. Common varieties are Sachs, Crane, Purple Queen, Oil King, Golden Time, Paloma,
- Curly - the stem can grow to a height of about 5 m, it must be pinched and must be tied up, known varieties - Fatima, Winner, Ad Rem, Borlotto.
Growing technology of green beans
Haricot is demanding to the soil, and it is better to plant it on light drained soils, cleared of weeds. Low-lying areas with a high standing of groundwater are considered unsuitable.
It is not advisable to plant the beans over beans or other types of legumes before 3 years, as the volatile soil accumulates in the soil. But with combined plantings, the risk of accumulation of biologically active substances characteristic of monocultural plantings is sharply reduced, and there is no sign of soil fatigue. But when planted together, the beans must be sown away from onions and garlic - they inhibit the development of nodule bacteria.
Sowing plot prepared in the fall. After harvesting the previous plants, the ground is planted with siderats of another group - lupine, vetch or clover before sowing beans is not desirable. In the spring, the ground, if necessary, is flattened.
Well, when to sow asparagus beans in open ground? Green beans prefer warm. The seedlings are adversely affected by frost (during cold snap shoots turn yellow). Seeds start sowing from the third decade of May, when the ground is already warm to 10-11 ° C. For additional heating of the land, you can pre-site (two weeks before sowing) cover with foil.
В северных районах для спаржевой фасоли лучше всего подойдут теплые грядки и раннеспелые сорта. У нас на юге кустовая разновидность успевает дать два урожая, а у вьющейся отдача урожая идет не так массово, и она плодоносит до самых заморозков без перерыва.
Семена накануне сева следует замочить как минимум на два часа, а желательно – до появления ростков. And if the weather is very rainy and the threat of reproduction of slugs and snails is revealed, then the well after planting should be sprinkled with dried, dried coffee or mustard powder. These mollusks are too greedy for fresh seedlings of cotyledons.
The plantation for planting asparagus beans in open ground also depends on the shape of the plants: bush plants are planted in chess beds of 30 × 30 cm order, and climbing species are seated less often so that the plants do not close each other, and it was possible to tie the stems onto supports.
Plants do not need special care in the first days after planting. The shoots that appear after 8-10 days, if necessary, thin out, leave strong seedlings. The beans do not tolerate the crust, so the soil around the bushes must be mulched. The bed should not be dry, but beware of waterlogging. With an excess of moisture, nitrogen-fixing bacteria on the roots will die, and the plant will wither.
Saplings need adequate lighting. When planting on shady areas, seedlings go up strongly and yield decreases. But if you are not an adherent of the maxim “harvest at any cost”, then it is acceptable to plant beans in tree trunks of fruit trees - once having tried such plantings, we repeat them annually.
If you do without mulch, then observe that when weeding the roots are not exposed - spud bushes. If plants develop slowly, it is advisable to feed them with weed tincture or EMKami. Or water the plants with an infusion of ash 2-3 times per season.
As soon as the stem of the curling beans grows two meters, we recommend pinching the tip to stop growth and stimulate the setting of the pods.
A bush beans when setting fruits can fall on the ground, so we, too, we wrap it with string and attract to the trellis, like tomatoes.
The pods are tied in the period from two to three weeks after flowering and in about 10 days already really to harvest. Tear down the beans in the morning to preserve the freshness of the shoulder blades. We recommend weekly inspect the bushes, and cut off the appropriate pods in order to prevent the fruits from hardening and to stimulate the formation of a new ovary. If the pods are not immediately used for food, then it is better to freeze it.
In the fall, the plants are cut to the root and not pulled out in order to preserve the root system of the remaining seedlings, since the asparagus bean captures nitrogen. The bush form in general can not be cut, it will keep the snow on the garden in winter.
Diseases of the beans: descriptions, means of control and prevention
Mealy dew - infects stems and leaves with a whitish bloom. The disease manifests itself with the onset of flowering. The growth of diseased bushes slows down, the leaves and stems turn yellow, the yield (quantity and quality) decreases. Means of protection:
- treatment of sites with pharmaiodus or biosoda,
- burning damaged plant residues.
Root rot - infection with various soil fungi, which brings the plant to premature withering and drying. The roots turn brown, die off and quickly pulled out of the soil. The disease can be caused by early sowing of seeds in cold, moist soil. Means of protection:
- good soil preparation (as mushroom spores remain in the ground) - crop rotation, green manure,
- selection of suitable sowing dates,
- top dressing with potassium-containing natural fertilizers: ash infusions, banana peel.
Anthracnose - the plant is damaged aboveground parts. Brown spots infect leaves, stalks, pods. Young beans dry up, and seeds are damaged in mature fruits. Infection is present on plant debris and is transmitted with seeds. Means of protection:
- spraying of beds of Fitosporin-M, EM-preparations,
- Thermal disinfection of seeds - soak in water for 4 hours, then heat for 5 minutes with hot water (temperature 50ºC), then cool suddenly in cold water.
Preventive ways to combat diseases:
- alternation of plant crops,
- seed pretreatment
- careful mulching of the plot,
- destruction of infected plant debris.
It is difficult to imagine a modern country house without the rows of beans. Depending on the area of the site and the volume of the refrigerator, the owners choose where, how many and which varieties of beans to plant. Frozen green beans is a part of many dishes, and makes a noticeable variety in the winter diet. And curly forms can be planted along a fence or fence, and this will decorate the dacha. As you can see, the cultivation and care of asparagus beans can be done by any summer resident!
How to grow asparagus beans?
Growing cowpea in Russia is possible, and this is proved by the experience of many summer residents and gardeners. In appearance, the plant is not much like a bean - only fruits are similar. The rest is something peculiar, even like a decorative element of the garden.
It happens vigna either curly or bush - it depends on the variety. In addition to the excellent taste, it is good for the soil and blooms, which also decorates the garden.
The fruits are similar to the young, not yet grown pods of beans and peas. The difference is that they are flatter, sometimes curly (depending on the variety) and much longer, the usual length of the fruit is 30-50 cm. For preparation, the pods are usually used completely: you do not need to wait for ripeness and “flip out” the fruits. They are simply cut into pieces and in this form are used to add to various dishes.
Purchase of seeds
There are several varieties of cowpea, in particular, it is Japanese and Chinese. For cultivation in the more eastern regions of Russia, a Japanese one is recommended - there are suitable conditions for it. For the rest of the regions fit Chinese.
You can plant it, like all legumes, just seeds. Finding these seeds is not always easy, but they are still on sale. If the search in the usual markets and departments of gardening did not give results, then you need to visit the hypermarket of goods for home and garden, probably there will be the right product.
We recommend reading: Watermelon, growing and caring for it.
Learn the features of growing strawberries in the open field http://rusfermer.net/sad/yagodnyj-sad/posadka-yagod/vyrashhivanie-klubniki-soglasno-gollandskoj-tehnologii.html.
Conditions for planting asparagus beans
In general, green beans - an unpretentious plant, and does not require special conditions for its existence. Also, do not need a big gardening experience and knowledge.
Still, it is better if the soil is fertile, while sour and not friable. This will immediately become an advantage, but for other types of soil they just need to fertilize, give up the idea to anything. The soil is prepared for planting seeds carefully - this will be discussed below.
We choose a well-lit and warm place for the future bean.
Asparagus Bean Care
Immediately on the day of planting, it is advisable to cover the bed with a film to retain heat. Shoots can be expected in a week. After a while they can become a bit too much, and then the method of seating is applied, you can simply thin out the area.
The plant requires regular watering, and this process should not be allowed to flow by itself. It is also important to note that the beans will grow very hard, it can reach several meters. When you think that it is already enough - make a pick of a bush.
This is the whole care. Nothing complicated, only regularity is required.