Clematis (photo) - the brightest, unforgettable liana on the Russian sites. If the gardener is only to “tame” clematis, planting and leaving in the open field behind them is the key to success.
If everything is done correctly, plants grow and bloom in the same place for more than 20 years, annually decorating a house and a personal plot with hundreds of simple and double flowers of various colors and shapes.
Site selection and preparation for clematis planting in open ground
Preparation for planting begins with the selection of a suitable place. Clematis are light-requiring, but under the direct rays of the sun the liana feels depressed, the flowers fade and shrink.
Extremely negative plants relate to the wind, the proximity of groundwater. Although plants need a lot of moisture for active growth, its stagnation is threatened by rotting of the roots.
Beginning flower growers are mistaken when clematis is planted in the ground against the wall of a house where the vine is regularly covered by a drain or, due to the lack of access to fresh air, is attacked by pests and fungi.
It is best to find a place at a distance of at least 70 cm from the wall, and for a support to build a solid grid, arch or trellis. Such a distance from the capital structure will simplify the care of clematis after planting in open ground and protect it from rainwater and melt water. Since the vines should grow strongly, not experiencing a lack of nutrition and moisture, between individual bushes leave a gap of at least 1-1.5 meters.
If multi-row planting is planned, the landing trenches are located from north to south. So all the plants will be evenly lit throughout the day.
For a single bush is better to choose a place with good morning lighting.
When is clematis planted in the ground?
The time of transfer of clematis in open ground depends on the selected planting material. Saplings with an open or peat-packed root system cannot wait long. When spring clematis planted in open ground?
They are planted in the spring, in April or in the first decade of May, before the shoots grow. A delay or summer planting threatens that clematis will get into the soil weakened, its acclimatization will last longer, and sometimes the plant will die.
Clematis seedlings purchased early are often grown at home, so young shoots are already available by the usual time of planting. If you bring it to the garden in April, when the main planting of clematis is in open ground in the Moscow region, the greenery will suffer from frost. Such plants are planted in the second half of May, by which time all natural threats are over.
Clematis seedlings with a closed root system can easily tolerate planting during the entire warm period. Shading on hot days will simplify and speed up acclimatization.
Autumn landing clematis in open ground is from August to October. For the time remaining before the onset of cold weather, the plant takes root and adapts to life in the garden. Specific landing dates depend on weather and climatic conditions of the region. Being late leads to the freezing of vines that did not have time to settle down. For winter, the soil is mulched, and the plants themselves are covered with foliage, spruce branches or dense non-woven material.
Planting clematis in the ground
Choosing the right place for clematis that grows for a long time without a transplant is very important. More importantly, competent organization of the pit for planting clematis in the open ground in spring or autumn.
In areas with close groundwater, danger of flooding, or simply dense heavy soil at the bottom of a trench or a pit 60 cm deep, high drainage is required from claydite, crushed red brick, crumb and sand. Additionally, they will equip drainage ditches, in which the excess water will be able to easily leave the flower bed.
Prepared in advance support for clematis. In order not to disturb the root system, arches, grids, mesh or other types of supports are dropping at the same time as planting.
The landing pit for single clematis is made with a depth and width of 60 cm. Group landing requires the preparation of a single trench at the rate of one running meter per bush.
At the bottom, a drainage pad is made, and the soil selected from the pit is loosened, cleared of weeds and mixed in equal parts with humus, peat. In the sandy soil is useful to add fertile garden land. In the clayey, dense soil for clematis, on the contrary, loosening sand is mixed in. As a fertilizer, 100 grams of mineral complex top dressing are applied to each bucket of soil, as well as about a liter of purified wood ash. Increased acidity of the soil is neutralized with dolomite flour, slaked lime or other similar means.
The landing pit is half, in the form of an equilateral mound in the middle, filled with the prepared substrate. At its top have a seedling with pre-straightened rhizomes. The root neck, or the place of tillering, must be below the expected level of the ground, and the depth depends on the size and age of the decorative vine.
For seedlings of 2–3 years, it is 6–12 cm, that is, it will be necessary to dig in not only the base of the plant, but also the first pair of leaves or buds. 3-4 year old clematis digging up another 5–10 cm more. Such a measure will help the plant survive the winter frosts and summer heat, as well as stimulate the formation of several strong shoots.
After planting, the soil near clematis is watered, compacted and mulched, and above the young plant it is surrounded by protection from the sun and wind.
Clematis care in the open field
The first year after planting is the time of acclimatization and active growth. Therefore, the soil under clematis is loosened and weeded as necessary. Watering should be regular, but not excessive. Strong seedlings in the first summer form buds, but experienced flower growers advise to tear off future flowers, which risk seriously weakening a small plant. If mineral substances with organic matter were introduced into the planting hole, the first additional feeding is carried out only in a year, in spring.
Growing shoots gently attached to the established support and monitor the state of greenery. At the beginning of summer, there is a high risk of a young lesion being overgrown by sucking insects. Closer to the fall, with increasing humidity and the difference between day and night temperatures, the risk of fungal diseases increases. Therefore, in the care of clematis in the open field must include preventive and urgent treatment with plant protection products.
If the sapling gave only one strong escape, it can be pushed to tillering by pinching the delicate top. Subsequently, to activate growth, you can use deep watering and fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers. You can make them
- as a solution on wet ground,
- dry with obligatory loosening and watering,
- as extra root top dressing, spraying.
In acidic soil, clematis root system develops extremely slowly. Spring irrigation with lime milk at the rate of 200 grams of lime in a bucket of water will help dilute the soil under plantings.
3-4 years after landing clematis in open ground in the care of him the summer resident may face unforeseen difficulties. With the observance of agrotechnology flowers become smaller, and the vine grows much slower than before. The most common problem is the lack of moisture. The compacted soil does not pass water to the roots, and loosening at such a depth is impossible. In this case, the system of subsurface irrigation will help, allowing you to saturate the deep layers of soil, and then does not allow them to dry out. At a distance of 30–40 cm from clematis with the open neck, several plastic bottles are instilled down. During watering, they are filled with water, gradually coming to the very roots of flowering creepers.
Perennial clematis require regular pruning, which helps the plants to get rid of damaged, old, dried shoots. A summer resident, who has mastered the features of cutting different types of clematis, will receive the most magnificent and early flowering of his charges.
Botanists secrete more than 300 varieties of clematis, which have many differences among themselves. In Greece, the word "klema" meant a climbing plant.
In our latitudes, it is often the climbing climber of the lian-like type that is grown. However, there are still shrubs and dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants, but they are much less common.
How to plant and grow luxurious clematis, which will become a bright highlight of your garden, will be described in detail below.
Varieties and types of clematis
Clematis Kustovoy - The birthplace of the plant is the Far East. It is a grassy perennial, up to 1 meter high. The young branches of clematis are very thin and need a garter. Each shoot is decorated with no more than 7 bellied inflorescences bell-type with different shades. The flowering time of the culture falls on the beginning of summer and lasts about a month.
Clematis Ville De Lyon - is a climbing plant belonging to the bush type. The stems of the plant reach up to 4 meters in length and have a brown tint. Leaf plates are large, slightly pubescent, dark green. The inflorescences of clematis are large, six-petal purple hue, which becomes purple as it wilts. Plant blooms from early summer to late August.
Clematis Multi Blue - this variety is distinguished not only by its high decorative effect, but also by its easy maintenance. The plant is a deciduous type of bushy vine with brittle, flexible shoots up to 2 meters long. Leaf plates oblong, narrow with a pointed end. The inflorescences are large, terry purple hue. Flowering plant throughout the summer.
Clematis Rouge Cardinal - The plant is a climbing vine with large inflorescences and shoots up to 3 meters long. Clematis leaves, medium, trifoliate, leathery with a dark green shade. The inflorescences are large, velvet, cruciform, dark purple hue. Clematis blooms from July to September.
Clematis Manchu - Japan and China are considered to be the natural habitat of the plant. It is a liana-like perennial with long shoots reaching 300 centimeters. Sheet plate solid or not paired feathery, dark green hue. Inflorescences average, four petal white shade. Flowering time lasts from June to July.
This variety was bred in the nineteenth century in a British, royal garden partnership. The shoots of the plant are long and thin. Oval-shaped sheet plates with a pointed end. Inflorescences are large with wavy petals purple hue. Clematis blossoms in the middle of summer.
Clematis white - The plant has a long, thin, braided branches, reaching 2 meters. The leaves are large, dark green, oval with a sharp end. The inflorescences are large, bell-shaped, white with a subtle scent. Culture blooms in July.
Clematis Piilu - This variety was bred about 30 years ago in Estonia. Clematis is compact and has branches up to 90 centimeters long. Leaf plates are oval, medium, dark green. The inflorescences are medium pink-lilac in color with a dark pink stripe in the middle of the petal. Clematis blossoms in the middle of summer.
Clematis Burning - this variety can grow in the form of a shrub or in the form of a liana. The plant grows up to 5 meters in length and has white small, multiple inflorescences with a pleasant, honey aroma. The leaf plates are dark green in size smaller than flowers. It blooms from mid-summer to early autumn.
Clematis Niobe - is a perennial herbaceous plant living in countries with a subtropical climate. The length of the shoots up to 2 meters. Leafy plate green tinted ternate. Inflorescences velvet, six-petal with wavy purple or purple petals. The flowering time of the crop falls in the middle of summer.
Clematis Nelly Moser
The variety was bred in France more than half a century ago. The plant reaches a length of more than 3 meters and has about 17 pieces of elastic shoots. The leaf plates are trifoliate, saturated green. The inflorescences are large, star-shaped, white-pink shade. Flowering time is in July and ends in late August.
Clematis White Cloud - is a tall shrub vine, up to 6 meters long. The leaf plates are trifoliate, having a rich green tint. Four-petal inflorescences, with a pleasant aroma of white. Clematis blossoms from June to early autumn.
Clematis Warsaw Nike - inflorescences of the plant are large, velvet, six petal, purple-blue hue. The branches reach up to 2 meters in length and have lush foliage with a high decorative effect. Clematis blossoms from June to September.
Clematis Tangut - is a perennial shrub with numerous small inflorescences. Homeland plants - the Far East. The culture reaches a height of up to 300 centimeters and has long and thin branches with luxurious, dark green foliage. Inflorescences bell-shaped type yellow shade. Flowering time lasts from June to September.
Clematis Jakmana - the grade is remarkable large four petal inflorescences of a violet shade. The branches of the plant reach a length of up to 2 meters, are flexible and elastic. Leaf plates are oval, saturated green with a sharp end. Clematis blossoms from June to early autumn.
The plant is distinguished from other varieties by large, terry inflorescences of crimson hue, resembling dahlias. Clematis was developed in 1997 in Japan. The culture is a perennial vine with dark green ellipsoid leaves. Plant blooms from June to September.
Clematis Dr. Ruppel - is a liana-like perennial with shoots up to 2.5 meters. The sheet plates are oval, rich green with a pointed end. The inflorescences are large, light pink in color with a lavender stripe along the center of the petal. Flowering plant in the middle of summer.
Clematis Miss Bateman - this variety was bred in England in the nineteenth century. Remontant plant, the first wave of flowering occurs at the beginning of summer, and the second at the end of summer or the beginning of autumn. The branches of clematis are lignified, reaching a length of 2.5 meters. Leafy plates of deep green color, oval shape with a pointed end. The inflorescences are eight petal, white with purple anthers and a delicate, pleasant aroma.
Clematis Ashva - is a compact perennial climbing vine, the length of which is 2 meters. The sheet plates are elliptical, dark green, large with a sharp end. Inflorescences are lush, six-petal purple hue with a reddish strip in the middle. Flowering time is in the middle of summer.
Clematis Ernest Markham - is a curly perennial with long, flexible branches with dense foliage. The leaf plates are long, medium in size with a pointed end of a dark green hue. Inflorescences large crimson with a yellow middle. Clematis blossoms from early summer to early fall.
This variety was bred in Poland. It possesses large inflorescences with delicate, silk petals of a red-burgundy shade that look spectacular against the background of oval malachite leaf plates. The plant has long curly branches and pleases with its flowering from mid-summer to early autumn.
Clematis Stasik - The plant has branching shoots up to 2 meters long. Clematis leaf plates are medium, with a sharp end of a dark green hue. The inflorescences are large with six petals of purple hue with a white stripe in the middle of the petals. Plant blooms from July to September.
Clematis small-flowered - The branches of the plant reach five meters in length and have the luxurious leafiness of a saturated, green shade. The inflorescences of the culture are small, multiple pink, purple, red and white shades. This species of clematis blooms from July to September.
Clematis Vinogolistny - The plant can be both shrub and grassy. The shoots from the culture are branched, winding from 2 to 3 meters in length. The leaf plates are medium, elongated with a pointed end and easy pubescence. Inflorescences are small white with a pleasant aroma. Clematis blossoms from mid-summer to early autumn.
Clematis whole-leaf - is a herbaceous perennial, reaching a height of 100 centimeters. Leafy plates with light pubescence, oval, dull green. Inflorescences are small white, purple or pink with a light, pleasant aroma. Flowering plant throughout July.
Clematis Mazuri - The plant reaches a height of 3 meters and has large, dahlia-like terry inflorescences of a blue shade. Leaf plates are medium, oval, dark green. The flowering time of the plant begins in July and ends in September.
Clematis planting and care in the open field
Often clematis planted in mid-May. However, if the florist has acquired a young plant in the summer, the planting should be carried out in early September, so that the crop can take root by the cold. Previously, landing is not worth it otherwise clematis will grow, which will lead to its freezing in the cold season.
Если проводится высадка нескольких растений, то расстояние между ними следует оставлять не менее 80 сантиметров. При переносе саженца в посадочную яму его корневую систему нужно окунуть в болтушку из глины. Углублять растение необходимо таким образом, чтобы нижняя почка располагалась на глубине 8 сантиметров от поверхности земли. This subtlety will allow the plant to avoid overheating in summer and freezing in winter, as well as stimulate the growth of side branches.
Since the inflorescences of clematis fade in the sun, the plant should be planted on the garden with a slight shading. When choosing a place for planting a crop, it is necessary to ensure that groundwater does not run in this place, otherwise excess moisture will lead to rotting of the root system.
Water culture should be once every seven days. In the summer it is necessary to do this three times a week. For a young plant, a bucket of water is sufficient, while for an adult, three to 4 buckets should be used.
So that the land under the bush does not dry out and weeds grow less there, the soil around it needs to be mulched with peat or moss.
Cleats for clematis should have a neutral acidity, be nutritious and loose. For this purpose, when planting or transplanting, it is necessary to mix garden soil with humus, superphosphate and wood ash.
Do not forget about the drainage layer, which should be formed from brick chips or large claydite.
If the gardener lives in the southern region, then it is better to carry out plant transplantation in the fall, and if in the north, then in the spring. A place to transplant must be chosen in the south side of the site, as the culture loves light. Before planting, you need to create a support in advance so that clematis can grow on it as it grows. It is best to use the trellis.
When the place is chosen, you should dig a landing hole 60 centimeters in diameter and 70 in depth. At the bottom you need to fill the mineral dressing and lay a layer of drainage of large clay. The pit should be prepared two weeks before the landing so that the fertilizers do not burn the root system and manage to soak into the ground.
Immediately before transplanting, mix 1 part of peat, 2 parts of garden soil, part of sand, and 2 parts of organic fertilizer. You can also add a glass of wood ash and a handful of dolomite flour.
Then you should carefully dig up the clematis from the old place of growth and, together with the earthy lump, transfer it to a new pit, deepening 12 centimeters if the plant is young or 18 if it is more than two years old.
After that, you need to fill the ground in the formed voids and lightly tamp them so that they fill up. Further, the ground around the plant must be moistened and mulched. The plant adapts to a new place in about a month.
Fertilizer must be applied to the soil during the growing season. However, as soon as the plant begins to bloom, you should stop feeding it before the onset of autumn. It is necessary to apply fertilizer once a month. This technique is used for adult clematis.
Young plants in the first year are not fertilized, since all the necessary substances were introduced during planting. As a feed for the culture is best to use fertilizers for strawberries.
In early spring, when a flower leaves a dormant period, it is necessary to water it with a solution of a mixture of chalk and vitriol (500 grams of chalk, 200 grams of vitriol and 15 liters of water), so you can save it from many diseases.
The flowering time of the plant depends on its variety. Most varieties of clematis bloom from mid-summer to early autumn, and the rest delight gardeners with their luxurious flowers only during July.
Inflorescences come in different shades, sizes and shapes. Everything here also depends on the varietal characteristics. After flowering, seeds begin to form, which are successfully used for reproduction and cultivation of clematis in open ground.
Pruning of plants is carried out after flowering and leaf fall in the middle of autumn. Carry out the procedure in a dry, cloudless weather.
Young shoots are cut by 25 centimeters, leaving several buds on each. This is necessary for the growth of the bush in the next season.
On adult plants, cut and dried shoots are completely cut off. Healthy ones, shorten by 10 centimeters. Clematis is known to have many varieties. If the gardener has a remontant plant, it should be cut a little differently. Healthy branches in this case are shortened by half, and dried and broken completely.
You can also use the universal method of pruning, cutting the clematis bushes through one. For this purpose, one branch is cut to half, and the second so that there are two buds on it. Thus, the whole plant should be pruned. This method allows you to give the bush pomp and grooming in the next season.
Preparing Clematis for Winter
Prepare the plant for the winter, should be before the start of frost. For this purpose, the day is selected with dry weather, the remaining leaf plates are removed and the root neck is treated with 2% copper sulfate solution. Then a pail of humus is poured under the bush.
Next, the plant is spud. To this end, a layer of sand mixed with ash is poured on top of the manure. Then they take shoots, bind them at the roots and cover with spruce, dry foliage and foam. After that, a wooden box is placed on the structure and wrapped around it with a film by crushing it with stones.
With the onset of spring, the box is removed, and when the threat of frost disappears, the main cover is also dismantled, tying the shoots to a support for their further growth.
Growing clematis from seeds at home
Clematis can be propagated both in spring and in autumn using seeds, cuttings and aerial layering.
For growing seedlings from seed, only fresh seeds should be used. Before sowing into the ground they need to sort out. Large seeds should be sown in January, since they have a long germination, and small seeds are better to sow in March, since the seedlings appear only after three weeks.
For sowing seeds, a special ground mix is prepared on the basis of equal parts of sand, peat and earth. Seeds are sown in the finished substrate. After their landing, the soil must be moistened, covered with foil and put away in heat.
Every day, the film should be removed and air the seedlings until the first shoots appear. Then the film is removed and care for them is carried out as usual before landing in open ground.
Clematis reproduction by cuttings
Reproduction using cuttings carried out in the fall, taking planting material only from the bushes, which have already turned more than five years.
To obtain cuttings from the shoots cut into sections of the stems with two buds. Each cutting is treated with growth hormone, buried in the ground and moved to the basement, where they will be stored until spring.
After the cuttings are lowered into the basement, they must be carefully monitored by constantly moistening the ground, not allowing the temperature to rise. It should remain at zero. At the end of winter, a box with cuttings is transferred to a room with a temperature of 10 to 15 degrees.
In March, the first shoots begin to appear. After this, the box with the cuttings is transferred to the greenhouse. When the seedlings grow to 10 centimeters, they need to pinch off the lower leaf plates to enhance the development of the root system. Planting of young plants should be carried out in May.
Clematis reproduction by layering
It is easiest to multiply clematis with the help of air slips. For this purpose, you need to carefully dig up the soil around the culture. Then press the soil a little and make a shallow groove. It is necessary to put the selected branch of clematis in it and press it in three places with the help of a wire. Then take the humus, mix it with a moist earth and fill it with an escape. However, its top must be elevated above the ground.
This breeding method is suitable for autumn. For this reason, the future seedling should be well insulated before wintering. With the onset of spring, the insulation is removed. When sprouts appear, the ground should be mulched around the cuttings. And with the onset of autumn, the grown plant can be dug up and moved to a new place.
Clematis is mainly susceptible to diseases of fungal and viral etiology, as well as the attack of some pests. The most common ailment is wilt. It leads to wilting and drying of the leaf plates..
If time does not begin treatment, the plant will die. Eliminate this attack will help complete pruning of the affected stems and watering the plants with 1% manganese solution.
Clematis also suffers gray necrosis. It manifests itself at the end of flowering, striking leafy plates on which a gray patina appears. You can eliminate the disease by spraying the culture with a weak solution of copper sulfate.
Clematis is also a dangerous disease. rust, as a result of which the foliage is covered with a brown bloom and dries out, greatly deforming at the same time the shoots. In this case, to cure the plant will help the destruction of infected leaves and spraying the culture with a 2% solution of potassium permanganate.
Pests also cause significant damage to the plant, among which the most dangerous is nematode. It eats the root system and causes the death of the flower.. It is possible to get rid of it only by complete destruction of clematis.
In order not to bring this parasite into your garden, when planting a young clematis, you should carefully inspect the root system for the presence of an insect. It is necessary to destroy the diseased plant immediately, while the nematode did not manage to spread across the garden. After the bush is dug out and burned, the area where it grew, you need to pour boiling water to destroy the insect eggs.
In addition to the nematode, clematis can be threatened spider mite and scytology, which lead to wilting, yellowing and falling off of the leaves. When they are detected, the culture is sufficient to spray the insecticide "Aktellik".
Problems in growing clematis
Gardeners involved in the cultivation of clematis often face the following problems:
- Lack of growth and flowering - the reason for this may be poor soil and lack of fertilizer. The introduction of organic and mineral supplements will solve this problem.
- Yellowing leaves - yellowing of leaf plates are caused by pests such as spider mites and scytchik. You can eliminate them by spraying the insecticide "Fitoverm".
- Leaf blackening - this problem occurs as a result of defeat clematis gray necrosis. You can eliminate it by treating the culture with a weak solution of copper sulphate.
- Redness and rusting of sheet plates - similar symptoms indicate infection with clematis with rust. It can be eliminated by destroying the infected leaf plates and watering the bush with a solution of 2% manganese.
- Drying sheet plates - wilt disease leads to drying of sheet plates. To eliminate it, you should cut off the damage to the branches at the root and treat the plant with 1% manganese solution.
- Blanching leaves - A similar problem arises as a result of a lack of iron. To eliminate it, the plant needs to be watered with 1% solution of ferrous sulfate.
- Lack of shoots after winter - this problem occurs due to the freezing of the root system in the absence of adequate shelter. If the plant does not die completely, then maybe next year it will grow and will delight the gardener with its luxurious flowering.
- Wilting plants - The clematis causes the nematode root to wilt. Unfortunately, in this case it is impossible to help the culture, it will be necessary to remove and burn it, and pour its hot water over the place of its growth in order to destroy the pest larvae.
With proper care for clematis, no problems listed above should appear.
Clematis is a truly luxurious culture that can transform any garden plot with its decorative effect. Therefore, if you dream of a long-flowering plant with beautiful flowers, then clematis is what you need.
Clematis as a plant for open ground
Clematis belongs to the buttercup family. There are about three hundred varieties of this plant, won the tender love of all gardeners. It is his desire to put on the most prominent places to create comfort and bright mood on the site. Often, clematis decorates the gate and the first "meets" guests. Thanks to the various species of this plant, which can be not only a liana, but also a shrub, you can even create flowering hedges.
Clematis flowers are small and large, and their shape and shades simply amaze with their incredible diversity. Different varieties bloom at different times for 3-4 months. Due to this, it is possible to create a bright kaleidoscope of blooming clematis in the garden, which will delight the eye during the whole warm season from the very spring to the beginning of autumn.
The main decorative value of clematis is abundant flowering.
Most often, clematis is cultivated in the ground, but it will feel quite comfortable as a houseplant.
It is usually planted in pots, boxes or tubs (at least 60 cm high) placed in a well-lit place. In the bottom of the tank, several holes must be made, then drainage and fertile soil are filled up, and after planting they will certainly establish a support for the plant. To ensure the roots cool and shade in the pot with clematis planted undersized "neighbors".
Under comfortable conditions, clematis can bloom up to five years without a transplant.
In which regions can be planted in open ground
Due to the large-scale breeding work on the breeding of various winter-hardy varieties, clematis caught on quite easily in the north-western regions of the country, in Siberia and in the Far East. But in order to admire the bright colors of the summer even in the harsh climate, it is important to choose the right varieties whose lashes successfully tolerate cold.
Clematis flowers are colored almost in all colors of the spectrum, differing also by an infinite number of shades.
Most often clematis is planted in open ground in mid-May. But if the seedling was purchased in the summer, planting should be done in September, so that the plant had the opportunity to take root. Previously, this should not be done because of the high probability of increasing its growth (which is completely unnecessary for the winter) and freezing.
Clematis planting consists of several stages:
- Choosing a place. The plant loves sunny, but slightly shaded areas, which allows you to save the brightness and saturation of the flowers. In addition, it needs reliable protection from wind and draft.
- Soil selection. Clematis liking light, nourishing, fast-absorbing loose soil. It is categorically impossible to plant clematis in heavy soil with high acidity, which will inevitably lead to the impossibility of its full development and death. It is important to take into account the level of soil moisture: the plant does not tolerate an abundance of groundwater. To create the most comfortable conditions and protect the roots from rotting, it is better to place the plant on an artificial small knoll made with your own hands. The presence of clay soil in the area chosen for planting clematis requires the removal of moisture from the plant using a groove dug and filled with sand.
- Pit preparation. Its depth should be no more than 70 cm. At the bottom, first lay a layer of rubble, then a specially prepared soil substrate (a bucket of soil, half a bucket of humus, 100 g of slaked lime).
During the autumn planting the entire volume of soil is filled up immediately.
When planting clematis near the walls of buildings, it is imperative that they are 40 cm away from them so that the roots cannot be damaged by rain from the roofs. If a composition of several bushes is planted, the intervals between them should be at least 25 cm.
The main care for clematis is timely enough watering and dressing.
It is necessary to water clematis at least once a week. In the period of summer heat its frequency increases up to 2–3 times. At the same time for the bush-kids enough 1-2 buckets of water, while for an adult - from 2 to 4. A few times to reduce the frequency of watering and slow the growth of weeds around clematis will help sleep the soil with a layer of mulch (peat, moss, humus). If you do not do this, you should regularly (the next day after watering) loosen the soil, simultaneously breaking through weeds.
It is also important to know that in different periods it is necessary to use certain types of fertilizers:
- nitrogenous - during intensive growth,
- potash - during the formation of buds,
- phosphoric - after the end of flowering.
In the summer (after pruning), the plant is fed with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer (20 g per 10 l of water) and a copper solution. Every year in spring bushes must be watered with lime milk (dolomite flour and chalk). During flowering, all feeding stops, so as not to stifle the activity of the plant itself.
In order to protect the roots from rot during frequent summer rains, the bottom of the trunk should be covered with wood ash.
There are several types of supports for vines (arches, pyramids, fan structures, cylinders), each of which is perfect for clematis. Props allow you to create beautiful compositions and support the stems of plants. Another requirement is the strength of the material of construction, which could withstand the severity of rapidly expanding and weighted moisture after the rains of green clematis.
Главное, чтобы место прикрепления стебля к опоре было не толще 10–12 мм
Именно от этой процедуры зависит правильное формирование и красота куста. Обрезку проводят несколько раз в год:
- при посадке (чтобы сформировать крону и корневую систему),
- весной (чтобы увеличить период цветения),
- летом (регулирующая обрезка),
- перед зимовкой (с учётом особенностей, которые требует каждый вид).
Способность к кущению является характерной особенностью клематиса
Preparing for the winter
Перед зимовкой с клематиса необходимо удалить листья, обрезать испорченные и пересохшие веточки. After that, remove it from the support, lay it on the ground and cover it using dry grass and leaves, straw, sawdust.
Another option is to build around a wire frame plant laid on the ground, covered with roofing paper, film, roofing material or plywood box. It is important to ensure that the shelter did not work out tight and had access to air.
Clematis usually winter well. It is much more damaging for him to delay the opening in the spring, by virtue of which he can melt.
In the spring, it is necessary to free the plant from shelter as soon as the threat of night frost has passed.
Errors in the care and their removal
The beauty and health of any plant depends not only on the correct care. It is equally important to select plants intended for the climatic conditions of a particular region.
In case of any changes in weather conditions, it is necessary to conduct preventive examinations and measures to prevent the occurrence of various plant diseases.
A common mistake of inexperienced gardeners is improper watering of clematis, which causes its root system to die, and the stems become victims of diseases and pests.
Excessive dampness can cause clematis damage by pathogenic fungi.
Clematis is most commonly affected by the following diseases:
- Withering. It is called a fungus and is accompanied by a loss of elasticity of the shoots, after which they dry, wither, and without treatment the plant may die. Causes can be stagnant moisture and poor soil drainage. The treatment consists of removing all damaged shoots and watering the plant with a Fundazol solution (1 g per liter of water), spraying with a 3% solution of copper sulfate (spring), regularly loosening the ground and removing weeds.
- Gray rot. Plaque in the form of brown spots on the leaves and shoots covered with grayish "down". Appears usually in rainy time. To combat it, the affected areas are removed, and the plant is treated with a solution of Azocene or Fundazole.
- Mealy dew. It is called a fungus and looks like a bloom of whitish color on a plant, similar to spilled flour. At the same time its growth and flowering slows down. For treatment, spraying with a copper-soap solution (25 g per 250 g, respectively, diluted in 10 liters of water) or a solution of soda ash (40 g per 10 l) is used.
- Rust. Forms brown spots on the leaves and leads to their drying and deformation of the whole bush. Manganese solution (medium strength) will help fight rust.
Pest and disease control
No less dangerous for clematis and pest invasions, such as:
- Aphid. It settles on the underside of the leaves, feeds on their sap and leads to drying and twisting. To eliminate it helps spraying "Fitofarm" (2 mg per 1 liter of water).
- Spider mite Causes the formation of white dots on the leaves below and covering the plant with cobwebs, which makes it look weakened. Insectoacaricides and acaricides (toxic preparations diluted 1 mg per liter of water) are considered to be effective in combating it.
- Slugs Eat leaves and stems at night. Against them, ammonia is used (2 tablespoons per liter of water), which is used to treat the plant.
Slugs can be assembled manually with the onset of dark time
Clematis can be propagated in various ways: by seeds, cuttings and layering.
Large seeds are planted in January, small - in March:
- Choose planting material (preferably a new crop) and sort it.
Clematis seeds are large, medium and small
The full value of seeds, even of the same type of clematis, can be different in different years - this depends, first of all, on weather conditions
Reproduction of clematis by cutting is one of the most famous and popular methods of breeding this plant:
- In the autumn, we choose a bush of five years old (the young react badly to such procedures and cannot reproduce the new one).
- We cut cuttings with at least two developed buds, leaving 2 cm above and 3–4 cm above - below.
The roots will grow at the lower edge of the cutting
You can plant two cuttings in one container.
This is the simplest effective method that does not require any facilities:
- In October, we choose a shrub for breeding, cut off all the leaves and ottsvetshie buds to a well-developed buds.
- Carefully dig up the soil around the bush and form grooves about 6 cm deep.
- Carefully lower the shoots into the grooves, we put peat on them, the ground, and, compacting, we cover the clematis, as for wintering.
By next fall, the shoots will be ready for planting. It is better to dig them with a fork, so as not to damage the roots.
Clematis blooms most abundantly in summer — from late June to August.
Clematis has been growing for four years. Every year it increases the root system and green mass. Flowers every year become larger. Compared with the first year, the flowers are now larger in size already twice as accurately. First we planted clematis in a bad place. There, until ten in the morning, there was a shadow and clematis developed poorly, even bent and mum transplanted them to an open, sunny place where there was no shade. Got clematis well. They added ash, pebbles, a little bit of humus. The first time was watered not by the trunk itself, but by retreating 10 centimeters from the trunk. Because they read that clematis loves water not under the root, but around. This is a year or two. Then they covered the stem with grass, because they also read that the root should be covered. This is also the first two years. While the flower is not strong and did not go into active growth. The mass has grown, the trunk itself is already closing in greens and the rest is done by nature. We do not cut off for the winter. And the first two years covered it with fir branches. Clementes are not being cared for now. We do not water, do not feed, sometimes we just weed.
Clematis is very beautiful, unpretentious in the care, loves to trudge especially on the fence, if you give him a few ropes, he will willingly climb on them. Clematis flowers are quite large - 16–20 cm in diameter. It is cold-resistant, but it can freeze the shoots, it will not be difficult to cut them in May, then it will acquire young shoots. Flowering is quite abundant and long. Flowers have a faint and pleasant aroma. Clematis loves the sun and partial shade. It is possible to propagate both by dividing (if the plant is 6–7 years old) and autumn layers — in the month of October. But the best thing to do "pinning" in the spring. Shoots of last year, where the knot of the past shoots is located, need to be buried to a depth (such that at least 2 buds remain on the surface) in peat pots buried in the ground. Water well and plentifully and seedlings will be ready by the autumn.
I have never seen so huge flowers of clematis, like a sort president, as large as a saucer. The approximate size of a flower swaying on a long stalk-stalk is about 18 cm in diameter. The shape of the flower resembles a sea star with pointed edges slightly upward curved. Petals are usually 6 or 8, but there are also strange flowers with 7 petals. Color complicated. Blue-purple color with a purple stripe in the middle, very bright and juicy. The flower slightly burns out in the sun, but still remains very juicy. Anthers are dark red. Blossom twice in the summer, but so far, alas, not abundant.
Although the clematis are sun-loved, purple grows in my mid-shade! Yes, how it grows! For two months from a half-shrunk root there was a full-bloomed color-growing liana. In addition, the woolen beautiful) Velvet Rothro flowers are simply a find for the flower gardens in the old style. Or gardens like me, with a hint of abandonment) The color of the clematis purpurea of the elegance captivity is very abundant and long lasting. Every morning, men meet velvety charm, which winds in the garden arch. I am very pleased with my purchase!
The choice of a variety suitable for the climatic conditions, the right landing place and optimal care will allow you to easily create a bright “carpet” of multicolored clematis on the plot that will enliven any gazebo, a wall of an old building or a veranda. And thanks to the varieties that bloom at different times, there is a unique opportunity to admire the magnificence of colors and shades from spring to autumn.
Different types of clematis among themselves vary greatly. This culture is represented by shrubs, dwarf shrubs, herbaceous plants, but most species are lianas. Clematis has 2 types of root system: fibrous and rod (such plants do not tolerate transplantation). The stems of the current season are thin, with woody species, these shoots are faceted, and grassy ones are rounded and green in color. The development of such shoots comes from the above-ground buds of old stems or from the underground part of the bush. Leaf plates are simple or complex (3, 5 or 7 leaves are included), they are paired. As a rule, foliage has a green color, but there are species with purple leaves. The flowers are bisexual, they are part of the inflorescences, which may have a corymbose, semi-umbellate or panicle form. There are species with single flowers. Petals are actually sepals, on a flower there can be 4-8 pieces. Terry flowers have up to 70 petals. Simple flowers in the central part have a large number of pistils and stamens, thanks to which the middle one looks outwardly similar to the shaggy spider, while it often has a contrasting color. The flowers can be painted in a variety of color shades: from velvet blue to bluish, from dark red to pinkish, there are also species with white and yellow color. The lifespan of a single flower is from 15 to 20 days. Most varieties have a smell similar to jasmine, primrose or almond. The fruit is a large number of seeds.
Since there are a lot of species and varieties of clematis, some gardeners also decide to engage in its selection. To do this, just need to grow this plant from the seed. All clematis is divided into 3 groups according to the size of the seeds and the duration of their germination:
- Clematis, which have large seeds, germinating unevenly and for a long time (from 1.5 to 8 months, and sometimes longer). For example: clematis durand, jacmanne, violet, woolly and others.
- Clematis with medium-sized seeds, the germination of which can take from 1.5 to 6 months. For example: clematis whole-leaf, Manchuzhur, six-petal, Douglas, Chinese, etc.
- Clematis with small seeds, which differ friendly and fast germination (from 2 to 16 weeks). For example: clematis tangut, vine growing, etc.
The seeds collected this season are faster and best germinating. However, if the seeds are deposited in paper bags and stored in a place where the temperature is 18-23 degrees, they will remain viable for up to 4 years.
It should also be remembered that different seeds are sown at different times. Large seeds are sown directly after harvest in the autumn or in the first winter weeks; medium seeds should be sown after the New Year holidays are over; small seeds are sown in March – April. For the seeds to appear faster, they need to be prepared. To do this, before sowing, they are soaked for 1.5 weeks in water, which should be replaced 4 or 5 times a day. Tanks intended for sowing must be filled with soil mixture consisting of sand, soil and peat (1: 1: 1). After the substrate is moistened, the seeds in 1 layer are evenly distributed over its surface. Top of them must be covered with sand, with the thickness of the layer must be equal to 2 or 3 diameters of the seed. Tamp the crops a little bit, and cover the container from above with glass or small mesh. Seedlings will most quickly appear if crops are removed in a very warm place (from 25 to 30 degrees). Periodically, crops need to be watered through the pan, which will prevent the leaching of seeds. Also, if necessary, remove weeds that appear.
After the seedlings appear, the containers must be rearranged to a well-lit place, but do not forget to provide them with protection from the direct rays of the sun. After the first true leaf plates are formed in the plants, they must be laid out in individual bowls or pots. Before planting in open ground, they need to be grown at home. To plant seedlings in the garden can only begin when there is no threat of return frost.
For transplanting, it is necessary to choose a shaded area with light ground. When planting between the plants should be kept a distance of 15-20 centimeters. It is necessary to carry out systematic pinching of clematis, which will allow the bushes to increase the root mass, and also this contributes to an increase in bushiness. In winter, the seedlings will need to be covered. In spring, clematis must be transplanted into a not very deep trench (from 5 to 7 centimeters), and the distance between plants should be about 50 centimeters. Next, you should shorten the stems, they should be several nodes. After 2 or 3 years after the bushes grow at least three elastic roots, the length of which should be equal to 10-15 centimeters, they can be planted in a permanent place.
What time to land
It is very important to plant clematis in open ground at the right time, and you need to carefully select the appropriate area for this. A suitable site for planting should be drafted. Also need a sunny plot, but it will be very good if in the afternoon it will be in shading. The soil is suitable alkaline nutrient loamy, it must also be well drained and fertilized. This plant is recommended to be planted on a hill or an artificially made embankment. As a result of this, a long (about 100 cm) root will not start to rot due to the proximity of groundwater. Feeding clematis with sour peat or fresh manure is impossible. Do not plant the plant next to the fence or the building (do not allow the water from the roof to fall on clematis), between them should be kept at least 0.3 m.
It is possible to plant such a culture in open ground both in autumn and in spring. If you have purchased a seedling in the container, then it can be planted both in summer and in autumn, and in spring. If you purchased the planting material late in the fall and were late with disembarkation, then it should be kept until spring. To do this, the seedlings are placed in a cool room (not more than 5 degrees), their root system must be filled with a mixture of sand and sawdust, which should be moistened. To restrain the growth of seedlings, it is necessary to regularly produce pinching.
Before planting, you need to carefully examine the root system of the plant. If it is dried up, it should be immersed in cold water for several hours before planting, so that the roots can swell.
If the climate in the region is cool, then clematis is planted in open ground in spring, or more precisely, in the last days of April or the first in May. A spring seedling should have no less than one stem.
The size of the landing pit should be 0.6x0.6x0.6 m. At the bottom of the pit it is necessary to make a drainage layer with a thickness of 10 to 15 centimeters, for this it is recommended to use broken brick, crushed stone or perlite. If the soil is poor, then it needs to be corrected by adding 1 bucket of peat and sand, 2–3 compost buckets, 150 grams of superphosphate and 400 grams of dolomite flour (everything needs to be mixed very well, and experts recommend fertilizing the soil 1 year before landing). For the stalks of seedlings, it is necessary to install removable supports (if desired, stationary supports can be dug in), their height should reach 250 cm. The supports are needed to support the plant with strong gusts of wind. On the surface of the drainage layer it is necessary to fill the soil with a mound on which to plant the seedling. After its roots are carefully straightened, the pit is filled with pre-prepared soil mixture, it should be noted that the root collar should be buried 50–100 mm into the soil, the trunk of the shoot should also be in the ground before the first internode. The pit should not be completely filled; 8 to 10 centimeters should remain to its upper edge. Planted bush should be watered with 10 liters of water. Then the surface of the recess near the bush should be covered with a layer of peat. During the spring and summer, the remaining excavation should be gradually filled with soil. When planting between plants, you need to keep a distance of at least 100 cm.
In the southern regions with a warm climate, planting of this plant is made in autumn, or rather, in September or October, but the seedling must always have developed vegetative buds. Planting clematis in the fall should be exactly the same as in the spring, but in this case the planting hole is completely filled with soil. Then, the ground surface around the seedling should be covered with a layer of dried foliage, and it should be covered from above with any covering material, for example, lutrasil. В весеннее время около растеньица необходимо удалить грунт на глубину от 8 до 10 сантиметров, на протяжении летнего периода получившееся углубление надо постепенно заполнить почвой. Подобные углубления делают для того, чтобы стеблям было легче пробиться на поверхность участка.
Уход за клематисом в саду
Вырастить клематис в саду очень просто. This plant is moisture-loving, so at least 1 time in 7 days it should be watered abundantly. In hot summer, clematis will need to be watered 2 or 3 times a week. For one irrigation of a young bush, you need to take 1-2 buckets of water, and for an adult - from 2 to 4. Several pots are recommended to be dug around the plant, with a hole in the bottom. During watering they accumulate water, which then will gradually penetrate into the ground, which is especially good in hot, dry time. If in springtime the soil surface was not covered with a layer of mulch, then it would be necessary to regularly loosen the soil surface 1 day after watering, and all weed grass should be pulled out. If you fill up the surface of the soil with a layer of mulch (moss, peat or humus), then this will significantly reduce the amount of watering, and also slow down the growth of weeds.
During the first year after planting the plant in open ground, too much fertilizer should not be applied to the soil, because a weakened seedling can fade with them. During the period of intensive growth for fertilizing clematis it is necessary to use nitrogen-containing fertilizers, during the formation of buds - potash, at the end of flowering - phosphate. When the plant is cut in the summer, it must be fed with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer (20 liters per 10 liters of water), and also with a copper solution. In spring, the bush should be watered annually with lime milk (dolomite flour and chalk). During the flowering period, all top dressing of clematis must be stopped, otherwise it will lose its activity. If in summer there is a large amount of rain, then the lower part of the trunk must be covered with wood ash, which will prevent the appearance of rot on the root system of the plant.
You can purchase several types of supports for vines, namely: fan structures, arches and pyramids. Clematis is suitable for any of the structures, but it should be noted that the place where the vine clings to the support should have a diameter of no more than 10–12 mm. It is also necessary to take into account that the overgrown clematis is quite heavy, especially when it rains, in connection with this it is necessary to buy such a structure that is made of a sufficiently strong material. One of the great ideas is to install a cylinder, which should be made of rare metal mesh. Liana should grow inside this structure, which it gradually closes its foliage.
This plant can be grown from seed. Information on how to do this can be found above. Also, this liana can be propagated by vegetative methods: by dividing a bush, by summer and autumn layers, as well as by pinching young shoots.
For division, you should choose a bush that is not more than 6 years old, since more mature specimens have a powerful root system, which is very difficult to handle. The plant must be carefully removed from the soil, then the soil is removed from its root. With the help of a secateur, the bush is cut into several delenok, each of them should have buds on the root neck.
To obtain otvodkov in October with the stems need to cut off all the foliage. The faded part should be cut to the first developed kidney. Then the shoots are woven into a bundle and laid into grooves, at the bottom of which there is a layer of peat. The stems fixed in such a position must be filled with peat, and above it with soil that must be tamped. Clematis for the winter should be covered with dried leaves or spruce branches. As soon as the spring period comes, you need to start watering the landing site regularly and abundantly. After the shoots seem, the surface of the soil around them must be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or peat). With the onset of the autumn period, most of the young plants can be planted in a permanent place. To prevent injury to the root system, it is necessary to remove sprouts from the soil using the forks. Laying of layers, if desired, can be done in the summer, but it should be noted that in this case it is likely that the shoots will die in winter.
Pinching the stems is recommended to do in the spring. To do this, choose last year's shoots, they must be pinned at the site of the node in pots filled with loose soil and peat, which should be dug into the ground below the surface of the site. As a result, the liquid will linger in the pot during irrigation. As the seedling grows, it is necessary to feed the soil into the pot, while pouring it should be a mound. In the fall will be formed beautiful seedlings.
Diseases and pests
Most often, such a culture suffers wilt, which is a fungal disease. At the bush, the elasticity of the tissues is lost, it begins to wither and dry. There are several pathogens with similar symptoms, they are all in the ground and first infect the root system. The best way to prevent is compliance with the rules of agrotechnology. The first symptoms of the disease will manifest as early as the beginning of the spring period. In May, the affected areas should be removed, and the bush itself should be shed below the root with Azocene or Fundazole, the concentration of which should be 2%. If the bush is struck very strongly, then it must be dug together with a clod of earth and burned, and the site should be disinfected by the same means. Azocene and Fundazol will help to cure specimens infected with powdery mildew or gray mold.
Still this plant can get rust, which is also a fungal disease. In the affected specimens, in the springtime, orange-colored pads are formed on the surface of the stems and leaves. Over time, the foliage changes its color to brown and dries out, the stems are deformed. Infected specimens must be treated with Bordeaux liquor (1–2%), either copper chloroxide or Oxyhom.
In the last weeks of the summer period, necrosis of a dark gray color may form on the surface of the stems and foliage, due to which the color of the affected parts changes, and they also become velvety. In the middle of the summer period, plants may be affected by ascochytosis, due to which necrotic spots appear on the foliage, which have an irregular shape. If clematis becomes infected with cylindrosporosis, then spots of a rich yellow color will appear on the surface of its leaf plates. You can cope with all these diseases with the help of products containing copper, for example, you can use a solution of blue vitriol (1%).
This plant is resistant to viral diseases. However, sucking insects can cause damage to the bush with a yellow mosaic of leaves, which they have not yet learned to treat. In this regard, the affected specimen must be excavated and burned. For planting clematis, it is not recommended to choose areas that are located next to the host, sweet peas, delphinium, aquilegia, phlox and peony, because these plants are susceptible to mosaic disease.
Also, such a culture may suffer from leaf or gall nematodes. If you dig out rotten bushes, be sure to conduct a thorough inspection of their root system. If there are nodules on it, it is forbidden to plant clematis in this area for several years.
Clematis after flowering
Preparing the plant for winter should be done in late autumn. To do this, from the bush it is necessary to cut off all the foliage, and the root neck must be subjected to treatment with copper sulphate solution (2%). Then in dry weather under the base of the plant in the center of the bush should pour 1 bucket of humus. Then you need to produce an earthing up of the bush to a height of 10 to 15 centimeters, for this, a mixture of wood ash with sand is used (250 grams of ash are taken for 1 bucket of sand). If the plant needs shelter, then it is covered in a dry way. To do this, the stems are folded down (and you can twist them and put them on the base), then they are poured with dry foliage, spruce leaves or crushed foam. From above they should be covered with a box made of wood, because there must be air around the bush. The box is covered from above with any covering material that does not allow water, for example, roofing felt, roofing, etc. To prevent covering material from being blown away, it must be pressed at the corners with stones or bricks, and covered with peat or ground, the thickness of which should be from 0 , 2 to 0.25 m. In the springtime, peat and covering materials are primarily harvested. Foliage or spruce branches are removed only when the return frost left behind. Stems must be carefully raised. After they are straightened, they are distributed among the supports.
Types and varieties of clematis with photos and names
There are many clematis classifications. So, they are divided into groups of MA Beskaravaynoy, which take into account the maternal lineage of the species, uses M. Tamura's taxonomic system, as well as the classification of L. Bailey, A. Raider, V. Mettjuza, and others.
Novices, as well as amateur gardeners for the most part enjoy the simplest classifications of clematis by the size of flowers: small-flowered, medium-flowered and large-flowered. However, the most convenient classification system is the following:
- group A - flowering observed on last year's shoots
- group B - flowering is observed on shoots of the past and the current year,
- group C - flowering observed on shoots of the current year.
Below will be considered in more detail these groups, as well as varieties of clematis related to them.
Alpine Clematis (Alpina)
The height of such a creeper is about 300 cm. Leathery leaf plates are large. Tubular small flowers have a blue color. Flowering begins in August. In some cases, it is also used as a curb plant. Popular varieties:
- Artagen Franky. It reaches a height of 200–240 cm. The flowers of the bell-shaped form are directed downwards. They are blue and have a white middle.
- Albina plena. Height of a plant is about 280 cm. Flowers terry a white color. Flowering occurs in May – June.
- Pamela jackman. Stems in length can reach 200–300 cm. Drooping flowers have a blue-violet color, they reach a length of 60 to 70 mm. Blossoms in April – June. Re-bloom is observed from the middle to the end of the summer period, it is less luxuriant compared to the first.
Clematis description with photo
Belongs to the family of buttercups. In nature, there are about 300 species that can be found on all continents (except Antarctica) - in forests, steppes, along river banks, in canyons and on rocky placers.
- Types of clematis vary greatly among themselves. In herbaceous perennials (C. mandshurica, C. recta, C. texensis), shoots die off by the end of the growing season. Semi-shrubs (S. heracleifolia, C. integrifolia) have lignified lower parts, which persist for several years, and upper, annually dying.
- In shrubs (C. fruticosa f. Lobata) - completely lignified wintering shoots. Most of the species (S. tangutica, C. vitalba, S. viticella) belong to the group of lian leaflases, which use supports, climbing them with the help of leaf petioles.
- The root system of clematis is of two types: pivotal (C. tangutica, C. serratifolia) and fibrous, S. viticella. It must be remembered that clematis with tap-root poorly tolerate transplant. It is better to plant them immediately to a permanent place.
The name Clematis comes from the Greek word. klema, denoting once any climbing plant. Of the many popular names (kolokin, grandfather curls, warthog, etc.) in Russia most often use the "clematis". Probably, this liana was named so because of the strong smell of dug out roots or because its seeds have a curved outgrowth.
In clematis thin, 2-5 mm in diameter, shoots of the current year. In grassy species, they are round, green, in woody - four-hexagonal, light or dark reddish-brown. They develop in spring from dormant buds in the underground part of the plant or from above-ground buds of overwintered shoots.
Clematis leaves are paired, simple or complex, consisting of three, five or seven leaves, in addition to the usual green, there are forms with purple color.
Clematis flowers, as a rule, are bisexual, solitary, or gathered into inflorescences of various shapes (shield, whisk, half-tint). The role of petals in clematis is played by sepals, numbering from four to eight, in terry varieties - up to seventy.
In the center of a simple flower is the so-called lush "spider" (many pistils and stamens], it often has a different color than the "petals", which gives the flower a special charm. And the tender flowers are painted very whimsically: white, yellow, all the nuances of transitions from pale pink and pale blue to velvet shimmering shades of red and blue.
- And this charming picture pleases more than one day - the life of a flower lasts a week or two, and a terry - almost three. If you choose the right variety, you can achieve the flowering of clematis in the garden from spring to autumn.
- After all, early species are covered with flowers within two months after spring awakening, and late ones - at the end of summer. Only steady frosts will interrupt their blooming.
- Short-term lowering of temperature at night (up to -2 ... -7 ° C) and a little snow to clematis are not terrible - after warming, the buds open. Flowers of some species exude aromas of jasmine, primroses, almonds.
The fruits of clematis are numerous achenes with short or long pubescent columns and fleecy beaks, gathered in fluffy silky heads.
From the history
The beginning of the cultivation of clematis in Western Europe dates back to the 16th century, and in Japan, the clematis culture has an even longer history. In Russia, clematis appeared at the beginning of the 19th century as greenhouse plants.
Active work on the cultivation and introduction of clematis in our country began to develop only in the middle of the XX century. And as a result of selection work, wonderful varieties and forms were created, which further emphasize the unique charm of these magnificent plants.
Clematis - light-loving plants. If the light is not enough, not only you will not achieve good flowering, you can not wait for it at all. Therefore, in the middle lane, it is best to plant them in sunny or slightly shaded areas in the midday hours. Only in the southern regions, where clematis often suffer from overheating of the soil, they are planted in partial shade.
With group plantings, each plant should receive enough light, and the distance between the bushes should be at least 1 meter. The wind is a terrible enemy of clematis, not only in summer, but also in winter: it breaks and confuses shoots, damages flowers. Where snow is blown away in winter, planting clematis is not the best idea. And in the lowlands, where cold air accumulates, clematis feel uncomfortable.
Clematis is very demanding of moisture: during growth they need abundant watering. At the same time, wet, swampy areas with a high standing of groundwater (less than 1.2 hours are not suitable for them, even if the water stagnates only for a short time. Over-wetting of the soil is dangerous not only in summer, but in early spring during and after snowmelt. Planning planting clematis, you need to think about the natural outflow of water from the bush: pour the ground, plant bushes on the ridge or dig a groove with a slope.
Clematis prefer fertile sandy or loamy soil rich in humus, loose, from slightly alkaline to weakly acidic.
since clematis can grow in one place for more than 20 years, they prepare the earth very deeply in advance. Usually, pits of not less than 60x60x60 cm are dug, and for group plantings the plot is prepared over the entire area.
- 2-3 buckets of humus or compost, 1 bucket of peat and sand, 100-150 g of superphosphate, 200 g of total mineral fertilizer, preferably 100 g of bone meal, 150 are mixed with the top layer of the earth taken out of the hole and cleared of the roots of perennial weeds. -200 g of lime or chalk, 200 g of ash.
- On light soils add more peat, leaf humus and clay.
- If the soil at the site is wet, dense or clay, then 10-1 5 cm layer of crushed stone, broken brick or coarse sand is poured at the bottom of the pit. Carefully mixed earthen mixture poured into the pit and compacted.
In the southern regions, it is preferable to do this in the fall (from late September to early November, in the middle lane the best time is September (in warm weather and later), further north the clematis is planted in spring (late April - May) or early autumn. Plants in containers you can plant whenever you want (except for winter, of course).
In the center of the pit establish a solid rigid support. Stretched rope is not suitable here, it will not protect young fragile whips from wind gusts. Filling the pit with soil about halfway, they make a mound on which the clematis roots are straightened to the sides and down. While holding the plant by hand, pour the mixture to the roots, making sure that clematis is planted with the deepening.
- Only then will the tillering center develop on it, on which new buds are laid later, shoots and roots are formed.
- Such bushes better tolerate harsh winters, less suffer from the heat. Clematis planted flush with the surface are short-lived: they do not bush, grow 1-2 stems, their root system suffers from soaking.
- The larger the seedling, the deeper the planting should be. Молодые одно-двухлетние растения заглубляют на 8-12 см и нижнюю пару почек, более взрослые и деленные кусты — на 12-18 см.
- Если клематис высаживают весной, то посадочную яму заполняют землей не до краев, а оставляют 5-8 см незасыпанными, чтобы “новоприбывший” не “задохнулся”.
По мере одревеснения побегов это пространство постепенно заполняют почвой. After planting, clematis is plentifully watered, littered from the sun, and the ground around the plant is mulched with peat. When planting in the fall, the ground is filled to the brim, the entire above-ground part is cut to the level of the soil or slightly higher.
Varieties and varieties of clematis
The genus Clematis (Clematis) has a huge number of species (according to some sources up to 380), which are usually classified by pruning groups.
Clematis are divided into species and varieties as follows:
- 1 group. The formation of flower buds occurs on shoots of the current year,
- 2 group. The formation of flower buds occurs on the shoots of last year.
Any pruning stimulates the plants to a new shoot formation, branching and abundant flowering. Photos of blooming clematis bushes attract and fascinate: you can consider them for hours, marveling at the variety of colors.
Clematis count a huge amount specieswhich are divided into:
- Grassy perennial vines - at the end of the growing season, the shoots die off completely.
- Semi-shrubs - the upper part of the bush dies off annually, the lower (bush) remains for many years.
- Shrubs - the plant forms a large lignified stalk that winters beautifully without pruning.
Clematis grown in open ground, it is customary to divide into wild species, small and large-flowered, climbing and bush. Wild clematis is the progenitor of modern cultivated varieties.
The natural habitat of wild plant species is a temperate climate, where they grow beautifully and bloom with small flowers. The color of flowers in wild species of clematis is limited to white, with all tones of yellow and blue. Occasionally there are individuals with small reddish or purple flowers with a diameter of up to 4 cm.
A rich collection of clematis (clematis) of natural species (over 200 species and forms) is preserved in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden in the Crimea.
Hybrid Clematis (C. hybrida hort.)
These are powerful perennial creepers or semi-shrubs, reaching a height of 3 m, which cling to the support of leaf stalks and stems. Single flowers are collected in inflorescences, the diameter of a single flower can reach 20 cm. After flowering, decorative clematis forms rounded pubescent fruits.
Juicy, green, dissected leaves are beautiful on their own, but during the flowering period, when the vine is like a blooming bonfire, the plant looks very decorative. Clematis need to provide a sunny and sheltered place. In addition, the plant will need a strong support, as the weight of an adult plant with flowers and leaves can be in excess of 100 kg.
Growing large-flowered varieties due to the high ornamentalness of clematis of this group. The size of the flower in the dissolution reaches 20 cm. A variety of color - juicy and bright - adds decorativeness to these plants. Therefore, large-flowered clematis varieties are popular when grown in open ground, often used to create compositions in landscape design.
This group of flowering plants is divided into several subgroups with significant differences in vegetation.
Jacmanne - large vines, sometimes semi-shrubs. The shoots reach a length of 4 m. The plant develops a powerful, branched root system with strong and long roots. Clematis Zhakmana bloom large flowers without smell. They are characterized by a bright color of blue-violet, white and purple tones. Flowering is long, flowers appear on the shoots of the current year. These vines are pruned shortly when preparing for the winter.
Important! When pruning clematis Zhakman autumn, you need to leave 2-3 pairs of lower buds.
Vititsella - length 3.5 m. Widely open flowers painted in pinkish and purple tones. Flowering on the shoots of the current year is characterized by a high decorative effect and duration. Winter pruning required. Clematis Vititsella when planting in open ground in perfect harmony with the varieties of other groups.
Lanuginosa - thin lashes of these lianoobrazny shrubs climb onto supports up to 2.5 m in height. Plants of this subgroup are distinguished by a friendly flowering on last year's shoots. A cascade of single flowers of delicate blue, pink and white tones with shades unanimously and massively unfolds. Clematis pruning this fall. The following year, the vines will bloom in late summer, already on the shoots of the current year.
Patents - lignified vines. In length, the plants of this subgroup reach 3.5 m. The flowers are solitary, can reach up to 15 cm in diameter, and are colored in different tones. This subgroup includes cultivars with full double and semi-double flowers. Flowering is observed exclusively on last year's shoots. In the fall, a gentle pruning of the plant is carried out - the lash is slightly shortened, a reliable shelter for the winter is required.
Florida - long shrub type creepers. In height, plants of this group can reach 3 m. Flowering on the shoots of the past year. Large flowers can have completely different colors, but mostly light colors. Pruning is done before winter, the upper part of the plant is cut, up to about 2 meters. The remaining bush, preparing for wintering, is well warmed.
Integrifolia - Clematis of this group reaches a height of only 1.5 meters, but at the same time they are characterized by abundant and powerful formation of the skeletal part of the plant. They form a lot of whips. The flowers are medium in size - up to 12 cm. The color of the petals varies from dark to light tones. Flowering - on the shoots of last year. In the fall the shoots are pruned.
Planting a plant
Planting clematis - responsible business. It is required to take into account the many nuances. The first decade of September, the best time when landing clematis is most preferable.
Most varietal clematis require support to support the plant. You can choose a place for planting near the wall of the house, but it is necessary to ensure the removal of precipitation from the roof to the other side, so that excess water does not cause soaking and rotting of the clematis roots.
When planting plants alone, it is necessary to take into account the direction of the prevailing wind, which can harm the plant, especially the young and not stronger.
Let's talk more about how to plant and how to grow clematis
Growing clematis usually begins with the purchase of a one-year sapling. How and when to plant it? How to care for clematis in the future?
The best time for planting is early summer, when the danger of late frosts is over. But you can plant in the fall, a month and a half before these frosts. The seedlings should have enough time to take root.
- Planting clematis is recommended in a well-lit, sheltered from the wind place.
- These plants grow well on alkaline, neutral soils or on soils with a weakly acidic reaction. For planting clematis dig holes, on heavy soils 70x70x70 cm, on light 50x50x50 cm.
- The distance between the pits from 70 cm to one meter. Clematis can not stand waterlogging and stagnant water. If the groundwater is close, put gravel on the bottom, broken bricks with a layer of 10-15 cm.
Before planting clematis, the pits are filled with nutrient soil (oily loose clay is well suited), add 1-2 buckets of humus and 50-100 g of superphosphate or nitrophobia. Clematis seedlings are buried by 6-8 cm, leaving a hole around the plant. The following year, the plants are buried by another 10-15 cm. The degree of burial depends on the soil — on heavy soils it is buried less, on the lungs it is more. After planting, the shoots are shortly cut, leaving 2-4 lower buds. A few weeks later, when the shoots grow, they are cut again. Strong pruning of clematis in the first two years of life contributes to a better development of the roots.
After you have planted clematis, water it abundantly, for better water access and to prevent soil blurring, you can make a well around the plant. Not bad to mulch the soil with sawdust or peat. Seedling need to priteni from direct sunlight.
When planting clematis do not forget about the supports. They need to be installed right now. On sale there are many beautiful fences, grilles, ladders. You can make the supports yourself, but remember that they must be not only durable, but also attractive in appearance, because Clematis whips will close them only in the second half of the summer. The height of the supports from 1.5 to 3 meters.
As clematis grows every 2-3 days, shoots need to be tied up to a support so that the wind does not tear them.
Watering and fertilizer
Clematis is water-loving: it requires abundant three-willow irrigation at least once a week, and in the summer heat - up to three times. In order to sufficiently moisten the plant, dig three pots with a hole in the bottom into the ground around it. They will accumulate water during rain or watering and slowly feed the liana root system on dry days.
- If the soil is not muddy, you will have to loosen it a day after watering, at the same time weeding.
- Mulch protects the soil from excessive drying, weathering and frost penetration, enriches it with microelements, helps in weed control.
- Do not neglect this manipulation. Mulch the soil around clematis with sawdust, peat, or moss.
Several times a season the plant needs to be fed. In May - with urea (1 tablespoon per bucket of water), from June to August - complex fertilizer for garden flowers at least twice. After the second flowering, provide power to clematis in the winter. To do this, add 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate and superphosphate to a bucket of water.
When growing clematis, watering plays an important role. Clematis must be watered abundantly, especially the first two years after planting. Under the three-year bushes need to pour out 2-3 buckets once or twice a week. Correct watering is the key to a beautiful and lush flowering of plants.
To better retain moisture, it is recommended to loosen and mulch the land near the plants. For mulching, you can use humus, peat, rotted sawdust.
In the first two years, clematis mainly grows horses, few shoots are formed, only 1-3. Single flowers that appear on these shoots, it is better to pick off. Then, with the right, caring care, 5-6 summer bushes will develop dozens of shoots and hundreds of beautiful flowers will bloom on them.
New power - new shoots
From the third year, Clematis are gaining strength, many new shoots grow. By cutting and pinching shoots during the summer, you can adjust the timing of flowering. So, if you shorten a part of strong shoots, on the growing new shoots clematis flowers will appear later and the flowering will be longer.
Clematis is very responsive to feeding.
Fertilizing grown plants is recommended once a week. Feed the full mineral fertilizer (30 g per 10 liters of water per 2 sq. M of soil).
You can feed the wood ash (1 cup per plant). A mullein, which is diluted at the rate of ten parts of water, is well suited as a fertilizer.
Clematis Shelter for the Winter
Clematis are natives of the warm places of the globe, so they need shelter for the winter. In late autumn, all clematis are pruned, but pruned differently, depending on which group the variety belongs to.
So clematis from groups Florida, Patents, Lanuginoza, whose flowers are formed on last year's shoots, after the first frosts cut by one third, and then the vines of the plants are laid in rings on the ground and well covered. The following year, in the first half of summer, large flowers will bloom on these shoots, later flowers will appear on the shoots of the current year.
And those clematis, flowers which are formed on annual shoots, for example, in the varieties of the group Jacqueman and Vititsell, need to be cut in the autumn, leaving hemp with 2-3 nodes.
After this, the plants are covered with boards, boxes, covered with earth, leaves, spruce leaves, sawdust, rotted manure, weathered peat layer 20-30 cm. And when the snow falls, you need to sketch it on top.
Lay, covered with leaves
Some flower growers do not cut the vines, but laying them on the ground, cover the lower part with fallen leaves, crushed peat, dry inflorescences of large perennials approximately 20 centimeters thick. On such plants, lambs up to half a meter long with live buds are kept. In the spring they take shelter, cut off the dead parts of the vines.
- Then the side shoots, which bloom profusely throughout the summer, begin to develop faster.
- Currently cultivated varieties of frost-resistant clematis, blooming on last year's shoots. This clematis: Alpine, krupnolepechest, Siberian, mountainous.
- For such varieties, pruning is not necessary and they can winter without shelter in the middle zone. Siberian Clematis withstands even colder winters, up to -30 degrees.
In the autumn you need to remember that too dense shelter prevents ventilation, and this plant may die.
Clematis in spring
In the spring, do not rush to open clematis: intermittent frost and bright sun detrimental effect on the kidneys. And when the danger of spring frost has passed, the shelter is removed after which the clematis is fed with nitrogenous fertilizers, for example, with urea - 40 g per 10 liters of water. On acidic soils, clematis is poured with lime milk (200 g of slaked lime per 10 liters of water per 1 sq. M of soil).
Planting is carried out in square pits, the sides of which are 0.6 m. The depth of the pit is about the same. Soil soil is required to remove, prepare the planting mixture:
- 2 humus buckets,
- 1 bucket of peat mixture and coarse sand,
- 100 g of double superphosphate (in granules),
- 400 grams of ash
- chalk - 200 g
Important! Sour soil in the planting area must be neutralized. Culture develops only on alkaline and neutral soils.
For planting, it is required to preliminarily prepare cuttings with a part of the woody stalk and cuttings.
The pit is filled with nutrient mixture and put a support. The seedling is placed on the ground covered with a mound. The roots must be carefully straightened. It is impossible to fill the root neck with soil. After planting the plants should be watered, not allowing overflow.
Clematis bushes can be planted at any time, even in summer and spring, but preferably in the fall.
Clematis care includes many agrotechnical measures, but the most important of them is pruning. By trimming the crop properly, one can achieve the development of powerful, abundant flowering plants.
There are varieties of clematis, which absolutely can not be cut. Flower buds in these plants are laid on the matured shoots of last year. Thickened plantings thin out after flowering, leaving shoots of at least 1 m.
Pruning the second group of plants (varieties with large flowers that bloom in the spring on the shoots of last year, and then repeat flowering on the current year's growth) is carried out at the age of 1 year to a height of 30 cm, and in two-year shoots it is allowed to remove up to 1.5 m of the shoots .
Varieties of clematis blooming in late summer (Viticella, Late Large-flowered) are subject to heavy pruning. They are pruned low above the ground, not higher than 20-50 cm from the ground.
Caring for plants during the growing season is reduced to loosening and mulching the soil, weeding, feeding. Regular watering is important (in hot weather it is necessary to water abundantly).
In the heat, plants suffer from overheating of the soil, so it is very important to mulch the soil on top of the planting pits.
To support plants, it is important to install supports that can support the weight of the plant. The supports must be installed at such a height that the plant is able to climb up the support freely.
Clematis Fertilizer and Feeding
Feeding clematis begins after the regrowth of green mass. Fertilizer is used nitrogen, which stimulates growth. Watering is combined in time with the application of fertilizer.
The second dressing is carried out at the time of plant budding. Apply phosphate and potash fertilizers.
During the growing season of the plant, about 2 times a month, it is required to fertilize the plants with microelements.
An important event is the autumn fertilization of plants with phosphorus, approximately in September. A double superphosphate (granular) is added to the near-trunk circles.
Important! An overdose of phosphate fertilizers causes premature aging of the plant and chlorosis.
Clematis are so beautiful in the open field that you always want to independently propagate the plant to decorate the site.
The plant is allowed to propagate seed and vegetative way:
- The division of the bush. This method is suitable for adults, overgrown plants, but not older than 7 years. The bush is dug, cut into delenki with part of the root system and the kidneys. It is better to shorten long shoots for better survival of the bush. Plants are planted in accordance with the rules of planting clematis.
- Reproduction shoots. Green shoots with internodes pinned to the ground in spring, covered with soil. After the formation of the root system, the plants are separated and planted.
- Summer cutting. Clematis shoot is passed through a tank without a bottom, which is gradually filled with soil. Reproduction of clematis in this way allows you to get a full-fledged plant without special costs.
- Seed propagation of culture is used in breeding work on the breeding of new varieties.
Diseases and pests
Clematis is a rather unpretentious plant, but sometimes the culture is attacked by pests. Развитие болезней у растения часто сопряжено с неправильным уходом.
Корневую систему растения повреждают медведки и кроты, галловые и корневые нематоды, листья и молодые побеги – улитки и слизни. Кроме того, на листьях растения поселяются: тля, мучнистый червец, паутинный клещ (особенно в жаркое лето без дождей), щитовка.
It is possible to destroy plant pests using special means of combating a certain type of pest.
Clematis may be affected by the following diseases:
- Mealy dew - white bloom covers all parts of the plant. The leaves curl and wither. Treatment: all plants are treated with 0.05 - 0.2% systemic fungicide (karatan). Cut off infected plant parts need to be burned.
- Withering - a fungal disease that causes the rapid wilting of the green parts of clematis. Treatment: treatment with basezol, phytosporin-M, copper oxychloride.
- Rust - a rusty deposit appears on the leaves, causing a slowdown in growth and abscission of leaves. Treatment: spraying Bordeaux mixture.
- Yellow mosaic is a viral disease characterized by massive yellowing of the leaves. There is no cure, the plants are destroyed.
Clematis: combination with other plants
Growing clematis in the open field is possible in single plantings, but the decorativeness of clematis vines increases with the combination of other plants when decorating territories in landscape design.
The perfect combination of blooming clematis when planting next to climbing roses, barberry, chubushnik, forsythia, coniferous plants.
A great combination is obtained by planting clematis on the lawn. Especially decorative bush looks when installing proper support.
Clematis Flowery (Florida)
A woody liana, reaching a height of more than 300 cm. Fragrant single flowers are relatively large, as a rule, they are painted in light color shades. There are two-color varieties. The most popular varieties:
- Vyvyan pennell. Plant height reaches about 350 cm. Terry flowers of lilac color in diameter reach from 12 to 15 centimeters.
- Kid. The height of the bush is about 100 cm. The flowers are cruciform pale-violet color with blue tint, they reach 10 to 14 centimeters in diameter.
- Joan of Arc. Terry fragrant flowers of white color have a compact size, but against the background of a small bush, they look large. Such clematis is resistant to frost, direct sunlight, shade and most diseases.
Clematis Mountain (Montana)
In height, this giant vine reaches 9 meters. Small sharp sheet plates are collected in small bunches of 5 pieces. White flowers are located on long pedicels, they have yellow stamens, and in the diameter they reach 40–50 mm. Does not have a high winter hardiness. Popular varieties:
- Rubens. This woody vine is characterized by rapid growth, it reaches a length of about 6 meters. Pointed trifoliate leaf plates have an oval shape and a bronze sheen. Pink-red open flowers are collected in 3-5 pieces. In diameter, they reach 60 mm. This light-loving plant is distinguished by lush flowering.
- Montana Grandiflora. In this creeper shoots in length can reach 5 meters. The contiguous trifoliate leaf plates are placed in bunches. Medium open flowers about 50 mm in diameter have a very delicate aroma. They are several pieces in bundles. The color of the sepals is pink-white or white, and the anthers are yellowish. Flowering occurs in May – June.
Clematis woolly (Lanuginosa)
In length, this shrub vine reaches about 250 cm. Very spectacular single flowers in diameter reach about 0.2 m, they can be painted in blue, white or pink. The first bloom occurs in May – June on last year’s shoots, and the second in last summer weeks, but already on the shoots of the current season. The most popular are the following varieties:
- Madame le Cultre. The length of the shoots can vary from 250 to 300 cm. Solid or lobed leaf plates can be trifoliate or simple. In diameter, the flowers reach from 14 to 20 centimeters, they have white sepals and light colored anthers. Flowering begins in July. The plant has an average resistance to frost.
- Hybrida Sieboldii. The length of the stems is about 300 cm. Flowers in diameter reach 16 centimeters. Sepals are painted in pale lilac color and have a dark edge, anthers are brown-red. Flowering occurs in July – September.
- Lawsoniana. The length of the stems of this shrub vine can reach about 300 cm. Leaf plates can be simple, but most often they are trifoliate, the leaves have an oval shape. The buds look up. In diameter fragrant flowers reach 18 centimeters. The color of the sepals is purple-lilac, with a strip of dark shade in the center, the anthers are purple. Flowering occurs in May – June, with occasionally weaker re-flowering occurring in autumn.
Clematis sprawling (Patents)
The stems of this shrub vine can have a length of about 350 cm. Large flowers in diameter reach 15 or more centimeters. They can have a variety of colors from dark blue to white. There are two-color varieties. Flowers may have a star-shaped, simple or terry shape. Flowering is observed in May – June at last year’s shoots. Sometimes there is a re-bloom in the autumn, but already on the shoots of the current season. All varieties have low winter hardiness:
- Joan Pikton. Stems in length can reach about 300 cm. The flowers are large, so in diameter they can reach 22 centimeters. They are painted in a pale lilac color with a lilac shade, with a stripe of light color in the middle of the petal. The petals have a wavy edge, the anthers are painted red. Flowering is very lush.
- Multi Blue. The height of the creeper can reach up to 250 cm. Terry flowers of violet-blue color in diameter reach about 14 centimeters. On the stalk they are placed in several tiers. Blooming is observed in June – August.
Clematis group Jacman
These plants were obtained by crossing Clematis Vititsella with Clematis Lanuginose. In most cases, this group is represented by large shrub vines, the length of the stems which can vary from 4 to 6 meters. The root system is very well developed. The composition of the feather-complex leaf plates includes from 3 to 5 large leaflets. The buds are elongated. Flowers can be collected in three pieces or be single. They are open, have no flavor and are directed to the side and up. Can be painted in a variety of colors, but not white. Flowers across reach 20 centimeters. But there are varieties whose diameter of flowers does not exceed eight centimeters. Long and lush flowering is observed on the shoots of the current season. In winter, they should be cut to the level of the surface of the plot, or shoots should be shortened to 3-5 bud pairs. The most popular are the following varieties:
- Rouge Cardinal. The length of the stems of such vines can vary from 200 to 250 cm. The leafy plates are ternate. Cross-shaped flowers open in diameter reaches about 15 centimeters. Sepals velvety dark purple color, anthers - pale purple. Flowering occurs in July – September. It has moderate frost resistance. This variety has a large number of gardening awards.
- Star of india. The stems of this shrub vine can be up to about 300 cm in length. The complex leaf plates contain from 3 to 5 whole or lobed leaves of oval-pointed shape. Revealed flowers in diameter reach 15 centimeters. Diamond-shaped sepals have a rich purple color, a purple stripe runs along the middle, anthers have a light color. Very lush bloom is observed from the middle to the end of the summer period.
- Gipsy queen. The length of the shoots of such a shrub vine is about 350 cm. In one bush there are about 15 stems. Sheet plate complex. Buds raised up. Revealed flowers in diameter reach 15 centimeters. Velvet wide sepals painted in rich purple color, they practically do not fade in the sun. The anthers have a maroon color, while the pollen is also colored. Flowering is lush, observed from mid-summer to frost. Differs in shade tolerance, about 20 flowers form on one stalk. It is resistant to fungal diseases.
- Bella. The length of the stems is about 200 cm. Waxy stellate flowers in diameter reach 10–15 centimeters. At first they have a yellowish color, but then become snow white. This plant is resistant to frost and fungal diseases. Flowering occurs in July – September.
Clematis purple (Vititsella)
In this species, the flowers are painted in various shades of purple. The flowers are simple, there are drooping, in diameter, they can reach 10-20 centimeters. The length of the stems does not exceed 350 cm, while they are characterized by rapid growth. Flowering occurs in June – September. Grades:
- Wil de Lyon. This liana is shrub. In one bush there are about 15 dark brown stems that can be up to 350 cm in length. The complex leaf plates include from 3 to 5 lobed or whole leaves, yellowing and drying at the base of the shoots. Buds look up, flower stalks are long. Opened flowers in the diameter of 10 to 15 centimeters. Carmine-red sepals are quite wide, in the summer they fade in the sun. Anthers have a rich yellow color. The flowering is lush, about 15 flowers are formed on each stem.
- Viola. The length of the stems is about 250 cm. The leafy plates are trifoliate. Lush and prolonged flowering is observed in July and October. Discovered disc-shaped flowers look similar to a propeller, they can be from 10 to 14 centimeters across. On the surface of the dark purple sepals are well distinguishable purple veins, anther yellowish color.
- Polish Spirit. The length of the stems of this vine can reach 400 cm. They grow a large number of lilac-purple flowers, reaching a diameter of about 8 centimeters. Flowering is observed from the last days of June until frost.
Clematis whole-leaf (Integrifolia)
It is a climbing shrub, not clinging to the support. In height, such clematis reaches no more than 250 cm. Bell-shaped, drooping flowers can be painted in pink, blue, red, purple, or blue. The most popular are the following varieties:
- Clematis Durandii (Clematis Durand). One of the most beautiful large-flowered species that are hybrids. The height of such a climbing bush is about 200 cm. There are about 15 brown stalks in one bush. Dense, solid, simple oval-shaped sheet plates are resistant to the direct rays of the sun. Drooping flowers in diameter reach 12 centimeters. Sepals are painted in bright blue or deep purple color, they fade in the sun, anther color is yellowish. On one stalk about 15 flowers are formed. Flowering is observed in July – October.
- Värava. The stems are about 250 cm long. In the diameter of stellate flowers reach 12–16 centimeters, from the inside they are pale lilac, and a stripe of burgundy color passes through the petals. Their outer surface is even brighter lilac shade, while the median strip also has a paler color. Flowering ends with frost.
- Memory of the heart. The length of the stems at this semi-shrub varies from 100 to 200 cm. The drooping flowers of bell-shaped in diameter reach from 5 to 9 centimeters. Lush bloom is observed in July – October (before frosts).
Clematis burning (small-flowered)
This is a fast-growing liana with small fragrant flowers of white color. The length of the stems is about 5 meters. Complicated feathery leaf plates have a dark green color. Inflorescences consist of cruciform flowers. Flowering occurs in July – August.
This tall vine is characterized by rapid growth. Small bell-shaped flowers have a yellow color. You can collect seeds from this plant. It is highly resistant to frost, so you do not need to cover it for wintering.
The above are the main species that breeders use in their work, trying to get new, even more beautiful varieties.
Clematis in landscape design
Plants are widely used in landscape design. The priority for planting are varietal climates that do not require cardinal pruning and shelter for the winter. Looking at photos of European gardens and parks depicting blooming clematis, one can’t stop wondering at the invention of landscape engineers who come up with interesting solutions to support bushes in open ground.
Clematis can be propagated in three ways: by seeds, rooted by layering and dividing the rhizomes. Seeds are treated with a rooting stimulant and planted on seedlings. For the first year you can land them in the ground under the insulation. Seedlings have no particular care.
- Clematis can be propagated by layering. To do this, select a section of the stem with an internode, leave one or two closest leaflets and plant in the hole, deepening the internode in the ground.
- In the first year, the plant can also be planted under warming, and the next year can be planted in a permanent place.
- The root of an adult, but not older than seven years, clematis can be cut with a sharp shear into pieces and seated.
As you can see, clematis is not as difficult to grow as many people think. But in their decorative effect they are superior to many other plants. Abundant bloom will delight you twice in the summer, and juicy greens - the whole season, if you pay enough vine flowers and love.
Choosing ways to spread
There are several ways of reproduction of clematis: seeds, layering, cuttings and division of the bush.
Clematis from seeds appear at different times. Sowing seeds, do not be upset if they do not ascend in you this summer. Seeds of some varieties of clematis germinate only in the second and even in the third year, and sometimes later. Such crops are useful in the summer after 2-3 weeks to pour a weak solution of boric acid (1-2 grams per bucket) and potassium permanganate (2-3 grams per bucket).
When reproducing clematis with layering, a young shoot of 20–30 cm in length must be bent down to the ground and laid in a 5–10 cm deep groove. In the interstitial sprouts, pinch the wire with straps or press with stones and fill the whole with free leaves, leaving the top with several leaves free. As the escape grows, put new internodes to sleep, leaving only the top of the soil. Do not forget to water regularly and abundantly.
Leave the rooted clematis escape for the winter in place. And in the spring, cut the strings between the nodes and plant the plants in a permanent place.
Reproduction of clematis by cuttings is also possible. Cuttings with one or two internodes should be cut off at the beginning of flowering of plants from the middle part of the vine, leaving 3 cm above the node and 3-4 cm below. To speed up the formation of roots, place the cuttings for 16-24 hours in an aqueous solution of heteroauxin (50-75 grams on 1 l of water).
Clematis cuttings are planted obliquely in boxes or containers in washed sand, peat, or a mixture of sand and peat in equal parts. At a temperature of 20-25 degrees, the cuttings root better, therefore, sap the container with a film and put it in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Cuttings in the rooting process is very useful to spray.
Depending on the variety of clematis and the conditions created, the cuttings root in a month or two. After that, they need to be transplanted into pots with nutrient soil. If it is too late to plant seedlings in the ground, keep the plants indoors at a low temperature of + 2-7 degrees. Water rarely, but make sure that the earth does not dry out. In the spring of next year clematis seedlings are suitable for planting in a permanent place. Plants of cuttings, rooted in the summer, will bloom by next autumn.
small-flowered clematis reproduce, as a rule, seeds. Large-flowered bred exclusively vegetatively. The easiest way to do this is by dividing the bush. In varieties with a high ability to tillering (Anastasia, Anisimova, Joan of Arc, Hagley Hybrid, Madame Baron Villar, Cosmic Melody), the division of the bush is used for rejuvenation, because very thick bushes, even with good care, often lose their decorative effect.
Clematis can be divided both in the fall and in the spring, until the buds start to grow or just begin to swell.
However, if in the fall this operation is almost painless for plants, since the buds are only marked and small, then in springtime it is necessary to keep within extremely tight deadlines (from the moment of thawing of the soil to the beginning of growth), since it is easy to damage the rapidly growing shoots. Clematis, divided in spring, will lag behind in growth compared with the autumn counterpart for about 2-3 weeks. In an adult 5-8-year-old plant with a sufficient number of shoots, the ground part is cut, leaving only 2-3 pairs of buds from below.
Digging up with a lump of earth
The bush is carefully dug out with a lump of earth, trying not to damage the long cord-like roots. If the ground is not easily shaken off, the roots are washed with water from a hose. Then it is divided with a knife through the center of the bush into independent plants. They work without haste, carefully, making sure that each area has enough roots and at least one shoot with buds.
Впрочем, можно обойтись и без выкопки. С одной стороны куста отрывают траншею глубиной 50-70 см, причем штык лопаты заглубляют в почву радиально к центру куста, чтобы повредить возможно меньше корней.
У наполовину откопанного куста инструментом отделяют побеги с корнями, каждый из которых станет самостоятельным растением. Перед посадкой деленки осматривают, используют только здоровые. The roots are pruned and disinfected in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.
It is quite easy to propagate the sort you like with layering. There are several techniques. Here is the first one. Spud peat or humus bush on the bottom 2-3 pairs of leaves. Within a year or two, the lower nodes of the shoots acquire their own roots. After removing the poured substrate, barked shoots are cut off from the mother plant and deposited.
- This method is good because the bush itself is not injured. The second method requires some free space.
- At the end of summer or autumn, grooves 8-10 cm deep are dug around the bush in a radial direction. Clematis shoots with well-formed buds are removed from the support, laid out in grooves one by one, pressing onto the ground with thick wire straps, and sprinkled with loose nutrient soil.
- The top of the shoot (20 cm) out. You can do the same with foliage coiled around the base of the bush and covered for the winter.
In the spring, when the plant is released from the shelter, one or more of these lashes are placed in the groove. Layers during the summer regularly watered and fed. Almost from all of the budded buds, vertical shoots begin to grow, and rooting occurs at each node.
It is best of all to separate the rooted shoots from the bush in the autumn of the next year or in the spring in a year. By this time, each new escape will have a good root system. From one sprinkled whip for a year or two, you can get up to 10 seedlings that do not need re-growing, the bush itself does not suffer. Another vegetative propagation method is green cutting.
Clematis is a beautiful plant belonging to the family of buttercups. It is widely distributed in subtropical and temperate climates. Often found in forests, near rivers. Gardeners actively use clematis, aka clematis, in landscape design. This flower is especially good for the decoration of lanes and arbors. The plant has many varieties, characterized by bright flowering, a variety of shades and shapes. Today we will discuss the types of clematis, planting and caring for them in the open field for beginners, who usually do not know where to start growing these flowers in their own area.
Clematis is a perennial plant with a diverse structure. Most often there are lianas, but there are tree shrubs and herbs. Rhizomes are fibrous or pivotal. Young shoots of plants are covered with smooth bark of green color. According to the structure distinguish ribbed and rounded shoots. Rarely on the surface is present glandular pile. The diameter of the shoots is only 25 mm, the length is one meter. Along the entire length of the shoots grow leaves. Leaf color is usually green, but there are varieties with purple leaves.
Clematis blooms usually in spring. Flowers are gathered in panicles, scutes, or half-umbrellas, they can grow alone. Petals in the corolla are located up to 8 pieces, in terry varieties they can be up to 70. Coloring is yellow, white, red, blue, blue. There are streaks or streaks on the surface. Each flower blooms up to three weeks. The aroma of flowers with notes of almond, jasmine and spices.
Types of Clematis
There are more than 300 main types of clematis. All of them are divided into many decorative varieties. There are plants in the size of flowers, in the place of appearance of buds.
- Clematis Jakmana. This group of varieties with flexible long shoots. Different varieties of feathery leaves. Flowers can be any color except white. The flowers are large, odorless. This group includes varieties: Star of India, Rouge Cardinal.
- Clematis burning. Liana grows up to five meters in height. On it are leaves with ovate lobes. Flowers bloom in June and August. They are white with narrow petals. Buds are paniculate inflorescences. A bright representative of the group is Miss Bateman, which blooms twice a year.
- Clematis Manchu. Branched plant requires good lighting, resistant to frost. Shoots grow to three meters. Leaves bright green small size. In summer, the plant covers many star-shaped flowers of white color with a delicate aroma.
- Clematis Tangut. The culture reaches three meters in height. Shoots ribbed. The leaves are pinnate, bright green in color. They are rarely located, the flowers are tulip-shaped, beige or yellow.
- Clematis purple. Shoots covered with lace foliage. Flowers are large, often purple hues. Grades: Ville de Lyon, Polish Spirit.
- Clematis is flowery. Shoots reach three meters in height. Petals light pink color. The most popular varieties: Comtess de Boucho, Vivian Pennel, Purpurea Plale Elegans.
Growing clematis requires some knowledge. Clematis multiplies vegetatively and seeds. Small-flowered, species-based plants mainly propagate by seed. Varieties differ in seed size:
- small seeds germinate in a month or two,
- average seeds sprout in 20-24 weeks,
- large seeds give uneven shoots in 30-32 weeks.
When is it better to plant clematis in the spring with seeds? In early spring, small seeds are sown. In December, planted larger. It is recommended to pre-plant seedlings. For this, planting material is soaked for 10 days in warm water, water is changed to five times a day. Then the seeds are planted in a shallow box, where a mixture of garden soil, sand and peat is poured. They are sealed to a landing depth of not more than 10 mm. The box is covered with a film, contain at a temperature of 25 ° C. Regularly need to spray the soil, to air the seedlings.
As soon as shoots appear, it is necessary to provide seedlings with diffuse bright illumination. When two true leaves appear, the sprouts swoop down on separate containers. Landing is done in early summer. Clematis is first placed on a bed in a shaded place. The distance when planting 20 cm. The tops of the shoots pinch. Requires a safe shelter for the winter. In the spring they carry out transplantation, increasing the distance to half a meter. Biennial seedlings can already be transplanted.
Reproduction by layering is also effective. This method is used in the fall and summer. Summer layouts develop better and faster, but overwinter worse. Peduncle to the nearest bud should be removed. In the ground they make a groove, where they put a thick layer of peat, where they fix the branch along the entire length. Branch above you need to cover the ground and compact the soil. As soon as the cold comes, you need to insulate the bush. In the spring there are young shoots, the plant is fully formed by the autumn, will be ready for division. Digging is done using forks.
Perennial bush clematis (6-7 years) are divided into several parts. Older bushes have a developed rhizome that can be easily damaged. The shrub is completely dug out in the spring, freed from the soil, cut with a knife or shears into delenki. It is necessary that each part had several buds at the root collar.
Clematis can be propagated by cuttings. In summer and spring, semi-woody or green shoots with two nodes are cut. At the bottom they are treated with a growth stimulator. It is better to produce rooting in a special greenhouse with high humidity. The temperature should be 18-20 degrees.
When to plant clematis
Planting time, caring for clematis depend on the type of root system. If cuttings with closed seedlings are planted in a permanent place, this should be done in spring or autumn. Cuttings with an open root system should be planted in the spring, in April-May. It is important not to miss the deadlines, because the vine has an early growing season.
Planting clematis in the fall has many features, in contrast to the spring disembarkation. The plant must be rooted before the onset of frost. It will be necessary to think about warming the landing site of vines for the winter. You can use dry leaves, lutrasil or other covering material.
How to plant clematis in the spring
Planting clematis in the spring are carried out with a deep penetration of seedlings. The root neck is placed 10 cm below the ground level. Other clematis preferences must also be taken into account when planting. Saplings for planting are purchased in specialized stores. If the acquired seedling has already appeared leaves, before spring you need to put them on the window sill, caring like a regular flower. If there are no buds on the seedling, it is better to hold the seedlings until spring in the cellar.
Planting clematis in the open ground start when the frost has passed. For plants with dormant buds and open roots, it is preferable to plant in April. A well-lit place is selected, but the landing region should also be taken into account: the landing in the Urals will differ from the clematis landing in the Leningrad Region. It is necessary to take into account the variety of clematis, some varieties prefer penumbra.
A large enough planting hole is pulled out, if the soil for clematis is fertile, if the ground is sandy, clayey, the hole should be 50x50. Be sure to fill in the pit nutrient mixture. You can make it from peat, forest land, humus, sand, adding ash and mineral fertilizers. Feeding with ashes is especially useful for clematis. If the soil is acidic, it is fertilized with dolomite flour or lime.
In the first year after landing, one should not hope for a rapid growth of the shoot. The ground part will develop. The upper part is trimmed, leaving 3 buds on each shoot. It is necessary to cover the shoots from the sun, often watering. When the buds appear, they must be removed immediately. Within a year, the bush will take root, begin to actively develop.
Description and origin of clematis
Clematis (Clematis), which in Greek means “climbing plant,” is also called clematis or warthog in Russia. According to the classification, clematis can be classified as woody: after two or three years, the stem becomes fibrous, becomes rigid, although there are also grassy varieties of this interesting plant.
In our latitudes, clematis are the most common, dropping their foliage at the end of the growing season - when the autumn cold comes. But in more southern regions, evergreen varieties are growing.
The vegetation period for clematis begins when the soil warms up to + 4-6˚С (April). If the vine blooms on the shoots of the second year, the flowers appear in early summer - late May or early June.
Simple clematis bloom week, terry - up to three weeks. The color of clematis flowers, their structure and the shape of the petals are the most diverse depending on the type or variety.
The intensity of the color of flowers largely depends on the light: the thicker the shade, the paler the flowers. However, too much light for a long time also forces the flowers to lose their brightness.
Until the 16th century, clematis was cultivated as an ornamental plant in Japan, then it settled in Europe, and it came to the greenhouse of Russia in the 19th century. In the past century, as a result of the efforts of breeders, Clematis left the enclosed space and began to grow in open ground.
Types and varieties of clematis, photos
The classification of clematis today is based on its characteristics such as flower size, flowering time, place of origin. An important classification sign is the method of pruning clematis.
Today, large-flowered groups are widely distributed among gardeners: Vititsella, Zhakmana, Patents, Langugizon, Florida, Integfolia. They are successfully used for vertical gardening - walls or fences, vertical posts and supports.
Small-flowered varieties are actively used in landscape design: mountain, burning, paniculate, oriental pilataceous clematis. Since they have small flowers, they are not used as often as large-flowered ones. Although they have a number of advantages, and above all it is their good winter hardiness.
K. Zhakmana is a stable large-flowered hybrid, which grows up to 4 meters in a season and gives about a dozen additional shoots. This hybrid has become the basis of numerous species grown in modern flower beds.
A distinctive feature of the k. Zhakmana - large, up to 12-15 centimeters flowers, blue, purple and purple tones, devoid of flavor. Abundant bloom on mololdyh shoots occurs throughout the summer.
They require moist soils with good drainage, good lighting, places inaccessible to the wind. By winter, they are cut almost to the ground level, and in the case of a non-buried planting, 3-4 buds are left. Creepers of this group are distinguished by unpretentiousness.
All k. Zhakmana are highly resistant to disease, frost resistance. Even in the unfavorable for the floriculture of the North-West region, these clematis grow well and rapidly, actively blooming. For a successful wintering to. Zhakman lianas of this group are subject to pruning in late autumn.
Another name for clematis belonging to this group is woolly. This includes shrub vines up to 2.5 meters. Flowering occurs on the shoots of the previous season and on the young. Woolly they are called because the bottom surface of their leaves, up to 12 centimeters in size, is as if covered with wool.
Flowers to. Langugizon usually white or purple, the pedicels are also woolly, the diameter of the flowers 12-20 centimeters.
The peculiarity of care for the K. Lugugizon is pruning, which is held in the autumn at the level of one meter from the ground. After pruning the branches are insulated with peat or sawdust to ensure normal wintering.
Curly liana, reaching 5-6 meters, the leaves are often pinnate, up to 6 centimeters long.
It blooms to. Vititsella flowers with a diameter of up to 12 centimeters, from early June to September. On the adult liana at the same time there are about a hundred flowers, painted in red-purple, mauve and blue-violet tones.
These clematis bloom on the shoots of the current year, so before the winter they are completely pruned.
This group includes shrub vines, spreading, up to 3.5 meters high. The flowers are star-shaped, solitary, large - up to 15 centimeters, among which there are terry. Color palette - from light to deep dark blue, violet, purple tones.
Flowering lasts from spring to late autumn. K. Patents are shortened a little in the autumn, the liana itself is covered.
Shrub vines, growing up to 3 meters in length, with flowers of 8-12 centimeters. The color is diverse, often light colors. Blossoms to. Florida since the beginning of summer on last year's shoots, since August - on the young.
Podzimnaya pruning is carried out at 1-1.5 meters, after which the vine is covered from the cold.
This group is derived by the staff of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. These are relatively low semi-shrubs - up to one and a half meters in height, they often do not need support. Flowers drooping, measuring about 12 centimeters, usually have the shape of a bell.
Soil and planting rules
Clematis soil needs light, breathable, fertilized, slightly alkaline or neutral. In the case of heavy soils, the soil dug out of the planting hole is mixed with sand, rotted compost, etc.
A nutrient mixture is prepared for filling seedlings:
- peat - 1 part,
- humus (compost) - 2 parts,
- garden land - 2 parts,
- sand - 1 part.
To the soil mixture immediately added:
- Ash - 2 cups.
- Mineral fertilizers - 100 grams.
- Dolomite flour - 150 grams.
The mixture prepared in this way meets all the requirements of clematis and is suitable for filling holes dug both on loams and on sandstone.
From this mixture, a mound is made in the landing pit, the seedling roots are spread on its slopes, they are poured into a part of the mixture, they are watered - and so gradually until the hole is filled.
Important! The tillering unit must be buried by at least 5-8 centimeters in young seedlings and 8-10 centimeters in more adult vines.
Tillering nodes are covered with well-washed river sand, adding charcoal and ash to it. Sand will not retain water, which protects this clematis vulnerability from rotting.
The deepening of tillering nodes protects the root system of clematis from both winter frosts and summer overheating.
After filling the planting hole with nutrient soil, clematis should be watered well. Do it through a special hole, which is dug at a distance of 15-20 centimeters from the seedling.
Then the seedlings are covered with peat or humus and shaded from direct sunlight.
Important! The clematis support is installed during planting in order not to damage its roots.
Clematis planting time
It is believed that clematis can be planted during their growing season - from spring to autumn. At the same time, in summer, plants that were contained in containers are usually planted - they are simply rolled over with an earthen ball into a prepared landing pit.
But there are several important points that determine the optimal time for planting seedlings:
- Clematis with a closed root system, that is, purchased or grown in containers, are planted during the entire warm season. Such seedlings, acquired long before the onset of spring, can be kept in a greenhouse or at home, on a windowsill.
- Clematis with an open root system, acquired in late winter - early spring, is planted in April-May. Planting must be made before the kidneys wake up. Otherwise, this event is better to be postponed until the time when the threat of return frost passes.
- Autumn planting (also called late summer) is suitable anyway. Here it is important that the seedlings have time to firmly take root before the onset of cold weather.
Посадка клематисов осенью и последующий уход
Оптимальные сроки осенней посадки саженцев клематисов – с середины августа до конца сентября, более конкретно сроки определяются климатическими условиями. Растению нужно не менее месяца, чтобы хорошо укорениться, в этом случае оно без потерь переживет зиму. Купленные в более позднее время саженцы лучше оставить на зимовку в прохладном темном помещении.
The rules of the autumn planting fully coincide with the general rules of planting clematis.
Important! Autumn planting requires the removal of almost the entire aboveground part of the plant: two or three buds remain on the vine.
During the autumn, before the onset of cold weather, care for clematis and their seedlings is simple:
- Moderate watering during periods when there is no rain for 5 or more days. Abundant watering in the cool season clematis is very harmful.
- Feeding clematis at this time of year is usually not made, if it does not require varietal characteristics of vines. In warm regions, you can spend the autumn dressing, making superphosphate or potassium sulfate.
- Loosening the soil and removing weeds.
Preparing Clematis for Winter
An integral part of the autumn care of clematis is their preparation for the winter. This is a special process that not only consists of several stages, but also differs for different types of plants.
Clematis pruning depends on their type and type:
- Clematis, which form the flowers on the shoots of last year. Pruning is more formative. In this case, the main goal is to save young shoots from frost. Non-resistant varieties must be prepared and then safely covered for the winter.
- Clematis, the formation of flowers which occurs on the shoots of the past and current seasons. Pruning is carried out about a third the length of the shoots, after which the vines are removed from the supports and covered.
- Clematis, blooming on the shoots of the current year, cut to 20-30 centimeters above ground level so that there are 2 - a maximum of 3 pairs of buds.
To prevent contamination of clematis with fungal diseases, they are sprayed with basezol and powdered with wood ash. Then the hilling of bushes is carried out with humus, compost or weathered peat approximately 12–15 centimeters in height.
Shelter for the winter is carried out at the onset of sustained light frosts - up to -5-7˚С. Preference should be given to the air-dry method so as not to cause wetting, debating or rotting of the roots.
Important! In areas with warm winters or frequent thaws, shelter should be arranged so that during the warming period clematis can be ventilated in order to avoid overheating.
The role of insulation for clematis can play a dry foliage, preferably birch or oak, lapnik, crumbled foam. Since almost all covering materials during the winter are usually compacted under the snow, usually the lianas are also protected by frame structures - wooden boxes, shields, cut branches or lianas.
It is also necessary to protect the plants from mice, either by spreading out a poison under the vines, or scaring agents.
Frame structures are usually used to shelter those species in which pruning is minimal. At the same time it is better to remove creepers from supports, and it is easier to cover them, and their safety will be higher.
As for those clematis, which are completely cut before winter, they are first covered with dry leaves or spruce branches, then a wooden or mesh plastic box is installed, which is then covered with waterproof film and covered with earth or peat, if winter is little or snowless, but frosty.
You can also cover those clematis, which shoots are shortened. They are removed from the support, placed in rings around the base of the bush on a pillow of twigs, brushwood or foam. Then the whole plant is covered as in the previous case.
For group plantings of clematis, you can use a common shelter, which is constructed of shields, mounted on supports, and film materials.
Instead of foliage or other materials for clematis, dry stalks of marigolds (Tagetes), coriander (cilantro), tarragon or pyrethrum are often used. Besides the fact that they serve as a good shelter, they protect the vines from wintering on them many pests, as well as scare off rodents with their scent.
Interesting! If there is a suspicion that clematis did not survive the winter, they should not be uprooted immediately. Most often they are restored, forming new shoots from the roots. True, this usually happens within two to three years after a failed wintering.
The left affected clematis for the winter should be covered by the general rules.
Clematis transplantation is even more responsible than their landing. They very badly tolerate this process. This is especially true of those varieties and species that have a core root system. Best of all, of course, not to injure the vines, but in some situations, transplanting is simply vital:
- wrong place was chosen for clematis,
- there are signs of wilting (wilt),
- it is necessary to divide the bush.
Also, the need to transplant occurs when redesigning the backyard.
When transplanting a plant, it is necessary to carefully inspect its roots before planting. Those parts that have mechanical damage, swelling, signs of rot, are removed, the cut points are processed with crushed charcoal or brilliant green.
Since clematis grows in one place for a very long time, the root system in them becomes quite large - about one and a half meters in diameter, and sometimes even larger. Therefore, the pit for planting transplanted plants need to dig more than usual by 20 centimeters on each side.
To the soil that was extracted when digging a hole, add a couple of buckets of compost or humus, one and a half buckets of peat and sand, and also 100-200 grams of lime, ashes and fertilizers - potash and superphosphate.
Important! If the soil is too light (sandstone), more compost or humus is added.
A 20-centimeter layer of drainage is laid out on the bottom of the pit, then it is filled with about half of the prepared soil mixture, the support is strengthened, and the transplanted plant is placed. Its roots are gently straightened and the pit is filled with soil mixture.
Transplantation is usually done in spring or autumn, at the same time as planting. Rules for the care of transplanted clematis are no different from the care of seedlings. See clematis transplant video material.
The time of sowing and, accordingly, the time of germination of seeds affects their size. Clematis seeds by size are divided into three groups:
- small ones - from 1.5 x 3 to 3 x 5 mm,
- medium - from 3 x 5 to 5 x 6 mm,
- large - from 5 x 6 to 10 x 12 mm.
Small seeds of clematis germinate in time from two weeks to three months. They are suitable for direct landing in the ground. Germination of small seeds lasts for 4 years.
Medium seeds sprout from one and a half to six months. It is better to germinate such seeds indoors — greenhouses, greenhouses, etc. Seed germination persists for three years.
Large seeds germinate for a long time, more than six months, sometimes more than a year. Although their germination has persisted for four years, it is preferable to breed varieties of large-seeded clematis by other means.
By the way, for the germination of large and medium-sized seeds, many additional measures are required: stratification, bubbling, etc. Although these measures reduce the time of appearance of the first seedlings, many gardeners prefer other methods of reproduction.
Reproduction by layering
It is considered the easiest way to multiply which clematis can be from early spring to autumn. The method is not expensive, does not require additional equipment.
Layers are horizontal, vertical and air.
Horizontal cuttings - an intact, healthy shoot with several buds is selected and placed in a prepared groove, the depth of which should be 7-8 centimeters. To prevent the resilient stem from rising up, it is pressed with metal studs, and then covered with earth, leaving the apical part of the shoot spilled. Layers will require regular watering, soil loosening and weeding. The next season, they can be separated from the parent bush and sit down.
Vertical otvodki formed by prikopki first or second buds on the shoot. The rest will grow up. This method is good for expanding a young bush, in this case, the grown-up new bushes do not dig, but leave in place.
Air layouts - more troublesome way. To obtain the air otvodka on escape choose a large node with well-developed buds. Near such a node is made an incision to the middle of the shoot. This incision is abundantly treated with growth stimulants and wrapped with a wet moss cushion.
The upper part of the shoot is removed, and the remaining part is wrapped in plastic wrap and tied to a support. A branch is considered ready for independent development in the soil when its roots grow through the moss. Layers are cut and planted.
Reproduction by cuttings
A more massive method of reproduction of clematis is green cutting. Cuttings can be made during the entire growing season, but those that are cut in the spring, during the period when the vine forms the buds, are considered to be the most productive.
Cuttings of hybrid varieties of clematis can be harvested through July, inclusive, and small-flowered plants - until mid-August.
The best time of day for cutting cuttings are early morning or light twilight, as well as cloudy days - so the shoots will be protected from possible moisture deficit.
The shoots on the cuttings are cut over the first or second true leaf. The best-quality cuttings are obtained from the middle part of the clematis shoot: the lianas on the upper part have few buds, or they do not exist at all, and the lower part is usually lignified, and therefore it is worse to take root.
Important! On the cuttings cut no more than a third of the total number of shoots on the bush.
To get a good cutting it is enough to have one bud on it. Cut them with a sharp knife. The lower cut is made oblique, it should be 5-6 centimeters below the kidney, the upper cut is straight, at a distance of 2 centimeters from the kidney.
Then the cuttings are immersed in a growth stimulator solution for the night (10-12 hours), after which they are planted either in specially prepared places - greenhouses, greenhouses, or in pots.
Soil for rooting cuttings should be light, breathable, water-holding. The best materials for soil are a mixture of sand or humus with peat, as well as coconut fiber or perlite.
For better rooting cuttings need diffused light, so you need to worry that the cuttings are not under the direct bright sun. It is recommended to whiten glass in greenhouses, or use thin white fabrics to scatter light.
The cuttings are planted at a distance of 5-6 centimeters from each other, thus deepening the kidney by 1 centimeter. This measure will prevent it from drying out.
The maintenance conditions of the cuttings during their rooting: temperature 18-22 ° C, increased air humidity, regular watering and spraying.
When watering daily for the first 4-5 weeks, spray the cuttings once or twice a day. However, in case of strong heat, this should be done more often - up to five times a day.
A month later, watering cuttings reduced to 2 or 3 times a week. Rooting usually takes place within one and a half to two months, but they are planted in the open ground for re-growing in the spring, leaving it to hibernate in the cuttings.
After the season spent in the “school” in growing in the fall, the cuttings are planted in a permanent place.
Many gardeners successfully use lignified cuttings, which are cut after the autumn pruning of clematis.
Important! For better rooting of woody cuttings of rare and valuable varieties of clematis, they are carefully split into two longitudinal halves. Such cuttings take root more easily.
Root cuttings can be in the water. Well apply this method for large-flowered vines. They are also cut at the stage of budding, placed in a vessel so that only the ends of the cuttings are in the water.
The vessel should be opaque, put it in a warm shaded place. Sometimes even dripping in a suitable area in the garden, carefully watching the water level.
Roots are formed within 8-10 weeks. When they grow by 3-5 centimeters, they are transplanted into cuttings, providing them with a constant temperature and high humidity.
Reproduction by vaccination
A very rare and laborious method of reproduction of clematis, used in the case when there is only one or two suitable cuttings. As a stock, not the shoots of the plant are used more often, but its roots, or rather, the segments of the roots.
In addition, vaccination requires special knowledge and skills, and therefore it occurs as a way of reproduction in recent years very rarely.
Features of the cultivation of clematis in the Urals
Observing all the basic rules of planting and care, clematis is grown in areas with difficult climatic and biological conditions, including the Urals - prolonged frost winters, frequent strong winds, the predominance of acidic soils. All recommendations on the cultivation of clematis in the Ural region look shortly like this:
- For successful cultivation and full-bloom, clematis varieties that bloom on the shoots of the current year are most suitable. However, if you strictly follow all the rules for preparing clematis for winter and safely and properly cover them in the cold, almost all varieties will develop well and bloom.
- Clematis is best planted in the open ground in the spring: only in this case, before the onset of cold weather, the plants will have time to root well.
- When making humus as a top dressing, you must add chalk, this will reduce the acidity of the soil.
Clematis for beginners
Vigorous enduring handsome clematis grows easily and quickly, and special difficulties in growing do not deliver. However, those who are going to plant beautifully flowering vines in their gardens for the first time need to take into account a few tips.
The easiest to grow are considered varieties that do not need to cover for the winter, but it will be enough to cut them to ground level. The international society of amateurs of clematis even compiled a list of varieties recommended for beginners.
The list includes clematis varieties that are highly reliable and unpretentious. Among them are small and large-flowered varieties, with different flowering periods, extensive color gamut.
Possible growing problems
Stop in growth. Usually happens in the first year, in the month of June. By this time, the young plant grows to 20 centimeters. This is usually associated with impaired care. To help the liana re-start growth, spend 2- or 3-fold feeding nitrogen fertilizers in combination with complex mineral.
Drying tops, twisting them on young shoots. This happens either with insufficient watering, or with the appearance of aphids. With a lack of moisture, it is necessary to normalize watering. If the problem is related to the appearance of pests, it is necessary to spray clematis with insecticides or infusions of garlic or hot pepper several times.
Shivering flowers. This usually happens when clematis reaches 5-6 years of age, more often in large-flowered varieties. The reason is a lack of moisture. Clematis roots go very deep into the ground, and often during watering, its required amount does not reach the roots.
Often the situation is easily remedied by digging plastic bottles at the soil level (neck down) at a distance of 40-45 centimeters from the base of the vine. If you produce watering and fertilizing through these bottles, there is a full guarantee that everything you need - both moisture and nutrients - the plant will receive in the right amount.
Slow development. It manifests itself in unsatisfactory flowering - rare, scanty, as well as a small increase in shoots. The reason lies in the initially incorrect landing and insufficient penetration. A bit to rectify the situation by pouring fresh soil to 10 centimeters. However, it would be best to transplant it according to all the rules and to the required depth.
Clematis in landscape design
More than two thousand varieties of clematis reveal the wide possibilities of its use in landscape design:
- The hedge, distracting the attention of strangers from what is happening behind it.
- Decoration of arbors or arches that protect from the hot sun.
- The design of the alpine hills, grassy varieties are perfect here.
- Spectacular creepers perfectly decorate the trunks of old trees.
- Creating a background for flower beds.
Several varieties and colors of clematis planted together will create a magnificent composition, blooming from early to late summer.
Beautiful blooming bright clematis will hide from the eyes and far from perfect walls of outbuildings and fences, and can also serve as a screen separating the various zones of the backyard.
Important! The shade given by clematis contributes to the appearance of dampness, therefore it is undesirable to decorate the northern walls with them.
Clematis in combination with other plants
The most "royal" combination of clematis with garden flowers is its neighborhood with a rose. In England, their joint growth has become a tradition. Especially successful is the proximity of clematis with a climbing rose, which serves as an excellent support for creepers.
Important! Climbing rose must be at least 3-4 years old to become a good support for clematis. In addition, by this age she will develop enough not to suffer from her neighbor and to bear his weight.
Since the rules of care and maintenance of roses and clematis are quite similar, vines can be allowed to grow as a carpet creeping between bushes. При этом, если подобрать сорта роз и клематисов, цветущие в разные сроки, цветник всегда будет выглядеть чрезвычайно эффектно.
Высаживая рядом эти дивные растения, применяют следующие правила:
- розы должны быть хорошо адаптированы на месте,
- корневая система клематисов перед подсадкой к розе должна быть укреплена,
- если растения сажают одновременно, между ними в земле нужно установить перегородку,
- высота и объем кустов должны соответствовать друг другу,
- клематисы и розы не должны закрывать друг друга от солнца,
- Clematis seedlings when planting roses are tilted slightly toward the center of the rosebush,
- most effectively next to the roses will look small-flowered clematis.
In addition to roses, clematis coexist well with many other garden flowers. Such a neighborhood is especially useful in that it tends to overheat sensitive vines. At the same time, single and perennials with a shallow root system are selected for joint plantings: marigolds, calendula, awl-shaped phloxes, geraniums, astilbe, and also irises.
Shrubbery can become neighbors of clematis: Chubushnik, barberry, acacia, some conifers. Excellent they will look on the background of ivy or grapes.
Elegant clematis, which have become extremely popular in recent years, will decorate any garden or flower garden, if their planting, as well as subsequent care in the open field, will be done according to all the rules. A little troublesome, but a long abundant flowering will please even the most critically-minded gardeners.
Clematis Cultivation Specialist Video Tips
Clematis, or as they are called clematis, always attract the eye.
This plant allows you to implement various landscape solutions on the site.
Although the glory of a demanding and painful plant was fixed to this liana, in fact the cultivation of clematis will not require much effort from the grower.
To do this, you just need to choose a suitable variety and plant the bushes, taking into account the peculiarities of agricultural technology.
When buying seedlings, pay attention to the following signs:
• the roots of the plants must be healthy-looking, elastic, even (if they have swellings, they are affected by gall nematodes,
• seedlings must have at least three shoots with buds,
• Clematis must be acquired no earlier than mid-September.
• The best age for seedlings is 2 years. Container plants are transplanted in spring and autumn. Annuals dug directly from the ground can be taken directly from private growers.
When choosing clematis, it is necessary to take into account the climatic conditions of the region and the varietal characteristics of the plant. The most easy to care varieties with purple flowers. More whimsical vines with flowers of red shades. The most demanding are white clematis. Some species need winter shelter and pruning.
For central Russia suitable for those varieties that do not need shelter and bloom on the shoots of the current year. For beginning flower growers, clematis that bloom on the shoots of last year are suitable for growing (the so-called princes): they do not need to be cut and covered for the winter. Although their flowers are smaller and more modest than those of large-flowered ones, then they bloom early and abundantly even in partial shade. Among them are popular such varieties Blue Bird, Maidwell Hall, Memm, Rosie O’Grady, Pink, Flamingo.
Among the clematis that form the flowers on the new shoots, the creepers of the groups Jacquesman, Vititzel, Integrifolia (varieties Avangard, Purpurea Plena Elegans, Lemon Dream, Markham's Pink, Stolwijk Gold, Comtesse de Bouchaud, Purple Dream, Stasik, Hagley Hybrid, Rouge Cardinal) are easy to grow. ).
Experienced gardeners can take up the cultivation of the Clematis groups of Florida, Patents, Laginouza, which include the most beautiful varieties. They bloom twice per season: in May-June on last year's shoots, in July-August on new stems. The second bloom will be weaker than the first. The most famous varieties: President, Multi Blu, Fair Rosamond, Hope, Joan Picton, Ballerina, Joan of Arc, Helly Moser.
Choosing a landing site. For the cultivation of clematis is best suited sunny area, protected from the winds, with fertile loose soil. If you want to plant these creepers near the wall of a house, then the distance from it to the bush should be at least 70 cm. The Clematis cannot bear overheating of the roots, therefore small plants should be planted in front of the bushes to shade the root zone. It is better if it will be frightening nematode calendula, parsley, marigold.
Clematis needs enough sunlight. Therefore, it is better to arrange rows with bushes from east to west, leaving no less than 0.7 m between them. On a support, shoots are arranged so as to observe the maximum illumination of the leaves.
For clematis varieties with monophonic or double flowers (Lady Betti Belfor, Niobe, Westerplatte, Rouze Cardinal, Rosemur) preferably open space. Two-color varieties (Dr.Ruppel, Hania, Hally Moser, Hope, Minister) need light penumbra, which will give color to the saturation.
The soil. Clematis grows well on fertilized and drained soil with a weak alkaline reaction. Land under the bushes after watering necessarily loosened. Mulching keeps soil moisture longer. As mulch is used humus.
Planting dates depend on the growing region of clematis. In the middle zone of the Russian Federation, clematis planted, starting from the end of April. In the southern regions they are planted in September - early October. If the autumn planting has failed, then the purchased seedling is stored in a cool room with a temperature of +5 oC, sprinkling the roots with wet sawdust with sand.
Clematis is grown vegetatively (layering, dividing the bush, grafting, vaccinations) and seeds.
When breeding by layering, shoots are bent down to the ground, placed in a shallow ditch dug up (up to 10 cm deep), pinned with metal hooks or simply pressed down with stones and sprinkled with soil. For the winter they are covered with spruce branches, sawdust. In the spring such shoots in the places of pinning should be watered As soon as new sprouts appear, the surface around them is mulched with peat or humus. In the fall, young rooted plants are separated from each other and transplanted to a permanent place. You can do this operation immediately in pots dug into the soil below the surface.
By dividing the bush, plants can be propagated no older than 6 years while the root system is amenable to this operation. In addition, delenki old bushes take root worse. The bush is dug out, the roots are cleared of the ground and cut with a pruning shears into pieces so that each of them has buds on the root neck. Planted plants bloom in the same year.
Reproduction of clematis by dividing the bush and layering
Grafting is the easiest and most popular breeding method for florists. It is better to take cuttings from the middle part of the shoot before the plant starts flowering. The lower cut is made oblique at a distance of 4-6 cm from the knot, the upper one - even, 2 cm higher from the knot. The resulting cuttings are treated in a root formation stimulator (root, heteroauxin) and planted in a greenhouse, a greenhouse in a mixture of peat and sand. In this case, the node is buried in the soil by 1 cm. Watering the cuttings every day, and after rooting (30-60 days), watering is reduced to 1-2 times a week. In the winter they are covered with peat or sawdust. In the autumn of next year, the seedlings are transferred to a permanent place.
Some growers root cuttings in a jar of water. The vessel is placed in a warm place, protected from direct sunlight, in the water should be only the tips of the cuttings. Roots are formed in 1-2 months.
Fresh clematis seeds germinate best. However, with proper storage (at a temperature of + 18–23 ° C in paper bags), seed material remains viable for four years. Large seeds (groups of Durand, Zhakman) sown immediately after harvest in the fall, medium seeds (whole-leaf, manchzhursky, Douglas) - in January, small ones (clematis, tangut, vine-growing) - in March-April.
To speed up germination, seeds are soaked for 10 days in water, changing it 4-5 times daily. Then the seed material is laid out in containers with a wet substrate, sprinkled with sand on top and covered with glass. The temperature during germination should be + 25-30 oC. When shoots appear, they are provided with diffused lighting. Pick in separate pots carried out when the first pair of these leaves. Planted seedlings in open ground in May. Between plants leave 15-20 cm. To stimulate branching, the seedlings should be pinched. In the fall, young plants are harboring, and in spring they are transplanted at intervals of 0.5 m, shoots are shortened to several nodes. Within two to three years, the saplings of the root system reaches a length of 10-15 cm - now they are ready for planting at a permanent place.
Reproduction of clematis by grafting is now quite rare because of its complexity.
Planting clematis is carried out according to this scheme:
• dig a hole 60x60x60,
• at the bottom to arrange a drainage from crushed stone, large expanded clay or crushed brick,
• add 2 buckets of humus or compost to the soil removed from the pit, 10 kg of sand, peat, 2 cups of wood ash, superphosphate (50g),
• pour a mound of prepared earth mixture on the drainage,
• spread the roots of a seedling on a mound and cover it with soil (the trunk of the shoot to the first node should be 5-10 cm underground),
• water the plant and grind the ground around the bush with peat,
• seedlings are located at a distance of 1 m from each other,
• when planting in autumn, the seedling is covered with lutrasil for the winter.
Proper planting clematis bush
Watering. Clematis - moisture-loving plants and require weekly abundant watering. Young plants water 10-20 liters per bush every 7-10 days, adults 20-40 liters each. In hot weather, watering is carried out 2-3 times a week. With a water deficit in adults of large-flowered clematis, flowers begin to shrink. Therefore, it is important to shed the ground well so that the water reaches the roots and does not spread over the surface. To do this, you can use the following method: departing 30-40 cm from the bush, dig around clay flower pots with drainage holes, fill them with water, which will slowly flow into the soil to the roots.
Supports. Arches, obelisks, openwork pipes made of metal mesh are used as a support. Their size depends on the variety of clematis: some lianas reach 4 meters in length. In this case, all designs must be durable and stable to withstand the weight of the plant.
Feeding. Clematis for feeding large volumes of hardwood need feeding. If during planting the soil was properly prepared, then in the first year of vegetation of the young plant fertilizers are not applied. In the second year, clematis is fed 4 times per season. Due to the active growth of shoots during the season, nitrogen is required, the maximum is needed in spring. Mug or bird droppings (1:10) are introduced as such supplements, alternated with mineral preparations (ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate or urea). During flowering fertilizers do not make, as clematis because of this, reduce the duration of flowering. In the fall, bone flour (200 g / m2) or superphosphate (20g / 10 l of water) is introduced under each bush. In the spring make potassium sulfate 20-30 g / bucket of water.
Shelter for the winter: many clematis varieties need a winter shelter. Before this, the bushes should be treated with a foundation for the prevention of fungal diseases and sprinkled with ashes. Then spud the base of the bush. When the temperature is set to -5-7 ° C, it is time to cover the vines with spruce, dry foliage, and brushwood. Some species of clematis before the shelter need pruning (partial or complete).
Clematis pruning by groups
Gallic nematode: the larvae of this pest settle in the roots. Discharges of vital activity of the larvae cause the growth of root cells - gall. The plant grows poorly, the leaves and flowers are deformed, their color changes. With further parasitism, the root system dies. The affected liana cannot be saved; it only needs to be destroyed. To repel nematodes, parsley, marigolds, and calendula can be planted next to clematis.
Other pests (thrips, slugs, snails, aphids) that are not particularly dangerous for clematis can be controlled with folk remedies (infusion of garlic, ash, tobacco dust). To insecticides (Aktellik, Fitoverm, Iskra and others) to resort in extreme cases.
The most common disease of clematis is wilt, a vegetative wilt caused by various pathogenic fungi. Infection occurs through damaged roots or stem base. Mycelium of the fungus, growing in the vessels of the "owner", clogs it and disrupts the food of the plant. Stems and leaves may fade in a matter of hours. Most often, wilt damage occurs in wet weather with an excess of nitrogen in the soil, on heavy soils.
For the prevention of fungal diseases, fungal sprays (Fitosporin-M), copper chloroxide or a solution of potassium permanganate are shed the ground under the bushes, sprinkled with ash and pounded coal when planting.
Mealy dew infects domestic varieties less frequently than foreign ones. On the young shoots, leaves, a whitish flourlike appearance appears, the fabrics under which gradually turn brown and dry. Such parts of the plant are destroyed, and the rest of the plant is treated with a solution of copper sulphate or colloidal sulfur, Fundazole.
Rust is manifested by the appearance of orange spots on the leaves, shoots, peduncles. With a strong lesion the leaves dry out and fall off, the stems become brittle. Infected parts of the plant are removed and burned, the rest is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. Of the chemicals used Topaz, ProfitGold.
Chief Editor: Ekaterina Danilova
Editing phone: +7 (965) 405 64 18
Editorial address: st. Suschevskaya, 21
Clematis is a beautiful liana, covered with hundreds of multicolored flowers. This plant is very popular in our area. Such a colorful and lush garland will be the most amazing decoration for gazebos, fences or walls of houses. But most importantly, this plant is unpretentious in the care and it will be able to grow even the most inexperienced gardener.
Landing in spring
Site selection and soil preparation
In the spring, in the middle of May, you should begin planting clematis in open ground. The plant loves areas with a small shadow (on a bright sun, the flowers of a rich color fade) and protection from wind and draft. Therefore, before disembarking, you should choose and prepare a place.
First you need to prepare the ground for planting. It should absorb water well and be loose - the flower likes a light and nourishing soil. For clematis, loamy or fertile soils are suitable.
You should not plant bushes in heavy and acidic soil. Because it will lead to the death of the plant. As for fertilizers in the form of fresh manure and peat, they will only bring harm to the bush.
When choosing a landing site, special attention should be paid to the soil moisture. Since clematis does not transfer groundwater, it would be right to plant it on a small hill, made by hand. This will save the long roots of the plant from rotting. It is worth noting that in clematis rhizome reaches 1 meter in length.
If the garden where it is planned to plant the bush is clayey soil, then you can make a small groove and fill it with sand to divert all unwanted water from the flower.
Clematis can cover the fence or construction
Pit for planting
The next stage is the preparation of the pit for planting. Digging should be no more than 70 cm in depth. Then pour a small layer of rubble on the bottom. All the soil that was obtained by digging a hole, you need to replace the prepared substrate. It is done in the following way:
- take a bucket of earth
- add to it 0. 5 buckets of humus
- then pour 100 g of hydrated lime and mix well.
Before planting plants, you need to take care of the supports, which will be able to support clematis garlands.
When everything is ready, you can start landing. First, you need to inspect the root of clematis, if it is dry, then you should put the plant for a couple of hours in the water.
Then, in a dug hole, on top of rubble, pour a small layer of earth, and put a seedling on top.
Clematis planting in spring and autumn is almost the same.
Roots should be distributed evenly across the width of the pit, top covered with substrate 12 cm.
It is very important that the hole in which clematis is planted is not completely filled. The remaining substrate, pour evenly until autumn.
Important: if you plan to plant clematis near the wall of the house, then the distance should be at least 40 cm between the bush and the wall. It is impossible that the water that flows from the roof after the rain falls on a flower, it can destroy it.
In case when it is planned to plant several clematis bushes, the distance between them should be at least 25 cm.
Planting and cultivation of honeysuckle capricole - beautiful liana
Planting in the fall
Many gardeners try to plant clematis in the fall. And if the sapling was purchased in the summer, then waiting for the onset of spring is stupid. The plant should be planted in the fall.
The most optimal time for such manipulation is September. If you plant clematis later, he will not have time to take root and may die. And if you plant earlier, the plant will grow in winter, as a result - death is inevitable.
Planting method is exactly the same as spring. The only difference is the filling of the pit with the substrate; it must be completely filled up.
As the cold time approaches, you need to take care of the preservation of clematis. Planted shrub, need to properly cover for the winter, when choosing the time for this procedure, always focus on garden roses.
In the spring you need time to remove the shelter from the bush. Otherwise, it may die due to high humidity. And in order to determine the correct time for cleaning the insulation, you can navigate according to weather conditions. In this case, the forecast to help. The most important thing is that all frosts are left behind.
Important: Clematis lives and pleases with flowering an average of 30 years. Поэтому при выборе места для его посадки, нужно учитывать эту особенность.
Регулярно с клумбы, где растет клематис, требуется вырывать все сорняки. Поскольку это растение забирает всю влагу и питательные элементы себе. Наилучшим вариантом будет засеять специальной травой все клумбы, где растет клематис. Такая процедура поможет уберечь куст от вредных растений, а также спасет его от сильного солнца.
Вот такую красоту иможно вырастить у своего дома
Этот способ размножения является самым легким.
- First you need to dig up the soil around the bush.
- Then level the soil and make a groove 6 cm deep in it.
- Put the escape chosen in the groove for withdrawal and press it in several places with ordinary wire.
- Next, take a bit of humus mixed with wet soil and sprinkle escape from above.
- The tip should remain on the surface.
This method should be used in the fall. Therefore, before winter, the place where the otvodok, you need to properly warm.
In the spring, the insulation is removed. When the sprout appears, it will be necessary to mulch the entire soil that is around the layer. When September comes, the already grown seedling can be dug up and planted in a permanent place.
The escape fits into the groove, is watered and covered with earth.
Clematis must be pruned, it is necessary in the autumn when the plant has faded and shed its leaves. In the south of Russia, in Ukraine, this procedure is performed in early November. In the Moscow region, the central belt, in the Urals, in Siberia, not later than mid-October. For pruning choose dry and cloudless day.
How to prune a young bush
If the plant is the first year of life, then all the shoots are cut to 25 cm. When pruning, you need to try to leave a pair of buds on each shoot. This will help create additional vines with growth, and next year the whole bush will be much more beautiful and more luxurious.
Pruning an old bush
If clematis grows for many years, then all diseased, dry and broken shoots are removed from the bush. And the rest is shortened by 10 cm.
There are many varieties of clematis. And if the gardener grows a bush that blooms twice during the season, the pruning will be slightly different. In this case, healthy shoots are shortened by half. And the dry, the sick and the excess are cut off at the root.
There is also a universal way of pruning. All bushes, pruned on the principle of one.
One shoot is shortened by half.
The second is cut in such a way that only 2 kidneys remain on it.
So do throughout the plant.
Thanks to this method, the bush will turn out lush and well-groomed for the next flowering.
Important: Clematis pruning is necessary to give it a beautiful shape and to bloom lasted as long as possible. Haircut should be done only before hibernation or in early spring.