The name "onion chernushka" - does not mean the name of a variety or a special variety of onions. In fact, so-called small black seeds, of which after sowing, onion-seedlings germinate, and then full-fledged bulbs. How to plant onions chernushka, growing it properly, at what time is best to do it, to get a quality onion, what features of cultivation - these questions concern every novice amateur gardener.
In order to properly grow onion chernushku, you need to be patient. This is a long and troublesome process, but the result - a tight onion - will make you forget about the difficulties you experienced. Good results can be obtained only when a large full-fledged bulb is used for planting: the selected bulbs are planted without signs of damage and decay in early spring, the landmark is snow melting.
In order to prevent the bulb from freezing, it is mulched with organic material. Place for planting bulbs choose the sun, with limited humidity, to provide full conditions for the formation and maturation of seeds. It is good to add humus and fertilizers to the soil for cultivation in order to ensure the good nutrition of the plant. In the summer, the bulb produces a flower stalk, an arrow that blooms as a spherical umbrella, and black seeds will ripen on it.
It is important to protect seed onions from diseases, rotting, therefore they follow these rules:
- the plant is watered moderately
- carrots are planted around the onion - its smell deters the onion fly.
Harvesting Chernushka Seeds
It is possible to determine whether a nippy is ready to be harvested - seeds are dry, black, easy to pour out of umbrellas. To prevent their scattering on the ground and self-seeding, experienced gardeners resort to this method: they wrap onion umbrellas with thin gauze. Gauze does not interfere with the passage of air and sunlight, dries easily after rain and does not allow moisture to accumulate at the same time protects them from spilling. This advice can be useful if one bulb of a rare or valuable variety has been planted on seeds, when it is important to preserve as many seeds as possible.
If the seed onions are of no special value and it is planned to collect the chernushka in large quantities, to prevent the seeds from shedding on the ground, the umbrellas are cut in the immature state and laid out in a dry well ventilated room on paper or burlap. After about two weeks, the ripened seeds are tapped onto the spreading material with a tapping motion, and a wooden stick is used to facilitate the process.
Store chernushka in a dry room, while it must be remembered that its germination very quickly falls: next year it will not ascend all, and in a year the germination rate will still decrease. Therefore, it is recommended to harvest chernushka every year.
Before the sowing campaign, that is, before planting onion seeds, they need to be carried out a simple preparation. In a greenhouse or greenhouse chernushka can be sown in the first decade of Marchtherefore, a month before that date, as early as February, they begin to check the seeds. About 20 seeds are taken from the total seed lot and placed on wet gauze. If the majority of seeds germinated after a few days, it means that the batch is suitable for sowing and you can proceed to pre-sowing the crumbs.
Stages of presowing antifungal treatment:
- The seeds are wrapped in gauze or other fabric and dipped for about a quarter of an hour in hot water at a temperature of about 50 ° C.
- Then the seeds are immersed for a minute in cold water.
- After that, in the same cloth, chernushka is immersed in warm water at a temperature of 22–26 ° С for 24 hours.
- A day later, the seeds are removed from the water and left in a damp cloth for 2 days at room temperature. All this time you need to make sure that the fabric does not dry out.
Seeds purchased on the market are further processed by soaking potassium permanganate in a solution: they induce a weak solution of potassium permanganate and the seeds wrapped in cloth are dipped into it for half an hour.
After the treatment, the seeds are ready for planting. Sow chernushka on sevok in open ground recommended in the twentieth of Aprilwhen the soil is already warm enough.
Before sowing the nippers for seedlings, the prepared seeds are dried slightly so that they acquire flowability. The soil for seedlings also need to be prepared in advance: fertilize, treat from pests. Chernushka sow is not very tight, in a chaotic manner or in a row, to a depth of about 1 cm. After sowing, the seeds are covered with earth and compacted over the soil.
Seedlings begin to germinate after a few days, with proper watering and plant care, they form 2-3 feathers by the end of April and the beginning of May.
Seedlings grown on the windowsill, in early May, can already be transplanted into open ground. When planting, keep the distance between the plants: for the formation of full-fledged bulbs you need to leave at least 10 cm between them. When planting seedlings in fertile soil, you should not resort to top dressing, on depleted soil you need to take care of adding a sufficient amount of fertilizer. This may be cow dung, store fertilizers.
By the end of the summer of the seedlings should get onions sets - small bulbs, which are used next spring for planting and growing full-fledged onions. Signs of ripening onion sets - lodging and yellowing of feathers. If the leaves have not fully turned yellow, they loosen the seedlings anyway from the ground and prepare them for storage. To do this, he removed the leaves, the bulbs are laid out in the sun for drying and ripening.
After sevok will be dried, it is put in paper or linen bags and stored in a dry place at a temperature of 18 ° C. With a decrease in temperature, the ability of the plant to germinate will decrease, with an increase in it, the plant will lose the ability to form bulbs and go to the arrows.
Compliance with all the rules of cultivation and sowing of Chernushka onions allows gardeners to obtain high and stable yields.
Planting onion blackie seedlings at home
Planting onions Chernushka seedlings produced in several stages.
Preparing seeds for sowing
We put the seeds in a gauze or cloth bag and pour a weak solution of potassium permanganate, dissolving 0.5 g of the product in 0.5 l of warm water. We are waiting for 45 minutes
We shift the seeds in a solution Epin, prepared in accordance with the instructions. We are waiting for 17 hours and dry for half an hour: dried seeds are easier to sow.
Prepare the medium for planting
We buy boxes for seedlings - 30 cm long, 10 cm high and 20 cm wide. We fall asleep an 8-centimeter layer of universal soil or soil mixture from equal parts of garden soil, sand, humus and peat.
We spill the earth with a fungicide to sanitize it and protect the seedlings from diseases and pests.
We plant onion of Chernushka on seedlings as follows: we cut grooves with a depth of 1 cm and a distance of 5 cm between them. We take tweezers and unfold seeds every 3 cm: if you sow them chaotically, then you will need a pick, and these are extra troubles.
Sprinkle with a centimeter layer of earth, slap, pour with a spray bottle and cover with polyethylene. We put boxes of seeds in a place with a temperature of at least 20 degrees Celsius. With the advent of sprouts, we remove them on the windowsills and hold them at a temperature of at least 16 degrees. The windows must be bright, otherwise the seedlings stretch.
It is better to engage in the cultivation of onion chernushki through seedlings with the help of cassettes, the cell of which has a diameter of 3 cm: three seeds are in one cell. When you transplant seedlings in the garden, their roots will remain intact, which means that the plants will quickly take root.
Growing onion chernushki through seedlings using cassettes
Planting onions of Chernushka on seedlings at home requires regular watering. Water the seedlings as soon as the top layer of the earth dries out.
Preparation of beds after planting onions of prunes for seedlings
After 45 days, we take out the boxes on the street, in a shaded place: the air procedures will harden the seedlings, and they will take root well after the transplant.
Toward the end of May we plant the plants in the ridges on the sunny site, having dug up the soil in the fall simultaneously with the introduction of humus and ashes, and if the soil is acidic - and dolomite flour.
The transplant process is as follows:
- We fertilize the soil with complex fertilizer and compact the soil.
- Cut into the boxes grooves with a depth of 1 cm with a 30-centimeter inter-row spacing.
- Carefully separating the onion sprouts from each other, transplant them into the grooves at a distance of 5 cm. When planting, compact the soil around the seedlings.
We try not to deepen the sprouts more than a centimeter, otherwise the onions are formed later and will not have time to mature properly.
- Pour onion from the sprayer and mulch with peat.
Having figured out how to plant a chernushka onion on seedlings and plant it in the ground, we learn how to care for the planted plants.
How to care for seedlings in the open field
When the onion leaves become strong and wider, gently weed out the plantings: there should be no less than 8 cm between shoots. When tearing out unwanted plants, we do not leave them on the ridge so as not to attract pests such as the onion fly.
How to care for onion seedlings in open field
Further care for onion plantings is as follows:
- During the formation of bulbs, we water the beds every 6 days (for droughts - twice a week) and we apply complex mineral fertilizers once every 30 days.
- Loosen the soil around the plants after irrigation and rain.
- In the middle of July, we stop watering and fertilizing the onions, and scoop up the peat so that the onions warm up well.
- When arrows appear, which happens very rarely, we break off them.
At the end of the summer, a couple of weeks after the leaves wither away, we choose a fine day and remove the onions. Dry the onions and store them in a dry place. Onions with thick necks leave for food and eat in the first place, as they will not last long.
Now you know how to plant a bow of chernushka on seedlings and grow a full-fledged onion in one summer. Buy quality seeds, grow strong seedlings according to the above recommendations, and get rich yields of healthy healthy onion in one season!
Growing onions turnips from Chernushka
You can grow onions from seed in three ways: sowing in the soil in early spring, podzimnim sowing and pre-growing seedlings. In the spring, Chernushka is sown, just thawed out the soil, then in one season the bulbs will have time to mature. Seedlings are prepared from the end of February, and from mid-April ready-made seedlings are planted on the beds. Sub-winter sowing of seeds is carried out on slightly frozen ground so that the seeds do not germinate in autumn.
The soil for any option is prepared in advance, in the fall: the earth is dug up, compost or peat is added, and mineral fertilizers are added. The beds are best formed in an open sunny place, where, before that, legumes, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, and potatoes grew. The width of the beds does not exceed 80 cm, height - about 15 cm.
Preparing onion seeds for sowing
How to grow onions from seed in one season so that it can mature before frosts? It is necessary to pay attention to the pretreatment of Chernushka Seed treatment will help to significantly reduce the period between sowing and emergence, accelerating the development of plants and the formation of bulbs.
The soil for any option is prepared in advance, in the fall
For a month, check the nugget for germination: take 20 seeds and hold for 2-3 weeks in a damp cloth. With good germination, at least 80% of seeds should germinate. To destroy the causative agents of fungal diseases before sowing, chernushka is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. Additionally, to accelerate germination, you need to soak the seeds in water for 12-18 hours or dip them in a warm solution of fruit growth stimulator (1 g per 1 teaspoon of water) per day. After soaking, the chernushka is dried for 15-20 minutes in air until the seeds become loose, and you can proceed directly to sowing.
Chernushka sowing in the ground in spring or winter
In the spring, as the soil thaws, dig up rows of 2 cm in depth on the beds, with at least 20 cm between rows. Seeds should be sown quite sparsely - about 80 seeds per 1 m row, then about one and a half gram of chernushki will go away. Powder the seeds with tooth powder or chalk, then it will be more convenient for you to control their consumption and location. From above, the nipper is covered with humus, sawdust or peat (2 cm layer). Watering the crops is not necessary, otherwise a crust is formed, which will make seedlings difficult.
When the shoots will have 1-2 true leaves, the plants need to be thinned, removing weak sprouts, between the green shoots should remain two centimeters. After the formation of 3-4 leaves, a second thinning is carried out - the distance expands to five centimeters. Snatched tender greens can be used as food. Until the middle of July, you need to water the onions, regularly loosen the top layer of soil during the season and feed the plants like onion sets.
Harvest can begin in early September, when the leaves of the onion will fall, but no later than 10 days before the frost. Harvested onions are dried on the beds or under a canopy for a week, cleaned from dry feather and cleaned for storage.
Seeds should be sown fairly sparsely - about 80 seeds per 1 m row.
How to plant onions seeds before winter?
Prepare the ground, as described earlier, form the beds, cut the same grooves and leave in this condition before the onset of cold weather. As soon as the first frosts come, chernushka is sown in rows and sprinkled with a 2-3 cm layer of humus. Keep the beds covered with snow in winter. In the spring, when the snow melts, sprinkle bare seeds with humus or peat.
Growing seedlings from onion seeds
Some varieties of onions can only be grown from seedlings, thereby extending the growing season and saving planting material. In the first days of March, they begin to sow the nest in a greenhouse, greenhouse, or on a windowsill in an apartment. Sowing onion seeds is carried out in boxes with a prepared soil mixture (as for tomato seedlings), between rows 5 cm each.
Before the first tender shoots germinate, the temperature in the room with seedlings needs to be maintained around +25 degrees, then the temperature should be reduced to +12 degrees during the day and +8 degrees at night for 4-5 days (at home the boxes can be carried to the balcony). In the future, for a comfortable growing seedlings enough temperature + 15 + 18 degrees. But at the same time it is necessary to provide additional illumination with the help of fluorescent lamps in order to prolong the daylight for germination.Video about growing onions from Chernushka
By the end of April, onion seedlings should grow 3-4 true feathers, the height of seedlings should reach 12-15 cm. Before planting the seedlings in open ground, cut a third of the leaves and shorten the roots to a length of 2 cm. Seedlings are planted in beds, keeping a distance of about five centimeters in a row, with a row spacing of 30-40 cm. Press the soil around the plants to the roots. Two days after planting, you can pour onions and loosen the soil a little. Further care is the same as described above.
Planting onion seeds has significant drawback: plant growth can continue until harvest. It ripens completely only under the condition of a warm dry autumn. An unripe onion will be poorly stored, it will have to be consumed before the beginning of winter. Therefore, it is better to sow chernushka in the fall, or by preparing seedlings at home.
Site selection for planting
The bow area should be well lit (only light shading is allowed). Lowlands are excluded, as the plant does not tolerate cold. Before planting, the soil needs to be thoroughly gnawed and special feedings for onions should be added.
A special black onion is just seeds, from which you can get the usual bulb. In 90% of cases, for the convenience of work, onions are seeded with seeds (have a black color). They are derived from inflorescences (umbrellas) that appear at the ends of the arrows.
Onion Chernushka seeds for reproduction
If onions are needed in the future to produce greenery, then do not allow shooting. This is due to the fact that the formation of the onion head, from which the arrows should go, will be disrupted. Reproduction of culture in the correct sequence should be as follows:
- in the first year, seeds are sown - onion sets are formed (seed for the next planting),
- in the second year, a crop is planted - the uterus bulb is formed,
- in the third year the uterus is planted - from it you can get seeds.
Breeding stages are simple, but take a long time period. This method uses the middle band, Moscow region. Southern areas use a slightly different technique: sowing is done in the autumn, and the crop is harvested after the snow has disappeared. In order to keep the planting from frost, ordinary straw is used.
Onion nib can be sown on seedlings, which will then be moved to open soil. Наиболее подходящий способ размножения луковичной культуры определяется особенностями местности, почвы и климата. Для средней полосы предпочтителен весенний период, так как полноценная подготовка плодородной почвы зимой невозможна.The southern regions also choose autumn time planting, since winters are milder here. In the autumn and spring periods, digging and loosening of the soil, fertilization is carried out.
In order to plant, you need to save a large number of suitable for further use of seeds or bulbs. That is why the planting material must be stored in special conditions: in a cool room, protected from water and light. Copies with damage or traces of rot must be removed.
With the onset of suitable weather conditions for planting, the bulbous material must be brought into a warm room (temperature indicators not lower than 25 degrees). The next day, you need to carry out decontamination with a solution that will contain salt, potassium permanganate and copper sulfate.
Important! It is recommended that the soil be prepared in autumn in order to produce only top dressing during planting and maintenance. Disinfection is carried out 14 days before planting onions.
Sowing onions of Chernushka in the prepared open ground is carried out in spring. It must be remembered that pressing the soil on top is not necessary. Sowing depth should not be large. The following process of care is simple: you need to carry out weeding (every day) and watering as needed. All manipulations should be carried out in the morning or evening when the plant has biological processes that accelerate growth and development.
If the method of sowing with seeds is chosen, then the first thing that needs to be done is to prepare the soil, dig it well, make it soft, friable. Then fertilizers are applied or top dressing (if the soil was fertilized last season or earlier, beet or cabbage grew in this area). Loosening is required because the onion has a weak root system: if the soil is heavy, it will not be able to break through it or grow into a strong plant, the turnip (if it can be formed) will be shallow and will show poor data on storage. Even high-quality planting material can not fully germinate in unprepared soil - this must be taken into account. Good soil:
- wetted (but not drenched, as excess moisture will negatively affect the root system of the plant, which is considered weak),
- nutritious (pre-fertilized fertilizers will help to improve this indicator, and feeding - to maintain optimal conditions),
- light in structure (non-clayey).
It must contain all the necessary nutrients. Ideal predecessors - melons and gourds, as well as legumes or representatives of the nightshade. Good soil - loam or sandy, here nib can bow quickly and begin to grow, not spending a lot of effort to punch through the upper layer at the time of germination of the seed.
During the preparation of the landing site, it is recommended to put humus or compost at the rate of 5 kg per 1 m².
It is important to consider! The use of fresh manure to fertilize onion plantations is prohibited, as the plants will be burned, and rotted - need to be used in moderation. This is required in order not to artificially delay the growing season..
Important advice for those who decided to plant onions: if in the previous year an event such as liming the soil was held, it is recommended to postpone the cultivation of this crop until the next season, the current one will be preparatory, and the plant itself will be grown after another year. It turns out that in the period of summer and winter the soil is fertilized and rested, then prepared for the fact that it will be grown onions.
Other suitable crops may be planted in advance. In the spring of the year of onion planting, it is necessary to thoroughly loosen the fertile soil, it is necessary to crush the lumps in order to saturate the soil with oxygen. It is possible to add ammonium nitrate in a small amount at the rate of 20 g per 1 m². Other types of fertilizer should be applied very carefully and consult with experienced gardeners before the procedure.
Care of the emerged shoots involves weeding. It should be frequent, as weeds and herbs take away a significant part of nutrients and oxygen. You need to spend it in the morning. Watering is also required - the soil should not be over-dried. Also, 1-2 times per season you can feed, especially if you have not previously applied fertilizers.
If it was necessary to germinate seeds and then plant onions with seedlings, then the plant will go through all the developmental stages in one season (until the harvest - spring-autumn). In this case, first you get a small head (sevok), which is then formed into a full-fledged onion. For planting with seedlings need to choose the seeds of annual varieties of onions. Seeds should be sown at home in containers in March-April, then in the spring before planting to prepare the plot and place the seedlings.
For the first stage of cultivation, both germinated seeds and dry seeds are used. At home, you need to control the humidity indicators. If dry seeds are used, they will also germinate in 90% with proper care. Suitability seedlings, if it is powerful, rich green, strong. It needs to be planted in moistened and dug up soil.
Shoots required to be watered regularly, to avoid drying out. If cultivation is carried out on a balcony or terrace, then from February to the end of March, film can be used to achieve an optimal microclimate. With the transition of temperature through the mark of 5-7 degrees, it can be removed.
Proper planting of Chernushka onions in spring is carried out in the warm season, when the soil is heated to +10 degrees. It is important to carry out activities aimed at eliminating possible diseases, such as powdery mildew, rot. For this purpose, you can sow dill nearby. Adding ash will help deter pests. You can ask experienced gardeners what nook onion has the features of growing from seed or seedlings, when to plant and how to care for it, taking into account the peculiarities of the area and climate.
Each seed can sprout, if properly cared for.
Each seed can sprout, if properly cared for. The first feeding is recommended 2 weeks after the emergence of shoots. It will help give a quick push to the formation of the bulb. If green feather is used, then it should not be completely cut off, leaving 3-4 cm. Peculiarities of care depend on weather conditions, so the amount of watering increases during the dry season. If the soil is black earth, the subcortex can be reduced or not carried out at all.
How to harvest
In order for the bow to please in the winter, it is not enough to grow it properly in the open field. It is important to follow the rules of collection and storage so that you can use the bulbs, as well as apply small specimens for planting next year. A peculiarity that should be taken into account if it is planned to plant onion sets: to store it in winter, it is necessary to reduce watering since July.
It will be necessary to clean the onion of chernushka on the 20th of August. Sevok need to dig at the moment when the neck of the plant dries out significantly, and the onion tops turn yellow, lies down. It is recommended to choose for cleaning the day, which will pass without precipitation. This is necessary so that small bulbs can dry naturally (in the sun). In that case, if the harvest is wet, it is required to decompose in one layer, then place in a well-ventilated room. It is also necessary to remove the fallen husk to prevent rotting.
Onion Chernushka harvest
Careful and timely drying ensures the safety of onions in an amount of at least 85% until spring. It is recommended to dry onions in 3 stages:
- hold it for the first week indoors at a temperature of about + 20 ° C,
- then withstand at an air temperature of +30 (also a week),
- in the end, raise the temperature to 35 degrees and leave the onions for another 7 days.
This temperature is easy to maintain using conventional household appliances.
Then the storage bow must be sorted. Good copies are cleaned in wooden boxes or fabric bags. The rest of the time it is stored in a dark room, the temperature in which on average is +18 degrees. Onion seedlings should periodically move to remove rotted or damaged heads.
Thus, the calendar indicates that the noggin onion should be planted in early spring and collected at the end or mid-summer (depending on the purpose of further use). For planting seeds in large quantities can be used a special seeder. For convenience, gardeners use the lunar calendar for germination, planting and harvesting. It contains a description of each stage, which allows you to make the right care, not to miss the period when you need to feed the plant.
The main condition is timely weeding, as the plant is weaker than most weeds. And they are actively taking nutrients and useful trace elements from the soil. The onion harvest should be kept cool so that it does not begin to germinate - green feathers appear. Active germination occurs in the spring, so you need to carefully monitor the condition of the onion at this time, especially if it is intended to sow it again in open ground. Seedling should be strong, not soak. Experienced gardeners and gardeners will tell you when to plant onions on seeds or heads of chernushki so that the result is good. Sowing season may vary slightly by region and city, as much depends on climatic conditions. So onion chernushka and its cultivation from seeds when planted and removed at a certain time becomes a special object for gardeners - it helps to learn the features of care for cultivated plants and to study all the stages of growth and development of a popular vegetable.
How to properly and when sown onion nipper seedlings
Arrows from healthy bulbs grow long, sometimes they even need to be tied up.
- In order to get full-fledged seeds, it is necessary to select several large bulbs with the characteristic features of the variety of your choice.
- Now the scourge of all our garden plants fungal diseases. They do not bypass the side and onions. Therefore, after such a temperature and nutritional treatment, I advise you to withstand onion sets in any copper-containing preparation that will kill the spores of the fungi on the surface of the bulbs or prevent them from striking if the pathogen is in the ground. Use a solution of copper sulphate - 1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water, or a solution of potassium permanganate bright crimson color. It is enough to withstand the onion sets in this solution for 5-10 minutes, but before that you do not need to wash off the nutrient solution. That is, these operations — heating, cooling, aging in a nutrient solution and solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate — a continuous process, after which you can proceed to planting.
- Onion crops in sevok placed on clean from the weeds of fertile sites. Sowing time depends on weather conditions. It may be sown in the "February window" - in February, it is often quite warm. It may be sowing seeds of onions (chernushki) in early spring - as soon as you can walk on the dug up earth. Sowing in early spring - tape, multi-line. Sowing scheme: line width (strip) 8-10 cm, the distance between the strips 20-30-45 cm. This scheme provides a high percentage of output seta standard size.
- Recently, more and more often I use another method of sowing onion seeds. On the ground prepared (dug up from the fall), I measure ribbons-beds 1 m wide. I do not form ridges, but simply level them with a rake. But if your site is in a lowland, you must make ridges. Chernushka, mixed with chalk, is sown on the leveled, without lines, soil surface in ribbons at the rate of 10 g of seeds per 1 m2. I scatter seeds visually so that they lie on the surface at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from each other. I cover them with a loose, moist soil with a layer of no more than 1.5-2 cm. Then the surface of the soil is slightly compacted, mulched, as in the first method. After a week and a half, friendly shoots of onion sets appear. The second method of sowing is good because the seeds that have fallen together, subsequently, during the formation of the bulbs, push each other away, find and occupy free space in the garden. And sets at the same time formed the same size.
- Now about fertilizers. Two weeks after planting, it is necessary to stimulate the growth of plants by introducing nitrogen supplements. For this purpose, when watering, ammonium nitrate, urea or an infusion of bird droppings are added to the water. The same procedure is repeated ten days later. In the future, you can feed onion infusion of mullein or use the ready-made concentrates purchased from the store.
- As a mineral supplement, you can use the infusion of wood ash, especially since this is also considered to be a good prevention of fungal diseases.
- Most bulbous crops are biennial crops that require two seasons to complete full growing season. Traditionally, onions are planted from seeds in the first year, from which the turnip is obtained the following season. If you do it yourself, it turns out very troublesome and time consuming, and buying ready sevok is expensive. Therefore, many gardeners are introducing a new method of growing onions, which was previously used only for vegetables and flowers with a long growing season or ripening. The seedling method helps to get early harvests and grow many heat-loving crops, which means this method is also suitable for onions. Seeds sown in advance make it possible to grow grown plants with onion seeds that have begun to form at the time of planting. Similar results are obtained when sowing seeds of onions before winter, but here there is a risk of seedlings freezing, if during a warm autumn they start growing before the onset of frost.
- Although some experts believe that the future sevok will be stored better, if it does not feed anything at all.
If the ground is clay or swimming, then the soil crust formed after irrigation must be carefully
- 1 tablespoon per liter of water. Seeds are poured into a linen bag and immersed in this solution, and then germinated in a damp cloth at a temperature of about 22 ° C.
Watering should be moderate.
They should be planted in early spring - as soon as the snow melts, or before the winter - in the fall, it is well polluted with organic material.
In the technology of onion cultivation for the winter (winter) planting dates, the size of onion-onion bulbs are of great importance. The quality of storage of the crop in winter depends on it, it depends on it whether it will shoot during the growing season or not, the timing of the harvest depends on it.
Onion seed germination requires a large amount of moisture, so they should be embedded in a moist layer of soil.
Shoots not thinning. If in May and June the weather is dry, I water the beds 1-2 times a week at the rate of 5-10 l / m2. In July, I stop watering as the onion ripening takes place. Onion crops keep clean, timely destroy weeds.
Do not forget about preventive measures to control pests - regular dusting onions with ashes with the addition of tobacco dust.
Growing seedlings gradually hardened, carrying boxes in the daytime on the glazed balcony, veranda or in the greenhouse.
In order to get large and juicy onion turnips by the summer of this year, it is necessary to choose the right seeds with the appropriate varietal characteristics. The best for growing through seedlings are considered to be onion seeds Danilovsky 301, Siberian Annual, Stuttgarter Risen, Khavsky Annual, Myachkovsky 300, Exhibichen. Excellent results are obtained by the ripened Dutch hybrids Stardust F1 and Spirit F1, and the Red Baron variety of onions is characterized by good keeping quality.
All watering must be stopped at least 20 days before harvesting
Growing seed onions
If the soil is sufficiently wet, then it is possible to sow the nigella without preliminary germination, but then the seedlings will appear somewhat later.
Onion seeds ripen unevenly, so some of them may be lost due to premature disclosure of seed pods.
By the summer the bulbs are thrown away
The main task is to get a bow-set of a standard size - 1.6-2.2 cm (the first group), since the onion yield and its quality depends on it. From the seeding with a size of 2.3-3.5 cm (the second group) they get the greatest yield, but this requires too many onions - 1.5-2 kg per hundred. The disadvantage of large-scale seed is that it reduces the marketability of the crop due to a large percentage of arrowed plants. Therefore, farmers (for planting for sale) usually use medium sized onions-seams with a diameter of 1.6-2.2 cm (the first group). It also gives a high yield, as a large crop, but onion consumption is 2-3 times less. Onion sets with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm (oatsuzhka) practically do not form arrows, it allows to obtain high-quality products (end of May-beginning of June), however onions turn out to be the least winter-hardy.
Нормы высева семян (чернушки) первого класса 7-8 кг на 10 соток или 700-800 г на 1 сотку.
Нормы высева семян лука (чернушки) первого класса 7-8 кг на 10 соток или 700-800 г на 1 сотку.
Как видите, лук-чернушку выращивать хоть и хлопотно, но экономически выгодно: и семена стоят недорого, и урожай получается всего за один сезон!
Когда придет пора высаживать наш молоденький лучок, он уже поднимется сантиметров двадцать с длинными и тонкими перышками.
Выбирая семена репчатого лука, обращайте внимание на сроки его созревания. If the period indicated on the label does not exceed 130-140 days, then it is quite possible to get a harvest in one season from this Chernushka.
Which is made after lodging tops.
Otherwise, tender shoots may simply not break through it.
The best precursors for black onions are cabbage, cucumbers, peas, beans and potatoes.
To prevent this, some gardeners are wrapping onion umbrellas with gauze or putting on special fabric covers.Flower stalksThe best dates for planting onion sets in the northern regions of the Krasnodar Territory are the third decade of October, central - the end of the first decade of November, subtropical - the end of November. The optimal time for other regions of the country is 4-4.5 weeks before the onset of cold weather. It is necessary to calculate so that the bulbs have time to take root before the frost, but do not begin to grow.
The main rules of growing onion chernushki: varieties, planting and care
If this is the first time you hear “nipper onions”, don't be surprised, this is not some kind of this plant. The fact is that such a name was received by small seeds of ordinary onions. Seeds are obtained from these seeds, from which, therefore, a single onion will be obtained, which will have a long growing season, or a two-year culture, which will be a small onion. And if you have not dealt previously with the seeds of chernushka onions, then this article can be very useful for you. It will be devoted to the cultivation of black onions and useful tips that relate to this topic.
Planting onion sets for the winter and growing it from seeds (chernushki)
It is necessary to note the feature of agrotechnical cultivation of onion seedlings. The size of the grown onion depends on the seeding depth. The best seedlings are formed when seeds are inserted to a depth of 2-3 cm. A smaller planting gives inappropriate shoots, thinned crops. And the result of this is a large non-standard set-up. With deep embedding, seeds germinate worse, Smaller bulbs are formed, they may even not form at all.
Signs of ripening onion sets - lodging and yellowing of leaves. Even if the leaves have not fully turned yellow, I still pull it out. Immediately I remove the leaves from him, spread out in the sun with a thin layer to ripen, dry.
- For many years I have been growing onion sets from seeds - chernushki. This culture seems simple at first glance. In fact, at first, growing onion sets brought many disappointments. I used to buy onion seeds in the market from grandmothers for planting. Most often, they turned out to be low germination, and sometimes - not at all. Apparently, this was due to improper storage of seed. With good germination, seed bulbs turned out to be non-standard - very small or large.
- In late April - the first half of May, depending on weather conditions, seedlings can be planted in open ground. Onions grow well in bright, sunny areas with light fertile soil. As for the predecessors of onion plantations, the best place would be where tomatoes, potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers or legumes grew last year. But the areas where the bulbous “relatives” used to grow were best allocated to other crops, so that the seedlings that remained in the soil would not become infected with the pathogens.
Based on the time of ripening onions, you can calculate the time of sowing. Usually this happens at the end of winter, or rather, on the twenties of February. A more precise date of sowing Chernushka is determined based on the climatic conditions of a particular region and the recommendations of the lunar calendar for the current year.
How to grow onion sets from seeds (chernushki)
In areas with stable winters, chernushka can be sown in the fall, covered with film for loyalty.
If a lot of manure was added under them, then you can not add any humus or compost under the chernushka.
Most often, this is done when growing a particularly rare or valuable variety, ready to set which is difficult to buy, but you can get seeds.
On which umbrellas with small black seeds are formed.
Check the dates of planting onion sets with the lunar seeding calendar for 2015.
The technique of preparing seeds, harvesting onion sets, as well as caring for plants are the same as when growing onions - sowing seeds into the ground.
How to plant onion sets - processing before planting
Now, having gained some experience, I do not allow past mistakes. Failures behind, growing onions Seva of Nigella brings joy.
A bed is made with a width of no more than 70-80 cm in order to make it easier to care for plantings. From organic fertilizers they apply humus or compost, and from mineral fertilizers - superphosphate or nitroammofoska in the dosages indicated on the labels. If the ground is too viscous, it is recommended to add one or two buckets of sand, dig a bed or loosen it well.
Next, following the advice of an experienced gardener, proceed to the execution of works:
In spring, the emerged shoots are transplanted to new places.
Blacks are made almost immediately after the sprout appears, leaving at least 2 cm between seedlings.
Terms of planting onion sets, norms
For planting, choose a dry sunny place, dig up the soil well, adding humus with a small amount of wood ash.
If you plant onion sets earlier than the recommended dates, then not all sprouting bulbs overwinter, the shoots will be rare, weakened, and there will be a lot of arrows as well. When late planting, plants may not have time to take root, and this will also lead to the fact that he is not all in the ground will be able to survive the winter.
Terms of harvesting onion sets come in July. It is removed during dry weather, in the phase of lodging of the leaves, i.e. when the bulbs are well formed, have top dry scales. Complete lodging or drying of leaves should not be expected, since small onion without leaves is difficult to clean, most of them are lost, it is difficult to find in the garden. It is impossible to be late with harvesting onion sets, because when it is ripe when it is rainy it starts to grow again, forms new roots, is difficult to dry, and is poorly stored.
For sowing I grow onion seeds - chernushka - myself. The most important thing is not to be late with their cleaning, because they ripen unevenly (some are only at the stage of wax ripeness, while others are already crumbling). I remove the testes in which they are when the "caps" begin to crack. "Caps" scatter on burlap for ripening seeds of wax ripeness. Black ripens two or three weeks. I keep seeds in a cool dry place.
Black onions: planting and growing
Before planting, the seedlings are watered in advance so that the earth is wet, but it does not turn into dirty muck, otherwise the stuck together roots will be difficult to separate from each other.For growing seedlings on window sills, we need a suitable container - boxes, special seedlings cassettes or even packing cardboard boxes. The main thing is that the depth of the tank was not less than 10-12cm. It is also desirable to prepare an appropriately sized piece of glass or transparent plastic film in order to close the box and thus create a favorable microclimate for the emergence of shoots.
The best varieties of onions that can be grown through chernushka, in the middle lane are considered
The soil for sowing Chernushka is necessary to prepare the most thoroughly.
When harvesting chernushka for future sowing, it is necessary to remember that its germination is very quickly lost - already the next year it is able to decrease by half, and in subsequent years to disappear altogether.
It is very useful to plant a few plants on an onion bed.Planting onion sets of the first group (1.6-2.2 cm in diameter) increases the safety of plants after overwintering (up to 90-96%) and yield, but slightly reduces the yield of standard products, delaying the maturation of the bulbs for 5-7 days from - for bolting (10-15% of plants).Onion sets can be harvested with green leaves, but at the same time shrinkage will be 2-2.5 times more than when digging from lodging tops. Cleaning it in different phases of the maturity of the tops does not affect the quality of onions.
At a temperature of 17-18 ° C. Higher temperatures are undesirable, since the bulbs, when planted in the spring of next year, will go to the arrow.
In the spring one of the most important moments is not to be late with the sowing.Before planting at a bulbous seedling, about one third of them shorten green feathers and pinch off excessively long roots. This will help the young plant to save nutrients and settle down faster in a new place.
The soil is prepared silt mixture of garden land with the addition of sand and wood ash. The amount of sand depends on the type of soil: with viscous and clay - more, with sand - quite a bit. It is possible to increase the fertility of the soil by introducing rotten compost or peat. It is not necessary to add fresh organic matter to the soil for seedlings. The soil is spilled with a solution of a fungicide so that possible pathogens of fungal diseases do not hit our seedlings.
Strigunovsky, Stuttgarten, Belovezhsky, Myachkovsky, Amber, Spassky, BessonovskySecondAll weeds and their roots must be removed.
Therefore, we must try to use fresh seeds, and last year's must check for germination.
Calendula and dill.
The rate of planting onion sets per 1 hectare depends on the adopted seeding / planting scheme and the group of sets. For small (oatsuzhka) - 350-500 g, for the first group - 500-800 g, the second - 1.5-2.2 kg.
The technique of harvesting onion sets is simple. Plants are selected from the ground and laid right there for ripening and sun drying. When the weather is sunny, there is a rapid outflow of plastic substances from green leaves into succulent scales, the bulb increases, and the leaves and neck dry out. This onion sets is well kept in cold barns, in the attics of economic or residential buildings with insulated roofs. It is better to store it in lots, with untreated tops. The additional shelter of the seed mats or straw with the onset of frost protects it from sudden temperature fluctuations. The onion sets slowly freeze and also thaws slowly (which is very important), due to which the tissue cells do not break and it does not die.
Onions, grown Sevke, the most precocious, its maturation coincides with the period when a lot of heat. This method is especially effective where there is no artificial irrigation. Planting onion seedlings for the winter in the Kuban region is most favorable in late October-November, since it will ripen in late May-early June. The advantages of onion culture through onion sets are particularly pronounced when growing early and sharp varieties. For these varieties, the seed culture is as necessary as the seedling method for early cabbage. But before you plant onion sets, it must be grown. How to grow it from seeds (chernushki) - we'll talk about this too.
2-4 days before the intended sowing of a box of onion seeds, I rub over a bucket or basin of water. Vigorous, heavy seeds settle down. Scales and lungs are not vigorous, floating on top, merge with water. I wash the chernushka at the bottom, rinse with water, and keep it in water at room temperature for two days with the addition of a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Potassium permanganate disinfects from viral, fungal diseases, gives seed nutrition, promotes friendly shoots. Water needs to be changed several times.
We will plant seedlings according to the scheme: between rows - 20 cm, and between plants - 12-15 cm. Buried onions no more than a couple of centimeters. Now that the bed is ready, you can remove the seedlings from the box together with a clod of earth, carefully separate the plants and plant them in the ground. If the roots are too entangled and it is impossible to divide them without loss, there is one trick: put them in a container with water and lightly rinse, the soil will fall down and the plants can easily separate from each other.
Seeds before sowing soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for about an hour and a half. After that, they need to be rinsed with clean warm water, wrapped first in a cloth, then in a plastic bag and put on the heating battery so that the heat and moisture “woke up” the seeds faster. If this is done in the evening, then in the morning it will be possible to engage in sowing.
.After 20 days, these distances increase to 6 cm.This is done so that when the seeds come up, their thin roots, located in the upper layer of the earth, are not damaged during weeding.
If nipper is purchased on the market, then it must be sanitized before sowing. For this, seeds are placed in a weakCalendula suppresses nematodes, and dill repels pests.Black onions
For a week or two before planting onions, the onions are cleared of tops, sorted, removing all dried, diseased, sprouted bulbs, moistened, powdered with fentiuram or TMTD (4-6 g per 1 kg of seed). Processing TMTD can be carried out by immersing the onion in 2-3% working solution for 20 minutes. Then it should be dried.
Then I wrap the niglet in a cloth and hold it for 1-2 days at room temperature, making sure that the cloth is wet. During this time, almost all onion seeds begin to germinate. I mix them with chalk so that they differ in color from the soil, and I saw them in the garden. That's it, Chernushka is ready for sowing. If the weather is unfavorable (frost, snow), then put the prepared onion seeds in a cold cellar or refrigerator before the onset of favorable weather. If they are left in a warm place, they will germinate, and the shoots easily break off - there will be nothing to sow.
When landing is over, the bed is watered generously but gently. It is better to do this by sprinkling from a watering can or using a sprinkler so as not to erode the soil around the onions. After that, the bed is carefully powdered with wood ash to protect the landings from the main bulbous pest - the bulb fly larvae.
Prepared seeds are taken out and scattered on paper so that they dry up a bit and become crumbly. In the meantime, the soil makes grooves with a distance of 5 cm and a depth of 1 cm. The seeds are pulled apart 2-2.5 cm from each other, covered with soil and, gently slamming with fingers, compacted, so gentle roots will appear easier to gain a foothold in the ground.
For you Galimax
But they do this only if they want to get an annual onion. Sowing on sevok should be quite thick, otherwise grow medium bulbs.
It is possible to sow chernushka both in rows, and randomly.
Favored for onions and
- This is not a special kind of onion.
TMTD is not easily purchased for private use. Most often it is used by farmers and farms that grow onions in large volumes.How to grow onion sets from seeds (chernushki)A place for sowing in the garden I choose an open, sunny, dry. I sow in the beds where cucumbers, legumes, cabbage, and potatoes used to grow. Since autumn, the beds fill with humus. In the spring I pay for 1 m2 of 1 tablespoon of superphosphate, nitroamofoski and a handful of wood ash. When sowing onion seeds, I use two methods.
Seedlings will get acclimatized more quickly if the bed is covered with non-woven agrofibre, which protects young plants from fluctuations in day and night temperatures, reduces evaporation of moisture, draws them from the burning sun rays, and generally creates a favorable microclimate.Now we close the box with glass or film and put it in a warm place (again, you can use a radiator). Planting and watering do not require crops, since the evaporation of moisture does not occur because of the shelter, you only need to glance from time to time - whether shoots have appeared.
From hereAfter thinning, both the first and second, onion is desirableIn the second case, the sevok turns out to be smaller, but the place for sowing is saved.
And incubated for thirty minutes.
Carrot neighborhoodThis is the name for the onion seeds, from which sevka is obtained - small onion for cultivation in a two-year culture, or a single-bow onion with a long growing season.Onion seeding before planting usually spend so. I put it in a plastic mesh (can be in a fabric bag) and drop it for one or two minutes in hot water. The water temperature is 50-60 ° C - the hand hardly tolerates this temperature. Then immediately immersed at the same time in a container with cold water - 15-18C - water of such temperature usually flows from the tap. Such a treatment of onions with water of a contrasting temperature prevents the premature formation of arrows on the bow.
How to plant onion sets for the winter
The first one is generally accepted - sowing ribbons on a ridge 1 m wide. One tape is 12 lines with a distance of 8 cm between them. I use specially made 12-line rakes to form the grooves during planting, but the grooves can be made with the sharp end of the chopper. I carefully groove the grooves with the back side of the rake, lightly seal the soil with a plank or shovel, and mulch with humus.Further care is watering if weather conditions require it. At the same time it is important not to overfill - the onion does not like stagnant water and “waterlogging”. And about 10-15 days before harvesting, watering is completely stopped, and the soil is a little raked off the bulbous turnips.
Когда первые росточки замечены, стоит переставить ящичек на подоконник, чтобы всходы получали максимально возможную освещенность и не вытягивались. Когда рассада подрастет и укрытие уже будет мешать – его убираю, а до этого всходы ежедневно проветривают, снимая капельки испарений со стекла. Еще одна особенность – чернушка лук всходит неравномерно и медленно, а поросль тонюсенькая и очень уж нежная. Поэтому, чтобы при поливах они не полегли, лучше увлажнять почву при помощи пульверизатора.
источник:автор Валентина Кокорева , Мария Луговая
подкормить коровякомSeeds are not buried deep - 1 to 2 cm from the surface, and lightly rolled.You can still put them in about half a day.
- It helps prevent the onion fly invasion.
Independent cultivation of black onions is a rather troublesome, but interesting process.
When onions are affected by downy mildew or peronosporosis, the leaves are covered with a fluffy grayish tinge, turn pale, die off, starting from the tips, the bulbs become soft. The disease develops at high air humidity and a temperature of about +13 ° C. It is treated hard, so before planting seedlings it is better to treat the soil with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. In phase 4-6, the feathers of a plant can be treated with Ridomil Gold MC.
You can then withstand onion sets for 8-10 hours in any nutrient solution. How to cook it? Make a solution of nitrophoska, nitroamofoski or any complex fertilizer, for example, Kemira Lux, according to the instructions. For example, a solution of nitroforski or nitroammoforski - 1 tablespoon to 1 bucket of water.
Growing onions from seedlings is beneficial not only in the sense that the growing season will be longer, but also in terms of savings (planting material takes much less). By the way, some varieties recommend growing exclusively from seedlings. Onion seeds Chernushka begin to sow in greenhouses or greenhouses in the first decade of March. If you live in the city, then without any problems, you can plant onion on the windowsill in your own apartment. But we need suitable conditions regarding heat, light, moisture and, of course, the soil.
Since the day at the beginning of spring is still brief enough, it is necessary to extend it for the plants - fluorescent lamps are perfect for this business. Watering spend as needed, then you need not to overdo it with water, so that the seedlings do not begin to rot. It is best to spray with a spray. Also, for planting onions Chernushka seedlings need to prepare in advance the capacity and soil. As far as containers are concerned, there should be no problems - take at your discretion any drawers (not important, plastic or wooden) of suitable sizes. Soil should include several elements that should be mixed in equal proportions: garden soil, compost, and peat with sand to make the mixture soft. You can also add a little wood ash and treat the soil with preparations to protect against diseases and weeds, but do not overdo it with chemistry.
The seed must also be checked for "professional suitability." Somewhere a month before disembarking, take a dozen of three seeds and place for 2-3 weeks in a damp cloth. After this time, not less than 80% of the total amount should grow to 80%, in which case the similarity can be considered satisfactory. The bulk of the seed, which is designed for growing seedlings, you need to soak for 12 hours in a warm solution of potassium permanganate. Then just before sowing, they should be thoroughly dried to flowability. Additionally, the soil can be treated to protect against various diseases. Seeds of onion chernushki in containers can be randomly placed or sown in a row, as long as it is not very tight. Place the seed to a depth of 1 cm, lightly tapping the soil on top.
By the end of April, at least 2-3 feathers should appear in the onion, and the plants themselves can already reach 15 centimeters in height. You can now transplant seedlings into open ground.
Sowing in the soil in spring and winter
Seeds of onions of Chernushka are planted very early in the spring, it is possible even in the frozen ground. It is very prudent of you to prepare a plot from autumn - loosen the soil, level, mulch with peat, make sure that there are no lumps. Delay with planting is not worth it - it is fraught with late maturation and lower yields. Usually, when planting onions, Chernushka seed is placed at a depth of 1.5-2 cm, but on light soils it is desirable to increase the depth to 3 cm (because in this case, the top layer can be swept away by the wind), or roll in the soil after planting. The distance between the rows should be approximately 20 centimeters. It is worth to sow economically, so that the seed consumption per 1 meter is approximately 80 units, if you want to get a one-year onion. Immediately after germination, thinning should be done, leaving 2 cm between seedlings, after three weeks you need to leave 5-6 cm. Sifting out this way you will spend more than one and a half gram of Chernushka 1 m ?. If there is a calculation of sowing, then it should be quite thick. It is not necessary to water for some time, as a crust may form, which will impede shoots. Then you need periodic watering and loosening of the upper ball of the soil, feeding is carried out if necessary. Crop harvested in early September, it should definitely be collected before the first frost.
Sowing for the winter is not much different from the spring. A bed is prepared in a similar way: align, break up lumps, add a ball of humus from above after sowing. Similarly, the grooves under the chernushka are made and the care of shoots is carried out. It is not necessary to plant chernushka twice in a row on the same place, also onions it is not advisable to plant after cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers. In winter, you should pay attention to the area with chernushka was under a layer of snow. Later, when it comes down, it is advisable to cover the soil again with a two-centimeter layer of humus or peat. Experienced gardeners chernushka sown in the fall, because spring onions can not fully ripen by autumn, and, as a result, will not be able to be stored for a long time in winter.
Growing from seed
Onion seeds Chernushka much easier to buy on the market than to grow yourself. The most popular varieties are Strigunovsky, Myachkovsky, Zolotnik, Spassky, there are also hybrids Spirit, Standard. But it is possible to grow nigella himself, despite the fact that it is troublesome. First of all, you need to select a few large suitable bulbs and plant them in the spring immediately after the snow melts, or before winter in a well-prepared land. By the summer of the bulbs, flower stalks will appear, then umbrellas containing black seed will form.
When and how to plant onions Chernushka
Onions are widely used in different cuisines of the world: as a flavoring seasoning to dishes, a component for salads, it is used to prepare first courses, side dishes, and even desserts. Nutrients in its composition are very useful for human health. Onions are used in folk medicine for the manufacture of various rinses, rubbing, tinctures.
Vegetable culture has many varieties, differing from each other in color, appearance, taste, sharpness. Chernushka onions - the national name is not some special variety of onions, but the seeds of ordinary onions, of which for a year or two (depending on the type of cultivation and variety) you can grow a full-fledged onion.
Features onion niks
The harvest obtained from Chernushka onions has a high viability. The naturally growing vegetation process allows the plants to adapt to the environment to the maximum.
Onions grown in this way receive high immunity from many diseases and pests and produce a richer and higher-quality crop. Using a chernushka for onions for planting, it is possible not to store sevok and make room in the storeroom or cellar. If you put a chernushka onion in the winter, in the hot spring season you can do other vegetables.
The method of planting onions from seeds makes it possible to obtain high-quality planting material adapted to the conditions of the region. All varieties of onions offered in Russia can be divided into southern and northern ones by origin.
Northern varieties of onions are plants of a long day, which require a day of at least 16 hours to form a crop.
Varieties Myachkovsky, Siberian annual, Belovezhsky, Spassky, Yantarny, Bessonovsky, Botherus, Strigunovsky, Timiryazevsky, Zolotnichok are suitable for middle and northern regions. Southern varieties (Karatal, Chalcedony, Copra F1) for the formation of the crop requires about 13 hours of daylight hours.
Among imported varieties, Robusta (Holland), Stuttgart (Germany), Volska (Poland) are well established. For long-term storage, it is best to choose the varieties Bessonovsky, Myachkovsky, Odinovets, Kasatik.
Growing onions should be aware that the germination of its seeds is quickly lost. Grains not planted next season reduce germination almost by half in a year, and in subsequent years it completely disappears. Therefore, you only need to sow fresh seeds and in any case check them for productivity.
To do this, a month before sowing, you need to take a certain number of seeds and wrap them in a damp cloth. The next 14-18 days, the matter in which the fruitful grains are located, periodically moisten. After this time has elapsed, seed germination is examined. 75% of them should give young shoots. If the sprouts turned out to be much smaller, the grains are unsuitable for planting.
Onions of Chernushka are recommended to germinate before planting. For this gauze folded in several layers and put the seeds into it. In a half-liter jar with warm water add a few drops of Appin.
Gauze with seeds is dipped into the solution and kept there for a day. Then a bag of seeds is taken out, the excess water is slightly squeezed out and, for the prevention of fungal diseases, they are placed in a one percent solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes. After that, the bag is pressed again, put in a plastic bag inflated with air and tied.
Place the seed bag in a warm, lit place. The seeds will turn out well after 4-5 days, and some will even have time to start thin stalks.
It is necessary to disembark the nymph on time: when the stalks become too long, they can break off when planted and the seed cannot grow. Chernushka seeds before planting are dried and powdered slightly with chalk powder, so that they become loose and well visible on the ground.
Dates of sowing in open ground
The time for sowing Chernushka in open ground comes in spring, when the earth warms to a temperature of + 3- + 4 ° С. For winter, seed onions are planted in late autumn.
Soil and climatic features in different regions affect the timing of sowing of Chernushka onions. In the south of Russia, it is sown in March with the onset of warm days, and in the middle of summer they harvest crops. In the Urals and Siberia, weather conditions allow sowing chernushka in open ground only in April. For planting seedlings in the garden the best period begins from May 1 to 10.
It is important not to be mistaken with the timing of the underwinter seeding onions of Chernushka. A significant difference in weather conditions in different regions leads to a significant difference in the time of sowing. In northern areas, chernushka is sown at the end of October, and in more southern areas it can be done in November and even in early December.
Site selection and soil preparation
To grow onions on the site you need to choose a place well illuminated by the sun, but it is allowed and slightly shaded. Lowlands with stagnant cold air and moisture vapor the plant does not tolerate. The site should be as open as possible and with a smooth surface.
The optimum acidity of the soil for onions should not exceed 6.4-7.9pH. In order to neutralize the acidic soil, 500 grams of lime should be added to 1 square meter of land.
Onions grow well on fertile moderately loose soils. He will give a rich harvest in the area where they grew potatoes, cabbage, cucumbers or beans. If manure has been applied to these crops, it is not necessary to add fertilizers with a high nitrogen content.
You can use specially designed for onion ready-made sets of dressings. Favorable effect on the productivity of onion neighborhood with carrots, which does not allow the appearance of onion flies.
Fertile soil - one of the mandatory conditions for the cultivation of Chernushka. Bed under the bow must be prepared in advance. In the autumn, when digging into 1 square meter of land, half a bucket of humus, 15 grams of potassium sulfate and 25 grams of superphosphate are introduced. It is impossible to use manure instead of humus: at the initial stage of decomposition it releases into the environment a lot of gases harmful to plants.
The chemical burn obtained at best will have a very bad effect on their development and yield. In the worst case, it may even lead to the death of the seedlings. The humus, which is a completely rotted manure, has a uniform crumbly structure and a dark brown color. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the finished humus are in a form that is available to plants.
Onion seeds Chernushki sown in shallow furrows, the distance between which should be at least 25 centimeters. Too narrow aisles should not be done, since it will be inconvenient to loosen the ground and remove weeds.
Seeds, especially germinated, it is undesirable to plant in dry soil: their tender stems can dry out and disappear. In case of insufficient precipitation, the furrow for the blackberry should be watered well before sowing.
Onions are attacked by such a pest, like an onion fly. The insect is very sensitive to salt, so the groove before sowing is “salted”. It's okay if you forgot to salt when planting: later the beds can be watered with saline (300 grams of salt per 10 liters of water).
Chernushka does not like rare planting, therefore seeds are sown quite thickly. On top of them sprinkled with humus or compost and compacted soil. Planting depth should not exceed 2 centimeters, seeds sown too deep can not ascend.
By winter, it is better to sow the early ripe varieties of the bow Strigunovsky and Bessonovsky.
In late autumn, before sowing seed onions for the winter, it is necessary to loosen in advance and fertilize the bed in a timely manner. Soil for Chernushka requires very careful preparation. Weeds must be removed from the soil so that the weed roots remaining in it will not damage the first tender shoots when they sprout.
Having formed furrows on a bed with fairly wide inter-row spacings, they are left in this state until the cold. After the first frost chernushka onions sown in prepared grooves.
Top sown seeds sprinkled with a thin layer of humus earth with a thickness of 3-4 centimeters. During severe winter frosts it is necessary to ensure that the beds are covered with snow. If it is not there, dust, dry leaves or other warming material is put on top with a layer of at least 20 centimeters.
Top beds are covered with sprigs so that they hold snow throughout the winter. In the spring, after the snow has melted, the bed is again sprinkled with peat or humus.
Planting and caring for chernushka onions are not particularly troublesome. By ensuring timely loosening and watering, feeding and controlling pests and diseases, in the fall you can get a rich harvest of useful and unpretentious vegetables.
Chernushka grows slowly, therefore, so that the seedlings are not “lost”, weeds should be removed in time on the garden with onions.
Until mid-July, the plants are watered, and the ground is loosened after precipitation or irrigation to prevent drying and formation of a crust. In dry land, onions become dormant and almost cease to develop. The result is a weak and shallow onion set, which is poorly stored.
Too thickened planting of onion of nipper requires thinning, which is carried out after the appearance of the first pair of stalks in the plant. Between seedlings leave a distance of 2 centimeters. The onion sets will be larger, the longer the distance you leave, but in this case there is no need for large bulbs.
Onions during growing are fed twice. Immediately after thinning spend the first feeding. Plants fertilize the extract of mullein, diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10. You can feed Chernushka and mineral fertilizers (1 tablespoon of urea or ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water).
10-15 days after the first, a second feeding is carried out, in which 20 grams of superphosphate and potassium salt are introduced into the soil.
A chernushka onion may be attacked by an onion fly, root onion mite, onion keeper, onion hover.
The complex of preventive measures will help prevent the occurrence of pests:
Periodically onion sprinkled with wood ash or tobacco dust to repel pests. Ash will additionally serve as mineral fertilizer.
The most dangerous for young plants is rotting and powdery mildew. The rotting of onions provokes a surplus of nitrogen in the soil, defeat by downy powdery mildew, damage by an onion fly.
Downy mildew is formed on the bulbs, if onion is planted at the same place for more than 3 years, fresh manure is put under the landing, the vegetable is not treated with special prophylactic agents.
Harvesting and storage
Properly grown senets in winter will be better preserved, and next year they will grow a great harvest. In order for the onion sets to ripen and be well kept in winter, watering is stopped in mid-July.
Harvesting Chernushka onions begins in the middle or at the end of August. Sevyv dig when the neck of the plant dries up, onion tops lie down and turn yellow.
Выбирают для этого ясный солнечный день, чтобы маленькие луковки можно было хорошо просушить на солнце. Если урожай может намокнуть, его собирают и в один слой раскладывают в хорошо проветриваемом сухом помещении. Опавшую шелуху и листья у каждой луковицы по мере высыхания удаляют.
Тщательная просушка гарантирует сохранность лука до самой весны. Опытные огородники сушат лук в 3 этапа:
This temperature is maintained using household heating devices.
Onions for storage sorted by size and placed for storage in boxes or bags. Store it in a cool dark place with a temperature not higher than + 18 ° C. Onions are periodically sorted out, removing rotten, dried or spoiled vegetables.
Onions grown from Chernushka - seedlings, spring and podzimnim sowing
Historically, the following pattern of onion cultivation has developed: seeds (chernushka) - sowing, sowing - sampling, sampling - turnip. But lately, gardeners are increasingly choosing to grow onions from seeds, because this method allows you to get ready-made bulbs in one season and it is better to save them in winter, and planting material is cheaper than ready-made onion samples or sevok.
If you intend to grow onions from seeds, first of all, decide on varieties. For annual cultivation, low-budding varieties are the best option, such as:
For one-year cultivation, low-starter varieties would be the best option.
- Danilovsky 301,
- Myachkovsky 300,
- One-year havskiy,
- Annual Siberian
- Early pink,
You can also choose Dutch breeding hybrids with bright colors (red, white, yellow-brown), of which for one season you will get good bulbs round. Recommended hybrid varieties: early fruitful F1 Spirit, Stardust F1, forming a large amount of green feather, as well as Red Baron, who is valued for good keeping quality and productivity. Multi-variety varieties are not suitable for annual cultivation, since the bulbs will be deformed.
Video about growing onions from seeds
How to grow onion sets from semyan- "blackie"
Onions are so habitual in the diet that a person far from agriculture, poorly represents how long the path of this plant from the garden to our table. Of course, the agrotechnical cultivation of onions, “niks” for planting and further cultivation of crops in farms has been perfected. But a novice summer resident will have to work hard before he grows a crop of onions from seeds of “chernushki”.
Planting onion heads for seeds and nursing "chernushka"
Planting onions for seeds in the photo
Onions in our climate are grown for two years. In the first year, onion beds are planted, the so-called “crumbs”, from which small onion grows - autumn sevok. Sevok is kept warm in winter, and in spring it is planted again in the beds, receiving large commodity bulbs suitable for food and winter storage by autumn.
To get the "Chernushka" need uterine bulbs released varieties, giving good yields in the area. The bulbs should be aligned in size: 5 to 10 cm in diameter (depends on the variety). The best varieties of onions that can be grown through "chernushka" in the middle lane are Strigunovsky, Stuttgarten, Belovezhsky, Myachkovsky, Yantarny, Spassky, Bessonovsky.
For planting onions on seeds- “chernushku” after harvesting the turnips, select the largest, best and healthy copies of the bulbs. First of all they need to be dried well and then sent to storage. In winter, the bulbs left on the seeds should be stored in a room with a temperature of minus 3 ° C, and a humidity of 75-80%.
Before growing onions “chernushka” on seeds, for three weeks before planting it is transferred to a warmer place (about 16 ° C), thereby accelerating the growth of the arrow inside.
Since autumn, the site is dug up and mineral fertilizers are applied (potash - 15 - 20 g and phosphate - 30 g per 1 m2). In areas with stable winter, “chernushka” can be sown in the fall, covered with film for loyalty. In spring, the emerged shoots are transplanted to new places.
Before planting, the neck of the bulbs is cut, and at the same time some of the juicy (up to 1 cm) are captured. Pruning will accelerate germination, ensure friendly shoots, help identify and remove diseased bulbs (they are clearly visible along the sections). After this procedure, the uterine onions on the seeds, “chernushka”, should be immediately planted in the ground. They are planted as early as possible (approximately the 3rd decade of April), because the vegetation of testicles of bulb onion has a long period - 130 days, and the seeds need to have time to ripen before frost. The ground in front of this hoe, level, make the beds: 5 rows with 25 cm between them. The tracks between the ridges are 60 cm each, taking into account that it is possible to install the frame under the film cover.
The bulbs are placed in the prepared grooves with a Donets bottom at a distance of 15-20 cm (we look at the size of the bulb). The testes are filled with soil, a layer of about 5 cm above the cut off top.
During the entire period of growth of the seed bulbs, repeated weeding and loosening of the soil between the rows are necessary, because otherwise the seed yield decreases and there is a greater likelihood of plant disease with peronospora. When the testes begin to grow massively, they must be sprayed with peronosporosis with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%) 1 or Ridomil solution (1%). When the arrows appear, one and a half meter stakes are driven in along the ridge edge at a distance of a meter and a half from each other. Between the stakes (and across the ridge, and along) you need to pull the twine in three rows: the 1st row - 40 cm from the ground, and the other two - 40 cm apart. This will keep the arrows from breaking and falling to the ground in case of increased wind.
Ripening of onion seeds does not occur simultaneously. At first, the boxes of the upper part of the umbellate inflorescence ripen, then the bottom. When the first single boxes are opened, and black seeds are noticeable in them, they start to harvest umbrellas. They are cut together with an arrow about 30 cm and tied with bunches (10-15 pieces). Hang in pairs on a wire, stretched under a canopy or in the attic (to be well ventilated). A film or burlap is spreading beneath them, so that mature seeds from bursting pods spill onto it. To speed up the rash, the wire is sometimes shaken and traversed with a wooden stick along the bundles, lightly tapping. Sleeping onion seeds (talus or abrasion) are considered best for germination and germination. They are stored separately.
If adverse weather conditions retard the development of plants, the seeds do not ripen for a long time. Early seeds are dangerous for immature seeds. Then the seed plants, along with the bulbs, are dug out and transferred under the awnings, laying obliquely on the stretched wire. Under them spread the material to collect the pouring out of seeds, which are fully matured at the expense of nutrients from the arrows and bulbs.
After the winnowing, the seeds are poured into the water, stirring, and settled for about ten minutes. Flabby seeds and particles of inflorescences remain on the surface of the water (they will merge with the water), and the full ones settle to the bottom.
Full-grown seeds are scattered on the sacking in a thin layer and dried quickly, often by spotting. So that they are better kept, dried to a moisture level of 7-8%. "Chernushka" store no more than 2-3 years, in paper bags in a dry place, preferably at room temperature.
From this material onions will grow on the following year.
Planting onions- "Chernushki" in the spring in the ground on sevok
Onion- "nipper" on the photo
Before planting onions- "Chernushki" sevka on the bed produce marking. From the edge of the beds retreat 10 cm and hold three grooves at a distance of 5 cm from each other. The depth of the furrows should not exceed 2 cm. At a distance of 15 cm from them, three more furrows are made.
In the prepared furrows sow the seeds at a distance of 1-1.5 cm from each other. After sowing, the soil is slightly compacted and carefully watered with water at a rate of 2-3 liters of water for each m of the bed.
Onion seeds germinate very slowly (two to three weeks), and the emerged shoots grow at a snail's pace for a month. In order to accelerate the germination and growth of seeds, the beds are covered with a film stretched over an arc at a height of 20-30 cm above the surface. This will provide an opportunity to preserve the soil moisture and create an optimal microclimate for germination.
After germination, cotyledons in the form of small loops should appear on the soil surface. If, instead of them, roots appeared from the soil, then such plants must be removed from the garden, they will die anyway. After the mass germination of seeds during cultivation and care of the nodular onion, it is worthwhile to thin out the distance between neighboring plants to be not less than 1.5-2 cm. After 12 days, the cotyledons usually straighten and the first leaf appears.
At the end of the season we have to get a crop of onion sets. Signs of ripening onion sets - lodging and yellowing of leaves. Even if the leaves have not fully turned yellow, they still pull it out. Immediately he leaves removed, laid out in the sun with a thin layer to ripen, dry. To store onions in winter is necessary at a temperature of 17-18 ° C. Higher temperatures are undesirable, since the bulbs, when planted in the spring of next year, will go to the arrow.
On the video “Cultivation of Black Onions” you can see how to care for seedlings:
Preparation of onion sets and processing before planting
Onion grows onions, suitable for food and storage in winter. Sevok is planted when the earth warms to a depth of 6-10 cm. If you focus on the weather, in early and warm spring you can land at the end of April. Onions can not be planted in the cold ground, but also delayed landing is also impossible. The main reference point is the temperature of the soil, which should not be below 12 ° C.
Onion sets on the photo
It is very important to carry out the correct preparation of the onion set at planting. Saved at temperatures below 18 ° C - warm up. Warming sevka - a long process, carried out in several stages. First, at a temperature of +20 ° C, it must be kept for 15 to 20 days. Then stand sevok 8-10 hours at a temperature of from 30 ° C to 40 ° C. It is important not to overdo it. Heated onion sets before planting are treated with a growth stimulator.
Immediately before planting a crop, it is necessary to carry out the following treatment of onion sets before planting:
Obligatory procedure which is necessary for carrying out when preparing onion sets for planting is disinfection. For the treatment of onion sets, both a weak solution of potassium permanganate and a solution of copper sulfate (35 g per 10 liters of water) are suitable.
There is also a method which consists in the following:
- planting material is dried for 7 days, the temperature should be from 20 ° C to 25 ° C,
- before planting, the bulbs are soaked for 3 hours in saline (2 tablespoons of salt per 2 liters of water),
- the bulbs are washed,
- Sevok immersed in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for 2 hours,
- washed again
- a little dry.
At this work on the preparation of planting for planting end.
Planting onion Sevka spring in the ground (with video)
The soil planting onion sets in the spring begin to cook in the fall. Onions - amateur loose, nutritious soil, so be sure to:
It is strictly forbidden to add organic fertilizer to the soil for planting onion sets in order to prevent the growth of the upper part of the plant and the dormancy of the lower one, as well as the appearance of weeds. Before planting, it is contraindicated to make humus and chicken droppings.
It is necessary to consider the level of acidity of the soil. If the soil is acidic, it is necessary to liming one of the following components:
- dolomite flour,
- ground limestone
- ground chalk
- wood ash.
Before planting, sevok it is necessary to sort, because depending on the size is determined by the distance between the bulbs in the garden:
As for the beds, they must be at a distance of at least 20 cm — 25 cm from each other. Planting depth is about 3-4 cm.
After the planting material is immersed in the ground, it must be compressed tightly around the bulbs and covered with a layer of mulch. Mulch - any available material, such as sawdust, straw, film, paper, peat, pebbles, 2-3 cm thick.
In a watered garden bed, before sending the onion there, you need to pour a little sand. Sevok will grow faster.
Watch the video “Planting onion sets” to better understand how to sow the crop in the ground:
In the process of care, it is necessary to constantly combat diseases and pests.
Onions are harvested when the feathers turn yellowing and lodging, and when dry integumentary scales appear on the bulb.
Chernushka onion: growing from seed when harvested
Onion seeds can be grown independently. Each bulb, having a diameter of more than 3 cm, has the power to expel the flowering bud, which is on the bottom. How many peduncles appear on the mother bulb depends on the number of buds present in it.
Before embarking on the practice of obtaining chernushki on your plot, it is useful to complete a theoretical course on how to grow onion seeds yourself.
What bulbs are selected for seed production
The bulbs, from which you need to get seed, are prepared in advance. To do this, select the ripened healthy roots in the garden. They must be excavated separately, selecting several heads of the desired grade.
Selected bulbs should have a standard set of attributes corresponding to the variety. If several root crops are formed from a single turnip, the planting material is selected from the nests with the largest number of bulbs.
The quality of self-produced chernushki depends on several factors. There is always a risk of getting seeds infected with viral diseases. To avoid the development of diseases, the turnips selected from the garden are washed in a fungicide, and they are allowed to dry in the sun. In the evening, the bulbs are transported under a canopy, cut off the shrunken tops, leaving at least 10 cm of feathers over the neck. Then they are put to dry on a separate tray.
When the neck becomes completely dry, uterine bulbs are folded into nets, nylon stockings or plastic boxes alone, separate from the onions intended for food, and stored until spring in a dry place.
In January, the bulbs are scanned to identify specimens infected with bacterial rot.
How do uterine bulbs are prepared for planting
20 days before planting in the ground, the bulbs are heated at a temperature of up to 40 ° C, which accelerates the development of the flower bud after planting in the ground.
To saturate the succulent flakes with oxygen, the bulbs are cut to 1/3. This will accelerate the growing process.
The landing of uterine turnips carried out in the early stages. Choosing the time when to plant onions for seeds, you need to remember that the crumbs, the cultivation of which lasts for 130 days, is complete only if the process of ripening occurs at the end of July - beginning of August.
Such onions are not afraid of night frosts, therefore many hostesses in the south plant it from the end of March to mid-April, and in the central zone of the Russian Federation, planting of the queen plant is made from April 20 as soon as you can enter the garden for farming. If there is a danger of precipitation in the form of snow, then before bad weather, such landings cover with any covering material.
How to prepare the soil
If you want to get the full seeds of several varieties, dig a few beds at different ends of the plot. This will prevent the onion from cross-pollination and the formation of hybrids.
Onions will develop well only if the root crops have enough nutrients. To obtain high-quality seeds per 1 m2 make 4 liters of compost and 0.5 liters of wood ash. The plot is dug forks to loosen the soil well.
If the soil is infected with fungal infections, late blight was observed at the site, a ready-made garden bed is shed with Fitosporin or copper sulfate solution at the rate of 1 t. l on 10l of water.
Uterine turnips are planted in the open ground at a distance of 30 cm from each other in a checkerboard pattern. The upper part of the head is left open so that the soil does not fall on the cut, which causes infection and the development of a bacterial infection. Nearby you can plant a bow on the feather, if it is removed before the arrows appear.
How to take care of plantings
Growing and caring for uterine bulbs is not difficult. Agricultural technology requires loosening the soil, 2 fertilizing with nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer. Be sure to remove weeds, shading the onions and contributing to the decay of the bottom, leaves and stalks of peduncles.
Juicy onions are very long and fragile. When they begin to inflate, the bulb does not stand up under their weight and collapses to the side. This leads to decay of the arrows. To prevent this, it is required to tie up flowering flower stalks, securing them with wooden pegs.
After the procedure, tying up the soil under the bulbs is not touched, so as not to disturb the underground part of the plant. In the video you can see how to care for the onions planted to obtain niks.
How to collect seeds
You need to know how to properly pick off flowering arrows in order to preserve the harvest of the chernushka onions.
Делают это по мере усыхания дудки. Когда убирать стрелки, подскажет состояние цветоносного стебля. При полном созревании чернушки он засыхает, и шар с семенами под тяжестью склоняется вниз. От этого созревшая чернушка падает на землю, где прорастает поздней осенью.
Чтобы не допустить самосева, собирать урожай семян нужно выборочно. Harvesting begins as soon as single cracked boxes appear, in which black onion seeds are visible. This usually happens at the end of the summer.
It is possible to clean a nhernushka onion in several stages, making it in dry weather. It is recommended to check the maturation boxes before each rain. Moisture is bad for the grown crop. Dried boxes become open when it rains, which speeds up the crumble of the crumbs and interferes with how to collect onion seeds and preserve them during the winter.
Lossless seeds can be obtained by cutting the umbrellas ready for harvesting with scissors and storing them in cotton fabric for storage. If you break the seed boxes with your hands, then part of the chernushki will fall to the ground.
How to store seeds
The harvested seed stock is tied into a fabric knot, which is hung under a canopy until late autumn. In each knot there should be no more than 10 seed onion balls. A large number of seed pods collected in one tissue nodule begin to rot, and this causes the seeds to become infected with fungi and bacteria.
When the time for collecting the seeds is over, all the arrows are cut off, do not remove the bulbs from the garden. They need to feed, water, loosen and wait for the new vegetative period to begin. If the bottom remains healthy, a green feather will soon appear, which can be used for food.
If the greens are not cut, then after about a month a juicy onion is formed, which can be used as food. Onions are harvested in this case after the onion neck has dried.
How to clean and prepare seeds
Seeds begin to engage in sowing Chernushka in the ground. Prior to that, it is held high above the floor so that the mice do not spoil the seed stock.
Depending on the climatic conditions, Chernushka in well-fertilized beds can be sown before winter or spring in early May.
Before sowing, dry umbrellas dry their hands, trying to separate the black seeds from them as much as possible. Then the whole mass is poured with cold water, and in it they crush the boxes, so that the whole noggin will separate. At the same time mature seeds settle to the bottom, and the husk floats. It is removed from the surface of the water, but not thrown out, but buried in a thick layer on the garden, so that sevok or samples will grow from it.
With the rest, Chernushki is drained and soaked in fungicide or Fitosporine, following the instructions given by the manufacturer of the product in the instructions. After the treated chernushka is thrown back onto the gauze, the water is allowed to drain until the seeds acquire the ability to flow. After that, chernushka sown in the ground.
Fresh seeds may be empty if they were tried to be obtained from hybrids. Chernushka with a low percentage of germination may be in violation of agricultural practices. Therefore, all harvested chernushka need to try to plant in the first year in the ground on the sevok, which can be obtained only with dense sowing.
How to grow sev from their seeds
In order to get good quality sev, they dig up a bed of 1.5 m2, loosen it, rake it, cut the grooves after 8 cm, and sow the seeds of onions thickly in them.
The grooves are covered with earth by 1.5 cm and they clap the ground in the garden with a shovel. After 20 days should appear dense shoots, which greatly need abundant watering and fertilizing.
Growing onions from seeds is not difficult if the crops are dense, because it is watering and it is easier to remove weeds from a small bed than from a large area.
On densely sowed beds weed weed by hand, and the ground is loosened with special tools. Some housewives use for this table forks.
Thick plantings are breaking through, transplanting the obtained seedlings at a distance of 5 cm from each other, to well-fertilized beds with loose earth. Seedlings planted in rainy weather, having 2 true leaves, take root well.
Before planting, trim the roots and feathers. From such a seedling bulbs grow medium size. Crop harvested after 2 weeks later turnips, which grew from seeds.
In one year with thick sowing, it is possible to obtain from onion seeds sown in open ground in May, three fractions: oatsuzhka, sevok and samples, which is used as food in the winter season. A dense planting allows you to get a lot of seeds from onion seeds, the onions of which do not exceed 2 cm.
How to grow a large head in one season
If the variety of onions selected for obtaining chernushki was early or mid-early, then a large onion can be obtained from seeds in one year. Many gardeners specially grow early-grade Chernushka seeds every year in order to fully provide themselves not only with the seed fund, but also with bulbs suitable for food.
Large onions from seeds can be grown through seedlings obtained after sowing nippers in greenhouses. After hardening, the obtained sprouts are used for growing the maximum possible yield of onions from seeds in one season in open ground.
Seedlings give good results in greenhouses, because the onion shoots require additional lighting, maintaining a certain temperature. Onion sill often damages the black leg on the windowsill. This leads to a waste of onion seeds.
Growing onions from Chernushka without seedlings allows you to grow a turnip of medium size, if the sowing of seeds will be done pointwise.
Growing onions from seeds will require a lot of attention from the gardener. Large beds overgrown with grass, you need to weed regularly, otherwise the underground part will suffer from a lack of light and food, which will allow the bulbs to produce feathers, but not to develop the underground part.
For growing from seeds, turnips are important every day during the period of vegetative processes. Such beds can not be ignored. Permanent control over the condition of the soil allows both to grow onions from seeds in one season, and to preserve it in the winter season.
Sowing seeds in the ground to obtain large root crops, you must follow the crop rotation rule. In one place it is impossible to make an onion bed for several years in a row. The bulbs are susceptible to diseases, and the longer a crop is grown in one area, the more diseases will be threatened by the plants.
When to harvest, is determined by the state of the onion neck. 2 weeks before the intended collection, the bed is left alone. Growing feathers show signs of drying at this time. Greens fade, become tough and tasteless, spots appear on it.
When it comes time to harvest the ripened crop, you need to responsibly treat this event. Ripe bulbs are very badly going through the rainy season. They are at this moment actively affected by bacterial and fungal diseases that reduce keeping quality.
After the harvest, grown from Chernushka in one year, is over, you need to take care of its safety. Onions, along with the tops, first dried in the sun, then in the shade. After 2 weeks, it is sorted and tied up in braids, where it will be stored for a long time.