Let's start with a description of the variety. The Veles pear tree is the result of the crossing of the Forest Beauty and Venus varieties, the second name for the Daughter of Excellent variety. Worked on the breeding of a new variety N.V. Efimova and Yu.A. Petrov. Velez immediately interested many gardeners, and for good reason. Smooth, with thin skin, a beautiful shape of the fruit, Veles pear has excellent taste. Fruits are sweet, fleshy, juicy, with a pleasant aroma.
Fruits of a pear change color, fruits of green-lime shades in the middle of summer, change to yellow closer to August. That, the side of the pear, on which the sun's rays fall, acquires orange-red tones, and the side in the shade remains green. Because of such metamorphoses, pears look very beautiful and unusual. In addition, the fruits are large, have the shape of a flashlight, a narrow part of the pear at the top, round at the bottom. One pear can weigh up to 200 grams!
Pear Veles refers to the autumn varieties. The tree blooms in spring, white, fragrant buds. Fruits form during the summer, ripening begins in early August.
You can pick ripe fruit in early September, but ... The pear variety is beautifully stored assembled until winter. And if you need to keep the fruits until the cold, then it is worth collecting a pear when it is firm, carefully removing the fruit from the tree without damaging them. Damaged fruits (fallen or dented on the skin) quickly rot and are not suitable for storage.
Ripe fruit of a veles pear on a tree
To keep the pear fruits until spring, it is better to put them in a box, and each fruit should be wrapped in a newspaper.. So, the pear can be stored in a cool place for several months.
In itself, a tree with a height of more than 4-5 m with a thick and brownish trunk. Branches sprawling, curved, medium thickness, gray-brown. The leaf plate in an adult tree is dark green in color; young leaves have a light green color.
Advantages and disadvantages
The variety has a beautiful view, which makes it attractive for sale. The tree is also resistant to various diseases and pests, not afraid of cold weather and severe weather. The harvest brings every year, does not need a "rest", besides the number of fruits increases every year.
But there are varieties and some disadvantages, for example, with a bountiful harvest, the fruit becomes smaller in size. This is easily eliminated with regular pruning. Also, there is a freezing of the kidneys during fruit ripening.
Pears, ready for collection and storage
Diseases and pests
Mealy dew - the first signs of this disease are formations on the inflorescences, shoots and leaves of a white thin deposit, which eventually turns brown and leaves behind black dots. It is important to combat this problem before bud break, with Scor or Topaz. Before flowering, it is better to use Hom, but after harvesting it is worth spraying the tree with copper sulphate.
Fruit rot is often seen on fruit in the form of brown spots, therefore, the heart of the fruit turns brown. Fruits rot and become unsuitable for food. Before flowering a tree can be processed by Home, and after flowering to apply Oxy.
Often the pear is exposed to bacterial burns, the leaves of the tree turn black, and the annual shoots dry out. You can fight this disease with a solution of copper sulfate or Hom. It is also important to cut off infected leaves and shoots and burn them.
Cracking bark is just as dangerous for a pear; cracks in the trunk make it more vulnerable to insects and other diseases. The usual solution of lime will save the tree from cracks in the crown.
Flowering varieties of pears Veles
In addition to diseases, the pear "attracts" many pests. Among them stands hawthorn, which feeds on ovaries, buds and leaves of a tree, and is also capable of eating up young branches. Before budding, the tree must be sprayed with Carbofos or Entobacterin.
Medianitsa - pest that causes yellowing of leaves. They twist and fall. Also the brawler eats flowers and leaves of a tree. You can fight it with the help of Vermitek or Hom solution.
Moth causes falling off and rotting of fruits. To fight it you need drugs Apollo or Vermitek.
Choosing a place and time for landing
When choosing a place to plant a pear, it is important to remember that a pear is a thermophilic plant, therefore it is necessary to plant it on a light plot; not only tree growth, but also the level of sugar content of fruits depends on it. It is also not necessary to plant a pear on the open areas, the wind has a negative impact on the growth of the tree. It is better to plant a pear near the house, where it will be enough sunlight.
As for the time for planting, the Veles variety can be planted both in winter and in autumn. Spring planting protects the tree from rodents, besides, over the summer, the tree will grow root system, and it perezimuet better. However, when planting pears in the spring, the pit needs to be prepared until the fall. After all, a tree planted in a fresh pit suffers because of land subsidence.
In the fall, plant a pear better in the middle or end of September, a couple of weeks before the onset of frost. Also in advance it is necessary to prepare pits so that the pear would have time to settle down in a new place and not suffer due to frost.
The pear grows well on almost all soils; clay soils and soils with a minimal amount of fertilizer are not terrible to it. But for growth and productivity it is better to choose fertile soils.
but it is not necessary to plant a tree on swampy soilwhere groundwater lies close to the roots. From the excess moisture, the root system of the tree suffers and is subject to diseases.
Planting Veles Pears
For pear growth, it is important to choose the right planting material.
When buying, you need to pay attention not only to the appearance of the tree, its branches should not be broken, damaged by cracks and diseases. The foliage should have a natural green color, and on the underside of the leaf should be seen streaks - it means that the tree is healthy, and in the nursery there was the right care for it. Also, the root system should not be damaged, the roots have no signs of disease, brownish or gray.
Juicy and ripe pears on a bush
When planting seedlings need to properly prepare the pit. Its size depends on the root system of the seedling, but it is also not worth making a very deep and large hole, you can simply prune the roots. It is dug to a depth of no more than half a meter. Peat or manure is laid on the bottom, the mixture is mixed with the ground.
Now a bucket of water is being poured into the pit so that the earth will sink a little. So that the tree grows smoothly and does not bend to the side, you can immediately install a small wooden handle in the hole. After that, the seedling is placed in a hole, so that the root neck is 8-10 cm above the ground.
Next, the seedling can be tied to the handle, and be sure to water the tree with 2-3 buckets of warm water. Further watering will be needed in 3-4 days. The soil around the cutting should be mulched grass or leaves, so the soil will retain moisture longer.
Pear Velez quickly rooted in new places, she is not afraid of transplantation. With proper planting of a tree, after a couple of weeks, new leaves will form on it (if the planting was done in spring), which means that the young tree has taken root in a new place and is ready for growth.
Watering is important not only for a young seedling, but also for an adult tree. After planting, the ground around the seedling should be watered 2-3 times a week. 2 buckets of warm water will be enough for growth.
An adult plant, especially when it began to bear fruit, also needs watering. With that, it is especially important to shed a tree well in the spring, before flowering. It is necessary to water every week with a small amount of water. The second careful watering should be carried out before the formation of the fruit, it is at this time the pear needs moisture.
You can water the tree in several ways:
First, with the help of rotating mechanisms, i.e. rain method. Water will feed the earth by drop. However, with this method of watering, water gets far around the tree, so there will be much more weeds around.
Secondly, you can dig a small trench around a tree trunk and gently pour water into it.
Pear irrigation technology
Feeding the pear is done several times a year. The first feeding is made before flowering. It is better to use saltpeter, carbimide or urea.
The second feeding is carried out after flowering. It is good to introduce the so-called "green" fertilizer. A small trench is excavated around the tree, into which food waste, grass, leaves, and manure are placed. The presence of soil is obligatory in this mass.
The third feeding is made in mid-September, it is better to feed the tree with mineral fertilizers, sawdust or ash. But the introduction of nitrogen in the winter is strictly prohibited.
Pear pruning is done so that all branches receive light for growth. For the first 2 years, a young tree does not need pruning, it only forms branches, therefore excessive pruning will only slow down the growth of the pear.
But from the 3rd year of growth the pear needs pruning, which can be done with a sharp knife or shears. The first step is cut branches that grow at right angles. Fruits are rarely born on such branches, and besides, they block out the light of lower growing shoots. Leaves that grow at an angle of 60-70 degrees, they can withstand heavy fruit in the fall.
The remaining branches are shortened by a third length. The central branch is also trimmed, but its height should exceed the height of other shoots by 20-30 cm. In the 4th year, young shoots are also cut off.
Pear Trimming Scheme
Also, regardless of the tree's growth year, sanitary pruning is done, i.e. broken, dried branches are cut. During the summer, if the branch was infected with diseases or pests, you should not wait for autumn. You need to prune it immediately so that the whole tree does not become infected.
Preparing for the winter
Pear varieties Veles great going through cold winters. But now the preparation of the tree for winter protects it from low temperatures and pests that overwinter in the roots or bark of the tree.
In the autumn you need to collect all the fruits from the tree. Next you need to gather foliage around the trunk and dig the ground. This procedure is necessary so that the roots get more oxygen and to remove insects.
Pear Veles a real find for gardeners. Not only does this variety have beautiful and large fruits, they are still not inferior in taste to many other varieties. Tasty, sweet and fleshy fruits spice closer to autumn., long stored on the tree, and in a torn form stored taste for a long time. In addition, the variety does not need special care, is resistant to cold, disease and pests.
The history of the varieties Veles
Pear Veles was obtained at the All-Russian Breeding and Technological Institute of Horticulture and Nursery Scientists Yu. A. Petrov and N. V. Efimova. They crossed the following varieties:
- productive and unpretentious pear Venus domestic breeding,
- exclusively winter-hardy, tasty and fruitful Belgian Forest Beauty - the famous "parent" of many representatives of culture.
In 2001, the Veles pear was registered in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation in the Central Region. Cultivated it mainly in the gardens of Moscow and nearby areas. The variety is considered valuable for breeding.
Pear Velez has another name - Daughter Excellent, but use it much less often.
Description and characteristics of the pear Veles
A tree of average height, grows up to four meters by the age of ten. The young plant has a sprawling medium-dense crown, with time it acquires a broad-pyramidal shape, the branches become drooping. Quite large annuli (branches, on which the ovary is formed) are placed on the cherry-brown shoots shaped like an arc.
Fruits are medium-large (about 120 g), of the correct wide-pear shaped form, slightly beveled, without ribbing. The stem is long, with a slight bend. Funnel in the form of a blunt cone, saucer wide, shallow. The color is greenish yellow with a slight tan topcoat of orange tint. Under the skin there are small grayish inconspicuous points.
Veles' pear-colored pear-shaped fruits are colored greenish-yellow with a slight orange "tan"
Cream-colored flesh, not very dense half-oily structure, tender and juicy. Sweet and sour dessert taste is rated by tasters at 4.6 points. Fruits are consumed mostly fresh, but can also be used for preservation.
The removable maturity comes in the autumn, usually it occurs in the end of August or in the first half of September. Ripening is amicable, but it is better not to harvest the crop completely in one step: it is recommended to first remove the largest fruits, and after a while the remaining ones. Intended for storageIt is better to remove pears when they are not ripe, when a yellow shade begins to appear on the skin: the quality of such fruits will be better. If you plan on a quick consumption, pears can be left on the branches longer.
The fruit of Veles' pear, intended for storage, reaches removable maturity at the moment of the beginning of the appearance of a yellow shade on them.
The fruits taken in due time at storage in the refrigerator will be suitable for the use within two months. The sources have information about the extension of the shelf life up to four months in specially equipped hangars in an atmosphere of neutral gas.
The variety does not differ in its precocity. Before the beginning of fruiting, taking into account the growth period in the nursery, 5-7 years pass. The yield is high and stable, in industrial horticulture an average of 126 centners per hectare. A number of sources contain information that from one tree can be collected from 60 to 100 kg of fruit. In the official description of the pear does not mention the ability to self-pollination, in other sources there is information about the partial self-fertility of the variety.
Trees pear varieties Veles fruit abundantly and regularly
For winter hardiness, the variety is not inferior to the old average Russian varieties. The ovary is not damaged during frosts down to –2 ° C. However, not all gardeners share the opinion of high winter-hardiness, in some reviews it is argued that the trees did not withstand the harsh winters in the Moscow region and freeze over.
Immunity to fungal diseases is high. The sources mention insufficient drought tolerance.
So, the significant advantages of the variety include:
- excellent fruit quality
- high productivity
- fruiting regularity
- endurance to low temperatures and major diseases.
Among the shortcomings can be identified tendency to chopping fruit in high years and low precocity.
Features of the cultivation of pear varieties Veles
For the cultivation of unpretentious Veles, knowledge of standard agrotechnical pears is sufficient. The variety has not so many features that need to be considered when growing.
In the climatic conditions of the veles cultivation regions, it is better to plant a pear in spring in order to avoid the risk of freezing of a seedling planted in autumn. For the Velesa middle layer, it will be sufficient to have a four-meter distance between trees with five-meter spacing. The rest of the growing conditions and the process of planting do not have features and are standard for pears.
Middle-aged pears of the variety Veles should be planted at a distance of 4 m between trees and 5 m between rows
It is necessary to treat the pruning of the crown responsibly: it has been observed that the trees, for which regular pruning was not carried out, begin to shrink the fruits with age. It is important at a young age to correctly form the crown and subsequently to prevent its thickening with the help of regulatory trim. The middle-aged Veles tree is best shaped into a cup, which has several advantages:
- good illumination and ventilation of the crown,
- availability during care and harvest.
Cup-shaped shaping will be optimal for pears Veles
On sanitary and supporting (to stimulate fruiting) pruning also do not forget.
Veles is not considered drought resistant. It should be watered regularly on a standard schedule, especially in dry years. Without watering the pears will become shallow, with a critical lack of moisture, the plant can lose fruit. Nutrients contribute in the usual culture pattern:
- in the spring - in the middle of April or the beginning of May,
- in the summer - during the setting and pouring of fruit,
- in the autumn - after leaf fall.
A sapling needs 10–15 liters per 1 m 2 of the trunk circle; a pear over 3 years old needs 30 liters per 1 m 2. In order for the roots to get the required amount of moisture, water must penetrate to a depth of 60–80 cm.
The young pear of the Veles variety needs 10–15 liters of water per square meter of the wheel circle
The variety is resistant to diseases, therefore it is possible to avoid defeats through timely sanitary and preventive maintenance. About resistance or vulnerability to pests in the description of the pear is not mentioned. It is better to preliminarily damage the plants and the crop, to take care of the protection of the plants:
- timely remove and burn fallen leaves,
- thin out crown,
- digging around the stem,
- опрыскивать ранней весной до появления листьев и осенью после листопада 1%-й бордоской жидкостью, 1%-й суспензией коллоидной серы, 0,3%-й суспензией 90%-й хлорокиси меди.
Коллоидная сера малоопасна для человека и животных, однако применять её следует строго по инструкции
Опыление сорта Велеса
The lack of self-pollination abilities is characteristic of most pear varieties, therefore even partial self-fertility gives certain advantages. According to experts, with a partial capacity for self-pollination, 5–15% of the fruits of the total number of flowers form. To increase this figure, it is recommended to plant near trees pollinators. For Veles, they can be the following varieties:
- Resurrection large
- Simply Maria,
As well as pollinators, you can use other pears, flowering in the same time. It should be noted that cross-pollination is possible between trees, the flowering dates of which overlap for at least 5–7 days.
Reviews gardeners about varieties Veles
In my crown, Velez got very cold after the winter of 2005–2006 (that winter, all the pears near Moscow were given away), but now everything is in order (restored).
My Veles tree in 2005–6 was frozen. After 2010 started falling out in parts. In 1012 it was uprooted.
We grow pear Veles. Last summer received the first harvest. We liked the pear - tasty, moderately sweet, juicy. We still grow in memory of Yakovlev, but this one liked more.
I have a pear Veles - 6 years. Last year was covered with pears. This is not very much, but there were ... This is after such and such a winter. So I think Veles is very suitable for the Moscow region, it is winter-hardy.
Veles - skoroplodny grade, according to the author of a grade of Efimova. I saw on the experimental plot a 2-year-old with fruits, though there were 4–5 pears, but they were.
Belorusskaya took in the TACA from Susov - 2-year old 3 years ago, and Velesu - 5-year old last spring in Biryulyovo. When I dug it up, I wrapped the roots in a damp newspaper and rushed to plant ... I planted in 1–1.5 hours. That summer she gave a lot of fruit, one can say, the leaves were not visible. In appearance and taste Veles fit the description.
In general, Veles is an unpretentious variety, but the reviews are contradictory regarding its winter hardiness. Perhaps you need to more carefully choose a place to place the trees and create a suitable microclimate for them. The variety is valuable for industrial and amateur gardening, it is worth growing for the sake of tasty and marketable fruits.
Pear "Veles" consistently gives a high yield, for which gardeners love it.
The taste of the fruit is preserved fresh, canned and dried. The description of the plant classifies it as a medium-height - the height of an adult tree does not exceed 4 meters. The shape of the crown changes with age: in young trees it is sprawling, and over the years it acquires the outline of a wide pyramid. The density of the crown is average. The branches that form the skeleton of the plant are long and dense, the shape is slightly curved. The variety produces large young shoots, their bark is brown-brown. The leaves are smooth, the edges are slightly curved. The color of the leaves is saturated green, closer to the emerald green.
Velez's pear tree during flowering
Pear "Veles" has a symmetrical pear shape. The skin is rather dense, smooth, without reliefs. The color of the fruit is green-yellow, the orange-brown shade appears on the side. The fruits of this type are medium in size, the weight of one is 160-185 grams. In the pulp of ripe pears a lot of juice, the pulp is cream-colored, the structure is soft.
The variety is sweet, but low-calorie. In 100 grams of fruit - only 47 kcal.
With this amount of pears, the body gets:
- Carbohydrates - 10.3 g
- Organic acids - 0.5 g
- Water - 85 g.
- Monosaccharides - 9.8 g
- Full complex of vitamins.
- Micro and macro elements.
- Fruits ripen evenly, in August, you can already harvest. Tasters rated their taste at 4-4.5 points out of 5 maximum.
Pears Veles grow clusters
Description of the pear Veles
Veles, which has the second name Daughter Excellent, belongs to the autumn varieties, especially popular in central Russia. For its breeding were used owners of great taste - varieties Venus and Forest Beauty.
Employees of the All-Russian Plant Breeding and Technological Institute for Horticulture and Nursery N. V. Efimov and Yu. A. Petrov, after crossing the parental forms, obtained the Veles variety. In 2001, he was entered in the State Register as the holder of high winter hardiness and graft resistance to fungal diseases.
Pear Veles - srednerosloy tree with a spreading crown. Adult plant reaches 4 m in height. The branches are long and thick, with evenly spaced large annuli. Dark green smooth leaves with serrate edges are attached to the brown shoots.
Fruits are symmetrical, regular pear-shaped and rather large, with an average weight of 140–180 g. The color varies from green to yellow, but everyone has a slight reddish blush. The skin is smooth and even. The flesh is milky or creamy, very juicy and sweet.
Preparatory work begins with choosing the right place for landing. To do this, one should take into account the intolerance to the variety with the close occurrence of groundwater. The site should be bright and sunny, with fertile soil of weak acidity (Ph 5.5–6.0).
Important! Sandy-chernozem lands are best suited, but with proper care, the Veles pear will put up with loams.
When choosing a place, it is important to consider the presence of pollinators nearby. Veles belongs to the self-fertile varieties, that is, it does not require pollinators. But as many gardeners have noticed long ago, yields increase when there are other trees in the neighborhood. For Veles, ideal neighbors can be:
- Resurrection large
- Simply Maria,
- Chizhovskaya or any of the autumn varieties.
The main thing is that they have the same flowering time.
Photo gallery of the best pollinators pears Veles
When buying in the spring should pay attention to the integrity of the seedlings bark and the absence of signs of diseases and pests. The root system must be well developed, the roots can not be cut off - it will make it difficult to survive. When spring planting it is important to plant a tree before the sap flow.
For spring planting begin training in the fall.
- To do this, dig a hole 45–50 cm deep and 60–80 cm in diameter (the size of the pit depends on the fertility of the soil).
- In the center to drive a peg for tying a seedling.
- Pour 2–3 buckets of fertile soil mixture into the pit with a mound - garden soil is mixed with compost or rotted manure in a proportion of 1/1. Instead of organic, you can use 1 kg of superphosphate.
- If it was not possible to prepare in the fall, then in the spring you need to have time to dig a hole 3–4 weeks before the intended landing. During this time, the earth will have time to condense and will not subside.
Stepwise landing process
- Place the seedling on a mound so that the root neck is 4–5 cm above the soil surface. If necessary, add land or remove excess.
- Fill the roots of the seedling with soil and water it abundantly (2–3 buckets per well, depending on soil moisture).
- Top dry with dry earth to the desired level and slightly compacted.
- Tie a seedling to a peg.
- Arrange the tree trunk circle and grind it with peat, rotted sawdust or dried grass.
Skillful pruning pears Veles helps solve several problems at once:
- an increase in the quantity and quality of fruits, and, as a result, an increase in yield,
- getting rid of diseases is not a secret that a running tree is more often exposed to diseases and attacks of pests.
The first pruning is carried out during planting, shortening shoots by 1/3 of the length. This will start the formation of the crown.
Formation of the crown of pear
All subsequent pruning should be done in early spring, in March or April. At the same time, dried and damaged shoots, branches, hanging or touching the ground are removed. Of the young shoots leave the strongest and most even. In adult trees, you need to annually remove all excess branches in order to ease the crown and increase yields.
Conducting pruning, it is important not to overdo it - the number of deleted branches should not exceed the fourth part of all branches of the crown. If the branch is removed completely, you can not leave hemp, the cut is performed on the ring.
Video: spring pruning - how to properly trim a tree
In the first year of planting, the young sapling is very sensitive to the lack of moisture and should be watered 1-2 times a week for 2 buckets of water in the tree trunk. As they grow, watering becomes less frequent. For an adult tree in dry weather, it is sufficient 3-4 times a month to pour 2-3 buckets of water into the tree trunk circle.
Particular attention should be paid to moisture during flowering and fruit ovary - the harvest not only depends this year, but also the next.
Stop watering pears Veles can be in August to stop the growth of shoots and allow the tree to prepare for winter.
If the weather is hot and there was no rain for a long time, then watering should be continued so that the root system is well saturated with moisture before the onset of cold weather.
For spring mineral dressings on 1 sq. 2 you can take:
- 20–25 g of ammonium nitrate,
- 15–20 g of urea,
- 50 g of superphosphate,
- 40 g of phosphate rock,
- 20 g of potassium sulfate.
The method of application depends on the weather - if it rains, then fertilizers in dry form can be embedded in the soil of the trunk circle; in case of drought, diluted in water and watered along the perimeter of the trunk circle.
After flowering, the pear needs organic dressing - it can be an infusion of weeds or chicken manure, diluted in water (1 kg of litter per 10 liters of water) is infused for a week, then diluted in water 1/20. Application rate - 5 liters per tree. Such dressings can be done 3-4 at weekly intervals.
The tree responds well to foliar supplements with complex mineral fertilizers. Such sprays increase plant immunity and resistance to various diseases and pests, as well as stimulate the formation of ovaries. In garden stores today, a large selection of a variety of fertilizers. Well proved liquid fertilizer Good power. It contains a complete set of trace elements + humates + succinic acid. Methods of use are described in the instructions for the drug.
In the autumn, you can feed with a solution of 1 tablespoon of potassium chloride and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate per 10 liters of water — pour around the perimeter of the tree trunk. During digging, ashes are put in the soil - per 1 m 2 100 g of ash. In the autumn dressing should not be nitrogen.
Shelter for the winter
Pear Veles - winter-hardy enough variety and does not require special shelters for the winter. To prepare, it is enough to perform a number of regular activities:
- remove fallen leaves from the tree
- conduct water irrigation,
- break through the soil and grind it with peat or old sawdust with a layer of 10–12 cm,
- the young sapling to tie up the branches to the trunk so that a strong wind does not break them,
- to wrap a tree trunk with agrofibre or any air-permeable material (this will prevent the plant from being damaged by rodents, you can also put a cloth moistened with turpentine or mint oil - the mice can't stand these smells),
Features variety Daughter Excellent
Gardeners, amateurs and professionals, evaluate the fruits of this variety as the highest score. Photo Pears Veles, description of the variety, impressive. An adult tree under the weight of the fruit breaks off, and each branch requires a support. The height of the pear does not exceed 4 m, but its crown is spreading, pyramidal. Curved branches far away from the trunk, bend down.
Fruits are medium-sized, weighing 170-200 g, wide, with a clean shiny surface. The taste of the fruit is delicate, sweet-sour. Veles' pear color is yellowish, with a gentle blush.
- frost resistance - the tree tolerates winters in the Moscow region,
- stable yield
- good preservation of the fruit.
The disadvantage is late fruiting - 6-7 years after planting. The more the pear set the harvest, the less the weight will be fruit.
Variety pears Veles resistant to fungal diseases. The tree is partially self-contained. But this ability is weak. Therefore, for good yields, you need to plant in the neighborhood at least one pear tree Severyanka, Chizhovskaya. These varieties are also tolerant to diseases and are pollinators for Veles pear. The variety ripens closer to fall. To determine that pear on the table can be on the yellow skin and softness. For storage remove slightly unripe fruit.
Agrotechnika fruit tree
The health and fructification of an adult tree depends on the correct planting of the Veles pear and the care of the seedling. Therefore, each stage should perform its tasks:
- the choice of location, seedling and planting,
- breeding methods for pears,
- watering and feeding mode,
- prevention against pests and diseases
- autumn work on the preparation of the tree for the winter,
- spring awakening.
The place for the pear is chosen sunny, with protection from the north wind. Groundwater should be deep, below 2 meters. Landing pit is prepared in advance. The fertile layer is removed and set aside. The depth of the pit should be 1 m. The bottom layer is laid drainage and a layer of sand, then create a mound of fertile fertilized land and place the root system on it, stick a stabilizing count.
Two-year-old saplings should have an even trunk, a small number of branches. The root system should be developed well, be about 25 cm in length. Veles pear can be planted in spring and autumn.
When planting in spring, the trees better get stronger and go into the winter grown up, with a rooted root system.
Pear reproduces Daughter Excellent layering and cuttings. For grafting, they take a two-year branch in winter, break it up onto cuttings 15-20 cm each, and fix it in this condition. Cut into pieces and put in a dark plastic bottle of the roots in the spring in the melt water, using activated charcoal. The cuttings are planted in a hotbed and grown until autumn. Layers to the ground do not bend down, so the box in which the roots are germinated, is arranged on the branch, on which cuts are made to the cambium. A branch with roots is separated from the skeletal branch only after 2 years.
In the first year after the rooting of the tree begin to form a crown. At the same time, particular attention is devoted to the prevention of thickening, which will lead to diseases.
Watering a young seedling is an essential part of caring for seedlings. Novosadkam needs 2 buckets of water in a tree circle 3 times a week. Adult fruiting trees are watered every week, morning or evening. Watering can be organized by sprinkling or a watering can on the grooves or in the near-stem circle. Wet depth should be 15 cm.
Fertilizing wood with organic and mineral fertilizers during the season is important. In the first half of summer and in the spring using nitrogen and organic fertilizers. Alternate mineral and organic supplements. Before flowering give urea or saltpeter. After flowering, insist on organic matter and bring in a wet watered earth. In autumn, they give potash-phosphate fertilizers, which increase winter resistance.
Formative pruning is carried out on saplings, sanitary and regulating - on fruit trees.
If you do it right, the tree will give the gardener tasty ruddy fruits.
What do gardeners say about pear varieties Daughter Excellent
Reviews of pear Veles from gardeners and gardeners are the most favorable.
Ninel Petrovna from Narofominsk told, her pear blossomed for 4 years after planting, gave two bouquets of three pears. Until September 5, kept 4 things, the rest stole grandchildren before. All matured, one grew by 260 g. Taste is fabulous! The winter of 2014 suffered fine.
Andrei from Sergiev Posad planted a sapling in 2014. Pear blossomed on the 4th year, there was no fruit. Need a girlfriend - pollinator. Grafted another variety in the crown. I will wait for the result.
The tree begins to bear fruit after reaching the age of 5-7 years, mostly fruits appear in the autumn, but you can also notice their presence in mid-August.
To plant a pear of a grade of Veles, as well as any other look, is recommended in the fall or in the spring. Despite the fact that she endures the winter easily, it is better to prepare a place for planting in advance so that the earth can warm up and be filled with vitamins.
To do this, remove the top layer of soil from the selected plot of land, dig a hole about 100 cm deep, fertilize it with superphosphate or sodium sulfate in the proportions recommended on the packaging.
If the seedling roots are dry, before placing them in the ground, it is recommended to hold them for 24 hours in a container with water. The tree will be better to bear fruit if you plant a variety of pears Severyanka or Rogned next.
To obtain a large, rich harvest, due attention should be paid to the care of the seedling. To do this, you must adhere to several recommendations:
- in the circumference of the trunk from the ground, build a watering hole, which should be filled with plenty of water (10 l) immediately after planting, and regularly maintain soil moisture in this place,
- next to a pear, install a metal stake to which it will be convenient to tie it in order to increase the stability of the tree,
- do not plant other trees closer than 3 meters,
- as necessary, trim the old leaves and excess branches,
- сбор урожая рекомендуется начинать с самых крупных экземпляров, желательно этот процесс разделить на несколько этапов: сначала в середине августа, такие плоды долго пролежат в холодильнике, затем в конце сезона.
Описание селекции рекомендует собирать урожай в два этапа:
- 20—28 августа – первый этап. В этот период желательно собрать самые крупные плоды.
- 10—15 сентября – второй этап, во время которого собирают оставшиеся плоды.
This variety has a feature - pears are removed from the branches before the onset of consumer maturity. This stage of maturation can be determined by the color of the skin - it is green, there is a yellowish tint.
Harvesting before the onset of consumer maturity extends its shelf life.
Pear "Veles" is usually stored up to 15-20 of November. The variety enters the reproductive phase in 5-6 years, bears fruit every year. One adult tree gives 60-90 kg of fruit. To extend the shelf life of fruit, they need to sort out after removal. Only unripe pear is sent for storage without external damage. Ideal conditions - dark cool basement or refrigerator. In the basement should not be mold and extraneous odors. Variety "Veles" does not like high humidity - the optimum level of humidity in the store 80-85 percent.
Tree yield is very high
Advantages and disadvantages
Pear "Veles" is popular with gardeners for several reasons:
- This is a frost-resistant variety.
- Plants have strong immunity to scab and other diseases.
- Fruits of fruit trees are environmentally safe because they are not processed by chemicals.
- Fruit has good commercial quality and taste that does not deteriorate during storage.
- Fruits normally carry transportation.
- The variety is suitable for cultivation in private gardening and cultivation on an industrial scale.
The description of the flaws of a pear tree takes only two lines:
- In case of untimely or incorrect pruning, the fruits are ground.
- With aggressive spring frosts, the kidneys may freeze.
Color Velesy sometimes freezes
How to improve the harvest
The yield of pears "Veles" depends on the composition of the soil in which it grows, completeness and timeliness of care for the fruit tree. Pear prefers black soil, but normally develops in loamy and sandy soils. An important condition - the soil should not be acidic. When planting seedlings in open ground, make sure that the bruising neck is 5-6 cm from the ground. For the intensive development of a fruit tree, allocate an area of 12-20 square meters to it. m
Veles' pears are well kept in a cool place.
Fertilize fruit tree with organic and nitrogen-containing fertilizers in the spring, and in the fall - with compounds enriched with phosphorus and potassium.
To increase the yield in the first years of fruiting, remove all the flowers from the tree, and in the following years thin out the ovaries.
At high rates of frost resistance, young or depleted plants are recommended to warm the forest areas and to mulch the soil before winter. Horse manure is ideal for warming, but if it is not available you can use straw, dry grass, peat.