Plumeria - amazingly beautiful tree, blooming with unique inflorescences of fleshy large flowers. A resident of the tropics, has become the darling of flower growers who wish to settle it in their house on the windowsill or in the corner of the room.
Originally from South America and the Caribbean, Laos and Mexico, plumeria is widespread in other countries of the world due to its exotic beauty and unpretentiousness. In Thailand, the plant has become part of any ritual that accompanies a person, from birth and marriage to death. She became a symbol of immortality, as well as an integral part of the decoration of temples in India.
Plumeria in nature photo
In nature, plumeria is a tall tree that stretches bare branches several meters in height. Grows singly and in groups. On the stems are fleshy, large, oval-elongated leaves with pronounced veins (by the way, the leaves are very similar to ficus leaves). The upper part of the leaf plate has a wax shine and is darker than the bottom, which adds decorativeness to the plant and makes it attractive even when it does not bloom.
The special charm of plumeria is, of course, thick inflorescences of star-flowers with five dense, fleshy petals. Delicate aroma, exuded by the plant at sunrise, became part of the well-known perfume compositions of expensive brands. When the sun appears, the aroma disappears and manifests itself in the evening.
Lighting and location
It takes a lot of ambient light, so you should take care that direct sunlight does not burn the leaves of the plant, but the intensity was sufficient so that the plumeria would not stretch and not lose the brightness of the leaves. Ideal choice - east or western windows with enough light, but without midday scorching rays.
Tropical beauty feels comfortable at room temperature, favorable for her temperature rise to 26-28 ° C, but no more. In conditions of heat, the plant will need to be pritenyat or removed from the window sill.
Rainforests, where plumeria grows, are often and abundantly moistened by showers. This should be remembered when caring for a tropica in his apartment. Therefore, it is necessary to water frequently and plentifully, but only with warm clean water. Make sure that the water from the tap is not chlorinated, otherwise the plant will die. It is recommended to use only one or two days water for irrigation.
In the flowerpot there should be drainage holes for the flow of water. The water gathered in the pan must be drained so that the earth does not acidify and the putrefactive microorganisms do not develop.
Watering the next time you need with a slight drying of the top layer of the earth by about 1 cm. Do not overdry the plumeria, it drops the leaves from drought. But do not re-moisten, so that the trunk and leaves do not begin to rot, rather quickly softening.
In the conditions of the apartment is sufficient humidity. Additional irrigation is not necessary, and spraying flowers will be especially harmful. But if you wish, in the rain, you can open a window or take a flower to the loggia. Plumeria will appreciate this attention by responding with improved appearance.
In spring, while the plant does not bloom, additional fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers for ornamental plants is required. As soon as the plant releases inflorescences, complex fertilizing for flowering fertilizers is needed. But do not get carried away: you need to feed the plumeria no more than once every two weeks. Do not exceed the concentrations specified in the instructions, so as not to cause developmental disorders and various diseases.
If you remember, plumeria is a fairly large tree. In order to have a neat appearance in the conditions of an apartment, it should be regularly pruned. It is best to do this in the fall or winter, when the plant is at rest. Do not delay the operation until spring, so as not to cut flower buds, and do not remain without flowers this season.
Remember that pruning only holds back the growth of branches and does not provoke the release of new ones. Therefore, we must do everything very carefully and in moderation.
The young seedling begins to branch only 3-4 years after planting. If long, bare branches were formed, do not be upset: you just need to wait until the plant "grows up". To achieve a beautiful and dense crown can only moderate perennial pruning, so please be patient.
Dwarf plumeria varieties are not pruned, remember this.
After the plumeria ottsvetet, there is a period of rest, it becomes noticeable by the partial fall of the leaves. The plant "falls asleep", slowing down all life processes. It is important to provide him with the right content: the temperature is reduced to 14-18 ° C. In the heating season, on the contrary, the apartments have hot and dry air. Try to find a place for the flower, where it will be cool and damp. Watering should be very moderate, make sure that the earth is not supercooled, otherwise the plant will die.
If the plumeria did not hibernate (some varieties continue to grow during the winter), it will need to be highlighted.
How to plant and transplant plumeria video
A transplant of plumeria after planting is imperative: the plant is planted in transporting soil and a pot of insufficient volume. Before settling a flower on a window sill with other plants, hold it for a couple of days in quarantine, observe: if it has pests or signs of disease. Very often, a spider mite can be found on the plumeria, then repeated treatment with an insectoacaricide (for example, a fitoderm) is necessary.
When transplanting it is important to pick up a free stable pot, at the bottom of which a drainage layer is laid out. Soil is better to use ready-made, purchased in the store. The plant is carefully removed from the old pot and transported by transfer method into a new container, filling the voids with a nutrient mixture. The top layer of soil is also desirable to carefully remove and replace. We water - and the transplant is complete.
Young seedlings are transplanted every year, and adult plants once every 3-4 years.
Therefore, despite the rarity in the sale and the large sizes of individual varieties and species (up to 2 meters high), plumeria is very much appreciated in home plant growing and decorative decoration of greenhouses.
In addition, the plumeria essential oil is widely used not only in the manufacture of perfume, but also in other industries. It is also widely distributed in the form of oil essence, and the plumeria oil is notable for its amazingly saturated aroma.
Frangipani oil is expensive and is used in the manufacture of perfumes plumeria, soap, as well as in culinary business, adding to the salads, taste and aroma turns out to be refined.
Also, the plumeria oil has healing properties with a sedative effect, producing a feeling of euphoria. Using soap plumeria provides anti-inflammatory effects.
Types and varieties of plumeria
White plumeria in the natural environment found in the Antilles. The trees can be up to 10 meters high, they are covered with linear foliage with thick white fibers on the underside. Along the edges, the leaves are slightly raised, reach a length of 30 cm and a width of 7. The flowers have a wonderful smell, they do not differ in large dimensions (less than 2.5 cm in diameter), are painted white with a yellowish eye.
Plumeria red from Venezuela and Mexico slightly lower - up to 5 meters tall, with falling egg-shaped leaves up to 15 cm wide and 50 cm long. On the underside of the leaves there may be hairs or may be missing, the tops of the leaves are also varied - they are either dull or sharply pointed. Apical flowers are collected in racemes with a diameter of up to 5 cm. Existing varieties of this plumeria are replete with color variety - white, red, purple and so on flowers, besides, perfectly combined with a different form of foliage.
Hawaiian plumeria grows in the Caribbean, reaching a height of 4-5 meters. Her foliage is white oblong, in the shape of a boat, dark green (gray on the reverse side). Flowers are characterized by white color of petals and yellow centers, their aroma is similar to citrus.
Plumeria dull grows in Africa. Unlike the red plumeria, the foliage of this species does not fall off, and the flowers, like those of Hawaiian, exude a pleasant citrus scent. Since this tree is smaller in comparison with other plumery (about 4 meters), bonsai is often made from it.
Rhododendron plumeria, is a green bush, grows in open areas on the slopes, forming these thickets. In vivo grows in China. In height reaches from 30 cm to 1.20 m. It develops slowly, grows up to 3 meters per year. The shoots are decomposed, the crust is rough, dark. Inflorescences are collected and represent about 4 flowers. The corolla represents the funnel. Tint in inflorescences is purple, lavender, white. Flowering is abundant and long about three weeks under the fruit in the form of boxes, the seed is brown in color and appears in the fall.
It is recommended to water immediately, as soon as the top layer of the soil dries, using soft distilled water.
It is important that the moisture does not stagnate in the pot, while on cool and cloudy days, plumeria must be watered with extreme care.
For self-preparation of the substrate, it is necessary to use a sod mixture, peat, hardwood, sand and vermiculite.
Plumeria usually need a slightly acidic soil, but it depends on the species. Kramzit, sand, vermiculite are mixed with the universal soil purchased at the flower shop.
Plumeria transplant at home
In terms of capacity, it is worth noting that it needs to be picked up on a plastic base (not clay, in which the roots will grow to the walls) and with a certain reserve on the growing root system (after only 2 years the plant can stretch up to 150 cm) and drainage.
Replace plumeria need in the period of early spring. Every year - young trees, with an interval of 2 years - more age. To do this, replace the pot with a larger (2-3 cm more), and, in the absence of such, the roots are pruned by about 5 cm, filling the vacant space with new soil.
The soil mixture consisting of sod, peat, humus lands and sand (2: 1: 1: 1) is optimal for this procedure. On the bottom should be scattered clay or crushed brick at 20% of the total height of the tank. Expanded clay, if desired, can be replaced by eggshell.
Fertilizer for plumeria
When new leaves begin to bloom in the spring, it is worth feeding the plant with complex fertilizer. Then a couple of times in 30 days fertilizers are applied to flowering plants.
Plumeria, which is in the summer in the garden, is fertilized once with the foliar method, spreading top dressing half the standard dose and sprinkling the foliage on both sides. This should be done in the evening, every 7-10 days.
At the exit from the resting stage, the plant needs pruning. It is produced taking into account the fact that the flowers are formed at the tips of the stems of this year.
Under pruning, it is better to choose a well-ground knife or use a secateur (tools should be processed in alcohol). After cutting, the remnants of the branches can be saved for grafting.
Blossoming differs profusion and duration. In the morning, the flowers flavor more strongly than in the rest of the daytime intervals. Depending on the type and variety chosen, the smells change - the aroma can be jasmine, citrus, Mediterranean spices, almond and so on.
He is able to attract huge masses of various insects, which, nevertheless, expects great disappointment, because plumeria does not emit nectar. The completion of the flowering period is accompanied by the appearance of green or red-brown pods in the shape of a cylinder.
They cannot be eaten, but they are quite suitable for gathering prisoners inside seeds. Interestingly, the most fragrant and large flowers appear in the initial stages of flowering, which lasts from October to November in greenhouse conditions and from January to February at home.
How plumeria winters
Most species of plumeria shed their leaves, turning into winter dormancy, along with a decrease in the length of daylight hours. In the autumn-winter period, it is recommended to reduce the temperature to 12-14, and to stop irrigation almost completely (wetting the substrate no more than once every 45-60 days).
If there is no possibility to lower the temperature, then it is necessary to ensure an adequate level of illumination - at a winter temperature of about 26-27 the plant will continue to grow, but the lack of light will cause blanching of the foliage, it will become smaller and rarer. You can avoid these undesirable phenomena by equipping the location of the tree with fluorescent lights, thereby ensuring an 8-hour light.
At the same time, in temperature conditions with indicators of 18-22 ℃, plumeria does not need additional lighting, and it remains only to reduce its irrigation.
By the leaves, by the way, it is possible to determine how often it is necessary to water - if they are not there at all, watering is stopped until the spring, and if few remain, water is given very small quantities of water every 30 days. Feeding should also be reduced in the fall and completely stopped in the winter.
Plumeria from seeds at home
It is relatively simple to propagate the plumeria with seeds, since their germination is 90% with the appropriate quality. One of the methods involves the preliminary drying of the soil in a brass or microwave oven. Before planting, the seeds are soaked for 2-3 hours in a container with heated water, then they are poured onto the substrate with the cruise up.
The soil should be irrigated with a spray, then close the pot with glass and put it in the lit place. Germination lasts just over a week. When 2-3 leaves appear, seedlings should be transplanted into peat pots.
The content of plumeria does not require any special effort or hassle. This indoor flower is very unpretentious, and prefers growing conditions that are not suitable for all "green friends."
Lighting. The first thing you should pay attention to when growing plumeria is lighting. A flower in the range of exposure to direct sunlight - the key to its healthy growth and abundant flowering. So, for this plant to normally be in direct sunlight for 6-7 hours a day. Thus, it is preferable to put a pot with this plant on the south side. Eastern and Western are also suitable, but plumeria will bloom in such conditions. The north side does not fit at all, the plant will be bad here. Flowering can not wait, and the flower itself will look painful.
There is a little trick-advice for those who just brought plumeria into the house. Do not immediately put the flower on the sunny side. Plumeria need adaptation to new conditions, that is, some time to get used to a new place under the sun.
Temperature. As for the temperature regime for a flower, here it also will not bring trouble. Room conditions are excellent for the growth and development of plumeria. However, the temperature is below + 17-18 ° C, extremely adversely affects the plant. In winter, when a flower comes to a period of rest, it does not need to artificially lower the temperature. In the summer, it is recommended to take the flower to fresh air (balcony or terrace), but you should beware of drafts.
Period of rest. The one who started the plumeria should know a few points about the dormant period of the plant. It lasts about a month. During this time, minor changes may occur to the flower. Plumeria loses part of its leaves, mostly old lower sheets fall off. Young remain in place. At the end of the rest period, the plant is covered with new leaves. And then begins to bloom. Therefore, it is not worthwhile to panic when noticing a green pet's polishing, this phenomenon is normal and natural.
Watering. Speaking about watering a flower, it is worth making a note that plumeria does not like to be flooded. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the water in the pan does not stagnate. At the same time, the flower likes regular watering regardless of the season. In summer, watering should be moderately frequent, in winter it should be watered less often. But, in no case do not bring to the drying of the soil, even when the flower has a period of rest. Plumeria loves spraying during its growth and flowering, it provides the necessary humidity. When spraying should be borne in mind that moisture should not fall on the flowering, so the spraying procedure should be carried out before it starts. And, of course, in the evening when the rays of the sun do not fall on the flower, or in the early morning. Because the plant can get severe burns.
Air humidity. To maintain the desired level of moisture during flowering, spraying can be replaced by another manipulation - put the pot in a deep pan with raw clay, sand or moss.
Top dressing play an important role in the full development of plumeria. They have an impact on the appearance of the flower and overall health. Специалисты в области комнатного цветоводства рекомендуют подкармливать плюмерию комплексными удобрением, после выхода цветка из состояния покоя.Nitrogen - a great effect on the stimulation of leaf growth, but for plumery, an overdose with this substance is unacceptable, since nitrogen inhibits flowering.
Thus, as soon as the crown of the flower acquires a juicy green appearance, it should be started to be fed with fertilizer for flowering plants. The basis of such fertilizers is phosphorus, which stimulates the active growth of buds. This feeding should be used 2 times a month. If the flower is located on the street, it is recommended to introduce foliar dressing. That is, spraying a solution of fertilizer diluted in half the recommended dose. If the flower is in the room need foliar dressing disappears. Experts recommend root and foliar feeding in turn, but with the same frequency, once every two weeks. In the autumn period, the frequency of dressing should be reduced, and with the onset of rest completely stop.
Transfer. In the case of plumeria transplants, there is one little trick to help control the growth and size of the plant. The bottom line is that this plant has a fairly powerful root system, it is proportional to the growth of the flower. From this it follows that the more plumeria is transplanted into a larger pot, the larger it blows out. Thus, in order to suspend the growth of the flower, it is not necessary to increase the size of the pot, you need to carefully reduce the size of the root system. This is done very simply, when it comes time to transplant the "green friend", it must be carefully removed from the tank, clean the roots from the ground and cut them centimeters 5 at the bottom and sides.
Or alternative for lazy - to cut a root lump from all directions, without clearing the earth. Next, the plant is placed in a clean pot and fresh earth is poured. If you do not need to restrain the growth of plumeria, the transplant is carried out according to the usual scenario into a larger pot. When a flower outgrows all possible sizes of pots and turns into a tubular plant, it is recommended to replace the transplant with a change of topsoil. You can easily find it in a flower shop or make it yourself. What is included in the composition? Two parts are sod land, one part of humus, one part of peat, one part of sand, and not to forget about drainage.
Reproduction. Plumeria can be propagated in two ways: growing from seed or cuttings of tops. The first method is more troublesome and not always effective. The second is much simpler. It is worth noting that the cut stem of the plumeria can be stored for quite some time. Preparation of cuttings is done during the period of rest of the plant and they start to plant with the onset of heat or create artificially comfortable conditions for growing. For reproduction choose semi-woody cuttings of a length of twenty-five to thirty centimeters. In this case, it is better to remove the sheets so that they do not suck off excess moisture, since they will fall off anyway. The cutting of the cutting must be oblique to increase the plane.
The most dangerous thing that can happen with a handle is rotting. To prevent it, it is important to observe the mode of watering. After planting, the plant needs to be watered, then it should be watered only when the soil is completely dry. Rooting the stalk will be long, it can take as long as three months. Watering can begin to increase with the advent of leaves, but gently by a little bit. As soon as the plant starts to grow confidently, it can be transplanted into a larger pot.
Bloom. Plumeria begins to bloom in about a year. It is also worth remembering the earth mixture for the cutting, it should be light and loose. Perfect for this case is suitable: a mixture of overfused and peat, or "Universal mixture" and vermiculite. The cutting should be deepened by eight to ten centimeters, having previously dipped the cut into powder to stimulate root formation. All this can be obtained in a flower shop. The plant should be put on the light in the heat.
Crop. Very important in the life of plumeria is the procedure for cutting branches. First, it allows you to make the plant more aesthetically pleasing in the plan, and secondly, it directly affects the flowering of plumeria. Pruning a plant is recommended immediately after a period of rest, removing all dead and stunted branches. Blackened tips should be trimmed to healthy tissue.
Pests. The main pest of plumeria is the spider mite.
Important! Note to all who are new to plumery breeding - its juice is very poisonous, can cause a burning sensation, an allergic reaction, therefore it is not recommended to plant this plant in the nursery, institutions, and if possible protect it from pets. All manipulations with the plant is best done with protective gloves.
Plumeria reproduction cuttings
Excellent proven and method of propagation by cuttings. The pieces of shoots left after pruning (or cut off specifically for grafting) are free from foliage so that it does not pull moisture from the cutting and does not prevent it from rooting.
Be sure to take into account the toxicity of the juice of the cut processes, and therefore they need to be dried for 2-3 hours in a room with room temperature. The dried segments in the place of the cut should be sprinkled with a growth stimulator, placed in a substrate consisting of peat or hardwood, and water it. Rooting plumeria lasts up to 100 days.
In the future, watering is carried out only after the soil dries. It is easy to check the humidity by sticking a finger in the substrate - if it is dry, you can water it, eliminating the water remaining on the tray.
Diseases and pests
Frangipani, with its poisonous juice, is rarely attacked by pests, except spider mite. A thin cobweb, enveloping the entire above-ground part of the plant (it is especially noticeable with a massive lesion), testifies to its appearance. To deal with the parasite will help insecticide or products containing phosphorus.
Lack of growth and yellowing of leaves indicate a lack of moisture. In this case, it is necessary to start spraying the plumeria and, as an additional measure, place a pot of water near its pot.
Reproduction plumeria cuttings
Plumerovania plumeria photo cuttings
Cuttings are cut to a length of 15–20 cm and free from leaflets, often the cutting procedure is combined with pruning, planting cut branches in pots. The lower sections must be made oblique, the upper - straight. It is necessary to rinse the juice and dry the place slices. Deepen the cuttings in the ground by half, by 8-10 cm, and create greenhouse conditions, closing the bag or plastic cups. Rooting lasts up to three months.
Sprouted plumeria photo
When will plumeria bloom?
Saplings obtained from seeds begin to bloom only at 4-5 years of life. Planted cuttings - in two years.
If you did not buy seeds, but collected from a home plant, seedlings will not retain signs of the parent plant. Saplings grown from cuttings, fully inherit the signs of uterine bushes.
Why does not plumeria bloom and how to make it bloom?
Plumeria may not bloom due to non-compliance with the rules of caring for it:
- There was no rest period.
- During transplantation, the root neck was excessively buried (it is necessary to maintain the same level of planting when transplanting plants).
- Little light or cold plant.
- Seedlings obtained from seeds collected from the hybrid. In this case, the flowering can not wait.
Plumeria will surely bloom if in the fall or winter the temperature of the content is reduced to 14–18 ° C and there is little watering, and in the spring to resume frequent watering and to raise the air temperature to 24–28 ° C.
Create ideal conditions for plumeria in the house
The first thing to take care of after buying a tree is the optimal conditions on which growth, development and the general condition of the plant directly depend.
Unlike most colors, plumeria room perfectly tolerates direct sunlight. The plant is so fond of light that it can be moved to a sunny place and left for 5-6 hours.
Answering the question why plumeria does not bloom, it is worth saying that when the plant is placed on the north side or far from the window, it completely stops blooming, as it considers that there are no suitable conditions for flowering.
Home Care Tips
Having dealt with the main conditions of the tree, let's talk about how to grow plumeria and what the plant needs for flowering.
Plumeria need to be watered regularly to create tropical conditions. It is worth remembering that the plant does not tolerate strong drying out of the soil or excessive moisture, so watering should be regular, but not very abundant.
Water it so that the soil is wet and the pan dry. In summer, the plumeria is watered more often, but with smaller volumes of water. In winter, the amount of watering is reduced, keeping the soil moist.
Features care in a dormant period
Plumeria in winter falls into a kind of "hibernation", which, depending on the species, lasts from three to six weeks. The plant sheds some of the old leaves, leaving a certain amount of greenery. At this time, as stated above, fertilizing is not carried out, and the plant should be watered only occasionally, leaving the soil slightly moist.
Do not worry if the plumeria will be at rest for more than six weeks. Everything depends on the conditions of the plant and the plant itself, so for each tree this period is individual. It is worth remembering that at this time the plumeria do not need to be moved to a dark place or transplanted. Such actions only hurt her.
Young plumeria trees require transplanting into a new pot every year, older ones every two years. There is a small problem in transplanting plants - the dependence of the size of the crown on the size of the root system. After each transplant, the root system begins to grow in a larger pot, and the crown grows in proportion to it.
And the fact is that a small tree in a dozen years can turn into a real tree, which will begin to “prop up” the ceiling in a house or apartment. To stop the growth of plumeria, it is necessary during the next transplant to simply prune the rhizome by 3-5 cm.
This should be done not earlier than in the third or fourth year, when the plant is strong and does not feel serious damage from pruning. Transplantation is carried out in early spring, after the tree leaves the state of rest.
Possible difficulties in growing: diseases and pests
Fortunately, plumeria is affected only by one “popular” pest - spider mite. A spider mite is a small spider mite that affects only plants.
It can be painted in various colors (white, green, red and mixtures of these colors). Has a size of not more than 0.6 mm, so it is quite difficult to notice the pest. The “occupation” of plumeria by a spider mite can be determined by following features:
- white dots on the leaves
- thin web on the plant (similar to the web of "home" spider),
- leaves start to turn white.
Spider mite causes serious damage to the plant, as it feeds on the contents of the cells (sucks the juice). If the tick population increases to critical values, then plumeria will die.
- Rinse the aerial parts with soapy water (use soap).
- We carry out abundant watering and cover with three days of polyethylene. For a tropical plumery, such conditions are only a joy, and a tick will die from an excess of moisture.
- The use of chemicals: Apollo, Borneo, Envidor, Oberon, Fitoverm. Use them as a last resort, as any chemistry in the house, first of all, harms you and your pets.
Now let's talk about diseases. All the “diseases” that can occur in a plant are the result of improper care. That is, as soon as you create optimal conditions for plumeria, the problems will disappear. The growth of plumeria stopped, the leaves turned yellow and became sluggish. Such problems appear in the event that the plant lacks moisture. As soon as you start to moisten the soil in time, the tree will recover.
Plumeria began to rot. As you might have guessed, the plant is rotting from moisture overload. If the process is not started, then it is enough to stop watering for a few days. If half of the plant is already rotting, then immediately remove the plumeria from the pot, cut off the rotten parts of the roots and the aerial parts, fill in the fresh soil and plant.
Plumeria toxicity: precautions
When pruning and transplanting plumeria into a new pot, it is worth being careful, as the plant sap is poisonous. In case of contact with mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, nose) or skin, rinse the affected area immediately with running water.
The sap of the tree causes burning, allergies and itching, so you need to put the flower in places inaccessible to children and animals.
According to the name of the species, this plant has a white color of flowers. A tree in nature grows to 10 m, so you should not give extra space to the root system. The leaves are linear in shape, have a length of up to 30 cm. The flowers are not large, have a diameter of 2.5 cm.
This type of plumeria grows in the Antilles, care is no different from other types of wood.
A variety of plumeria that grows in Mexico and Venezuela. The above-ground part grows up to 5 meters, which is significantly less than the white variation. The leaves are egg-shaped, grow in length up to 50 cm, in width - up to 15 cm. Flower stalks are gathered in brushes, flowers have a diameter of up to 5 cm. The color can vary from bright red to pale pink and even white.
In order for plumeria to bloom regularly and abundantly, it will need the maximum amount of light. Moreover, direct sunlight, dangerous for other indoor plants, this flower not only does not harm, but on the contrary - it needs them. She should receive them at least 6 hours a day. On this basis, it follows that the south side is most favorable for placing the plumeria. The east and west sides are somewhat less suitable. There will bloom there, but it will not be so abundant. The dark north side is not suitable for accommodating the plumeria at all. In such a place, the plant will not only bloom, but its general appearance will be unsightly.
Temperature and rest period
In summer, it is best to take the plumeria to fresh air. But if there is no such possibility, then do not worry. She will feel normal at normal room temperature. Only it is necessary to provide her with an influx of fresh air, which in summer is not particularly difficult.
In winter, plumeria has a dormant period. He expressed it quite brightly. Lower, old leaves fall. Only the young ones remain, on the apical branches. This period is short. It lasts a month, or even less. After that, plumeria begins to grow young foliage, form buds, and subsequently bloom. It is not necessary to create special temperature conditions for the plumeria during the rest period. Moreover, a low temperature, below +17 degrees, can harm the plant.
Watering and humidity
It is necessary to water the plumeria regularly and abundantly, avoiding stagnation of moisture in the soil. This flower is very sensitive to waterlogging. In the summertime, watering of the plumeria is carried out after the top layer of the earth dries out; during the period of rest, watering is reduced, but not until the earth is completely dry. After the plant leaves this state, frequent watering should be resumed.
Plumeria does not like dry air. Spraying and other ways of maintaining normal air humidity are essential when caring for plumeria at home. It should be borne in mind that spraying is carried out on a non-flowering plant. Moisture on the flowers is highly undesirable. With the onset of flowering, you should use another way to increase humidity.
Without proper fertilizing, it will not be possible to achieve abundant flowering of plumeria. It is necessary to carry out feeding in a timely and competent manner. It is necessary to start fertilizing the plumeria immediately after hibernation. At this stage, she will need fertilizer with a high nitrogen content, which will contribute to increasing the green mass. That is, to compensate for the loss of foliage. To do this, you can use any fertilizer for decorative leafy plants. Often enough two or three fertilizing with such fertilizer with a frequency of two weeks time. As soon as the young foliage of plumeria grows up, you can switch to fertilizers containing phosphorus, which promotes budding and flowering. This is fertilizer for flowering plants. They are held the same way - once every 14–15 days. Along with the usual top-dressings “under the root”, foliar dressings can also be applied by spraying the flower with a solution of fertilizer diluted in half the dose of the recommended one in the instructions. Root and foliar fertilizing plumeria can be alternated. Before moving the plant to a state of rest, the frequency of dressings decreases, and during the rest period they are completely excluded.
This is a mandatory procedure when caring for plumeria at home. Without it, it will be difficult to achieve abundant flowering. Flowers are formed only on young shoots. Consequently, the more such shoots will be, the more profuse the flowering will be. Be sure to remove all dried, weak and greasy branches. If there are branches with dried, blackened tips, these tips should be cut to a living tissue.
Bush. Плюмерия – кустарник или небольшое деревце, цветут крупными цветами белыми, розовыми или желтыми цвета, которые в диаметре могут достигать до 10 сантиметров, собираются в гроздья на верхушке ветвей.
Цветок представляет собой 5 лепестков собранных воедино на длинный цветонос, почти половина цветка обычно окрашена в другой цвет.
Plumeria blooms all summer, before sunrise and after sunset, fills the air around with a pleasant scent.
The rest of the plant does not look attractive - its stems are elongated excessively up to several meters and bare, grayish-brown in color, the leaves are gathered with rosettes on the tops, the leaf is darker above, and lighter below.
Types of plumeria
For home breeding, the following varieties of plumeria are most often used.
Plumeria dull. In the natural environment is a small evergreen tree, up to 3 - 5 meters high. The leaves in length reach 20 centimeters.
There are also dwarf varieties, for example Plumeria obtus, dwarf plant with long branches up to 40 centimeters, velvety dark green leaves, which are covered with fine fuzz on the reverse side.
White plumeria . Homeland plants are Antilles. White plumeria is a tree up to 10 meters high. The lower part of the leaf is covered with white hairs, the edges of the leaf plate are raised, the leaves can be up to 30 centimeters in length, with a width of 7 centimeters.
Flowers, compared with other species, small - up to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, white with a yellow center.
Plumeria red. Mostly found in Mexico and Venizuela. It is a deciduous tree up to 5 meters in height. Egg-shaped leaves up to 15 centimeters wide reach almost 50 centimeters.
Flowers with a diameter of 5 centimeters are collected on the tops of shoots in inflorescences. Flowers come in different colors depending on the type of plant - white, red, pink, yellow, purple. Also, different varieties may vary in shape sheets.
For full development, it is necessary to feed the plant after leaving the dormant state with complex fertilizers twice a month.
In the fall, feeding can be reduced, and by the rest period it can be stopped altogether.
When organizing watering it is important to monitor the lack of water in the plant pot tray.
Plumeria prefers regular watering at any time of the year. In the summer it is necessary to water more often, in winter you can reduce the frequency of watering. It is important to maintain soil moisture even in the dormant period.
Plumeria also need to be sprayed, but it should be done before flowering, in the early morning or in the evening after sunset.
Plumeria from cuttings
Cuttings should be selected 25 - 30 centimeters already semi-woody.
It is better to get rid of the foliage right away, the stalk should be cut at an angle.
- Preparations of cuttings can be done during the rest period of the plant and planted in the ground with the onset of spring, or when creating comfortable artificial conditions.
- Cuttings need to be deepened into the soil by 8-10 centimeters.
- To avoid rotting of the cuttings, it is important to observe the irrigation regime: the plant is watered only after planting, then it is not watered until the ground is completely dry. Rooting cuttings takes 2-3 months.
- Watering gently can be resumed gradually with the advent of the first leaves.
- Once the plant begins to grow confidently, it can be transplanted into a larger pot.
- Flowering plant usually begins next year, and sometimes in the same.
Flowering plumeria occurs in about a year.
Pruning performs two functions: decorative - forms a beautiful crown of the plant and stimulating - directly affects the flowering plants.
Pruning should be carried out immediately after the plant leaves the state of dormancy, removing all dead branches, it is necessary to cut to healthy tissue.
The main pest of the flower is spider mite.
With all the beauty and ease of care, the plant has poisonous juice, which can cause burning and allergies.
Keep children and pets away from plants. All manipulations with the flower spend in protective gloves.
We examined the features of growing plumeria in room conditions.
As you can see, she is less whimsical than her exotic counterparts, so you can try to grow it in your apartment and please your vision with beautiful flowers, your sense of smell with a pleasant aroma.
This is a very light-loving plant. The windows of the southern orientation are perfectly suitable for its placement, because at least 6 hours a day it should be lit by the direct rays of the sun, otherwise it will not bloom. It can also be grown on the windows of the east or west orientation. The northern window is not suitable for cultivation, because due to too little light the flowering will not come exactly there. In the warm season, the plant is recommended to move to fresh air. However, it is impossible to put it on the sun at once, but it should be gradually taught. At the same time, plumeria must be protected from drafts, as well as from rain. Just bought a plant should not be exposed to direct sunlight, as burns can form on the leaves.
How to water
In the warm season, when the content in the apartment is watered, it is produced immediately after the top layer of the substrate dries out. To do this, use necessarily separated and soft water. In winter, water should be much less, but at the same time make sure that there is no drying of the soil. Overflowing for the plant is also very dangerous. In this regard, on cloudy summer days and during cold winters, watering should be done very carefully.
During active growth, plumeria are recommended to be sprayed systematically. Soft and well-settled (at least 24 hours) water is perfect for this. Also, in order to increase the humidity of the air, you can pour a little pebble or expanded clay into the pan, and then pour water into it. However, it must be ensured that the bottom of the flowerpot does not come into contact with the liquid in the pan. When spraying avoid water on the flowers.
After the beginning of a period of intensive growth in the springtime, you should begin feeding plumeria, which produce 1 time in 2 weeks. Complex fertilizer for flowering plants is excellent for top dressing. In the case when the plant in the summer period is transferred to the street, it can be fertilized alternately root and foliar way. Spray the foliage on both sides in the evening with the prepared solution. To do this, the amount of water that is diluted with the required dose of fertilizer should be doubled. Spraying is carried out 1 time per 1-1.5 weeks. In autumn, the plant should be fertilized less often, and in the winter - can not be fed.
Transplantation is carried out at the beginning of the spring period. While the young tree is subjected to this procedure annually, more adult specimens can be transplanted 1 time in 2 years. The flower pot should be chosen a little (2 or 3 centimeters) more than the previous one. In the absence of such capacity, you can simply trim the root system by about 5 centimeters. At the bottom of the pot need to pour fresh dredger on top of the drainage layer. To create a suitable mixture it is necessary to combine peat, turf and humus soil, as well as sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1: 1. Do not forget to make a good drainage layer on the bottom of the pot. To do this, on the fifth of it should be filled with broken brick and expanded clay, you can also use the shell of eggs.
For sowing seeds use small pots, whose diameter is equal to 6 centimeters. After the seedlings have a well-developed root system, they should be carefully transplanted (or better to be handled) in pots with a diameter of 9 centimeters. This mixture is suitable for the transplant. As a rule, plumeria, which grew from a seed, has obvious differences with the parent plant. Such a plant begins to bloom at the age of two or three.
This plant contains poison in the juice, which, if it comes into contact with the skin or mucous membrane, can cause serious irritation. If juice comes in contact with mucous membranes or skin, immediately rinse the area thoroughly with plenty of water, which must be flowing.